Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Office practice aids
 Florida's capitol restoration
 Security by design
 FA interviews Sarah Harkness,...
 The FA/AIA headquarters
 Converted warehouse houses Dali...
 1982 Governor's design awards
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00237
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Summer 1982
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00237
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Office practice aids
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Florida's capitol restoration
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Security by design
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    FA interviews Sarah Harkness, FAIA
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The FA/AIA headquarters
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Converted warehouse houses Dali collection
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    1982 Governor's design awards
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.


.1 tW
r.c.j- I.
`L~;::.L ;r

r --
I* 1. --- `'
..:..... r

r. ~~~. -~:
~i ~.. --1. ... .ri
. -1

1 -~ sir'
.. i.
n; LI1. I.'
M~; I-
rs*-~ r:=,


* If


Ps J22'



rsiy f lordaColeg o Achiecur

? a Lihtn Deosrto Laboator

General Elevator
custom designs the aesthet-
ics, the configuration, the
functionalism you want -
with the size-capacity rating

you require. In the only
hydraulic elevator system
with lift capability to 8 floors.
Featuring your choice
of finishes and interior
From the only
complete manufacturer/
installer in Florida, you get

more than good looks. You
get an economical package
with savings on freight costs,
installation and more.
As one of the country's
largest providers of
hydraulic elevators, we've
been installing beauty and
reliability for years. Give us

a call with your design ideas
at 305/351-1011. Or send
us your specs at 5950
Precision Drive, Orlando,
Florida 32809.


'' '
-: .:.

T* 0~Re~

~ .1

"9 out of 10


are energy,
1981 Survey of Florida Builders and Hort-e, .- rs
^ -}f. 4tI


"Idesi gn -
certified S. Miro
certi e I M. Design Group

Wa*ttWise Homes."

According to a recent survey, 97% of all
homeowners are energy conscious.
And 90% of them think a Watt-Wise
Home is a good idea.
So it's no wonder that's the kind
of home so many architects are designing.
Electric bills for a certified
Watt-Wise Home can be as much as 25%
lower than those for a similar conven-
tional home.
In addition, FPL strongly supports the
builders and designers in its Watt-Wise

Program with both technical and promo-
tional help.
Call FPL's toll-free Watt-Wise Line at
1-800-432-6563 to request a visit from an
FPL representative or a packet of informa-
tion about Watt-Wise Homes.
We're working hard at being the kind
of power company you want.



Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Ave.
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen
Diane D. Greer
Director of Advertising and Art
Ann E. Allen
Editorial Board
J. Michael Bier, AIA
Jaime Borelli, AIA
William E. Graves, AIA
Mark Ramaeker, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
Glenn A. Buff, AIA
9369 Dominican Drive
Miami, Florda 33190
Vice President
Robert G Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architectural Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Regional Director
Ted Pappas, FAIA
P. O. Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank Building
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Journal of the Florida Association
of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Flor-
ida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907. It is published
five times a year at the Executive
Office of the Association. 104 E.
Jefferson Ave., Tallahassee, Flor-
ida 32302. Telephone (904) 222-
7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily
those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted pro-
vided full credit is given to the
author and to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to
the publisher's office.
Single copies. $2.00 subscription,
$20,00 per year. Third class


Summer, 1982
Volume 29, Number 4


9 Florida's Capitol Restoration
Diane D. Greer

14 Security By Design
Randy Atlas

17 FA Interviews
Sarah Harkness, FAIA
Diane D. Greer and Joanna Rodriguez, AIA

25 The FA/AIA Headquarters
David Michael Harper, AIA and John C.
Hayes, AIA
30 Converted Warehouse
Houses Dali Collection
Michael Clary and Jim Wallace
33 1982 Governor's Design Awards


5 Editorial
6 Letters
7 Office Practice Aids
15 News
38 Viewpoint

Cover: Rotunda stair in Florida's
Historic Capitol. Photo by Randy



This may be the most

important card you hold!

C U `-'

Esi '
'..~~~ 4-~--
~f~.ur-; c ~ ~ l~~r
Y^* Ir.
'-~ o~?"~ ;4 r';t
,b~~g.Ct."I4Aj i--i34#?~ l

-, -
. ... + :

:; < i--* '- 14^u A


"The revolution of the twenties was total and
moral and its creators looked at beauty, not as
something subconsciously added on, but as
something that is believed to be inherent in the
vitality, appropriateness and psychological
significance of the designed object, whether it
was a building, a piece of furniture or a stage
design. We knew and taught that space rela-
tion and proportions and colors controlled
psychological functions which are as vital and
real as any performance by the structural and
mechanical parts and for the use value of the
'plan. If our early attempts look stark and
sparse, it's because we had just found a new
vocabulary in which to speak out and this we
wanted to set in the greatest possible contrast
to the overstuffed bombast that had gone be-
fore." Walter Gropius
"50 Years of Bauhaus" Exhibit
London, 1968

"The Silver Prince, as we knew Walter Grop-
ius, far from being a conspirator imposing a
European style on innocent Americans as
some would have us believe, was very much
the opposite. Gropius was open to everything
real and critical of only what was false for the
age he lived in. The Modern Movement was a
coming to terms with the industrial age for the
sake of humanity. Such an attitude was like
fresh air in a stale room. The effect was similar
to Freudianism on Victorian manners."
Sarah Pillsbury Harkness, FAIA,
in an interview with Diane Greer.
Jacksonville, Florida May 20, 1982

In light of the recent wave of criticism of
Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus and, to some
extent, the whole Modern Movement, the
above excerpted quotes are particularly
meaningful and insightful. In the interview
with Sarah Harkness contained in this issue,
she spoke candidly about Gropius and his
effect on the architecture of this century. Wal-
ter Gropius probably didn't expect the "new
vocabulary" of the Modern Movement would
stay the same forever, nor did he think that
any vocabulary was the ultimate one. Nor do I
believe, from talking with his friend Sarah
Harkness, would he have wanted it that way.

Diane D. Greer



Dear Editor:
I commend you and your very pro-
fessional staff for the outstanding job
that was done with the 1982 FA/AIA Ref-
erence Book for the Construction
As I reviewed this publication I was
flabbergasted to learn of the multitude of
codes and standards that you must con-
tend with. The list is unreal! I noticed that
the State Fire Marshal's Rules and Reg-
ulations were omitted from list of "Fire
Codes". This is unfortunate because
these fire safety standards surely NEED
much attention from a professional orga-
nization such as yours. THE FUTURE 3000 CAN COMMERCIAL/MONUMENTAL
Again, I sincerely thank you for the
considerations that I have received from BE OPENED IN A APPLICATIONS.
Consultant YOU CONTACT...
Dear Editor: ALLIED
Congratulations on your excellent
Florida Architect, May 1982 Reference BUILDING SPECIALTIES, INC.
Book Issue. It is simply outstanding and (305) 582-5342
all Architects in Florida can be proud of
such a quality publication.
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., FAIA
Vice President *
Dear Editor:
The Spring issue of Florida Architect
highlighted two buildings designed to
compliment the environmental use of
sunlight and earth berming. Both build-
ings are designed by outstanding Flor- |,. ,
ida architects. 41-, A..
In the name of energy conservation,
I question why natural ventilation was not
emphasized. All glazing appeared to be ;.i. f. !
fixed non-operable. How did humans ex- "" "
ist prior to air conditioning? We will never ..
truly conquer the energy crisis until we i
recognize and design responsively to i
our naturally wonderful Florida climate. i
The flat terrain and high water table '
of South Florida is a questionable back- i 1
drop to earth bermed construction. It ,- .. .- ..
would be interesting to reevaluate the ,
Hardrives Building in five years, espe-
cially in response to water penetration -
and roof lawn maintenance. Whatever
happened with the University of Florida
Florida is fortunate-it is a home for H J
many great architectural talents. Hope-
fully, they will expeditiously remove the 6 Eoa o Driv
shackles created by past mechanical [ -[*
engineering marvels.
Very truly yours,
F. Louis Wolff, AIA HK


Architects As Design- Builders

Architects will be playing an ever
diminishing role in providing the archi-
tecture for Florida in the future. Who will
be providing more and more of the archi-
tecture for Florida? It's going to be the
The design-builder is the person or
company that is best meeting the needs
of the majority of the architectural clients.
Of course, there will always be a need
for the traditional design-bid-build pro-
cess, but this need appears to be de-
creasing. Even governmental agencies
are talking about going to the design-
Clients are demanding a less time
consuming, less fragmented, more re-
sponsive, more streamlined, more cost-
effective approach to project delivery.
Many people are now turning to the de-
sign-builder as they become more so-
phisticated clients. They do not want to
go through design bid, wait, redesign
rebid, wait, etc., etc. What will you be
doing as this growth takes place and
swallows up an ever-increasing portion
of your market and your clients?
Your job as an architect is to solve
the needs of your client. If the client
needs and wants a finished building,
and the best we can do is give him a set
of plans and specifications, he is even-
tually going to go to someone who will
give him the building he wants. How
many times have you had to explain ex-
actly what an architect does and, after all
the explanations, still feel the client does
not really understand? He wanted a
building, not an education about what
architects do. He did not want to be
compressed to the narrow mold of our
Our roots supposedly stem from the
master-builder of old. The 20th and 21st
century master-builder is going to be the

