Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 News and letters
 Office practice aids
 Energy: Letting the sun shine on...
 Photovoltaics: The high tech...
 Architecture and the sun in joint...
 Hardrives -- a building carved...
 The airport of the 21st centur...
 Florida's first earth-sheltered...
 Florida's A/E selection law does...
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00235
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Spring 1982
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00235
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    News and letters
        Page 4
    Office practice aids
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Energy: Letting the sun shine on a dirty word
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Photovoltaics: The high tech alternative
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Architecture and the sun in joint venture
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Hardrives -- a building carved from the earth
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The airport of the 21st century
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Florida's first earth-sheltered school
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Florida's A/E selection law does work
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
Uni versity- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East jet letrson Ave.
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen
Diane D. Greer
Director of Advertising and Art
Ann E. Allen
Editorial Board
J. Michael Bier. AIA
Jaime Borrelli, AIA
William E. (Graves, AIA
Mark Ramaeker. AIA
Peter Rutnpel. FAIA
Glenn A. Buff, AIA
9369 Dominican Irive
Miami, Florida 33190
Vice President
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architectural Building
Gamesville, Florida 32611
Regional Director
Ted Pappas, AIA
P.O. Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank Building
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

FLORIDA ARCHITECT. Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and published bs the Asso-
ciation, a Florida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907 It is published five times a year
at the Executive Office of the Association. 104
E. Jefferson Ave.. Tallahassee. Florida 32302.
Telephone (904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed b,
contributors are not necessarily those of the FA/
AIA. Editorial material may be reprinted provided
full credit is given to the author and to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and a cops sent to the publisher's
Single copies. $2.00 subscription, $20.00 per
year. Third class postage.


Spring, 1982
Volume 29, Number 2


Diane D. Greer

Ivan E. Johnson, AIA and Al Simpler


Diane D. Greer with John E. Steffany, FAIA

Patty Doyle

Betty Meyer

Meg Rehse
3 Editorial
4 News and Letters
5 Office Practice Aids
35 Viewpoint

Cover Photo by
Bob Braun.




, 4 r


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W) e, as a nation, have watched the rapid depletion of
our major fuel sources with little care or concern about
what lay ahead. But, no longer. With the discovery that
we, the people, had "sliced, diced, chopped and grated"
ourselves right into a national predicament came the ques-
tion, "If we are to keep our food processors processing,
where will the 'juice" come from?"
It occurs to me that in our evolution into the fully
automated and highly technical lifestyle of the 80's, we
have come full circle in terms of the means by which we
automate our very existence.
While conventional (i.e. "dirty", as our catchword on
the cover states) fuel sources dwindle and continue to rise
in cost, the search for a place in the sun becomes ever
more frantic. In Florida, we're lucky. We're already in the
sun. The resource is here .. . we have only to take advan-
tage of it. Nationwide, however, the energy situation is
dire. Energy-conscious design in architecture is no longer
a goal .. it's a style.
In the year 2000, we may reflect on the fact that dur-
ing the 80's energy conservation emerged as the pre-
dominant determinant of architectural style. At the na-
tional level, the impetus is already there. The American
Institute of Architects devoted its full attention to the prob-
lem last year, a year which JOURNAL Editor Donald
Canty described as "the most focused in the organization's
recent history."
In this issue of FA, we'll examine four projects which
can proudly flaunt the fact that energy is their "style."
Geographically, they cover the state from north to south.
They vary greatly in size and design. But, collectively they
are the products of great care for the future of both
architecture and our energy sources. These are buildings
which were designed at a time when conventional fuel
sources were nearly gone to last well into a time when they
would be completely gone.
-Diane D. Greer



Dear Editor:
What a pleasant surprise to re-
ceive the winter issue of the "Florida
Architect" and see my neon design
"Neon Rainbows & Florida Clouds" at
the Orlando International Airport on
the front cover.
It was exciting and rewarding to
be a part of the design team for this
project. I feel that credit should be
given to the two creative architects
who gave birth to this tremendous
project. Duane Stark of Schweizer As-
sociates and Walter Taylor of Kemp,
Bunch & Jackson led the design group
from initial concept through comple-
tion of this project.
Without their individual talents
and dedication to this project, the
Orlando International Airport would
not be the functional, practical and
flexible project that it is.
The new "Florida Architect"
magazine is a welcome quality publica-
tion that the Florida Association can
certainly be proud of. The quality of
print and publication certainly puts it
in a category of its own in trade maga-
zines. Good luck with future issues.
Very truly yours,
Robert J. Laughlin, Jr., I.A.L.D.
Lighting Specialist
Consulting Engineers

Dear Editor:
Thanks so much for the generous
contribution to Florida House from
the Association. As per our conversa-
tion last week, I'll look forward to re-
ceiving from you the list of chapters
who contributed toward the donation.
As I mentioned, those who gave $25
or more will have their chapter's name
inscribed on our '82 contributors
plaque. If you'd like, I will be happy
to drop a note to each, acknowledging
their contribution and informing them
about the plaque.
I meant to chat with vou when
you were here about the possibility of
your doing a story about the House in
"The Florida Architect". The maga-
zine did a story about Florida House
back in 1975 and I wonder whether
you might consider doing an update.
If so, I'll be glad to write something or
to work with your editor in putting
something together. I'm sure the as-
sociation has many new members now
and we would welcome the oppor-
tunity to inform them about "their
Again, best thanks for your sup-

Nancy Elliott
Director, Florida House

1857 1982 The First 125 Years



Turn to p. 6




By H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, AICP

A story has circulated that the
General Services Administration of the
Federal Government designed all its
buildings and estimated probable con-
struction cost plus the Fed's adminis-
trative costs, including 6% oJ the prob-
able construction cost for hiring an A/E
team to prepare the bidding/ construction
documents. In this waV a budget could
be set for a project sent to Congress
for approval and ample appropriation.
For many years the architect's fee
was 6% of probable construction cost,
following precedent established bv the
Feds. Unfortunately, many architects
did not know that the Fed's (%/ did
not include design and contract ad-
ministration by the architect. Whether
clients also did not know is not sub-
stantiated, but it is known that mlanv
architects performed AIA described
basic service for (6% of construction
cost, believing it to be adequate com-
In the interest of teaching menm-
bership what percentage to charge
clients for architectural services, the
AIA, at local, regional and national
levels, conducted survevs to establish
some justifiable percentages of con-
struction costs for various types of'
buildings of differing complexities.
Many charts were developed and dis-
tributed based on the membership's
high-medium-low fees charged for
various projects.
The survey's important revelation
was that little relationship existed be-
tween the architect's costs to render
architectural services and the clients
costs for the construction of a project.
It was found that an architect's effort
was greater for an economical project
than an expensive one, and the same
was true in contract documents,
whether economically or generously
The complexity of the design/
build process demanded further
study. The AIA employed Case and
Co. to conduct a national survey to de-
termine not only what fees architects
charged, but also the costs to the ar-
chitect to render professional service.
Case and Co. was also employed to
evaluate the data collected.

Two shocking conditions were un-
covered bv the Case and Co. survey:
(1) architects do not keep accurate rec-
ords, and (2) architects did not earn
profits on 25% of their projects.
This revelation was followed by
another shock. The Federal Govern-
ment charged the AIA (presumably its
members, spouses and children) with
violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
by disseminating ranges of fees within
which an architect should expect to
make a reasonable profit.
It became apparent that architects
and their fees were now\ part of the
business world (some call it the market
place, others the snake pit), and not
august members of a profession dedi-
cated to a social art.
The American Institute of Archi-
tects' staff, with the assistance of a blue
ribbon task force, groups of clients
and allied professionals, developed a
new approach for determining conm-
pensation for professional services.
This involved calculating fees based on
the architect's unique service to the
client's specific project.
The new concept made its debut
in the February, 1975 Edition, "Coin-
pensation Management Guidelines fir
Architectural Services, A Manual on
Cost-Based Compensation", (AIA
Catalog No. M-188). In its preface,
AIA Past-President William Marshall,
Jr., FAIA, writes: "The determination
of the appropriate level of compensa-
tion for specific services can be as sim-
ple or sophisticated as a firm's record-
keeping procedures permit. Adoption
and widespread use of these guidelines
holds forth the promise that unprofit-
able commissions will be a thing of the
Unfortunately, the new guidelines
depend upon two climates of behavior
rarely found in architectural education
and practice:
(1) Office record-keeping: and
(2) Forecasting the time and typeof
effort needed to satisfy the re-
quirements of a specific project.
Both are ingredients in planning
and managing an architectural prac-
tice; both are experience factors which
are learned as the practicing architect