Design-Builder.The question now before
architects is who will take the lead in the
future as Design-Builders: Architects,
Contractors, or someone else? Now is
the time to move toward assuming the
leadership role or we will be relegated to
a lesser position as others take the lead.
A little over five years ago our archi-
tectural firm felt our "offerings" of ser-
vices were too limited. We decided to
start a Design-Build/Development/
Construction company. Our practice
was limited geographically. There was
only so much work to which we were
exposed. The desire was for a "bigger-
slice-of-the-pie", to create our own de-
velopment and construction projects
and thus to create our own architectural
work. We wanted to be involved in equity
positions on projects and to meet what
we perceived as the growing need for
the total handling of a project by one
We were a little pregnant before we
knew it. We stayed that way over twenty-
four months before our Design-Build
company was born. The labor and birth
pains for our new venture were some-
times excruciating and sometimes
pleasant. We made many mistakes and
learned very fast from them. Now our
company is the best looking, healthiest
little newborn anyone could expect. With
each day and every project, it is getting
stronger, learning, maturing and elimina-
ting mistakes. It has the enthusiasm of
youth and the wisdom of the years of
experience brought to it by the
There are several ways to get in-
volved in design-build if you are so in-
clined. One is to form a separate com-
pany, joint-venturing with a contractor.
However, it would be rare to have an
architect/contractor joint venture or
partnership that wasn't affected by the
basic differences in viewpoint between
the two.
In my opinion, the best way to form a
design-build company is to have all
functions in-house. You must have the
capability to provide architectural ser-
vices and you need the capability to do
general construction. The design-build
company should have a licensed archi-
tect as a full-time employee as well as a
licensed contractor. Preferably, these
two are principals in the company. By
being owners or employees of the firm,
and not consultants or subcontractors,

they are there full time to advise, consult
and provide the necessary vital input at
the time it is appropriate when the proj-
ects are being developed from initial de-
sign concept to final design costing. This
interrelation and cooperation provides
the atmosphere that a design-build firm
must have to be effective.
"How do you avoid the conflict of
interest?" This is a question several fel-
low architects have asked. What is the
conflict of interest? We don't think a con-
flict of interest really exists. It's interest-
ing that architects seem much more con-
cerned about this point than do the
clients we serve and it's their money at
stake. Conflict of interest implies that one
would take advantage of the situation
and use his position to gain extra profits
by substituting inferior materials or some
other similar dishonest act. On the con-
trary, the design-build approach re-
moves one real conflict of interest the
architect has in the traditional design-
bid-build approach. This conflict is in
having to be paid by the owner and to be
fair and impartial toward the contractor.
It is hard to go back to your client and tell
him he is wrong and the'contractor is
The main objective of the client is a
well-designed building delivered on time
and within budget. Many projects are
approached on a fixed fee for design
and construction, thus allowing all sav-
ings to accrue to the owner. If there is a
guaranteed maximum, savings are split
between the owner and the design-
builder on some predetermined per-
centage. By dividing the savings, every-
one involved has an incentive to save as
much as practicable within the quality
standards required. This approach is the
fairest and everyone benefits from any
Another frequently asked question
is: "How does the client know he is get-
ting the best price?"
Typically, only a small portion of the
work is done by the forces of the design-
builder. The remainder of the work is
competitively bid using all the same sub-
bidders that would normally be bidding if
the project were on the open market.
One big advantage to owners is that they
can become more involved by reviewing
the subbids and participating in the
selection of the exact subcontractor to
do the work. In any event, they know
Turn to page 32

When Gandy Enterprises

made capitol improvements, they chose Glidden.

Because Glidden paints and coatings can make any
building, new or old, look great. Inside and out.
That's why Glidden was the exclusive supplier of
architectural coatings for the Florida State Capitol
renovation. In all, 14 different colors were used in both
interior and exterior applications.
For your next project, either renovation or new
construction, specify Glidden paints and coatings.
It's a capitol idea.

[ainting (.nt tractor ( .; nddv [nt.rpr.sec. Inc
(icneral C',ntractor I:hIc(k Cuipepper Cronctruction Co.n.. Inc
Xrehitctr Shcpard .ShepIard-. architecttc and Plannvr'. Inc

9* a
.* ..*"
. Q




..' 1 i '-

11 L

4 A:4i:..


& -: ".

I :,
.-- ~ ,

,, B

:: ; r i




i ! ~Si~BII
ni~E~. i

Florida's Capitol Restoration

How Do You Keep The Understudy
From Stealing The Show?
by Diane D. Greer

Firm of Record: Shepard Associates.
Architects & Planners Inc.
Herschel E. Shepard, Jr. Project
Kenneth R. Smith Project Manager
Catherine D. Lee -Project Documenta-
Henry J. Link -Project Representative
Contractor: Jack Culpepper Construc-
tion, Tallahassee
Structural Engineers: Gomer E. Kraus &
Associates, Jacksonville
Mechanical and Electrical Engineers:
Evans and Hammond, Inc., Jackson-
Landscape Architects and Planners:
Herbert/Halbach, Orlando
Civil Engineers: Richard P. Clarson &
Associates, Jacksonville
Structural Consultant: T.Z. Chastain, PE,
Interior Restoration Consultant: Dr. Wil-
liam Seale, Alexandria, VA.
Preservation Consultant: F. Blair Reeves,
FAIA, Gainesville
Historic Paint Color Consultant: Frank S.
Welsh, Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Preservation Consultant: Phillip P. Wisley

Florida's historic Capitol, now fully
restored to its 1902 appearance, is a real
show stopper-"a formidable old lady"
according to architect Herschel She-
pard, the man responsible for her cur-
rent rise to stardom. Imperative to the
restoration of the historic Capitol, how-
ever, was the dictum that visitors to "the
Capitol" (in Florida we must distinguish
between the historic Capitol and Edward
D. Stone's Executive Tower which is "the
Capitol") must be led not to the front
steps of the 1902 building, as they might
prefer because of the lure of its classical
beauty, but around the restored building
and into the main entrance to the Stone
By stripping the historic capitol of
the wings that had been added to it over
the years, the building was restored to
something which could, and would,
compliment the new Capitol-not bar-
ricade it from view. The restored building

reposes, lavishly, in the lap of the monu-
mental tower behind it and owing to the
clever design of the landscaping and
diagonal pedestrian walkways which
were jointly conceived by architect She-
pard and landscape architects Glenn
Herbert and Fred Halback of Orlando,
the problem of traffic flow was solved,
Along brick paved walks which lead not
up to the 1902 steps, but around the
building and into the great forecourt of
the new Capitol, visitors stroll around a
grassy lawn and small neat gardens
planted with species commensurate with
the time period. The restored capitol and
gardens provide the most pleasant
possible entry to the building which now
serves as Florida's seat of government.
Florida's historic capitol, begun in
1845 and completed in 1982, is a tribute
to many people, builders, craftsmen,
preservationists, lawmakers and politi-
cians . and to three architects in par-
ticular. The designer of the 1845 Capitol
was Cary Butt. In 1902, Frank Milburn
enlarged and aggrandized the building
and in 1982 Herschel Shepard saw the
completion of his skillful restoration of
the building to its 1902 appearance.
Each of these men was a visionary.
Butt, not even a fully trained architect,
designed the first building to house Flor-
ida's territorial government. Frank Mil-
burn expanded the Capitol dramatically
to meet the demands of a rapidly grow-
ing state while at the same time giving
the building monumentality and style.
Herschel Shepard, facing formidable
political and financial odds, skillfully
selected the best architectural solution
to the restoration dilemma and master-
fully saw it through to conclusion. In its
restored form, Shepard has not only suc-
cessfully preserved the building for fu-
ture generations, but he has deftly cre-
ated an understudy that does not steal
the show from "The Capitol" in whose
forecourt it sits. The very fact that these
two buildings, which were clearly never
intended to coexist on the same spot, do
so successfully is attribute to everyone
involved in both the initial design of the
1902 building and its restoration.


. I

Craftsman Tommy White works on the restoration of
the Great Seal of the State of Florida for replacement in
the east pediment Photo by Catheine D Lee AIA

S . 1.- ..- o. '. , I, to restoration Photo
, : ," I _; .

Detail of plaster moulding, fully restored, In Chamber of House of Representa-
tives Photo by Randy Atlas

Restored House of Representatives Chamber Note the partially laid battleship linoleum and the
light fixtures which are exact reproductions of the original Photo by Randy Atlas


How Florida Got Two Capitols
Florida's territorial Capitol grew with
the needs of the State until it mush-
roomed into a sprawling building that by
the early 1970's was not at all adequate
for the requirements of State govern-
ment. Edward D. Stone was commis-
sioned to design a 20-story tower im-
mediately west of the historic capitol and
from the beginning the two buildings
were in conflict with one another.
Architect Stone's tower was clearly
"the Capitol." The historic :-,IiI ,'-g had
clearly become an eyesore, serving only
to block the view of those who
approached th- new :i.ilring from the
east. The old capitol was thought by
many, including a number of lawmakers,
N\ to be merely filling up what Stone had
planned as a monumental forecourt for
his building. In point of fact, according to
the Stone plan, the historic building was
never intended to continue standing. His
recommendations for the site were

-construct a major fountain which
a would be part of a contemporary
landscaped plaza on the east
side of the tower;
-demolish the old capitol, keeping
the foundation of the 1845 build-
ing and incorporating it into a
sculpture/garden in the forecourt
of the tower;
-keep the 1845 capitol, de-
;4" molishing all other wings and
creating an entrance around it to
the new tower.
The ultimate decision was none of
these. It was to keep the 1902 ..:i,,1r,
Craftsmen put th f. -, ,ches on the 1' --- over the Capitol rotunda The twelve panel dome
contains sixteen of glass and pieces Photo by Kenneth R Smith. AIA

Architects rendering of the Capitol
as It w ill
East fror
ard Associates


but it was a decision fraught with political
controversy. Those who argued for leav-
ing the building completely intact were
quickly outvoted. The Capitol, with its
1923 additions to the east and west by
H. J. Klutho and the 1936 and 1947 addi-
tions by M. Leo Elliott and Hadley and
Atkinson of St. Petersburg, was too large
to co-exist with the new building. But,
tearing down the entire building was not
viable either and was totally unaccept-
able to preservationists. The Capitol is,
after all, the most historic building in the
The best architectural solution, and
the one Shepard promoted honestly and
vigorously, was to preserve Frank Mil-
burn's 1902 design. The 1902 configura-
tion was the best solution because with
its dome it was large enough not to be
overwhelmed by the Stone tower, but
small enough to leave space for a monu-
mental plaza between the two struc-

The Restoration
The 1902 Capitol was restored at a
total cost of just over seven million dol-
lars. Included within that figure are
actual restoration costs plus site devel-
opment, drainage, park development
and a staggering number of salaries and
consulting fees for research, documen-

station, testing surveys and expertise in
highly specialized areas such as paint
analysis, dome construction, plaster
work, etc.
In the final analysis, the restored
Capitol provides visitors a rather ro-
mantic approach to the new Capitol by
using diagonal site lines which depart
from the traditional symmetrical Neo-
classical axial system. This less formal
approach makes the trip around the old
building a more interesting, less rigid ex-
Moreover, in addition to providing
diagonal pathways to the monumental
plaza, the great breadth of the walkways
helps to draw pedestrians into them,
almost forcing the flow of traffic into the
plaza. This system of walks will also
serve as a parade route and is large
enough to accommodate vehicular traffic
for such events as the inauguration.
In 1976, before restoration began,
no particular respect had been given to
the old Capitol. No care had been taken
to preserve the character of the building,
and it was in great need of repair. Steam
lines had been anchored to trusses.
Doors had been cut in half. As ceilings
were lowered, cornices and entablatures
were covered up and door jambs were
run right into Ionic capitals. Pressed ceil-
inns were nushed un rinht on ton of Dlas-

ter and it was not until successive layers
of plaster were removed that the original
pink and blue paint used in 1902 could
be seen.
Demolition of all that was to be re-
moved from the old Capitol was tricky
business and it was accomplished in
three stages. The first stage was to sal-
vage everything that was either to be
reused or sold at auction. The second
stage was the demolition of the north,
west and south wings. During this stage,
a six inch space was cut between the
wings to be demolished and the main
building. This cut was made from the
roof to the top of the foundation to keep
the tremendous vibration of the wrecking
ball from disturbing unstable portions of
the main building. The third stage was
the removal of finishes for determination
of historical accuracy and construction
At various stages during the dem-
olition interesting details were uncov-
ered such as stencilled work of Pompeiin
design on the walls and plaster rosettes
in the ceiling of the House chamber.
Photographs taken in the 1902 building
show the placement and style of gas and
electric light fixtures, furniture, door loca-
tion and wainscoting.
There is only one extant photo of the
Turn to Daae 24

SA4 -





''' '


B ''t

Security By Design

Randy Atlas, Ph. D., AIA Associate

The application of physical security
techniques to all phases of design and
construction significantly improves the
level of protection and safety in a new or
renovated facility. If security considera-
tions are not incorporated into a build-
ing's design, problems that could be de-
signed out have to be dealt with after the
fact, usually at a much greater expense.
Public buildings and museums, which
have large numbers of visitors and re-
quire a relatively open environment
throughout, present numerous hazards
not experienced in private facilities.
Any building's security involves pro-
tection for the building itself, the build-
ing's belongings and its inhabitants. In a
building such as Florida's Historic Cap-
itol, which will house art exhibits and
cultural artifacts as well as providing
office space, security is of prime impor-
One component of any security plan
is fire and arson protection. The old Cap-
itol is primarily a heavy timber construc-
tion with exterior stucco walls. The build-
ing has a sprinkler system throughout
and heat and smoke sensors on each
floor which are monitored electronically
by a computer in the Capitol Executive
Tower control center. In the event of fire,
a panel light is activated and a computer
printout immediately shows which sen-
sor and/or sprinkler has been activated.
In addition, a schematic drawing of the
floor plan is put on a video screen and
an automatic tape recorder system with
a prerecorded message comes on an-
nouncing evacuation routes from each
floor. Emergency stairs are located on
either wing in addition to the main central
In order to reduce the spread of fire
in the rotunda, which would act like a
giant chimney, fire doors on either side
of the rotunda on each floor auto-
matically close when the fire alarm is
sounded. These fire doors essentially di-
vide the building into three parts. Eva-
cuation routes are posted on each floor
as reference points.

Fire doors at the entrance to the north and
south wings close automatically when the fire
alarm sounds. Photo by Randy Atlas.
m V.g "l n

Window sensors electronically detect un-
authorized entry. Photo by Randy Atlas.
Prevention of breaking and entering
and vandalism is controlled by the build-
ing perimeter, intercom-controlled zones
and security personnel. The building
perimeter is secured by heavy exterior
doors that have deadbolt locks and non-
removable hinge pins, and all ground
floor windows have sensors for break-
age detection. Interior security controls
include heavy wood and metal doors
with deadbolt locks for all interior offices.
Sensitive or valuable information with be
additionally secured in safes.
Personnel protection is.insured by a



security staff in key locations directing
visitors and guests. Security personnel
help channel access and circulation by
directing visitors to the public areas of
the building, thereby keeping them out
of private offices. Closed-circuit tele-
vision will be used to observe entrances
and exits thereby prohibiting afterhours
entry to the building.
Accessibility for the handicapped is
also a part of the overall security plan of
the building. Access to the Capitol on
the ground level is achieved by either
side entrance, i.e. north and south
doors. Concealed elevators permit
handicapped persons access to upper
floors while maintaining the historic
integrity of the existing structure.
The potential for bomb threats is
present in any public building and the
security plan and options for emergency
evacuation were prepared by the secur-
ity director as part of the emergency
plan package. In the event of a bomb
threat, evacuation is conducted upon a
determination of the genuineness of the
call. Based on that evaluation, a system-
atic search of the building is conducted.
In summary, a building's security
plan is dependent upon a rational and
organized systematic approach which
insures the health, safety and welfare of
the building and its inhabitants. The use
of perimeter and internal zone security
has provided a safe workplace and ex-
hibit environment for Florida's Historic
Capitol and the many visitors which'are
anticipated. Preventing the opportunity
for fire, burglary and other health and
safety hazards will enable the people of
Florida to enjoy the building well into the
future. n

RANDY ATLAS is an interning architect with
an M.S. in Architecture from the University of
Illinois and a Ph.D. in Criminology from Florida
State University. Dr. Atlas conducted re-
search on prison violence for his dissertation
and has been involved in many projects in-
volving security and corrections. He is pres-
ident of Atlas Security Consultants, 1801 Le-
nore Dr., Tallahassee 32306.

Clearwater Band Shell Competition
The City of Clearwater is sponsoring
a design competition for a band shell in
Coachman Park, a waterfront park lo-
cated in downtown Clearwater. The
competition is open to all architects who
are registered and maintain Florida
offices. The first award is $3,000 and two
merit awards of $750 will also be given.
The city will also negotiate for full con-
struction drawings with the winner of the.
first award.
Competition entries must be sub-
mitted by September 17, 1982. Competi-
tion materials include the program and a
color aerial photograph of park surface
and may be obtained for a $30.00 entry
All correspondence should be ad-
dressed to the Band Shell Design Com-
petition, P.O. Drawer 4748, Clearwater,
Florida 33518.

As a finale to the 1982 Governor's De-
sign Awards Program, Ellis Bullock, FAIA,
Vice President of the American Institute of
Architects presented a citation to Governor
Bob Graham. The citation was by AIA Presi-
dent Bob Lawrence, FAIA, praising Graham
for his contribution to the architectural pro-
fession and "his sensitivity to and apprecia-
tion of the importance of design excellence in
public architecture."

fabrication, installation
member I.F.A.I.

(305) 844-4444

of dirtinction

*Florida Historic
Capitol-Authentic 1902
*Shephard Associates,
Evans & Hammond,
* Exact Detail Reproduced
in Solid Brass.
* Experts in hand crafting
"one of a kind" replicas of
original lighting fixtures-for
all applications.
* Finest materials used to
insure quality and durability.
* Sketches and quotations
on a no obligation basis.

BOX 1063








SKYVIEW NTROL SYSTEMS INC. 4780 Beidler Road Willoughby, Ohio 44094 216/953-1011
SKYVIEW CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC. 2610Club Mar Dr. Suite 2-1, Sarasota, Fla. 33577 -813/366-8353

Reduce air conditioning cost- S VI
The motor operated translucent acrylic
shade closes the skylight opening at the
ceiling line forming an insulating air
space, controlling up to 75% of heat gain.
The shade provides a free source of DON'T LOSE Y\OUR COOL!
working light while controlling direct sun.
Reduce heating cost-
Daytime open the shades for solar
Night closed shades will reduce interior
heat loss.
The shades also provide privacy when
can now be fitted with SKYVIEW "Retro-
fit" shade units in standard or custom
sizes. Detailing assistance is available.
Single Skyview units up to 8' -0" square.
Multiple units provide unlimited design

S.UP TO 8'-0"

1928 SPBCH


275 NE 59th ST./MIAMI......................... 305-757-0315
4180 NW 10th AVE./FT. LAUDERDALE.... 305-772-2260
4901 WEST RIOVISTA AVENUE, TAMPA... 813-885-4711



oil J.41

. .. q"

Sarah Harkness is Vice President
and Principal of The Architects Collab-
orative, Inc. (TAC). She has a Master of
Architecture degree from Smith College
Graduate School of Architecture and
Landscape Architecture and an Hon-
orary Doctor of Fine Arts from Bates Col-
lege in Lewiston, Maine.
Ms. Harkness has been a visiting
critic at Harvard Graduate School of De-
sign and Miami University of Oxford,
Ohio. She is a former Vice President of
the American Institute of Architects, New
England Regional Director and a mem-
ber of the Boston Society of Architects.
Ms. Harkness has been a member of
numerous juries, panels and commit-
Ms. Harkness is the architect of the
Tennessee Valley Authority Head-
quarters in Chattanooga, Tennessee;
numerous buildings at Bates College in
Maine, including the library for which she
won an Honor Award from the AIA; 4M
Petroleum Company in Massachusetts;
Worcester Art Museum, Art School Addi-
tion in Worcester, Massachusetts as well
as many others.
Sarah Harkness was in Jacksonville
to sit on the jury of the 1982 Jacksonville
Design Awards Program. Her keynote
address to the Chapter and the impetus
for this FA interview was, "Who's Afraid
of Tom Wolfe?" Ms. Harkness was inter-
viewed by FA Editor Diane Greer and
KBJ Architect Joanna Rodriguez, AIA.
FA: You were assigned the topic of
"Who's Afraid of Tom Wolfe?" as the
subject for your keynote address to the
Jacksonville Chapter of the AIA. Who is
afraid of Tom Wolfe?