is forced to maintain proper records
and becomes aware of the benefits de-
rived therefrom.
Since office record-keeping is re-
quired by a number of tax and insur-
ance related laws, it is to the practi-
tioner's benefit to have a single record-
keeping system, which will not only
satisfy legal obligations, but also help
the architect to plan fiscal goals, deter-
mine the gross income needed to
achieve the fiscal goals, and the basis
for calculating the fees required to
support the fiscal aspirations of the
There is a simple eight-step plan-
ning process for establishing what a
firm's annual gross income must be to
meet desired fiscal goals. The steps in-
volve data easily found in a required
office record, provided the records are
kept in the proper journals.
(1) Select the minimum acceptable
personal salary for principals.
Unless the firm is organized as a
coop, the principals' salaries are
the only negotiable ones. A prin-
cipal's time is usually divided be-
tween direct and indirect time.
Therefore, the principal's time is
recorded on sheets showing time
productively spent on each pro-
ject. From these time records not
only are legal data recorded, but
the direct costs of personnel effort
for each project. This data is a
significant part of what is called
experience factors.
(2) Agree on the division of princi-
pals' time between direct client
services and business administra-
This step is integral with step (1).
Time for direct services for the
client is considered as income-
producing or direct personnel cost.
Business administration, for which
nearly every principal spends
some of his time, is considered
overhead or non-productive or in-
direct personnel cost.
(3) Estimate the number of personnel
needed to produce work directly
related to the year's projected
projects and their total cost to the
Turn to p. 25

Letters and News
AIA Site Selection Committee in

i- ,l

Bruce Patth, FAIA, gets out of the helicopter he toured
Orange County in with other members of the site selec-
tion committee.
R. Bruce Patty, FAIA, Regional
Director of the Central States, Robert
Gramann, AIA, Regional Director,
Ohio and Francis X. Brown, National
Administrator for Conventions and
Special Events for the AIA were in
Orlando in January as the guests of
the Mid-Florida Chapter of the AIA.
These men compose the Site Selection
Committee for the 1987 AIA National
Convention which will hopefully be
held in Central Florida. Orlando is
competing with Baltimore and Denver
for the honor of hosting the 1987
meeting. Last year, Orlando was run-
ner-up in the selection of a place for
the 1986 meeting.
While in Orlando, hosts Gene Be-
bermeyer, AIA, Chuck Braun, AIA,
Guy Butler, AIA, and Lou Evans of
the Orange County Convention
Bureau gave the committee members a
tour of Epcot and the Orange County
Convention-Civic Center which is now
under construction. They also had a
helicopter tour of the entire Central
Florida area.
During the committee's visit, the
Mayor of Orlando and the Chairman
of the Orange County Commission
proclaimed it "Architecture Week" in
both Orlando and Orange County.

Florida South Chapter Installs
Officers, Confers Awards
The 1982 Officers and Board of
Directors of the Florida South Chapter
of the American Institute of Architects
were installed recently at a formal
gathering at Reflections On The Bay.
State Senator Richard R. Renick
installed the office holders which
now include: Walter B. Martinez,
President; Raul L. Rodriquez, Vice
President; R. Jerome Filer, Secretary;
J. David Perez, Treasurer.
The Chapter Directors are: Ira D.
Giller, Robert Koger, Hedvika Mes-
zaros, Ronald W. Robinson, Don Sack-
man, Raul Ocampo, Jr., David Harper,
Javier F. Cruz, Jesus Cruz and H.
Richard Schuster.

Norman Giller, a Miami Beach-
based architect was awarded the pres-
tigious FSCAIA Silver Medal award,
"for his distinguished professional
work and valuable contributions to the
chapter over an extended period of
In another presentation, Cuban-
born architect Santiago Jorge Ventura
was recognized for his many contri-
butions to the organization of Cuban
Architects in Exile. Ventura is the Past
President of that organization.
AIA Energy Workshops Planned
More than one hundred architects
have attended the three comprehen-
sive "Energy in Architecture" pro-
grams in Florida so far and the sem-
inars will remain a top priority this
year to help meet the energy conscious
design needs of the construction in-
dustry statewide.
Nationally, the AIA will conduct
75 workshops in 1982, with an ad-
ditional 75 scheduled for 1983. Forty
workshops were conducted in 1981.
This widely acclaimed three-year
Energy Professional Development Pro-
gram recently produced its second
graduating class- 12 design profes-
sionals who completed the entire
three-tiered workshop series in Wichi-
ta, Kan. (The first class completed the
series in Peoria, Ill.)
"I believe the AIA has placed in
my possession an exceptionally valu-

able tool with which I can better serve
my clients," said Topeka architect
Robert D. Onek, AIA, one of the most
recent graduates.
"The Institute should be con-
gratulated on an outstanding program,
and this program should be encour-
aged to the best possible and widest
participation," continued Onek. "The
Institute has assembled an outstanding
faculty of well-read and well-respected
individuals in their fields. Let's not
stop now, but continue this direction
in the future."
Toward this end, the AIA has
named program development ad-
ministrator and professional manage-
ment consultant Donald R. (Chip)
Levy, Sea Girt, N.J., as director of the
energy workshops. He will coordinate
all facets of programming, budgeting,
policy development and other aspects
of the program nationwide. Levy can
be reached at the AIA national office,
(202) 626-7458.
Launched last year as the Insti-
tute's most ambitious educational
effort, the "Energy in Architecture"
program will be offered to thousands
of design professionals in all parts of
the country this year. Workshops
scheduled for early 1982.:
-"Techniques" (level 2), May 7-8,
Miami, Fl.
-"Process" (level 3A) September
10-11 (tentative) Orlando, Fl. Contact
John Newlin, (305) 647-5767.

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by Diane D. Greer

We've titled this issue of FA,
"Energy: Letting the Sun Shine On
A Dirty Word." More than a cute catch-
phrase, this seems a highly accurate de-
scription of today's energy situation.
Energy conservation is a Pandora's
box of problems for architects. Clients
are skeptical. Contractors don't want to
get involved in passive or active sys-
tems. More often, they view energy
conservation as more and heavier in-
sulation. Engineers seem to support the
active systems, but steer clear of the
passive ones. All of this, I regret to say,
is perfectly understandable.
We are a society raised in the
mechanical-technological mode. The
new energy systems, particularly the
new solar systems, remain vague and
mysterious to owners and contractors
Interesting, however, is that the
antithesis of this mechanical-technolog-
ical response to high-tech energy is an
historical precedent based on a set of
principles which evolved from logical
use of the elements: heat from the sun,
insulation from the earth, cooling
breezes and shade. The earliest and
most primitive houses provided only
shade. Ventilation followed as houses
were raised on stilts. Sod houses, adobe
and air locks on igloos have all been in
use for a long time, and successfully so.
Another offshoot of the energy
crisis, as specifically affects architects, is
the old "chicken and egg" dilemma ap-
plied to energy conservation and de-
sign. Sometimes the best solution to a
problem from the design standpoint
isn't the best from the energy stand-
point. Does the architect compromise


on design to make things work? And,
which comes first? Do we design build-
ings and then try to make them energy
efficient or do we let energy conserva-
tion methods dictate design?
There are prominent architects
such as Ed Dean, AIA, of Shelley Dean
and Fuller in California, who feels that
energy is not a style, nor does its tech-
nology impose design limits. Dean re-
cently stated that, "In an area of
architecture where so many guidelines,
regulations and publications have so re-
cently been written-at such great
expense-there is simply no substitute
for design." Dean feels that energy

provides no more an a priori basis for
architecture than structure or mate-
Others disagree.
In his address to the opening busi-
ness meeting at the AIA National Con-
vention in Minneapolis last May, Presi-
dent Randall Vosbeck said, "More and
more I hear this profession saying that
energy is not an afterthought in the de-
sign process. Energy is a design con-
cern that cannot be pushed off on the
engineers as exclusively their problem."
New York City architect and re-
searcher Richard G. Stein, FAIA, puts

it even more vehemently. "The impact
of energy on the design process will
have a more profound and lasting
effect on the shape and appearance of
our buildings, our cities and our sub-
urban and rural areas than any other
single factor."
Stein goes on to say that energy
"will make the whole discussion of
Post-Modernism, the building as a
metaphor and the reintroduction of
Renaissance ornamentation seem to be
a diverting, but unimportant, perturba-
tion in the larger current of architectu-
ral development."
So there is disagreement within the

design community, but on the whole
architects seem to believe that energy-
conscious design is something owed
more than lip service.