Harkness: Well, I'm certainly not afraid of
Tom Wolfe, but I am afraid of "Tom Wolf-
ism," which is the reaction to such a
shallow thesis which is only destructive
and leads nowhere. This particular
thesis, of course, is general and it's not
only Tom Wolfe. It's a lot of other people
who have been enjoying a tremendously
destructive wave of criticism. Architects
rise up in anger while the public laps it
up. I wonder why the architects are so
upset by this nonsense and the public
revels in negativism? I wonder if such
defensiveness on the architects' part
and such joy in laying blame on the other
hand is not an expression of the general
malaise and confusion that go far
beyond architecture.
FA: Why do you think that Wolfe picked
on Gropius in particular, as opposed to
Wriqht for example?
Harkness: I think that Tom Wolfe was
looking for someone to pin his criticism
on, someone of another generation, and
maybe even another nationality. In criti-
cism of the sort that Wolfe undertakes,
you try to appeal to people who are un-
comfortable or unhappy with
something-in this case people who
don't like their environment. It's all the
easier to pin that criticism for present
circumstances on someone outside your
own generation. And I really feel that
what Wolfe has done with Gropius is a
little like Red-baiting. He might as well
have called Gropius a Communist. Sad-
ly, Wolfe is not the first. Others like Bob
Stern have made really nasty remarks
about Gropius in public and in writing
and they've managed to buildup a myth
about him so that many students now
believe that Gropius was a cold, hard,

mechanical person and that machines
were everything to him and life was
All of that is completely contrary to
the truth. Part of that image of Gropius
evolved from a deliberate cutting down
of what's gone before for the sake ot
one's own advancement. Being neg-
ative, you know, always makes one look
smart. Critics,unfortunately, are lumping
Gropius with everything that has hap-
pened in architecture since the Bauhaus
when probably they're not even aware of
how the whole thing began.
Anyway, they're really thinking more
of the so-called Modern Movement, that
is, the way our cities look now rather than
the original thinking of Gropius which I
suppose did look stripped and cold by
comparison. But, it was a total house
cleaning in architecture and it was nec-
essary. Unfortunately, critics like Wolfe
blame him for what architects have done
since . the architects who, for exam-
ple, design windowless schools. Gro-
pius would never have done that.
FA: Will you tell us about your begin-
nings as an architect ... about your
Harkness: Well, I went to a very small
school, the Cambridge School of Archi-
tecture and Landscape Architecture. I'd
always liked drawing and painting and
the school was there and it accepted
women, so I went. I wasn't married at the
time, so I still had my freedom. The first
'year at the school, architecture and
landscape architecture were combined
and thereafter you pursued your indi-
vidual interest.
FA: How was The Architect's Collabor-
ative (TAC) founded?


Harkness: When World War II ended,
several of us who had been friends and
been to school together began talking
about setting up an office with very
"idealistic goals"-a collaborative type,
of office. The War was over and we were
all wondering what we were going to do
with our lives. My husband, Chip, had
been at Harvard and Norman Fletcher at
Yale. His wife, Jean was a year behind
me at Cambridge. And there were others
who wanted to help us get our office set
up-Ben Thompson, Louis McMillen
and Bob MacMillan.
Anyway, the competition for the
Smith College dormitories came along
and we entered. Norman and Jean
Fletcher won first prize and Chip and I,
working in the attic of my Mother's
house, came in second.
It was then that we had the idea of
asking Walter Gropius to join us in set-
ting up a collaborative practice. He had
talked about it for some time and since
the departure of Breuer from his office,
there sat Gropius with a secretary and
two empty rooms. And, we and the
Fletchers had our prize money. So,
everyone contributed something and
Tac began in 1945.
By the way, the Smith College Dor-
mitories were never built.
FA: What were the original ideals and
goals of TAC?
Harkness: Primarily we had a strong
sense of community and we put that into
practice by building "Six Moon Hill" on
20 acres in Lexington. It was a commun-
ity of 28 families living on a deadend
street, each on his own land, in his own
house, with his own view. It was not a
commune like today. Each person's land
was his stock in the company and all of
the TAC architects had homes there as
well. Chip and I still live there. Anyway,
the idea was that the community was
planned, each house in relation to the
next. Some things were shared such as
a community pool and there was some
common land, but mostly what we share
is a sense of community living.
FA: What was Gropius' influence on
Harkness: His philosophy influenced us
at TAC a great deal But, Gropius was
the kind of person who didn't expect
everyone to do things as he did them. He
wouldn't have liked it if we had. He made
a strong point in all his writings that
teachers should not have "sheep-like"
followers. His idea was to have common
aims in architecture, but that each per-
son should put those aims into practice
in his own way.
FA: Was that his design philosophy or
his organizational philosophy?
Harkness: Both, I suppose. The idea of
collaboration was merely a way of work-

ing. It was a way of achieving results ...
of getting there. Each TAC building grew
out of a collaborative environment, but
the aims of the architecture would al-
ways be very much related to the envir-
onment, culture and climate.
FA: Let's talk about energy conservation,
which I know is of critical concern to you
personally. What is being done in the
area of energy-conscious design at
Harkness: My role at TAC right now is
design and energy conservation. The
design and energy angle is so fascin-
ating to me that I think it's the only way
we're going to get our heads back on
straight. We certainly don't have all the
answers yet, but we're trying, and I think
that there are some areas and issues
that haven't been traditionally consid-
ered architectural, but which architects
ought to think about. Building access,
location, the amount of energy needed
to get people to and from the building, all
of these are important. And also, it's a
matter of not asking for trouble and stay-
ing away from the things that we know
are bad such as big windows facing
Engineering is important and engin-
eers should not be called in after the
building has been designed. They
should be called in during the design
process. The bigger the building, the
more complex the problems and the
more people are involved in its creation.
I'm not sure this is so bad, either. It used
to be that building design was left to "the
experts", but now everyone has some-
thing to say and I believe that all this
input might be for the best. In the case of
the Tennessee Valley Authority Head-
quarters, for example, it's design was
like one big charette.
FA: What about energy conservation in
restored buildings where integrity must
be retained?
Harkness: I think you'll find, as often as
not, that those buildings are the most
energy efficient of all. The high ceilings,
tall windows and awnings are far more
efficient for cooling than we know.
FA: After Gropius died, did things con-
tinue to move along smoothly at TAC or
was a terrific void created?
Harkness: Well, he was missed, of
course. But, by the time Gropius died his
philosophy was so well built in at TAC
that things went well. Any project in the
office considers site, the approach, the
relationship to its context, to the building
next to it, to the city, whatever. The entire
program is carefully gone over with the
I do think that climate relations have
slipped at TAC just as they have every-
where else and it's partly because
mechanical engineering has been so

successful with AC. When we began
years ago, there wasn't any and even-
tually clients began asking for designs
which could have AC added later. But
AC was always added later and as sites
became more cramped because land
use values got so high you ended up
with much more compact building
shapes. So, it's then that you begin to
lose track of using windows for natural
ventilation and light. All of the things
which used to be so important to us be-
gan to fall by the wayside as AC became
so important.
There was something else that was
very important to Gropius and I felt very
stupid, but it didn't really hit me until after
he was dead. Our first big project after
his death was for the Harvard Graduate
Center. Gropius had always talked about
the spaces between buildings and he
always alluded to the Harvard Yard and
how wonderful the spaces between the
buildings were. Well, when we did the
Graduate Center I realized how impor-
tant the spaces between the buildings
were and it was a real dawning of aware-
ness for me. As time goes on, I realize
that spaces can be as or more important
than the buildings themselves. Buildings
don't have to be such individual mon-
uments as we've always thought. If each
building is an individual monument with
no concern about the spaces around
and between them, that's where our
cities begin to break down
FA: What were Gropius' feelings about
architectural education?
Harkness: He once said that, "Only from
a plan in which science and art are bal-
anced can a cultural group conscious-
ness develop as a precondition for a
flowering of the arts and as a powerful
equal to science in the economics of
Interestingly, the greatest expres-
sion of our affluence has been in the
prolific use of energy. Our movement
turned into what could be called the
"fossil fuel style." Buildings could sud-
denly be any size or shape, face in any
direction, have all glass or no glass. We
lost our connection with nature and real-
ity, the very things Gropius taught to his
students-the human things. Now we
are being brought back to reality by the
energy crisis just as the early modern
movement was coming to terms with the
industrial age. Now energy-conscious
design is coming to terms with our pres-
ent age. Both are similar to primitive or
indigenous architecture in that they use
materials and methods that are most
available in their time and place to make
a humane environment.
I hope that the Silver Prince is look-
ing down at us from a silver cloud and
can see that at least we're trying N


KAD II Automated Graphics System

4 1. t;
I :'1 :.
t i;

r ^
: ;

- I

The most versatile,
electronically controlled
lettering and symbol
generating instrument
available from today's
microprocessor technology!

Another technological
breakthrough from


The New 3165 KOH-I-NOOR Rapidograph Technical Pen
with Replacement Points in Stainless Steel,Jewel and Tungsten Carbide.

8.00 a.m.-5:30 p.m.
9-00 a.m.-1.00 p.m.

Over 30,000 items in stock Rush shipments via UPS

635 S.W. First Avenue/Miami, Florida 33130/(305) 379-4501/Telex: 51-5596
415 N.E. Third Street/Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33301/(305) 763-4211
Florida Toll Free 1-800-432-3360

Credit Cards

~- S
ry 'I


A RhN04

0 0c

0 P
.00 0
P00 o I



.0 B
ec 0\yVA



Professional Installations of
Quarry, Ceramic, Slate, Marble, Brick Pavers
Commercial Residential
135 Marion Street, Daytona Beach, FL 32014, 904/258-1353


University Building Wins Concrete Award

Mr. Willy Bermello, AIA, represent-
ing Severud-Boerma-Buff-Bermello, was
presented the 1982 Annual Award for
the Outstanding Structure in Florida util-
izing Architectural Precast Concrete.
This award was for the design of the
School of Business Administration, Uni-
versity of Miami.
The award was presented as the
grand finale of a program hosted by
Architectural Precast Producers, Inc. at
Walt Disney World's Contemporary
Hotel. The guest speaker for the event
was Robert M. Lawrence, FAIA, 1982
President of the National AIA.
Only in the past decade has
architectural precast come into its own
as a multi-use material giving maximum
design flexibility through shape, texture
and color. While functioning as struc-
tural, load bearing, sandwiched in-
sulated panels, the precast provides in-
terior and exterior finish and lends time
saving economy to the construction
The School of Business Administra-
tion had a total square footage of 70,000
square feet and employed approxi-
mately 500 precast concrete units, the
average size of which was 9' by 12'.

Chapter Commemorates Architectural

The Florida North Chapter of the AIA
commemorated the AIA's 125th anniver-
sary and Florida Architectural Week, as
proclaimed by Governor Graham for the
week of April 25-30, by sponsoring a
number of activities. Notable among
these was the staffing of a booth for
three days by chapter members during
Gainesville's Energy Expo 82.
In special celebration of Florida Archi-
tectural Week, the chapter sponsored a
public presentation of "City Visions" at
the Hippodrome Theatre in Gainesville.
"City Visions" was a nostalgic look at
Gainesville's past, a critical look at the
present and a visionary look at Gaines-
ville's future. The program included a
showing of the film "City Visions" with an
introduction by Jan Abell, AIA, a slide
and sound presentation and a panel dis-
cussion open to the audience. The panel
included Dr. Ernest Bartley, AICP, Sam
Mutch, AICP, Barry Rutenberg, Francine
Robinson, Jan Abell, AIA, and Peter
Prugh, AIA. The focus of the panel dis-
cussion was creative design and deci-
sion making in urban planning.

Beautifully Convenient and

Durable... MIMS & THOMAS

uve .- -v x u-o LuuvCr-ucv-*laici

Today's homemakers demand their very
own personal decor in every room.
With Mims and Thomas
wood bifold doors being
different is not only
easy, but it adds convenience too!

Phone or Write for Info and locol dealer.


3535 N.W. 50th Street
Miami, FL 33142

A -

Using Flush Birch or Lauan Doors

Behind 3-Panel Colonials
Great Looking Doors


P. 0. Box 1596
Fayetteville, NC 28302


3009 N.W. 75TH AVE.
305-327-0830 305-592-5000

governor's office in 1902. It is of Gover-
nor Bloxham's funeral and it shows the
existence of pocket sliding doors and a
light fixture that were not previously
known about. Both have been put back
in the building.
There is also only one photo known
to be in existence of the rotunda stair
and that, too, is of a funeral. Reconstruc-
tion of the rotunda stair is based on this
photo plus tracking out the location of
the stringers against the walls and the
beam pocket locations at the landing.
These crucial overall dimensions along
with the photograph helped to repro-
duce the 1902 stairs according to the
Milburn dictate: "Staircases should be
wide, well-lighted, and have wide step
with easy rise; 61/2 inches is good height.
Avoid winding stairways, especially in
public buildings".
On the east front of the building,
using a Beaux Arts approach, the col-
umns are of reinforced concrete with big
flat discs at the third points. The discs
were then furred out with galvanized lath
and stuccoed. In order to save costs,
this approach was used. The capitals of
the Tuscan Doric columns are precast
architectural reinforced concrete. The
reinforced concrete beams bearing on
the plinth rod are truly structural.
The 1902 cupola was removed,
cleaned out and it was found that the
copper was in excellent condition, as
was the interior framing. The copper was
unsoldered, taken off, restored and re-
placed. The dome was also found to
have copper in excellent condition and it
was cleaned and replaced. Throughout
the entire restoration, any materials
which could be cleaned and reused
The Restoration Craftsmen
One of the most awesome aspects
of attempting a restoration the magni-
tude of the old Capitol is reproducing the
interior finishes, trimwork, light fixtures
and a myriad of other specialized de-
While finding the craftsmen who still
do this work is difficult, it is not impos-
sible. A group of just such men came
together to work on the Capitol project
and the results were spectacular.
The art glass in the top of the inner
dome was found broken in many pieces
lying on the floor of the attic. It was
painstakingly reassembled by David
Ferro, AIA, and other members of the
Historic Preservation staff of the Division
of Archives and History in order to deter-
mine the original pattern. The finished art
glass dome was reproduced by experts
at Louisville Art Glass, the same com-
pany, who possibly made the original.
A local craftsman, William Kroenkie
of Tallahassee, was called upon to do
the very tedious and precise plaster
work inside the dome. In order to make

the dome conform to Milburn's original
specifications, Knoenkie rigged up a
trammel with a vertical center pivot. As
the trammel rotates, it measures the
thickness of the plaster inside the dome.
The trammel was also designed to strike
the continuous plaster mouldings
around the base of the dome which look
like wood to the viewer. A metal template
was cut and mounted on one end of the
trammel, the plaster put up and as the
trammel rotated, the template cut the
plaster in the desired configuration.
Tommy White of White's Historical
Restorations in Jacksonville was called
upon to reproduce Milburn's pressed
metal reliefs of the State seal in the two
portico tympanums. White removed the

reliefs and repaired and replaced the
one in the east pediment. The one in the
west pediment was painstakingly repro-
duced in White's shop. Today, they both
sparkle solid white as originally in-
A multitude of other skilled crafts-
men, sometime working only with photo-
graphs, succeeded in reproducing light
fixtures, pedestals, urns, balustrades
and railings . and, of course, the red
and white awnings.
At the turn of the century, Governor
Jennings described Frank Milburn's ac-
complishment in this way. The architect
has preserved in the remodeled capitol
all of the beauties of the old ..." The
same is still true. m



( 71xRadir 2'ispatched
-"P" i Tbp-Up Oan e&y











1301 N.W. 27th AVENUE


Phone (305) 635-6432

The FA/AIA Headquarters

Architects/Engineers, Inc.
Coral Gables- Tallahassee, Florida

David Michael Harper, AIA, Principle-in-
Charge for design
Paul A. Buzinec, AIA, Principle-in-Charge
for production
John Charles HayeS, AIA, Project
Robert Ricci, Construction Coordinator

Consulting Engineers
Mechanical & Electrical Engineering

Consulting Engineers
On-site structural assistance to H & B
structural engineering

Interior and Space Planners
Furnishings, Millwork, Floor and Wall


Cost Estimating Consultants
Introduction by Diane D. Greer
The large Flemish arch which boldly
departs from the block of contiguous
rooflines along East Jefferson Street in
downtown Tallahassee is the first thing

entrance to FA/AIA Headquar-
S- D Greer

LODDy or I-A/AIA Headquarters building Photo by Diane D. Greer


View of lobby from third floor conference room level showing mezzanine level in between. Photo by Danny

you notice about the newly restored FA/
AIA Headquarters. The arch, or thumb in
the vernacular, was painstakingly re-
stored and as it soars upward, it makes a
bold statement about the building's in-
terior space. The arch is actually an ex-
ercise in trompe I'oeil. Exterior fenestra-
tion on the south front, which has been
accurately restored, denotes a two-story
interior. In actuality, the building is a tri-
level (37 feet from ground floor to sky-
light) with a spacious mezzanine be-
tween lower level offices and upper level
conference room. The interior space re-
peats the tri-level pattern established on
the south front with the illusion of a third
level created by the arched parapet.
At the time the Headquarters build-
ing was purchased in 1980, the idea of a
competition criteria called for a contem-
porary interior restoration and an authen-
tic exterior restoration. Since the build-
ing, which was known originally as Mun-
ro's Store, was constructed in 1890 as a
dry goods store and a part of the Gallie
Hall Opera Complex, it in included within
the Gallie Hall listing to the National Reg-
ister of Historic Places. Historical
accuracy on the exterior of the building
was critical to retaining that prestigious
listing. The interior, however, at the time
of the FA/AIA purchase was a dark two-
story space with dropped ceilings and a
filled basement. In order to make max-
imum use of this space, it was obvious
that the building either had to go up into
a third story or down into an excavated
The Coral Gables architectural firm
of Harper and Buzinec was the winner of
the design competition. Though the win-
ning design is not representative of the
finished building, the following discus-
sion by the architects will trace the de-
sign evolution of the building as well as a
design critique and some comments ab-
out the particular challenges which this
type of retro-fit produces.

AIA Headquarters Design Statement
by David Michael Harper, AIA and
John C. Hayes, AIA
The completed Headquarters proj-
ect represents the last of three com-
pletely different designs based on three
programs and budgets. They were in
order of their evolution:
DESIGN NO. 1 The Design Competition
The emphasis was on the creation
of an "Historic Frontal Piece" behind
which a new modern entry would have
been located. The design included a
basement and barrier-free access
throughout the building. The entire
second floor was rental space. This
straightforward functional approach to
the original program paid particular
attention to tight budget constraints and
placed its emphasis on the facade. It
perhaps suffered somewhat on the in-

terior due to cost constraints. Finally, in
fashion reminiscent of the original
Mitchell/Giurgola Design for the Na-
tional AIA Headquarters, the design was
rejected as being "out of character" with
the area by the Capital Center Planning
Commission and "unacceptable" to the
State Department of Historic Archives
and Records Management.
The owners program changed to re-
quest the inclusion of as much floor area
as possible. This resulted in the addition
of an entire additional floor above grade
and substantial additional estimated
construction costs which were to be off-
set by the increased revenues from rent-
al space. It was during this period in the
development of the project that the
facade was modified to its final config-
This design recognized the need to
focus attention on the creation of open
interior space. This was achieved by
opening up the building vertically by re-
moving the center portion of the second
floor and lowering the north portion of the
Gallie Hall floor level. The linear "land-
scaped open office partition type" con-
figuration of the work galley was instru-
mental in not visually restricting the area
of continuous open office space which
was particularly critical in view of the
narrow width of the building. During this
stage of the evolution of the design, it
was determined that the client would oc-
cupy the entire building in lieu of pro-
viding an enclosed glass office space
.adjacent to the atrium for lease pur-
poses. The design of the facade evolved
from what started out as rectilinear win-
dow configurations at the second floor to
a group of three, each with a single
arched head condition and finally
evolved to the implemented solution
which consisted of three windows each
with a dual arched window head con-
The client is to be credited for most
of the good to be said about the build-
ing. Ironically, though, in view of the way
the project came about through the de-
sign competition, the greatest contri-
bution of the firm was probably in the
area of thorough and accurate cost con-
trol which extended to estimating the
construction costs to within 1 percent of
the bid price and then working with the
client in efforts to reduce the cost by 27
percent through inclusion of donated
items and various reductions in sophis-
The building is a two-story rectan-
gular building 24' wide by 78' long.
Once the design of the building cap-
tured the program, the challenge was to
adapt the existing facility to enhance the
design concept. The first step was to

move into the demolition phase to clear
out all the existing materials to determine
the composition of the building. Once
the building was gutted of interior
finishes, it was revealed that the roof was
composed of rafters with a tie collar
beam between the exterior bearing walls
and the second floor was, composed of
steel beams spanning across the build-
ing approximately 16' on centers, and
joists 2-1/2" wide by 10-/2" deep. The
north and south facades are walls built in
between the two buildings on the east
and west-Gallie Hall wall on the west
and the Check-Mark Office Supply wall
on the east. The second floor structural
members, the rafters, and the collar
beams rest on the masonry walls of
these two buildings. Because of this kind
of construction, the walls were not keyed
together and the south wall had a ten-
dency to fall away from the building and
cause severe damage to the southeast
There was a significant problem in
trying to capture the 1902 design by re-
placing the pediment on top of the build-
ing. The structural engineers were con-
cerned about extending this pediment 8'
to 10' up above the roof without the wall
being keyed into the east and west walls.
Hurricane force winds could easily top-
ple that pediment and cause severe
damage to the building. This was solved
by constructing the pediment out of solid
brick with a 1' deep by 2' wide re-
inforced concrete beam cap. On the
back side of the pediment, steel chan-
nels were extended up from the second
floor windows through the roof up to a
steel plate on the bottom of the concrete
cap. The steel members were tied into
four bays of the roof rafters and collar
beams, then tied together with horizontal
crossbracing of the collar beams, cross-
bracing on each slope of the roof rafters,
plus vertical diagonal bracing at the
ridge of the building. This series of
crossed-bracing was secured to the
steel channels for bracing the pediment
against hurricane winds. The structure
members on the north side of the pedi-
ment were finished with metal-lath and
In providing proper insulation in the
existing building through the roof, it was
decided to cover the 1 x 4 wood deck-
ing with 2-1/2" of thermasote insulation
board. The combination of wood deck-
ing, insulation, shingles, and air-film,
gives the required R-value. Both the
north and south walls are insulated with
1-/2' gypsum board.
One concept in the design of the
building was to lower the back half of the
second floor to be flush with the second
floor of Gallie Hall. This was done be-
cause the toilet facilities for both Gallie
Hall and the FA/AIA Headquarters