Unfortunately, the problems
associated with energy are not clearly
defined and there are no clear strat-
egies for their resolution. Moreover,
the architect is caught in the middle in
this painful dilemma. He has a respon-
sibility to his client and to himself he
must be form-builder, problem-solver
and guardian of the built environment
all at once. He is only irresponsible if
he fails to be energy-responsive. U



by Ivan Johnson, AIA and Al Simpler

How Solar Cells
Make Electricity suN \

Editors Note: Photovoltaics has been touted
recently as a "rising star" on the energy
scene-the alternative of the enlightened
segment of the population. Photovoltaic
energy is safe and clean, but not cheap. Ex-
cept or its initial cost (and it does promise
great dollar savings over the long haul), it
seems a very nearly perfect system.
As to the cost, most solar cells are cur-
rently made from crystals of high-purity sili-
con, grown over a long period of time.
Much of this material is then wasted in the
cutting process, which is accomplished by
diamond-edged saws cutting the crystals
into wafers. The high cost of photovoltaics
will probably not be resolved until the
painstaking and time-consuming process of
growth and cutting is reduced.
In the meantime, systems such as the
one designed by Tallahassean Al Simpler,
and described in the following article, are
being pioneered for use in far-sighted, am-
bitious design projects such as architect
Ivan Johnson plans for the medical complex
discussed here.
Have you ever wanted to incorpo-
rate a solar electric generating system
into a building design, but been un-
able to keep a straight face when tell-
ing your client how little the system
will cost when compared with this
year's Rolls Royce? It's a tough pre-
sentation for an architect to make.
Sure, we've been designing with pas-
sive energy principles for some time.
Some of us have even been able to jus-
tify the use of sophisticated active


energy systems. But, it's a rare occa-
sion when a client emphatically re-
quests the inclusion of such a system
in a new building ... no matter what
the cost!
Yet, this is the experience we had
recently with two Tallahassee physi-
cians whose burgeoning practice ne-
cessitated the design of new offices.
Neither doctor is a millionaire, nor are
Tallahassee's utilities unreasonably ex-
pensive, unreliable or unattainable. Dr.
Stephen J. Gross, however, is an en-
lightened futurist, and with this com-
mission the opportunity presented it-
self to try a solar electric generating
system using a photovoltaic power
source. Dr. Gross, and his associate,
Dr. Stuart Shapiro, agreed.
Although the building will still be
tied to the municipal power system as
a back-up, the solar electric generating
system will be designed to furnish elec-
trical power for all HVAC, lighting,
appliances and medical equipment.
The site the doctors selected is heavily
wooded with a mixture of deciduous
and coniferous trees. The only open
area is to the north.
There is no plan at present to re-
move any more trees than necessary,
and even if all the trees were removed,
the adjacent property to the south
would still shade most of the medical
center site. Given the location of the
site and the large number of trees lo-


Solar Electricity is produced by
the solar panel array, stored in
rechargeable batteries, and
supplied to a load on demand.

cated on it, the planning and design of
this office complex will be a real team
effort between the architect and the
designer of the energy system.
The system planned for the
medical office consists of 4 foot by 1
foot photovoltaic panels which are
wired in "parallel" to produce a 12
VDC output. As panels are added, the
amps increase to the desired system
size. If high-efficiency DC appliances
are to be used, such as DC fluorescent
lighting, DC refrigerator-freezer, DC
ceiling fans and circulating motors or
DC water pumps, then not more than
one-third of one side of the roof space
should be required to accommodate an
adequate array of solar panels. The
solar array is then connected to a bat-
tery-conditioning device which allows





the battery to charge fully and then
maintain "peak charge"." As many DC
appliances and pieces of equipment
will be used throughout the building
as possible, but a common 115 volt AC
line must also be available for special-
ized equipment. We have decided to
use Honeywells PowerLine DC to AC
Automatic Demand Generator which
produces clean sinewave 115 VAC on
an as-needed basis. This is accom-
plished by means of a sensing circuit.
When an x-ray machine is turned on,
for example, the automatic generator
immediately produces the AC current
needed to operate the x-ray machine
for the length of time the machine is
running. The generator automatically
shuts down when the x-ray is no
longer in use. Care must be taken,


however, to place these generators on
separate circuits. If an overload takes
place, the generator automatically
shuts down for about two minutes,
then resets to protect the equipment
from "low voltage." This is a condition
which should never exist, however, if
care is taken to design the system with
as many sub-systems as is physically
possible through the design and layout
of the office itself.
In designing a "stand-alone" ener-
gy system, which simply means a sys-
tem with no outside utility grid hook-
up, several important factors must be
taken into consideration. Site, building
materials and the passive solar design
of the structure are all important.
Such things as utilizing the sun's ener-
gy for heat retaining walls, thermal
windows, heavy insulation, solid core
doors and locating the water heater in
a heated space like the attic are all laid
out in the Standard Building Code
and all architects should be familiar
with the Energy Performance Index
(EPI) for new construction under the
SBC. The EPI rating on a building
ranges from zero to 100 points. A
building with a rating of 50 will sup-
posedly use one-half the amount of
energy required of a building with a
rating of 100. There are many designs
now in use with EPI ratings of 25 and
less and these are the types of build-
ings which allow independence from
the power grid because they are max-
imizing the energy of the sun in pas-
sive solar design and perhaps some ac-
tive solar water heating or other high-
efficiency equipment.
Since equipment and appliances to
be used in the office will have been
predetermined and the amount of
energy needed to operate them al-
ready computed, it is possible to select
the most efficient equipment possible.
It is this ability to select the appliances
which are compatible with our system
that allows us to use photovoltaics as
an electric generating power source
both economically and efficiently.
Helpful to an understanding of
the PV system and how it operates is
an explanation of some of the more
commonly used appliances and how
they operate in this system. First of all,
the hot water heater. Electric water
heating is one of the largest wastes of
electricity in modern buildings. This
PV system replaces the hot water heat-
er and tank with a couple of Gulf
Thermal or high-efficiency solar water
collectors with 120-gallons of stored
hot water tank space. This unit is
placed in the attic, where it's already
warm, and then the attic is insulated
with three inches of polyurethane
foam. This much insulation on that
large a tank will have a Delta drop in
temperature of only about eight de-
grees over the entire night that the
tank is storing hot water before the
solar collectors are able to heat it up
again in this "closed loop" system.

At this point, we might also men-
tion the use of solar water collectors as
the primary means of heating the air
space in the building. This is done by
utilizing a small flow pump and what
are now called baseboard heating coils
which are placed along the baseboards
to permit the circulation of water from
the solar collector through the base-
board exchange plates. This draws the
cold air off the floor and the hot air
off the plates rises up into the room.
Thus, we have a completely solar
heated building. In addition, we could
utilize the sun's low angle coming into
the southerly facing windows and hit-
ting a heat-retaining wall, thus max-

imizing the sun's energy for space
heating and solar water heating.
Lighting is another tremendous
consideration in the energy needs of
any building. We know now that in-
candescent lights last from five to 900
hours. A 90-watt bulb gives off ap-
proximately 1500 lumens. But, that
same bulb is giving off a lot of heat
with the 1500 lumens and it consumes
90 watts of electricity per hour that it's
Let's contrast that with a fluores-
cent light of 1500 lumens. A fluores-
cent light of 1500 lumens will burn ap-
proximately 15 watts of electricity and
will last 12,000 hours. Fluorescent

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lighting is a source of illumination that
gives off more light and less heat and
will last 12 times or more longer and
not generate an additional heat source
that will eventually need to be cooled
down by the air conditioning system.
We've also replaced a 90-watt bulb
with a 15-watt that provides the same
amount of light.
Fans and motors are the next big
consideration. AC motors consume a
tremendous amount of electricity for
the job load requirement. An AC
motor will only run efficiently at a cer-
tain speed or a certain load. DC
motors, however, will operate ef-
fectively at virtually all loads. A ceiling
fan, for example, will operate with an
18-watt DC motor compared with an
AC motor of 100 watts. Both move the
same amount of air.
Up to this point we've discussed
replacing traditional equipment with
new high-tech, high-efficiency equip-
ment that operates on 12 VDC rather
than 120 VAC. DC has an apparent
gain over AC when used in the type of
equipment we've described here. It
does have a voltage drop over a long
line, so we will not use any long power
lines to supply DC. We will use DC
directly from the unit on short runs
from the photovoltaic panels to the
equipment. Another advantage of the
system is that as photovoltaic creates
DC electricity and stores it in the DC
battery storage system, there is no con-
version loss from PV to the DC equip-
When all equipment is in place,
the building is a total energy package
with a power source and battery stor-
age to carry it for six days of overcast
weather. The operating system in com-
bination with the six days of reserve
energy should provide the building
with complete independence.
It can't be stressed too strongly
that there are many factors which
must be taken into consideration if this
system is to function efficiently. Site,
building materials, appliances and
equipment to be used, number of
occupants, hours of equipment use,
etc. Planning is essential between
architect and engineer. Neither the de-
sign of the building nor the energy
system need dominate given good,
thoughtful planning from the time the
building is conceived. E

Ivan E. Johnson, III, AIA, is in part-
nership with Guy Wesley Peterson.
Johnson/Peterson Architects of Talla-
hassee has designed a wide range of
projects, most of which incorporate
passive energy systems.