Building were located in a central core.
The Gallie Hall second floor is 3' lower
than the Headquarters Building second
floor. From the lowered floor at the ex-
terior door, there was access to the toilet
facilities and the elevator or the stairs to
the conference room level This empha-
sizes the importance of the conference
room in its use for AIA functions. The
design then was further enhanced by
opening up the middle of the building at
the second floor and at the roof. The size
of the.skylight was increased more than
twice that of the existing skylight. The
floor was opened up to allow light to
enter the second level and down to the
first floor to open up the interior of the
building. This prevents the building from
looking like a long narrow shaft and
opens it up by providing additional natu-
ral lighting.
The second floor atrium effect and
the lowering of the back half of the
second floor was accomplished by cut-
ting off the steel beams at the wall. The
same beams plus some new structural
members were installed into the existing
walls at the lower level. New structural
members and a new column had to be
installed where the stairs run up through
the second floor. The same floor joists
were reused with new 3/4" plywood sub-
floor installed on the existing joists. The
skylight was enlarged by removing exist-
ing ceiling collar beams and rafters. The
opening is framed with four 2 x 12s on
each side of the skylight to the same
configuration as the rafters- and then

dressed out with wood trim. The east/
west edges of the skylight are framed
with four 2 x 12 beams spanning be-
tween the roof beams and trimmed out
the same as all of the rafter beams.
The whole second floor was opened
up to give the feeling of an open airy
space and to express the existing struc-
ture as much as possible. All the rafters
and collar beams were left in place and
the glass walls around the conference
area were designed to enhance this fea-
ture. By looking through the glass walls,
the continuation of the structure is evi-
dent. The air conditioning ducts were
exposed and the lights were hung in
such a fashion that it would not take
away from the expression of the existing
The windows on the north and south
walls were installed to the basic con-
figuration of the 1902 style. The three
windows on the north elevation of the
building had been blocked up. The win-
dows there were one half the size they
are now. The masonry down to the exist-
ing sill was removed and then custom
windows, designed to fit within that exist-
ing space were installed. It was very im-
portant to keep the eyebrows and the
arch over the head to maintain the archi-
tectural style and compliment the Gallie
Hall courtyard windows. The windows on
the south side were nominal windows in
a blocked-up opening. The masonry and
the windows were removed to reveal the
new design. The 1902 design had open-
ings for the theatre patrons to purchase

their tickets and walk upstairs to the
second floor and into Gallie Hall. Some-
time after 1902, the openings were sea-
led off and small conventional windows
were installed in their place. The archi-
tects and the AIA Executive Committee
worked closely with the Florida Preserva-
tion Board Architects to capture as ac-
curately as possible the 1902 style of the
building. The elevation as expressed in
the new building emphasizes a tall ele-
gant look.
The wood slat ceilings on the first
floor are composed of 1 x 3 oak slats
that are secured to a 2 x 4 wood sus-
pension system from the existing wood
joists. The slats were nailed to the sus-
pension system and finished with 2
coats of clear sealer. The 7 foot high wall
on the west side of the galley was de-
signed to provide a work area for the
staff, yet not make the wall so tall that it
reduced the building in width, thus
creating a building that is extremely long
and narrow. The wall was only taken to 7
feet to provide the required height for
shelving to carry all of the AIA forms. The
east wall of the work galley has base and
wall cabinets for the use of the secre-
taries and staff.
The FA/AIA staff assumed oc-
cupancy of the building on February 1,
1982, nearly two years after the building
was purchased. With the dedication of
the building on April 31, the FA/AIA is
insuring that the structure will once again
serve the important commercial function
for which it was intended when first con-
structed nearly 100 years ago. E




4 ,

Methodist Hospital Facilities Center, Indianapolis, Indiana Architect: Schmidt, Garden & Erikson Contractor: Tousley-Bixler Construction Co.

Design in a new direction with

the horizontal look from Robertson

There's a new option for design
flexibility from Robertson:
Formawall flat metal wall
panels have been redesigned for
horizontal use in addition to
traditional vertical installation.
Now you can design horizontally
in lengths up to 30 feet in 24"
to 30"-high modules in our
standard 2" thickness. Use our
foam core insulated Formawall

1000 and select from long-life
stucco-embossed finishes such
as Vitralume (a superb por-
celainized finish at new competi-
tive prices), Versacor, Durasil
or PVF2. Or utilize Formawall 2000
with a honeycomb core and baked
enamel finishes and choose
smooth or stucco-embossed.
In either case, you'll take ad-
vantage of this latest Robertson
innovation: we've eliminated the
customary weather-exposed
sealants at all horizontal joints,
so we can now provide a bolder,
deeper shadow line.
The horizontal look: another new
concept in walls from Robertson,
designed to make your building
come to life.
For further details on horizontal
or vertical Formawall applications,
call or write: Bud Alexander,
H H. Robertson Company, Dept.
F-10, Suite 221, 4100 W. Kennedy
Blvd, Tampa, FL 33609. Phone:
(813) 872-8347

Horizontal Formawall
Typical Joint Details

Formawall 1000H Formawall 2000H
2" Thick 2" Thick
Foam Core Panel Honeycomb Core Panel


GRAYBOOKS is bookseller to building and design profes-
sionals worldwide with one of America's largest collections
of architectural, construction, interiors, landscape and
urban design publications, new, used, rare and out-of-
print. We provide a search service for out-of-print books
and we also buy used books from individuals and institu-
tions. VISA and MASTERCHARGE accepted. Open
Monday-Saturday 9-5. Allan Green.berg,frmArnchitecture 1980, Rizzoli


GA and GA Detail series 13.95
GA Houses series 19.95
GA Document series 14.95
GA Document Special Issue series 27.50
GA Book 995.00
GA set (1-60) 795.00
GA Houses set (1-10) 199.50
Please write for complete Titles List
1909 Brunson St. 2 Houston, Texas




Industrial and Commercial Contracting
2906 Plant, Tallahassee, Florida 904/576-6249


Converted Warehouse Houses Dali Collection


by Jim Wallace and Michael Clary
Architect: Harvard, Jolly, Marcet &
Associates Architects, P. A.
Principal Architect: Blanchard E.
Jolly, AIA
'1- Project Architect: Jonathan R. Top-
1 j pe, AIA
Engineers: (electrical & mechanical)
Best, Hickman & Thomas E.,e'.r
Inc.; t,: tr :r Olsen, White & Associ-
ates, Inc.
Contractor: (Phase I Construction
Manager) Federal Construction Com-
pany; (Phase I Structural Contractor)
Dara Hennessy Construction Company;
(Phase II General Contractor) Cox De-
velopment Corporation
In March of this year the Salvador
Dali Museum opened on the St. Peters-
burg waterfront amidst a great deal of
fanfare. Housed within the structure was
the c.:,lle.:,rln of Eleanor and A. Rey-
nolds Morse of Cleveland-a ci:ll.: n_.n
A. 1 containing 96 oil paintings, 200 draw-
ings and watercolors and over 1000
graphics and sculptural works by the re-
nowned Spanish surrealist The opening
of the museum capped two years of
planning, construction and organization
of the exhibit.
When it was learned that the Morses
were looking for a new public home for
Top interior of Dah Museum showing pit where master their collection, they were approached
works are displayed Photo by Timothy Lefstead by James Martin, a St. Pete City C u:r,: il-
Photo ddleby Savadmothy L te seum vew from harbor side man, with the idea of bringing the collec-
Bottom interior of Dah Museum Photo courtesy of Dar tion to Florida. Through the efforts of
Museum Martin and other city and state officials
and an aiii. tiricni of funds by the state
legislature for the construction and main-
tenance of the --:1,I,:III i the Morses'
announced their intent to relocate to St.
Petersburg. The site for the museum was
donated by the City and it is on the har-
bor just south of the downtown. An exist-
ing marine warehouse was adapted for
use as a single open gallery with the
required service facilities wrapped
around it. A particular requirement of
Morses' was that the gallery be one large
open room and the warehouse suited his
requirement perfectly.
The Tampa-St. Petersburg architec-
tural firm of Harvard. Jolly. Marcet and
Associates was selected to undertake
the project. With a tight budget and a


tight schedule, the firm set out to design
the building in two phases.
In Phase I, the warehouse was to be
converted and finished as a gall-r' so
that the collection could be safely
stored. Phase II involved the addition of
a lobby, sales area, office wing and stor-
age space. In developing the final de-
sign, Jonathan Toppe, Project Architect,
followed guidelines suggested by both
Morse and city officials.
The completely open space left by
the architect, per Morse's requirement,
permits a view across the entire gallery.
Ample wallspace permits the display of
paintings which range in size from a 31/2"
by 212" portrait of the artist's wife to the
uiirr-ail:r.: "Hallucenogenic Torreador"
which measures a whopping 13' by 10'.
Harvard, Jlll, Marcet believed that
the building should be a clean, simply
stated backdrop for the art to be dis-
played. To this end, the interior of the
warehouse was simply treated and hon-
estly .expresses the original structure.
Large wallboard panels were hung on
the masonry walls-not covering the
walls, but floating out from them, leaving
the painted block behind. The wallboard
is trimmed in light oak and acts as a
frame for the works of art. The gallery
space was left open to the roof deck
exposing the joists. This step provided
the desired volume and opened up the
space rather than closing it in with some
form of ceiling. New HVAC ductwork
spans the joist space.
While exposing the joists and cre-
ating increased space, HJM had to raise
the floor three feet above the existing
level in order to conform to flood require-
ments and protect the art. This allowed
for the design of the return air plenum
under the new floor. Then, at the end of
the gallery, opposite the entry, a pit was
created with greater floor-to-ceiling
heights for the display of five large scale
"masterworks." The museum patron is
led to the pit along a gently sloping ramp
flanked by oak capped glass rails.
These five tremendous works may be
viewed from two different and distinct
perspectives, from across the gallery or
closeup, thereby exposing many of the
secrets and surprises of Dali's small hid-
den images in his large scale forms.
The museum space excludes natu-
ral light, providing a great degree of con-
trol, as well as protection, from the sun's
damaging rays. A two-circuit track light-
ing system was selected and laid out by
the architect. One set of lights Il.inin-
ates the art while the other defines a
circulation route.
The architect was also responsible
for developing the multi-faceted security
system which secures the building and
its valuable contents. The gallery and its
storage areas are served by a halon fire
protection system and humidity and tem-
perature controls.
In order to complete all the Phase I

work in the short period of time allowed,
the architect recommended that the city
retain Federal Construction Company as
a Construction Manager. The Construc-
tion Manager then used a phased bid-
ding process in order to begin the proj-
ect more quickly and expedite construc-
tion. Construction of the gallery was
completed by the target date and by the
time the museum staff began cataloging
the collection, the architects had begun
designing the Phase II addition, which
included a large lobby-multi-purpose
room suitable for lectures and a sales
and display room. A wing of offices and
storage space forms an "L" with the lob-
by, wrapping a corner of the gallery.
HJM is now planning further phases
of expansion to satisfy the demands of
the large number of visitors and the ex-
,:, ii~,:nj collection. The exhibit now ro-
tates periodically as only one third of the
collection can be displayed at a time. An
addition to house a research library and
a community room for meetings is pres-
ently being designed.
A facility designed to house such a
renowned collection of art as that of Sal-
vador Dali stands to make St. Petersburg
a center for the study of the artist and
surrealism. m
JIM WALLACE is a graduate student at
Princeton University in architecture
MICHAEL CLARY is a graduate student
at The University of Florida in architecture

Craftsman Masonry, Inc.

-ff-ce -I. Plart
1: 95 N W ltri street t
Pcrrnparc, Beachr Florido '.'.3000()'
Telepc,-or,e '._05I '" J I
I.rl-r .:n f .:,, r, .',

Sawed Keys Coral
50 Varieties of
Rubble Stone
Flagstone & Slate

Stone Fabrication
Stone Installation
Retail Sales

Majestic Fireplace,


what the costs actually are and that they
are getting the best possible price. The
owner usually saves on change orders
because of his involvement. The best
approach is for the design-builder to
work on a fee basis which removes any
sort of adversary relationship between
the owner and the design-builder.
There is nothing mystical or hard to
understand about becoming involved in
providing design-build services. It is
very much like the process you went
through to become an architect. Allow
several years for training and developing
business procedures. Then allow sever-
al years to slowly gain practical exper-
ience. You should plan to have plenty of
funds to finance this education and cov-
er the new risk to which you will be ex-
posed. Your big advantage is that your
training and experience as an architect
will provide a good base. Rest assured,
you will not be disappointed and you will
find that you will be better able to serve a
greater number of people. n
Don W. David, Jr., AIA is the presi-
dent and CEO of Quatre Inc., a de-
sign-build company. He is also a
principal in the architectural firm of -
Ricks/ Kendrick/ Stokes/ David
Architects Inc.

A Beautiful
more than a second-class
parking area. Durable; light-
reflective; oil-resistant; cooler
and more attractive concrete is
now available to you at com-
petitive costs. Ask your local
ready-mix producer. You're in
for a pleasant surprise!
Darex Admixtures Make
Better Concrete
For Recommended Specifications Con-
tact Your Local Ready-Mix Producer Or:

Construction Products Division
W.R. Grace & Co.
1200 N.W. 15th Avenue
Pompano Beach, FL 33060
(305 974-6700

1857 1982 The First 125 Years

needed for the
of the
1841 Union Bank
Apply. by July 25th, 1982
stating experience in other
restoration projects
Union Bank Restoration
P.O. Box 793
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Nancy Dobson
904-488-3901 for
additional information










McCord Contract Floors, Inc.
2716 Cottonwood Road
P.O. Box 6761
Dothan, Alabama 36302

1982 Governor's Design Awards

On May 3, 1982, Governor Bob Gra-
ham presented six Florida architects
with design awards. The recipients of the
1982 Governor's Design Awards Pro-
gram received their prize in the newly
restored Supreme Court Chamber of the
1902 Capitol.
This year's winning projects were in
eight design categories located in five
Florida cities from Miami to Pensacola.
The Awards Program, started by
Graham in 1981, is unique in the United
States. It is open to nominations only

from state and local governmental agen-
cies. Florida makes a significant invest-
ment in its public capital outlay program
each year and it is appropriate for the
results to be evaluated in a review of the
overall success of the facility after a
period of use for their intended purpose.
Three Architects were among the jurors
for this year's program. They were FA/
AIA President Glenn Buff, AIA, John
Steffian, AIA, Chairman, Department of
Architecture and Planning, University of
Miami, and Bob Burke, Chairman, Flor-
ida State Board of Architecture.

North Campus, Leroy Col-
lins Campus Center
Miami-Dade Community
Miami, Florida
Agency: Miami-Dade Com-
munity College
Architect: Ferendino/
The jury commended the fact that
the indoor-outdoor relationships estab-
lished by this design provide a notable
setting for the various pursuits of the
Center. The large covered open-air
space for major activities takes max-
imum advantage of the climate, while
allowing for protection from the ele-
ments. Compatible and exciting uses of
color and material to articulate the build-
ing spaces were also noted.


SUniversity of South Florida,
College of Business Ad-
ministration (Ferguson
Tampa, Florida
An Agency: University of
South Florida and De-
partment of General Ser-
Architect: Rowe-Holmes &
The jury was extremely impressed
by this energy conservative design. The
building has a distinguished bermed
pyramidic form and generates excite-
ment from the ways in which natural light
and ventilation are introduced.

Interstate 1-110
Southern Terminus
Pensacola, Florida
Agency: Department of
Architect: Reynolds, Smith
& Hills
The jury commended this bridge for
providing a graceful and unobtrusive
transportation design solution while
maximizing potentialities for public open
space within its surrounds. Particularly
impressive are its simple curved lines
and single pedestal base, together with
its apparent lightness, all of which give a
clear indication of the designer's inten-
tion to avoid the hostile impact that many
such bridges have upon the landscape.

Lake Talquin State Rec-
reation Area
Tallahassee, Florida
Agency: Department of
Natural Resources
Architect: Harry Dickman
Of the recreational entries, this proj-
ect exhibited the most sensitive integra-
tion of buildings, stairs and walkways
which complements the terrain and ex-
ploits interesting views of the landscape.
The shelters are strong design elements
that are treated unpretentiously.


Escambia Regional Ser-
vice Center
Pensacola, Florida
Agency: Department of
General Services
Architect: Ellis W. Bullock,
The jury felt this building to be a
handsome structure, sited and designed
with environmental sensitivity. The ma-
terial and exterior skin of the building are
well articulated and proportioned. It is
clear that the designers took great care
to preserve the existing landscape and
to integrate it with the building's en-
trance, thus forming a pleasant and hu-
man transition from the street to the
building itself.


A; ; -- ~ AI':t~. l ~ ~~'if i- f *'f J

.'A A.1A

A'. A,"2 ~ I

'An .

*"-*"*-J "*~ eT^A.Mr.. .

- a- --,

Special Award of Merit
Frederick H. Owen, Jr.
Lawtey Correctional Insti-
Lawtey, Florida
Agency: Department of
Architect: Kemp, Bunch &
The jury was extremely impressed
to find that the users themselves formed
its construction team. The craftsmanship
and care that are evident throughout are
of good quality, resulting in a chapel
which is a commendable piece of work.
For this reason, the jury wished to pro-
vide a special Award of Merit in recog-
nition of and encouragement to those
that participated in its construction. The
jury noted that the user approach should
serve as a model for similar under-
takings by other institutions.





The Architectural Book and Document Center for Florida is now in Tallahassee. We're as
close as your telephone and can bring documents and books to you quickly through UPS. A
full inventory of AIA Documents in maintained. -Members receive a more than 30 percent
discount on most documents; many books also include a discount.

For more information, call 904/222-7590.
For a price list on AIA Documents and
Books, write:
FA/AIA Books & Documents
P.O. Box 10388
Tallahassee, Fl. 32302

-" a o LO



Standard Fnrm of Agree
Oiner and Archilect

Ep"' rtno
- . '" ,

" "11:,1.

A' F'"I '

/ I ~

" ,

,i. *'"

* '** "-1-.,.,..

(producers of Fla. Natural Cut Coral)

Office: 945-4223

15162 N.E. 6th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33162

Plant: 245-4716

* *., . ,

-. ".. ., ,.. \ ..
i .
', -


Ii i

KEYSTONE-a Florida natural cut coral:
Ashlar Pattern, Random Ashlar Pattern; Split Face; Roughback;
Flagging and Keystone Coral Rubble.
Special sizes available upon request.

* 4


r_ i -T~J~
r--I 3



Architects Dilemma; Window Specs in Florida

by Jack Adams, Plant Engineer, and
John Brown, Technical Manager, Alcan
Building Products.
Window specification for Florida
construction is a rather complex riddle to
decipher-even with clues.
Federal glass standards, levels of
window certification, five different build-
ing codes and a state energy code, in
addition to Florida's five wind zones'--all
must be dealt with in determining what
window to specify for a given project.
Attempts to simplify the Florida
codes and classification ratings, estab-
lished by the Architectural Aluminum
Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and
the American National Standards In-
stitute (ANSI), have led in some cases to
oversimplification. It has been consid-
ered a safe and simple practice to spe-
cify what is perceived to be the highest
quality window throughout a high-rise
building-namely, an A2, double
strength'glass window.
However, it would be more appro-
priate and economical for such project
principals to ascertain what types of win-
dows are best suited for a particular
building design and locale.
From AAMA and ANSI specifica-
tions, A2 windows appear to differ sub-
stantially from B1 windows, the most
common window type. In actuality, only
two test specifications distinguish these
window types.