Al Simpler is president of Simpler So-
lar Systems and is recognized as one of
the founders of independently pow-
ered photovaltaic housing. Simpler
conducts seminars and workshops on
designing photovoltaic systems.


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The crowning touch for over a century




by Diane D. Greer with John E. Stefany, FAIA

Associated Architects:McElvy, Jennewein,
Stefanv & Howard, Architects/
Planners, Inc. and Thompson, Ven-
tulett, Stainback & Associates, Inc.,
Interiors: Associated Space Design
Structural: Harald Nielsen & Tamer
Uzuin, Inc.
Mechanical: Britt Alderman Associates
Energy Evaluation:New comb & Boyd
Electrical: Carastro, Aguirre & Associ-
Landscaping:Roy Ashley/Holmes
Development Agent: The Landmarks
Group of Tampa
Contractor: Federal Construction Com-

TECO Plaza is the new headquar-
ters building for TECO Energy, Inc.
and Tampa Electric Company. It was
designed with energy conservation as
the primary consideration. Through
the use of a large interior atrium, the
architects reduced the areas of build-
ing "skin" exposed to the exterior,
thereby reducing overall heat loss or
heat gain. The low-rise concept and
large floor areas also contribute to
maximizing the building's volume in
relation to exterior exposure.
Various wall configurations were
studied and shading for the glass was
incorporated into the wall design.
Tinted, double pane insulated glass
was used almost exclusively to mini-
mize solar gain and heat loss.
Air-conditioning in TECO Plaza is
provided by a chilled water circulation
system employing two high-efficiency
water chillers which can be operated
either one or two at a time. One of
these chillers is equipped with a "tur-
bo-modulator" which allows it to main-
tain its high efficiency while running
at part load by varying the speed of
the compressor drive motor.
Each floor in the building is
served by two variable air volume air

Atrium of Teco Plaza, looking up toward "SOLARIS."
a photovoltaic-powered sculpture by SCOPIA
Photo by George Cott, Chroma Inc, Tampa
handling units which, besides having
the ability to use less energy at part
load, can be used to maintain desired
space temperature condition in sepa-
rate areas of each floor during non-
standard operating hours.
Fifty flat plate solar collector
panels with a total aperture area of
990 square feet are mounted on a sup-
orting framework atop the roof pent-
ouse. This solar hot water system
supplies domestic hot water to all rest-
rooms and also preheats domestic hot
water used in the kitchen.
Lighting is provided in four classi-
fications: task-oriented lighting, gener-
al lighting, daylighting (natural and
artificial reinforcement) and decorative
lighting. The majority of the lighting
is the direct fluorescent type with an
average power requirement of 1.5
watts per square foot. The installed
system also includes manually con-
trolled dimming. The building lighting
system has been designed to accept the
future addition of photocell controlled
automatic dimming of the fluorescent
lights around the exterior perimeter of
the building as well as the interior
perimeter of the atrium. IThe addition
of this dimming equipment is contem-
plated as soon as state of the art
equipment is available and will make a
valuable addition to energy efficiency

by automatically utilizing the natural
light available through windows. The
mechanical and electrical systems were
also designed to accept installation of
an energy monitoring and control sys-
tem which will provide closer control
of the individual systems and will also
keep a close watch on energy con-
servation at TECO Plaza.
Since Tampa Electric Company is
a utility company in the business of
selling energy, it was imperative that
the design of its new headquarters
building reflect energy efficiency and
low operating costs. The design of the
building responds to this concern in
numerous ways. Energy saving mea-
sures that were cost effective were util-
ized and the design conforms with the
new and stringent Florida Energy
The architects, in approaching the
design of the new building of approx-
imately 300,000 square feet, felt the
creation of a large outdoor plaza or
"people space" would be very desir-
able. Given the urban site, several
building forms were considered. An
approximately square 9-story building
with a large open interior space or
atrium was decided on.
This concept provided the
greatest amount of floor area with the
least exterior surface area. The small-
est amount of surface area required
per square foot of floor area provides
the least amount of heat loss or heat
By utilizing the entire site and
keeping the building "low rise", signifi-
cant savings were realized in elevator
requirements and building structures
with reduced windload requirements.
Cost studies of all the building forms
indicated that this scheme was the
most economical in terms of initial
construction costs and long term oper-
ating costs.


Above: View of Atrium floor r,r,.ughr, sculpture "Solaris." Photo by George
Cott, Chroma, Inc. Tampa. iagr.i Man entrance, TECO Plaza. Photo by
George Cott, Chroma, Inc. Tampa.

Although enclosed atriums have
been built in the past, the more tradi-
tional pre-air conditioning method was
to open the top of the atrium for
ventilation. Today, however, with
modern heating and AC systems, ma-
jor savings in operating and equip-
ment costs can be achieved by glazing
the roof opening. In TECO Plaza, the
atrium's 3,600 square feet of roof-
mounted skylight replaces 28,000
square feet of otherwise exposed
atrium wall. The building's air condi-
tioning load is less with the enclosed
(roofed) atrium than it would be with-
out it.

Left: TECO Plaza. Photo by George Cott, Chroma, Inc. Tampa.

The enclosed atrium increases the
number of feet of perimeter office
space (office space at an outside wall)
without exposure to the weather. This
permits maximum utilization of natu-
ral light to the interior of the large
floor areas. This was important since
reducing the building height resulted
in larger floors. Ninety-three percent
of the office space is within 32 feet of
natural light. This natural light per-
mits the switching off or dimming of
artificial light and the reduction of air
conditioning required to overcome
heat from artificial light. Artificial
lighting and subsequent cooling con-
sume the majority of energy supplied
to a building.

The large floor areas, approx-
imately 33,000 square feet each, allow
a reduction of building height pro-
viding a lower surface area to building
volume ratio minimizing exterior wall
exposure. Large floor areas also pro-
vide for growth changes in the future.
Tampa's southern climate, warm
most of the year, typically does not re-
quire insulating glass. However, to
provide a more energy efficient build-
ing and to comply with the Florida
Energy Code, insulated glass has been
used on all the typical floors. The in-
sulated glass is made up of two 1V"
panes of glass separated by V2" of air
space with sealed edges. The air within
the space has a low moisture content
to prevent condensation. In the TECO
building, the outer panel of insulated
glass is tinted to reduce solar radiation
into the building and thereby reduce
the air conditioning load. Tinted glass
also provides visual comfort to the
building occupants by reducing glare.
A different glass, a 'total vision
system', was used on the lower two
floors. The glass panels in this system
are supported by glass mullions giving
the wall a completely transparent look
allowing pedestrian views into and
through the ground floor level. In this
case, the glass is required to be single
thickness due to the structural nature
of the glazing system.
Since the interior glass surround-
ing the atrium is not an exterior wall
and consequently does not suffer any
heat loss or gain, it is single thickness
and full height, providing a feeling a
openness from the interior spaces to
the atrium. The skylights forming the
atrium roof are not totally glass. One-
half the skylight area is insulated metal
panels to reduce the solar load and
keep unwanted sunlight from entering
office areas bordering the atrium. At
the northwest entrance there is a re-
volving door to reduce the heating
and cooling load to the atrium space.
The building designers studied
several wall profiles by projecting sun
angles onto the wall profiles at various
times of the year before arriving at a
wall design. The typical wall on the
east, south, and west sides of the
building consists of a spandrel between
the glass bands which projects two feet
beyond the glass line. In addition, a
horizontal strip of precast concrete or
'eyebrow' is suspended below the span-
drel. This wall design provides double
shading to the glass and prevents sun
from entering the building during
most of the operating hours. By re-
ducing the solar exposure of glass, the
mechanical equipment and operating
costs are substantially reduced.
Although the north side of the
building does receive sun in the late
part of the day during the summer,
this solar load is low and the spandrel
projection here was reduced and the
'eyebrow' omitted for cost effective-
ness. The spandrels between the glaz-

ing and other solid partitions of the
walls are light colored concrete panels
and are somewhat heat reflective.
Light colored gravel is used on the
roof to reflect heat. The solid portions
of the walls as well as the roof are
heavily insulated. The walls have a "U"

paoumrN -NeUON

LPMT CO .LE---- ,,

SPRCui CONumau UR LaD -


value of 0.039 and the roof a "U"
value of 0.091.
Typically narrow slat venetian
blinds, whose outside surface is silver,
are used inside the glass to minimize
heat gain by reflecting sunlight which
could enter. N

Typical Wll Section, TECO Pl ht cotsy
Typical Wall Section, TECO Plaza. Photo courtesy of,"rcitec.








by Patty Doyle

Architects: Schwab & Twitty Architects,
Engineers: (electrical and mechanical)
Arnold Chane Engineers; (structural)
Mike Fried
Contractor: Shannon R. Ginn Construc-
S Land Planner/Landscape Architects:
Schwab & Twitty Architects, Inc.
Building Owner: Mr. George Elmore,
Hardrives of Delray, Inc.
When architects design buildings,
they generally plan the design so the
building is aesthetically pleasing from
the outside in. They are seldom given
the challenge to design a building
which is aesthetically pleasing from the
inside out. The Hardrives of Delray
Inc. office building meets this chal-
lenge. An unusual structure which
effects significant energy conservation,
the building provides an inviting office
environment in an industrial setting.
Hardrives, established in 1953, is
a major South Florida paving contrac-
tor. Their new office building is lo-
cated directly across the street from
the company's concrete batch plant
and equipment storage center. The 10
acre site is flat, was devoid of vegeta-
tion and has two communication
Towers with guy wires and a satellite
tracking dish. From a conventional
office building, the views would be un-
Hardrives' basic request was for a
one story, fireproof building of ap-
proximately 10,000 square feet, one
that would provide a stimulating work
environment internally and project a
corporate image externally. Fhe in-
tent was to create a subtle exterior

-"_ c. .

..... : .? .- ..

Top: Atrium of Hardrives Building. Photo by Jim
Duncan, Ft. Lauderdale.
Middle: Hardrives Office Building, photo taken
from berm. Photo by Jim Duncan. Ft. Lauderdale.
Bottom: Employee entrance to Hardrives Building.
Photo by Jim Duncan, Ft. Lauderdale.

form that would not compete with the
existing towers and guy wires and
would screen the surrounding ele-
ments from the interior.
The result is 9,400 square feet of
usable office space in a rectangular
structure in the center of a larger rec-
tangle of grass-covered 7' high earth
berms which encompass landscaped
courtyards. The roof is also grassed
and appears as an extension of the
berms which are hand-graded and
sodded with Argentine Bahia grass, a
low maintenance grass used on most
of Florida's highway systems.
Bahia grass is virtually impervious
to insects which attack most sod. It
also handles a drought well; it re-
sponds immediately to irrigation and
recovers quickly. The grass on the
slopes is cut only four or five times a
year while the grass on the flat areas is
cut about once a month.
In concept, the building is open
from the interior while confined by
the exterior.
Energy conservation was a pri-
mary consideration in the design and
construction of this building. The solar
bronze glass storefront systems are

Schematic of Hardrives Building showing berm.

bronze aluminum framed. They face
north and south onto the courtyards
and are always in the shade due to the
broad seven foot overhangs which pre-
vent the sun from touching the glass.
The storefront system incor-
porates a ventilating horizontal mul-
lion over an insulated aluminum panel
which is set up to provide natural
ventilation in the event of a power
The east and west walls and the
roof, covered with sodded earth, effect
sun control. The sodded roof, with its
benefit of earth mass, insulation factor
and natural evaporation, results in low
roof temperature.
The use of the sod and bermed
walls provides additional mass creating
the flywheel effect . an energy
retention factor whereby the mass of
earth, with high thermal capacity and
low conductivity, permits retention of
both cooling and heating energy,
minimizing high transient loads on the
cooling/heating system.
There is a lushly landscaped
atrium and a lobby in the center of the
building; the focal point is an original
piece of Hardrives paving equipment
utilized as a sculpture. Skylights in the
center of the building provide needed
sun and light. They allow natural light
to be used for illumination, reducing
the normal lighting loads. The sky-
lights are angled to the sun, oriented
to the northeast and southwest, pro-
viding efficient daylight illumination

levels while minimizing the direct sun-
light therefore mimimizing the re-
quirements on the air conditioning sys-
tem. The skylight glass plane is also
elevated above the finished ceiling line
and the solar heat gain is trapped
above the air conditioned space. The
geometric shape duplicates the angle
of the guy wires and the slope of the
berms. Because of the concrete beams
and angles, light flowing through
these skylights takes on interesting
shapes, creating unusual shadows and
shafts of light, changing with each
hour of the day and as the sun
changes positions throughout the year.
The circular windows used in
some areas are a design element and
carry the circle of the Hardrives logo
as well as reinforcing the overall geo-
metr c theme of the project.
The building uses a water cooled
heat pump system, providing high
efficiency air conditioning capability.
The geo-thermal system uses the con-
sistent year 'round temperature of well
water for cooling and heating.
There are three pumps in the sys-
tem; one is primarily a standby. To
conserve both water and energy, the
pumps are set up on a demand sys-
tem. When the system is in operation,
as the load lightens the units cycle off,
pressure builds in the cooling system
and turns off the pumps as needed.
As the A/C load increases, the pumps
automatically start, maintaining an
efficient operating level. Thus, they

conserve water and electricity, using
only what is needed.
The structure is of exposed con-
crete walls, some reinforced masonry
walls, sono-tube columns, concrete fas-
cia beams with 16" deep pre-cast con-
crete joists 3' 63%" on center and a 4"
concrete roof slab spanning 40'. The
interior walls are insulated primarily
for noise control. Hardives supplied all
the concrete from the adjacent plant
and did all the earth work.
The required fill for the berms
was obtained by scraping the site down
one foot from the excavation of the
water retaining swale. Where the
berms come to a peak at the top and
at the 45 degree ridge points, they are
reinforced with 2" x 12" pressure
treated beams to create a clean straight
line and so they will retain their form.
Landscaping consists of sodding,
full size mahogany shade trees in a
geometric configuration and springer
ground cover under the overhangs.
Another original Hardrives grader
accents the north courtyard. Brick
pavers were used in the entry court,
for walks and for portions of the in-
In order to test the effectiveness
of the energy conserving design, mate-
rials, equipment and construction
methods, building owner George
Elmore kept careful track of his elec-
tric bills throughout the first seven
months of operation, specifically
breaking down the elements which

Interior, lobby, Hardrives Building. Photo by Jim Duncan, Ft. Lauderdale.

pertained to air conditioning. He dis-
covered his bills were 50% of what
they had been in his previous building.
He determined he had been paying $1
per square foot per year and is now
paying 50v per square foot per year.
And, the other building had a lot of
"dead" inside office space while this
new building has every office on a
Specifically, his electric bills aver-
age about $500 per month (the* maxi-
mum was $700 during a peak A/C use
period) and this includes night lights,
computer, the radio tower and the

pump for the irrigation system.
Elmore employes 20 people who
work a typical 8 hour day, five days a
week. Some employees come in on
Saturday. There is a time clock on the
air conditioning system which activates
the system at 7:00 a.m. for 7:30 opera-
tion and shuts it down at 6:00 p.m. It
comes on for a half day on weekends.
In addition to being energy con-
serving, the building is attractive and
has captured the interest of people
across the country. It has been
recognized by the Palm Beach Chapter
of the AIA and by the NAHB, Builder

Magazine and Better Homes & Gar-
dens Magazine with a Builder's Choice
Grand Award for 1981.
This earth architecture presents
an obvious break between what is
natural and what is man-made. The
building is a simple architectural solu-
tion for an unattractive site-one
which is representative of the use and
one which provides visual relief from
the complications of its surround-
ings. N

Patty Doyle is a consultant with
Schwab and Twitty Architects.


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of dirtinction

Office Practice Aids
firm. (This cost is called direct
personnel expense. It is defined as
the salaries of professional, techni-
cal and others employed by the
firm to perform the services
needed to resolve the client's proj-
ect, plus the cost of their manda-
tory and customary benefits.)
(4) Forecast the probable expense for
outside consultants.
(5) Estimate probable non-
reimburseable direct costs, such as re-
production, models, renderings
not requested or authorized by
the client, specifications or re-
search the firm must perform so it
can resolve a problem for which it
has no recent experience.



fabrication, installation
member I.F.A.I.

(305) 844-4444


( ^ )., %<- -> patc-ed,


1301 N.W. 27th AVENUE

Phone (305) 635-6432

(6) Establish budget for indirect costs
and administrative personnel
These costs are called overhead,
but are recorded in many classi-
fications because they are more
manipulable and can be used to
satisfy a variety of statutory and
administrative requirements. In-
direct costs apart from administra-
tive personnel salaries, include
rent or mortgage payments, tele-
phone, utilities, transportation,
licenses, insurance, supplies,
books, magazines, and most re-
cently, firm promotion or public
(7) Choose the firm's annual profit

This includes marketing expenses,
bonuses, profit sharing, pension
plans, taxes, dividends, retained
earnings for funds for specific ex-
pansion, predicted impact of infla-
tion, etc. If possible, it also in-
cludes a little money to augment
the salaries of principals who
agreed to the lowest incomes.
(8) Calculate the annual gross income
required to earn the firm's annual
project target.
This is a simple calculation. Just
add the total costs in salaries and
other expenses to the firm's an-
nual profit target. The sum is the
gross income needed to produce the
desired profit.
By dividing the annual gross income
by the direct personnel expenses, the
multiple for the firm is simply calcu-
lated. This multiple is the factor that
relates the actual salary for each per-
son included in the annual direct person-
nel expense to the firm's gross income
needed to satisfy the client and to
achieve the firm's annual profit target.
Now, how is the multiple used?
The most accurate way to estimate
an appropriate fee is to determine the
cost of the number of hours expended
by the staff members needed to satisfy
the requirements of the client's proj-
ect, then multiply that cost by the mul-
tple. This provides a figure that re-
ects not only the total cost to do a
project, but also the "mark-up" needed
to carry the fair share of the overhead
cost and desired annual profit.
The multiple works also for archi-
tects who must decide whether to
accept a commission where the archi-
tect's fee is established by others, such
as other architects or engineers who
represent school boards, institutions
and governments. By dividing the mul-
tiple into the fee proposed by others,
the architect can determine the max-
imum amount of direct personnel time

that can be expended without losing
profit. If this is not possible, it might
be wise to reject the commission. On
the other hand, the calculations might
make it possible to convince the
"others" that their established fee is in-
adequate, and win an adequate fee for
the project.
But how can an architect be sure
that the estimate of time and person-
nel is accurate enough to establish a
fee, especially for a lump sum agree-
Some years ago, Case and Co.
prepared two reports for the AIA: (1)
The Economics of Architectural Practice
(AIA Catalog No. M114) and (2) Profit
Planning in Architectural Practice (AIA
Catalog No. M113). These reports sug-
gest another method for determining
appropriate compensation, using the
same data from the architect's records
as used in determining the firm's mul-
By subtracting the total annual
direct and indirect expenses from the
annual gross income needed, and
dividing the remainder by the same
annual gross income, a contribution rate
to profit is found. This can be written
contribution rate =
(annual gross income) minus (total expenses)
(annual gross income)
Since the contribution rate is the rela-
tionship between annual expenses and
annual income to provide an annual
planned profit, each project during
the year should at least equal the pro-
jected contribution rate.
The formula for determining fees
should be:
gross income for project (the fee) =
direct and indirect expenses for project
(one) minus (contribution rate)
The architect estimates the direct
and indirect expenses for the year

are $300,000 and quickly guesses
that a proposed project will use
his total staff 4 months to com-
plete. The direct and indirect ex-
penses for the project are 4/12 of
$300,000. Thus, $100,000 is the
cost to perform the service.
If the contribution rate for the
year is 0.25, then the fee for the
project should be:
$100,000 = $133,333
(1 0.25)
For the proposed project the
architect knows:
(1) The fee must not be less than
$100,000 (the guessed cost to
render the service.)
(2) The fee should be $133,333
to provide the desired profit
as well as the cost of 4 months
of the firm's time.
(3) The fee would be better if it
were $158,333
($133,333 x $100,000)
to pay for an additional
month should vour estimate
was short.
This procedure can be refined
by estimating probable cost more de-
liberately and precisely by following a
client/architect identification-in-detail
of the scope of the architectural ser-
vices to be provided. The check sheets
and forms in Compensation Management
Guidelines for Architectural Services are
excellent and help to educate the
client as to what an architect does. It
also encourages compensation on a
direct cost times multiple basis, a sure
winner for adequate compensation,
rarely applied to the full architectural
service. 0

H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, is a partner
in the Miami-based architectural firm
of Watson, Deutschman, Kruse and




* City of Orlando Recreational Lighting: expected to save over $1 million in 10 years. Herndon Executive
Center Office Complex, Orlando, Florida: Lighting energy usage at 1.165 watts per square foot and 60
foot-candles of light. The Springs Plaza Shopping Center, Longwood, Florida: 53% reduction in lighting costs
after redesign.







"oilr L


The overriding goal set by the
Greater Orlando Aviation Authority
was explicit: Orlando International
Airport must be "The Airport of the
21st Century."
The Authority handed The Grein-
er Team a strict 41-point statement of
design criteria geared toward just that.
Primary considerations centered
around environmental compatibility,
maximum passenger conveniences, ex-
pansion capability, dramatic reflection
of Central Florida's character, and
minimal maintenance and operations
(M&O) costs.
It was important that design solu-
tions be guided by the objectives of
achieving a low energy budget and re-
maining adaptable to future methods
of utilizing energy. This translated
into requirements for carefully insulat-
ing the buildings' exterior surfaces to
balance with climate and use condi-
tions, developing natural lighting, opti-
mizing use of vertical circulation
equipment, and efficiently proportion-
ing interior spaces.
The two goals of minimizing
M&O costs and emphasizing a Central
Florida theme seemed to clash head-
on when it came to one of the termi-
nal's most striking features-skylights.
Florida's architects and engineers,
of course, are no strangers to the
negative impacts skylights place on
constantly rising energy costs. In this
case, however, the problems were
magnified by the sheer size and layout
of the buildings.
Both the landside building
(470,000 sq. ft. enclosed) and the two
airside buildings (total of 375,000 sq.
ft. enclosed) needed large open spaces
so passengers could find everything
they need quickly and easily. (This was
high on the list of 'absolute musts'
since less than one-third of Orlando's
air traffic is generated locally. The un-
usual passenger profile has a heavy
percentage of vacationers, most of
whom have minimal experience with
air travel and cannot effort to be con-
fused by airport layout.)
The most appealing design em-
phasized a light, airy feeling and skylit
atria with the effect of interior court-
yards. However, built as proposed, this
would incorporate some three acres of
skylights and other large glass panels.
The benefits were undeniable.
Natural sunlight would create an ideal
growing environment for a focal point
of the interior decor- 17,000 indige-
nous plants, including large trees.
Also, skylights would bring the out-
doors inside and re-emphasize the air-
port's Florida-flavored greeting to visi-
tors. Further, because sunlight could
penetrate deep into massive interior
areas that couldn't be served efficiently
by conventional windows, total reliance
on artificial lighting could be cut sub-
stantially and thus help offset the cost
of some increase in air conditioning

On the other hand, the potential
negative impacts on energy efficiency
were too great to be ignored. After ex-
tensive deliberation, however, the Au-
thority opted to go with the skylights
With this decision made, the team
began studying ways to insure that
skylights would not compromise the
buildings' thermal insulation require-
ments. At the same time, concepts
were developed for the terminal's
highly sophisticated electrical and me-
chanical systems.
The end result was a design in
which extensive use of glass has little,
if any, net effect on energy con-
Obviously important was design of
the skylights themselves. Double-
layered, highly reflective, thermal in-
sulating glass was selected. Computer
model studies were used to analyze its
year-round 24-hour-a-day per-
formance, and it was determined that
some 75% or more of the sun's heat
could be reflected, thus reducing heat
gain through the glass by approxi-
mately the same percentage. The two
sheets of reflective glass in this double-
insulating glass panel system are sepa-
rated by a thin air space, which fur-
ther reduces the heat gain/heat loss
This particular design admits the
200 footcandles of light necessary to
support plant growth and illuminate
much of the interior naturally.
In addition to the skylights, exten-
sive vision glass was desirable to facili-
tate passenger movement through the
terminal and to offer panoramas of
the natural Florida environment out-
For example, each airside building
has a central people-mover transfer
lobby connected to three airline hold-
ing areas by corridors, which have pre-
dominantly glass walls so passengers
can enjoy their walks between the two.
This is in addition to the large glass
panels.in the transfer lobbies and
holdrooms which oftter views of air-
field operations and of the landside
Double-layered thermal insulation
glass was used in most of these areas.
Also, glass areas are shaded by over-
hangs or, in many cases, totally pro-
tected from direct solar radiation by
louvers ranging up to 2 feet in depth.
Horizontal configuration of the lou-
vers accommodates changing sun
angles and adds subtropical flair with-
out obstructing the view.
These design solutions provided a
building envelope in which the elec-
trical and mechanical systems could
function at optimum efficiency.

Electrical Systems
Designed by Tilden, Denson & Lobnitz,
Inc. (now Tilden, Lohnilz & (.ooper, Inc.)

F rinet\ savings in the lighting de-
sign of airside and landside terminal

buildings was achieved by use of high-
ly efficient lamps, extensive automatic
controls that respond to space needs
and environmental conditions, and
controlled 'task' lighting distribution.
This design approach resulted in
the building lighting load averaging
less than 2.0 watts per square foot.
During daylight hours, the average is
as low as 0.7 watts per square foot.
This is substantially below the Florida
Energy Code requirement of 2.7 watts
per square foot for the most com-
parable type of building.
Choice of light fixtures and lamps
was a judicious blend of flourescent,
mercury vapor, metal halide, and
high-pressure sodium. Fixtures and
lamps were selected on the basis of
their abilities to respond to the func-
tional use of each space and its
architectural configuration.
Flourescent fixtures were used in
low ceiling areas to provide uniform
illumination. Mercury vapor fixtures
were chosen for the passenger service,
transitional and waiting areas. A com-
bination of metal halide and high-
pressure sodium lamps were used in
the main lobby and concession space.
Lighting in the public areas is con-
trolled by a low-voltage control system
consisting of a computer controller
(which operates in conjunction with
the HVAC computer controller), with

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Exterior wall of Orlando Airport.

photocell inputs to computer or local
low-voltage transceiver boards. Local
manual override switches in each area
allow fixture lighting control for ab-
normal conditions. The low-voltage
control system saves energy by per-
forming the following functions:
Lighting levels in public-use areas
can be reduced automatically by
50% during hours when traffic at
the airport is low.
Interior lighting in public-use areas
which are near skylights or exterior
windows will be turned off auto-
matically when available daylight
reaches a pre-set level.
Interior lighting in the parking area
of Level One can be reduced to
50% during times when normal sun-
shine exists.
. Perimeter lighting at Level One
parking and the sidewalk lighting at
all three levels of Enplane Drive and
Deplane Drive turnoff automatically
when available daylight reaches a
pre-set level.
In areas occupied by the airlines,
the computer automatically reduces
lighting approximately 75% at the
end of any given airline's daily activ-
ity. For example, if Eastern Airlines'
last flight is at 10:00 p.m., lighting
in the EAL area would be shut
down at 10:30 p.m. Only a mini-
mum of emergency and security

lighting, which is separately con-
trolled, would be left on for normal
nighttime security purposes.
These lighting patterns were care-
fully designed to respond to the spe-
cific activities of each space. The result
is a great variety of lighting levels
which provide the necessary lighting
for each activity or 'task'. Low, but
adequate, lighting levels were de-
veloped for the vestibule, passenger,
standing, waiting and assembly spaces.
However, higher levels were needed
-and fixtured concentrations de-
signed for -the ticketing and security
areas, as well as within concessions
Mechanical Systems
Designed by Van Wagenen & Searcy, Inc.
To achieve energy savings, the
terminal buildings' mechanical systems
were designed to respond auto-
matically to varying load conditions.
The units which provide heated
or cooled air to the buildings' various
spaces are designed to either reduce
or increase air flow, as needs demand.
This 'variable volume' system provides
significant savings in the energy con-
sumed by fan motors.
Heated (or chilled) water is
pumped to the air heating and cooling
units through a piping system which
utilizes variable-speed pumps. By pro-
viding only as much heated or chilled

'I '

water as is required, excessive pump-
ing of unneeded water is eliminated,
thus saving considerable energy for
pump operation.
The central mechanical plant, lo-
cated at landside, serves the landside
and airside buildings. Its present
2,400-ton cooling capacity can be ex-
panded to 4,000 tons when the two
additional airside buildings are con-
structed in the future.
Two particularly important fea-
tures of this central plant are the heat
recovery system and the physical de-
sign of the building itself.
In the winter, when the buildings
require heating, the necessary heated
water is obtained by using the same
energy which is used to provide the
chilled water. Thus, for all practical
purposes, the buildings are heated at
no cost. Under normal conditions, this
heat is adequate. However, gas boilers
are on stand-by for exceptionally cold
The building design allows for
lateral expansion, thus insuring that
when technological advances produce
more or larger equipment which will
further cut energy consumption, the
space necessary to house them can be
readily obtained.
The computerized system which
provides automatic temperature moni-
toring for the buildings also provides
fire and security alarm. Besides its pri-
mary function of monitoring the main
heating and air handling equipment so
their operating conditions are auto-
matically re-set to consume less ener-
gy, it controls the air flow to and from
any given area in a manner that keeps
smoke away from occupancy egress
areas, thus assuring maximum safety.
There were, of course, numerous
other considerations regarding energy
The designers considered all fac-
tors, large and small. For example, be-
cause of the large number of door
openings required, it was important to
control air exchange between the in-
terior and exterior. This was accom-
plished by utilizing deeply recessed
vestibules at door openings. While out-
side air infiltrates the vestibules them-
selves, it does not affect the interior of
the building.
Another factor was reducing the
reliance on vertical conveyances. Con-
centration of virtually all passenger ac-
tivities on one level and provision of
direct curbside access to all three levels
of the landside building allow depart-
ing passengers to make the transition
between air and ground transportation
without changing levels. Arriving pas-
sengers, in many cases, make only one.
This has minimized the necessary
number of elevators and escalators,
thereby cutting both energy and main-
tenance costs. I
Betty Meyer is Communications Coor-
dinator for Greiner Engineering Ser-
vices, Inc.
Page 27: Interior view of Orlando Airport skylights.


All State Pipe
Supply Company, Inc.
2253 Dennis Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
(904) 354-3911

1045 North Mills Street
Orlando, Florida 32803
(305) 894-4850
1520 State Avenue
Holly Hill, Florida 32017
(904) 677-1141

Lawrence Plumbing Supply
31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571

405 N. Flagler Avenue *
Homestead, Florida 33030
(305) 248-7020

Orange State Pipe I
and Supply Co., Inc.
U.S. 41 North
Lake City, Florida 32055
(904) 752-5340

U.S. 17 North
Palatka, Florida 32077
(904) 325-3694

205 N. Ohio Avenue
Live Oak, Florida 32060
(904) 362-5952

Standard Plumbing and
Industrial Supply
620 S. Woodward Avenue
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
(904) 222-4553





by Meg Rehse

Architects:Frizzell Architects, Inc.
Mechanical & Electrical Engineer: Davis,
Smith, Carter & Rider, Inc.
Structural Engineer: Frizzell Architects,
Civil Engineer: Briskey Engineering
General Contractor: Eugene W. Kelsey
& Son, Inc.

When students attended their first
day of class this Fall at Reedy Creek
Elementary School, they attended an
earth-sheltered school. The first of its
kind in the southeastern United States,
Reedy Creek Elementary is an energy
efficient, prototype school. A solar col-
lector system for domestic hot water,
passive solar energy conservation in
the form of earth-sheltering and a
closed loop, water activated, heat
pump system are the three basic sys-
tems that enable the school to function
efficiently. When used in combination,
these features are expected to save the
School Board of Osceola County 50%
in energy costs.
Reedy Creek Elementary was de-
signed to meet the current needs of
the Osceola County School system and
to provide for future expansion. The
present plan calls for 28 classrooms
for a student capacity of 750 889.
Located in the rapidly growing com-
munity development of Poinciana,
northeast of Walt Disney World, the
school has expansion capabilities for
the addition of two pods. A multi-
purpose room, stage/music room and
multi-media area round out building
space. Designed as a basic core layout,
only 9% of space is used for circula-
Reedy Creek Elementary School
contains 4,400 cubic yards of poured

in place concrete serving as a struc-
tural system and as an architectural
design feature.
Concrete's properties of reducing
sound transmission, its resistance to
ever present corrosive elements in
Florida and the minimum amount of
fireproofing required, are a few of the
initial reasons for specifying its usage.
As analysis progressed, structural
engineers with Frizzell Architects
concluded that the school's energy
conservation needs, waterproofing
requirements and design criteria
yielded to a concrete structural sys-
tem. The end result was a precast,
prestressed joist system with composite
poured-in-place slabs and beams.
A major factor in the choice of a
concrete system was the required roof
load. Twenty-two inches of earth on
the roof alone created a dead load of
220 PSF. Construction time was kept
at a minimum by allowing the General
Contractor to spread the earth with a
small dozer rather than by hand. This
is possible because of code mandated
100 P.S.F. live load for terrace type
structures as well as the inherent
strength of concrete. The roof serves
as the lateral support for the top of
the walls. Guardian-type parapets pro-
ject skyward an additional 5'5" in
height, decreasing the chance of chil-
dren accidentally over-stepping the
roof edge.
Architectural plans made the
choice of concrete both more economi-
cal and aesthetically appealing. In-
terior column spacing extends 26 feet
in one direction and 20 30 feet in the
intersecting direction. By placing col-
umns at these intervals, engineers
were able to conceal most of the 12"
square columns within the walls. The


Reedy Creek Elementary School. Rendering courtesy of the architect.

remaining columns were specified as
16" diameter and positioned in the
hub of the classroom core as
architectural focal points.
Thoughts of leaking roofs instill
uncalled for feelings of horror when
talking about earth-sheltered build-
ings. If proper materials are specified
and installed correctly, there is no
reason the roof cannot last the life of
the building.
Shrinkage, expansion and creep
always result when using concrete but
its degree of severity is controllable.
For Reedy Creek, no expansion joints
were needed because the 22" of earth
fill will serve as a temperature mod-

erator. Shrinkage is controlled by
adding a super plasticizer to the con-
crete mix for the poured in place roof
slabs and beams. Walls and precast ele-
ments are standard mix.
Consideration was specifically fo-
cused on avoiding student and teacher
feelings of attending school in a cave.
Each classroom is not without some
natural lighting. Large skylights allow
sun light to stream through the roof in
the hallways and the multi-purpose
The classrooms are designed in a
triangular shape with the long chalk-
board wall as the focal point. Students
are closer to the board than in a rec-

tangular room set-up. Each classroom
shares a skylit bathroom suite with an
adjoining classroom and each class-
room core contains a central teacher
As energy costs soar and tempers
flare in response to continuous rises in
energy prices, individuals and adminis-
trators alike are turning to alternate
sources ot energy. The Reedy Creek
Elementary School is one response to
the school administrator's cry for help.
Its system combinations work in con-
junction to help save energy costs. 0

Meg Rehse is Marketing Coordinator
for Frizzell Architects, Inc.

32 FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Spring, 1982



bandshell competition

Submittal Deadline:
Midnight September 17, 1982
For entry materials
City of Clearwater
Bandshell Competition
P.O. Box 4748
Clearwater, FL 33518
Limited to registered architects
with offices in Florida
(Enclose entry fee of $30.00)

In accord with AIA competition guidelines




by Fred Vyverberg, AIA, President, Florida North Chapter, AIA

Editors Note: This article was written dur-
ing the height of the battle to convince the
Florida Legislature that modifications to the
CCNA were not needed or necessary. By
now the Legislature will have made its deci-
sion, but we still feel that Mr. Vyverberg's
viewpoint is relevant.

The passage of the Florida Consul-
tant's Competitive Negotiation Act
(CCNA) in 1972 was a progressive step
forward that de-politicized the selection
of design professionals, bringing the
whole process into the sunshine. The
U.S. Congress also passed a law that
year (The Brooks Bill) to require that
architects and engineers (a/e) be
selected on the basis of the highest
qualification for each project and at a
fair and reasonable price. Both of these
procedures have adequately withstood
the test of time.
Several statements about the
CCNA were made in editorials based
on the recent House Transportation
Committee Report on "Consultant Poli-
cies". Rep. Jones is the Chairman of
this committee and also the sponsor of
HB 642 to modify the CCNA. This re-
port found no irregularities in the
selection of architects or engineers (in
fact contains no findings regarding
selection of architects by DOT or any
other agency). The Florida Senate did
an extensive review of the law in 1979
and made the following report:
"It is recommended that Florida
not institute competitive bidding
for professional design services.
Being a very large user of such ser-
vices, the State of Florida would
best be served by an efficient sys-
tem of design consultant procure-
ment directed at obtaining high
quality design services at fair and
reasonable rates. The present sys-
tem functions well, produces time-
ly selections, does not generate un-
reasonable fees, and helps insure
high quality work for the state.
The CCNA minimizes the pros-

pects of favoritism or abuse. The
selection procedures currently in
use, place a premium on expertise
and proven competency."
It is clear why Government is
drawn to competitive bidding. It gen-
erally is a workable, legitimate and fair
way to purchase defined services and
products when using the public's tax
money. Yet the public can understand
the distinction between the purchase
of a building contractor's construction
of a project and the purchase of the
a/e's services. The contractor's price is
based on a complete set of plans and
specifications that clearly define the
project. However, the a/e's work be-
gins with an idea most often an
idea that is not fully developed until
the a/e services are actually underway.
Architects and engineers welcome
competition in obtaining both private
and public work (competition which
pits the qualifications, experience and
innovation of one applicant against
another) it is in the best interest of
clients, the public and the profession.
Any proposal to include basing com-
petition on price (which is in practical
effect a contradiction to qualifications)
is likely to result in a deterioration of
professional design services and in the
quality of facilities.
The budget for professional ser-
vices is generally established by the us-
ing agency before even advertising the
project to solicit professionals' propos-
als. The agency is not taken by sur-
prise as was intimated in a recent edi-
torial. Only minor adjustments in the
fee are generally negotiated. The first
firm selected for negotiations is hardly
dealing from a position of strength
when 'two other firms are waiting out-
side the door'. Try to find a firm that
was ranked second and was awarded
the contract-they are very rare.
Several editorials made the unsup-
portable statement that competitive
bidding would reduce the cost of de-
sign services "by something like 25
percent". The inherent liability that

exists in providing professional design
services requires careful, diligent
analysis by the designer; and naturally,
the acceptance of liability requires
some compensation to the designer.
Architects average less than 10% profit
on their projects. The only possible
way to reduce their fees by 25% is to
have the state agencies greatly increase
their staffs to handle major portions of
each project and accept some measure
of the liability that each project cre-
The Department of General Ser-
vices and the Board of Regents have
stated that the CCNA is the fairest and
most professional method of selecting
a/e firms. Since adoption of this law in
1972, it has been used nationally as a
model and now the federal govern-
ment and 21 other states follow pre-
cisely the CCNA process. The Amer-
ican Bar Association, after an in-depth
study into this issue, has recom-
mended that a/e services be selected in
accordance with the Florida law or
with the federal law. Federal officials
report the Brooks Act, as im-
plemented, is working quite success-
The Federal Commission on Gov-
ernment Procurement's Study Group
13-B pointed out that a/e services
account for only a small portion of
construction costs, but have a major
impact on life cycle economies. The
group concluded that when total cost
to the government is considered for
the entire project, from initial design
through the life of the facility, an a/e
contract awarded on the basis of com-
petitive bids would result in a higher
cost to the government, and ultimately
the taxpayers.
The Consultant's Competitive
Negotiations Act continues to function
well-assuring the public of quality
professional design services and true
value for the tax dollar. The proposed
modifications to this selection process
would inevitably lose sight of both of
those basic objectives. d




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