First, AAMA and ANSI require that
tests for air infiltration, water leakage,
exterior/interior wind load and structural
strength for an A2 classification utilize a
window measuring a minimum of 54 x 90
inches. A B1 rating test must use a win-
dow equal to the largest size offered in
that. line by the manufacturer, typically
much smaller than 54 x 90 inches. An A2
also must be able to pass a horizontal rail
deflection test with a higher wind load.
Second, the required sill thickness,
0.078 inch for an A2 window test, 0.062
inch for B1, is unapparent to most users.
Both have equally sturdy frames, and can
accommodate single and double
strength glass. However, greater sill
thickness will not usually produce higher
test numbers. In fact, most A2/A2.5 win-
dows carry lower structural test ratings
than B1 HP units.
The primary consideration in window
specification thus becomes determining
what window is most appropriate for the.
situation. .
Architects select and specify a wifi
dow based upon overall quality, cost,
aesthetics and strength.
The overall aesthetics and perfor-
mance of A2 and B1 windows do not
differ just because one is' of an 'A" of "B"
rating. Hence, the quality of A2 and B1
windows (and for A2.5 windows for that
matter) produced by a given manufac-
turer is similar. The difference in window
strength lies only with sill wall thickness.
A thicker sill, or rather an A2 or A2.5
window, is used primarily for an oversize
opening-one measuring a minimum of
54 x 80 inches. For buildings requiring
smaller, more standard sized openings,
B1 windows will ensure quality perfor-
mance at both high and low elevations.

For example, in Lee County, Florida,
using a 37 x 505/-inch size window, the
architect could specify building windows
As follows for high-rise construction: (1)
Floors 1 through 5-B1 window with
single strength glass; (2) Floors 6 through
10--B1 windows with double strength
glass; and (3) Floors 11 and up-B1 win-
dows with 3/16-inch glass.
For a more panoramic view of the top
few floors, an oversized opening and an
A2 or A2.5 window would be more appro-
priate than a B1 window-assuming the
top floor did not exceed acceptable ele-
vation limits of the A2.5 certification for
that wind zone.
The difference is not to increase ade-
quate certification levels of the window,
but glass thickness to ensure proper win-
dow protection from wind load.
The Florida Model Energy Code rec-
ommends specific thermal properties or
shadings for the glass at various ex-
posures to help keep heating and cooling
costs to a minimum.
The specification task is made sim-
pler by manufacturers who produce qial-
ity B1, A2 and A2.5 windows adaptable to
glass sizes of up to a half inch.
Proper window specification, with
appropriate glass strengths that meet the
particular building design and location,
produces cost savings for the entire proj-
ect. Demands for weather integrity, opti-
mum performance and aesthetics in a
window can be satisfied economically. m



2P 2P 2P 2P 3P 3P 3P 3P


C 12 13 14 15 16 32 33 34 35 36 22 23 24 25 26 32 33 34 35 36 22 23 24 25 22 23 24 25 32 33 34 35 INPSF

19 S S S S S S S S S S S SS S S

15 S S SIS I S S S S SIS _S s s__

10 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S ISS I


14 SS S S S S S SS S S S S S S D
12 S S S S S S S S S S S S SS S SS

4 2.4 3.1 3.8 1.7 2.6 3.6 4.6 5.7 2.4SS S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S D D2.3 5.3 8.3 4.2 4.9 7.7 Square FootagSS D D

1.1 1.8 2.4 3.1 3.8 1.7 2.6 3.6 4.6 5.7 2.4 3.8 5.3 6.7 8.3 3.6 5.7 7.9 9.9 12.3 5.3 8.3 11.2 14.2 4.9 7.7 10.4 13.2 7.4 11.6 15.7 19.8 Square Footage







Highest quality construction lime products hom MORTASEAL Autoclared Mason's Lme Fi-. .,jr.r
U.S G. jr, I...', irm i', ....r l ihr l:u th.-.u-r I- jr,:a r- hi, h h pur'. I'ii T F ll.. h.l r jr r.j i:-r. '. :i- l
.:-uihi.a:i F :.r *... ,i.: J 31-'1.i J j r*.i-o . run pl -r: .r l . lr. nT+, .jil.... r r . r, -i p .. il..
M a ,..nr, .ir,.:rc.r r l-, :hi .]uc:.::. -i .j FlIr ,,j lbr i.:.b: a~l IT a .ih, .r. ... h- arii.j STr 1- 'i 1 i : .
fir,,.h ir 13: i ar I. .,r p. -r ..I. ir- irh.: IVR OR Finish Lime Fri,, h. ,,t: i h,, r,.l ,,, A ,
unml ..rTn,, r ,r.aii.'r. arn.l ..:,rl.ahl.n. .,I ih", ., up-rni:.r ,l I. r ,, ,.a ...,i, 2 'au'i, plr. r, I h -,i
irron produci, pi ,,,o r .., 4 -.r i rj i,.jhi h....rd I. t a '.
BONDCRETE Air-Enrraining Masons & Stucco Sup" : ... :,. r. ,,,,: AS-iM(- T... r-
Lime Fine qnir, ... hi., hrj.h r-uri'. lime Pr;-:ur; SNOWDRIFT" Autoclaved Finish Lime Pm-,i;
h Jdrat.d l*:-r im m err i. u Pr.i.. .d:* h,.jh plai'.: tl,.,, .,, i, .h l ja pl.i -ii r .Ii .. r: I ,nr-.i l
unilormi b.;.r.dJ up'.r-.r v alherr r.:,arr,., i :- Tj. ,d ,'rl, h ar-ji.e r..r.rn.mrcz t-i1pi a HI r.j
C2U7 TI.pe SA cornplr,:. .:rr.:l r a r:i : -ui,:. 'iTM,1 C.i T.pi
For complete technical informn.lon ci:-u r Lr aci '.,:ur U S Ci Reprieenlar..e
Or wriie to, u, at 101 S Wacker Dr Chicago. IL 60bi)06.Dept


F~I~q~; ' -~'`~; "';'"''''"' ~"
~)~,a;i~y~~~.~~u.vu?... r~ .,. --,,J~4~~aru~,.,.,.~.,~,~*~*n

,~'~~"'II 7lmCII~*A*-In~l~CI~I3LI I

We didn't invent

he wheel-but we did

find a way to close

openings better than
an e j n MILDOOR, for two decades, has provided th
construction industry with a complete line of
anyo ne i th e superbly engineered quality products, and in
s process discovered how to beautify aluminum
nd I We call it Magnacolor Theres nothing like it
anywhere else, at any price. Colors are elect
statically applied to create a finish that will re
peeling, chipping, cracking, crazing or blister


Mildoor products that have passed
the test of time:
Aluminum Sliding Glass Doors.
The Executive Series: Commercial and
hi-rise applications, and for upgrading of single
family residences. Available in single or double
glaze 5' x 8' panels in any configuration. KD or
The Patrician Series: Single and double
glaze available in 4'x 6'8/2" panels in any
configuration. KD or assembled,
The Performance Series: For upgrading of
residential market, 4' x 6'9" panels, single or
double glaze, limited to one fixed and one slide.
KD or assembled
The 1100 Series: For mid-rise applications.
Single glaze only 5' x 8' panels in any con-
figuration. KD or assembled.
Aluminum Windows
The Executive Series: For hi-rise applica-
tions and for upgrading single-family residences.
Single hung windows available glazed only
Rolling windows available KD or glazed.
The Patrician Series: Single hung windows-
glazed only Rolling windows-glazed only
Aluminum Mirror Doors
The Residential Series: Top hung 6'8/2"
openings. 2,3, or4 panels. Double orTriple Slide.
KD or assembled.
The Presidential Series: Decorator design
for special applications. Panels to 4' wide x 8'
high in any configuration. Featuring bottom track
rollers. KD or assembled.
The Tri-Mirror Series: 3-panel hinged mirrors.
6'8/2" high or vanity height of 371/2" Fixed
center panel with top and bottom'U' channel,
and two folding wings. KD or assembled.
Aluminum Tub and Shower Enclosures
The Nob-Look Series': High fashion deco-
rator styling. Polished, buffed, and anodized in a
mirror-finish gold or silver. Available in any
plumbing configuration. KD or assembled.

* mildoor
A Division of Miller Industries, Inc.
16295 NW 13th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33169 (305) 621-0501
Palm Beach Branch: 1142 Old Okeechobee Road, West Palm Beach, Florida 33401
North (305) 833-7005/South (305) 278-7011
Melbourne Branch: 60-A Sunset Drive, Melbourne, Florida 32901 (305) 676-5055



A "i
*4 S




. -

. A.:.


: "
~i~a~yt~;~ "
: *I

:I: ; ~
" ;: '

: 1;

- i" *





S ' -- '- -
.t'., h '- ".',. ... y*, -.
.t*. 4>'?. 'V
U At *ijs~


* 3.

:a :r
t -

; :i 4 i
.2 ;. -,

4, ';: -

.4 n -- 1 ^


t? y S:


*i I
ii :i1

1 4

e ,I

': 1
,a i'. ^


l^^'^. '^^^^'.^^^ ^'"'^* *^H

Gory's new Color-Sealed tiles keep looking like new.

Architects, builders and roof-
ers have always associated Gory
Roof Tile with quality.
Architects specify Gory for its
aesthetic appeal. Builders know
that a Gory roof helps sell their
homes. Roofers know they are
installing a prestige roof with
built-in customer satisfaction.
Homeowners know a Gory roof
enhances the resale value of their
home. And all appreciate its
maintenance-free qualities.
Now we've gone ourselves

one better. In addition to all the
proven advantages, we've added
a whisper luster to Gory tiles. This
process seals in the color and
keeps the tiles looking like new.
It also effectively controls efflores-
cence, a major problem in ordinary
concrete tiles.
This innovation adds a new
dimension to Gory tile's color -
through beauty. They are available
in sixteen of the most wanted
colors, in Spanish "S'" Perma
Shake, Bermuda and Vanguard

styles. And of course, Gory's new
Color-Sealed tiles may be custom-
blended to your exacting
For further information, write
Gory Roof Tile, 1773 Northeast
205th Street, North Miami, Florida
33179, or call us at (305) 651-7611.
In Florida 800-432-1021.

SL..I~O il

In all these beautiful new colors.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs