Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 News and letters
 Orlando's new airport
 A response to tourism
 A socio/historical/climatic...
 A response to urban developmen...
 A forum response
 Is Florida preserving the architecture...
 Four Florida architects speak...
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00234
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Winter 1982
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00234
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    News and letters
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Orlando's new airport
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    A response to tourism
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    A socio/historical/climatic response
        Page 15
        Page 16
    A response to urban development
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    A forum response
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Is Florida preserving the architecture it deserves?
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Four Florida architects speak up
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

A L3

I A i~i id

*I &1

System, Inc.
3814 N.E. FIRST AVE., MIAMI, FLORIDA 33137 TELEX 519217
PHONE (305) 576-2067
PHONE (305) 659-6407

flr ,' h --. ,m .,-...


on al

IZ-5 ^

Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 West Jefferson
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


Winter, 1982
Editor Volume 29, Number 1
Diane D. Greer
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen
Art Direction
Mel Hutto Associates, Inc.

Editorial Board
William A. Graves, AIA
Rick Fernandez, AIA
William Harvard, Jr., AIA
Perry Reader, AIA
Yahya Koita, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
John Totty, AIA
Glenn A. Buff, AIA
9369 Dominican Drive
Miami, Florida 33190
Vice President
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
109 AFA Complex
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Regional Director
Ted Pappas, AIA
100 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank Building
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

FLORIDA ARCHITECT. Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and published by the Asso-
ciation, a Florida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907 It is published five times a year
at the Executive Office of the Association. 104
W.Jefferson Ave., Tallahassee, Florida 32302.
Telephone (904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily those of the FA/
AIA. Editorial material may be reprinted provided
full credit is given to the author and to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to the publisher's
Single copies. $2.00 subscription, $20.00 per
year. Third class postage.


Dee Schofield

Gene Bebermever, AIA, and Thomas C. Blanton

Jorge Rigau, AIA
Roy Kenzie

William Pena, FAIA, George Notter, FAIA,
John Dixon, FAIA and William lMorgan, FAIA

Murray Laurie

Abell, Savage, Alexander & Braun
3 Editorial
4 News and Letters
29 Legal
36 Viewpoint

The Cover
Orlando International Airport
Neon Sculpture At End Of People Mover
Photo by Bob Braun


"9 outof 10


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consci ous.
1981 Survey of Florida Builders and Homr-n r, A vm

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he 1981 Fall Conference of the FA/AIA concerned itself with
the intriguing question, "Is the Florida/Caribbean Region Get-
ting the Architecture It Deserves?" To that I'd like to add the question, "Are Florida
architects designing the architecture that Florida deserves?" The answer to that ques-
tion packs a real wallop and has a direct impact on the quality of the architectural
future of this State.
Using Miami as an example, it appears that 50% or more of the current com-
missions are going to Florida architects. However, 50% of the dollars are not. The
largest commissions are going out-of-state and that's money lost to the profession in
Florida. Outsiders are contributing, to a great extent, to the reshaping of one of our
major cities. In addition to the loss of money, that has an impact on the professional
design integrity and status that goes with it.
There's a tee-shirt the students at the University of Florida sell which proclaims,
"And on the seventh day, God hired an architect." Unfortunately, after reviewing work
underway around the region, it would seem that a postscript would be in order which
might read, "and that architect was from out-of-state."
Without architects we cannot have architecture. Does it then follow that without
Florida architects, we cannot have Florida architecture?
What about the special trust that we have to our buildings and our cities? And the
sense of place? Doesn't logic dictate that the best architecture is not political architec-
ture, but local architecture, produced by locals. When you live in a place, you presum-
ably want the best for it. You are forced by your very existence to use what you create.
You must face up to your designs. There is no escape to New York, or Houston or
"Yes," I am forced to answer. We are getting the architecture we deserve. Every
city and county gets the architecture it deserves. We commission it, we pay for it, we use
it. But the bigger issue is are we getting the architecture we want, the architecture that
binds the fabric of the community and retains its resilience as a symbol of the place in
time in which society finds its collective being?
Are we getting architecture that doesn't try to deny and negate what we've come
from--that wonderful mix of Spanish and Mediterranean and Caribbean and any
number of other cultural ingredients that combined to make Florida architecture
uniquely "Florida"? In short, are we substituting quantity for quality?
In our seeming desire to fill every inch of available space with multi-purpose,
mixed-use, people-moving, rapid-transit, high-rise monoliths, what are we doing to keep
Florida uniquely its own person-architecturally speaking?
I am not opposed to progress and growth. I know that more can be better. I am,
however, concerned about where we are going and the speed at which we are getting
there. Florida has the dubious distinction of being a sort of silly-putty state. It has many
more factors shaping its architectural destiny than most, notably a heavy tourist eco-
nomy, international commerce and business, a transient society, a high retirement
population and unique geographic factors.
The kind of rapid and overwhelming development which creates whole new cities
almost overnight is an awesome thing. We cannot allow ourselves the luxury of forget-
ting what we've come from. -Diane D. Greer



Dear Editor:
Is Florida Getting the Architecture
It Deserves? Of course it is. For each
period of time, the correct and proper
architecture is dished out. If we de-
served worse, or if we deserved better,
we would get it.
There was a period of time when
Florida architecture blended with its
natural environment. It was good
architecture. We deserved it.
Since the 50's, architects were
hoodwinked by technology and allowed
mechanical, artificial environments to
emasculate them. We got what we de-
served windowless, air conditioned
The energy crisis, a blessing in dis-
guise, has now reawakened the pro-
fession. We will design to live with the
environment rather than eight it. We
will get the architecture we deserve.
Post Modernism is also a sign of
our times. This, too, shall pass. Build-
ings with exposed genitals are only ex-
pressing the corrupt, immoral thinking
of our times. It is proper to express the
inner workings of a building, but
shouldn't it be properly clothed? The
Pompidou Center is a good example of
letting it all hang out, or if you've got
it-flaunt it.
No matter what we get called
architecture, let us not lose our sense of
humor or perspective. Watching some
of the crappy Art Deco being salvaged
in Miami Beach gives me renewed
hope that some of the monsters I cre-
ated may eventually be given the recog-
nition I so fully deserve.

Truthfully yours,
F. Louis Wolff


Morgan Appointed to Harvard Faculty

William Morgan, FAIA, was
appointed a design critic and lecturer
in architecture for the fall term 1981-
82 at the Harvard Graduate School of
Morgan received his Bachelor of
Arts degree from Harvard College and
his Master in Architecture degree from
the Harvard Graduate School of De-
sign. His firm is William Morgan
Architects of Jacksonville, Florida.
Morgan is a fellow of the Amer-
ican Institute of Architects and a mem-
ber of the National Council of Archi-
tectural Registration Boards. He was
appointed a Lehman Fellow of Har-
vard University in 1957, a Fulbright
Grantee to Italy in 1958, a Wheel-
wright Fellow of the Harvard Graduate
School of Design in 1964, and a fellow
of the National Endowment of the Arts

in 1978.
In 1980 the MIT Press published
"Prehistoric Architecture in the Eastern
United States", Morgan's pioneering
study of a 3700 year evolution in archi-
tectural design. He presently is con-
ducting design research under the aus-
pices of the Graham Foundation for
Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts.

Asolo Opera Guild Holds Charette
This past October, the Asolo
Opera Guild held a week long Archi-
tectural Design Competition for ren-
ovation of the Florida Theatre in
downtown Sarasota. The team of
Michael Pack, AIA, Jesse Cox, Kent
Johnson, Michael O'Donnell, and
Nichi Nichols, along with Ringling
School of Art students Linda Allard
and Mimi Asadatorn, was selected as
The panel of judges included Lee
G. Copeland, Dean of Architecture and
Planning at the University of Pennsyl-
vania; Rexford Harrower, author of
"Three Studies for a New Music
Theatre"; Grace Penner, vice president
of Penner Financial Group; Walter
Macomber, restoration architect; Kate
Wallis, Wallis-Knowles Interior Design;
David Cohen, winner of the Governor's
Award for Fine Arts; and Frederic von
Grossman, a practicing architect in Mil-
waukee. Edgar H. Wood, president of
the Society of the American Registered
Architects, served as advisor to the
Six architectural teams worked in
an on-site charette which lasted for five
days. Included on the teams were AIA
members Jan Abell, John Piercy,
Richard G. Allen, Bill Halstead, Terry
Osborn, Richard Garfinkel, Gary Ruck-
er, John Tennison, Ken Garcia and
winner, Michael Pack. One of the re-
quirements of the competition was that
each team include one or more stu-
dents from the Ringling School of Art.
Competition winner David Pack
and his associates will begin renovation
plans for the building in the spring of
1982, after the close of the Opera sea-
son. The budget allocation for the pro-
ject is $2.5 million.

FA/AIA'82 Events

February 19-20 Energy Seminar
(Level 2-A), Tallahassee
March 10 FA/AIA Seminar on Pro-
duction Management, Orlando
March 12-13 Energy Seminar (Level
2-A), Miami
April 30, May 1,2 FA/AIA Spring
Conference, Tallahassee, Hilton Hotel and
Civic Center
June 6-10 AIA National Convention,
October 7, 8, 9 FA/AIA Fall Confer-
ence, Hyatt Regency, Tampa

October 9, 10, 11, 12 FA/AIA Post
Conference in Puerto Rico
November 4, 5, 6 Florida Mini
Grass Roots and Leadership Planning Con-
ference, Orlando

Schwab & Twitty Win Awards

Schwab & Twitty Architects, Inc.
of Palm Beach, Fla., have won two
awards in the Builder's Choice Design
and Planning national competition.
They will receive the Grand Award, in
the Commercial Building category, for
the Hardrives Office Building in Del-
ray Beach and a Merit Award in the
same category for the PGA Administra-
tive Center in Palm Beach Gardens.
The annual building industry
competition is co-sponsored by Builder
Magazine and Better Homes and Gar-
dens Magazine to recognize excellence
in design, planning and building. The
design competition winners were
selected by a panel of judges composed
of builders, architects, planners and
members of the building press from
across the nation. The judges selected
one grand award winner in each of the
16 entry categories.
Schwab & Twitty designed the
Hardrives Building, a 9,400 square
foot earth bermed structure, with the
north and south exposures facing land-
scaped courtyards. Skylights in the sod-
ded roof admit natural light into the
center of the building. This unusual
structure effects significant energy
conservation and provides an interest-
ing office environment in an industrial
The PGA Administrative Center is
the permanent home of the Pro-
fessional Golfers Association of Amer-
ica. The 36,000 square foot structure is
located on five acres within the 2,640
acre PGA National community in Palm
Beach Gardens, Fla. The building, de-
signed to take maximum advantage of
its golf course setting, overlooks fair-
ways and a large lake.
The Schwab & Twitty firm was
officially notified by Frank Anton, Edi-
tor of Builder Magazine, and will re-
ceive their awards at the 38th annual
National Association of Home Builders
(NAHB) convention in Las Vegas in
January, 1982.

1 r ,.: "; :

Hardnves Building, Schwab & Twittv.
Architects. Photo courtesy of Path ID)ole
Public Relations

4 FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Winter, 1982

New Tax Law Strengthens Historic
Preservation Incentives
Preservation of historic American
buildings has been boosted significantly
by a 25 percent tax credit for historical
rehabilitation provided in the new Eco-
nomic Recovery Tax Act, which has
been vigorously supported by the Insti-
The new tax incentives will en-
courage increased capital investment in
historic neighborhoods and will repre-
sent the cornerstone of the Reagan
Administration's nationwide preserva-
tion program.
Effective Jan. 1, 1982, the new law
provides a 25 percent investment tax
credit for the cost of rehabilitating his-
toric commercial and industrial build-
ings as well as residential buildings for
rental. Qualified buildings must be
listed on the National Register of His-
toric Places and be located in registered
historic districts.
The 25 percent tax credit replaces
existing tax incentives that include a
five-year write-off of rehabilitation ex-
penses, or 10 percent investment tax
credit (only on industrial or com-
mercial properties, or accelerated de-
preciation of the rehabilitated historic
The existing certification process,
administered by the National Park Ser-
vice, will be used to identify eligible
buildings and qualify their rehabili-
tation. To qualify for investment tax
credit, buildings must be substantially
rehabilitated and rehabilitation costs
must equal $5,000 or the initial build-
ing cost.
Reprinted from MEMO #612, Newsletter of the
American Institute of Architects, September 18,
Mid-Florida Chapter Holds Awards
The Mid-Florida Chapter of the
AIA has a vigorous design awards pro-
gram which culminates each year in a
traveling exhibit. The objective of the
honors and awards program is to en-
courage professional and public recog-
nition of design excellence in those
projects designed by architects, land-
scape architects and interior designers
practicing in the Mid-Florida region.
The program also strives to demon-
strate some of the capabilities of local
design professionals and to cultivate a

AMid-Fluoida AIA traveling ward, dfpla{ an view at the
Oilando Pubh( I.tbinar. IPho,, It (outesl of (Gege T.
Middletlot, AIA.

sensitivity to the built environment.
The Mid-Florida Awards Program
is held each year in November. Last
year, ten winners were selected in three
categories: Architecture, Landscape
Architecture and Interior Design.
Jurors for the competition were Sarah
Harkness, FAIA, TAC, Cambridge,
Massachusetts; Lester Pancoast, FAIA,
Pancoast-Albaisa, Miami; MarkJarosze-
wicz, FAIA, College of Architecture,
University of Florida, Gainesville;
Wayne Kiser, ASLA, Edward D. Stone,
Ft. Lauderdale and Bob Dean, ASID,
Dean and Redman, Tampa. Guest
speaker at the Honors and Awards
Banquet was William Caudill of CRS in
Houston, Texas.
Each of the winning entrants is re-
quired to prepare a one meter square
board illustrating his design. This
board becomes part of a lightweight,
knockdown display which was specially
built for ease of transportation. The
display is placed in prominent spots
around the Orlando area including the
Winter Park Library, Chamber of'
Commerce and Sun Bank.
Mid-Florida's Awards and Honors
Program gives public recognition to
exemplary architecture and the awards
selection acknowledges the contri-
butions of Mid-Florida AIA members
to the on-going improvement of the
total physical environment.
Thomas Jefferson Intern Fund
The Colonial Williamsburg Foun-
dation and the University of Florida
have long been associated through
their mutual educational and profes-
sional goals. For two summers this has
been further strengthened and per-
petuated by a graduate student intern
program between these two institu-
tions. In 1980 the first Thomas Jeffer-

son Intern Fund was established
through the Research and Education
Center for Architectural Preservation
and made an annual program with
joint sponsorship.
The central role of architectural
historians and historical architects in
interpreting the eighteenth-century
architecture of Williamsburg is as
strong today as in the initial period of
restoration. Painstaking scholarship
and dedicated professionalism have
given the Architectural Research office
of Colonial Williamsburg an expertise
that is continuously relied upon by pro-
fessionals in various fields. It is not sur-
prising then that the University of Flor-
ida, one of the nationally acknowl-
edged leaders in architectural pre-
servation, is now closely associated with
Colonial Williamsburg.
This summer two graduate stu-
dents in architectural preservation
from the University of Florida and
four students from the University of
Virginia worked on three diffe-
rent projects in Williamsburg. Two
projects concerned the recording of
historic structures by measured draw-
ings and the other involved the tech-
nical problems of brick conservation.
These internships were jointly con-
ceived by F. Blair Reeves, FAIA, Chair-
man of the Preservation Option Pro-
gram at the University of Florida, and
Roy Eugene Graham, AIA, Resident
Architect at The Colonial Williamsburg
For Florida students to continue to
participate in this program it is neces-
sary to seek monetary support. Cash
donations addressed to the Archi-
tectural Guild or to the University of
Florida Foundation designated to the
Thomas Jefferson Intern Fund will in-
sure continued participation.*

w i K ^
^ ^r

Left to Right: Todd Tiagash. (F: Roy Graham, Redepint Airhitect, CW; Robert Ray, LF:
Architectural Reseat ch. CIV

Ed (Chappell. Drecrlto

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by Dee Schofield

Orlando International Airport
Project Manager: Greiner Engineering
Services, Inc.
Architect of Record: Kemp, Bunch &
Jackson and Schweizer Associates,
Inc., Associated Architects
Project Managers: Richard Zipperly,
AIA, Schweizer Asso. and Al Smith,
Civil Engineering: Bower-Singleton
Electrical Engineering: Tilden Denson &
Mechanical Engineering: Van Wagenen
& Searcy
Landscape Architecture: Foster-Conant
& Associates, Inc. and Wallis Baker
and Associates, PA
Central Florida-what kind of im-
age do the words conjure up-tourists
in loud clothes and sunglasses; streets
lined with garish, flashing signs and
souvenir shops everywhere? Or do the
words convey the idyllic setting that
was once plentiful in Florida-wide

Top, left: Siuper grap)hu(. hte plants and ., t I to the natutalfeelmg inside the land ti) nmal building;
top, right: I iew of escoalatoi ii latnd ue .' .*.' i Above: Rehdeiring 'l Reggle S tatol of the 700-arte
facihtt. All photo% In Bob Braun.

open stretches of nothing but clear
lakes, lush vegetation, abundant wild-
life and plenty of bright sunlight?
In designing Orlando's new inter-
national airport, the design team was
faced with an image to promote, one
that was in concert with all the things
that really are Central Florida. The fin-
al product is an architectural statement
that allows the natural beauty of Flor-
ida to compliment the structural beauty
of the terminal's design.
The designers' focus on portraying
a "sense of arrival" is inescapable
throughout the 700-acre facility. The
airport does function as a destination
location rather than a transfer station
for the majority of its passengers. Un-
like many of the country's airports,
such as Atlanta's Hartsfield Interna-
tional, where 76 percent of those using
the airport do so to change planes,
Orlando International Airport services
one of the biggest tourist areas in the
world. By featuring lush tropical land-
scaping, native building materials and
huge expanses of tinted glass, the air-
port's design captures travelers in the
ambience of the "Real Florida."
The terminal complex includes a

Gates 40-49


single one million square foot landside
building which provides access to
ground transportation, and several air-
side buildings which interface with air-
craft. These airside buildings provide
the initial view of Florida. Beautifully
landscaped grounds and bright sun-
shine greet the travelers as they make
their way to the connector tube joining
the airside holdrooms to the main ter-
minal. The glass connector tube en-
closes the rider device, an automated
guideway system with four pairs of
cars, each about the size of a Grey-
hound bus holding 125 standing pas-
sengers. Each airside is linked to the
landside building by a set of elevated
parallel tracks, each having two cars
that shuttle back and forth. After dis-
embarking from their planes at 48
gates in the two satellite buildings, pas-
sengers ride these people movers to the
main terminal while their baggage
travels via a tug road on grade under
the people mover track to the same
destination. Instead of seeing a gigantic
parking lot, passengers on the ride de-
vice see lakes, islands, palm trees and
bayheads and even some wildlife on
their way to the landside terminal.

Gates 50-59
1 Republic
Air Florida

To create an atmosphere that
would "set the stage" with scenes of nat-
ural Central Florida, a massive effort
was undertaken to surround the ter-
minal with an abundance of tropical
foliage and man-made lakes. Hundreds
of palm trees alone were flown by heli-
copter to the islands in the lakes
around the terminal. Glass is used ex-
tensively throughout the complex, most
dramatically in the skylighted third-
level concession lobbies in the landside
building. 32,000 square feet of skylight
allow the Florida sky to serve as a back-
drop for the giant concrete planters
boasting palms, ferns and flowering
plants below. The skylight serves the
dual purpose of providing ample sun-
light while efficiently reflecting 71 per-
cent of entering light to reduce heat
gain. Photosensors control electrical
lighting levels to further conserve ener-
gy, when sunlight provides adequate
lighting. More energy and money will
be saved by replenishing the greenery
from the airport's own nursery and
greenhouse facilities located a short

Diagram showing position of airport functions


Gates 10-19

a .,

i -

All Gates

Level 3
Shuttles to Gates
Restaurants & Lounges

Level 2
Bag Claim
Rental Car Agencies
Hotel Reservations Phones
Taxis & Limousines

Rental Car Parking &

Gates 20-29

Shuttle to Gates 30-59 Shuttle to Gates 1-29 TWA

... 1 ---- - --.. -. .-.- ----- -- --
,........ --
-- -- ----

Bag Claim for --" ..'
Above Airlines rl .

Rental Car Agencies ----

Elevator Lobbies &
Rental Car Check-in

I N Elevators, Escalators & :r .. -- .

8 FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Winter, 1982

Gates 30-39

--- Charter
-- TWA
--- Eastern
... PanAm
.... American
- USAir/Commuter

Bag Claim for
Above Airlines

Rental Car Agencie,

Elevator Lobbies &
Rental Car Check-Ir



distance from the terminal. There's
even a touch of the Disney and Sea
World influence in the concession area.
With its informal, exciting street-like
atmosphere and rows of shops and ex-
hibits, it is not unlike Disney World's
Main Street. An aviary featuring par-
rots, macaws and other colorful birds

Above, 4-0 x 6-8 Louver-over-panel
Today's homemakers demand their very
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With Mims and Thomas
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provides entertainment and diversion.
The awakening cultural climate of
Central Florida is another important
theme here, with works of inter-
nationally-known artists permanently
displayed inside and on the terminal
grounds. A cultural montage of works
by artists such as Florida natives Steven


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D. Lotz and William King, English
artist Trevor Bell and Uraguayan
Alfredo Halegue, among others, estab-
lish the airport as one of Florida's
largest public art galleries.
Another unique feature is the de-
sign of the airside buildings to provide
an interesting view of routine airplane
maintenance operations. While waiting
to board, passengers can watch planes
be refueled, have their tires changed,
and be loaded with food through the
huge expanses of tinted glass in the air-
side buildings. In addition to the glass-
enclosed passenger areas, the termin-
al's two airside buildings contain non-
public areas, such as house main-
tenance/operation offices for the
twelve different airlines and lounges
for their crews.
Orlando's new airport can justly
claim to be the "terminal of the 21st
century". In all design decisions for the
new terminal, there was always the con-
sideration that all technical equipment
and systems that were installed be the
most advanced available. Consequently,
the terminal is equipped with "state of
the art" gear, from the computer-con-
trolled ride device to the automated
parking control system. Also, there is
extensive use of closed circuit television
for security monitoring of critical areas.
Equipped with emergency power
generators, emergency health facilities
and a police detention center, the ter-
minal is self-contained enough to func-
tion like a small city in itself.
Constructed just southeast of the
existing airport, the facility retains the
use of its existing 10,700-foot run-
ways. Originally designed to accom-
modate five airlines, the new terminal
was redesigned after the deregulation
of the airline industry to accommodate
seven more airlines. In time, two more
airside buildings will be added to the
new terminal and the landside building
expanded to provide an additional ride
device system. With these two build-
ings, each having 24 gates, ultimate
gate capacity for the new terminal will
be 96 gates. A new set of parallel run-
ways and cargo buildings are also in the
plans for the terminal's future. There
is ample city-owned property available
to the south to permit the ultimate 96-
gate facility to be repeated, bringing
total capacity up to 192 gates, should
the demands of air transportation in
the Central Florida area merit such ex-

Ms. Schofield is a technical writer for
Schweizer Associates, Inc.

Greiner Engineering Sciences,Inc.

As prime consultant to GOAA and
lead firm of The Greiner Team,
Greiner Engineering Sciences, Inc.
held overall responsibility for the
total design effort which produced
this pace-setting airport.
This entailed technical and project
management of all activities by
Greiner Team members and spe-
cialty consultants, as well as resident
engineering services to insure qual-
ity control during construction of the
entire airport complex.
In addition to management respon-
sibilities, Greiner was active in the
actual planning and design efforts.
Working from the initial concept
studies prepared by GOAA's staff,
Greiner and other Team members
developed the project master plan.
Greiner also developed the unique
water control and management sys-
tem for the site and directed the
comprehensive geotechnical investi-
gation and analysis program.
Substantial portions of the airport
facilities were designed by Greiner.
The firm provided structural design
of all buildings, as well as design for
bridges, tunnels, the people-mover
structure, water control structures,
all airfield facilities (taxiways, aprons
and related drainage) and all airfield
and exterior lighting.
Also significant was Greiner's
environmental program, which
began with the comprehensive
Environmental Impact Statement
and continued through design of
facilities and implementation of
measures to preserve environmental
Greiner was well-equipped to
undertake this large assignment for
Orlando International Airport, having
been in responsible charge of $18
billion worth of projects-including
transportation, commercial, indus-
trial and recreational facilities.
The hallmark of Greiner's contri-
bution to technology is the firm's
lengthy list of awards and commen-
dations for outstanding concepts,
designs and quality control.
Just this past year alone, Greiner
received six separate awards-four
of which were national in scope and
one which was international.
Three winning projects were
especially significant, because com-
petition covered design during the
entire decade of the 1970's and was
sponsored by the U.S. Department
of Transportation and the National

Endowment for the Arts:
* Tampa International Airport in
Florida-the world's first land-
side/airside airport employing
fully automated people-mover
The Urban Interchange-a
unique concept for alleviating
traffic congestion in highly
developed urban areas, notable
for handling high traffic
volumes while requiring min-
imal right-of-way.

rt-onra tasr uoasr -allway move-
able-span bridge in Ft. Lauderdale,
winner of two national awards.
* Florida East Coast Railway
Bridge over New River in Ft.
Lauderdale, Florida-a movable-
span bridge constructed in an
historically significant setting
with only an eight-hour closure
to train traffic and a 24-hour
interruption to river traffic.
Other significant projects include:
* NASA's Space Shuttle Landing

Facility complex in Florida.
The 600-acre EPCOT Center
addition to Walt Disney World.
Lynnhaven Mall in Virginia
Beach-the nation's largest
shopping center.
The Coastal Engineering
Research Center's field research
facility in North Carolina-the
nation's longest ocean research
The Francis Scott Key Bridge
over Baltimore's main shipping
channel-the nation's longest
three-span continuous through
It's no accident that Greiner has
remained among the nation's lead-
ing consulting firms. The firm's
strength has always been the com-
petence and dedication of its people.
Greiner's top professionals aver-
age 24 years with the company. By
retaining such highly experienced
people, and by carefully selecting
new staff members, the firm has nur-
tured the blend of creativity and
practicality which is vital to such
innovative projects as Orlando Inter-
national Airport.
Recent affiliation with Systems
Planning Corp. has linked Greiner
with a nationwide family of other
professional services firms, with a
combined strength of 1,300 people.
Greiner's people look forward to
meeting challenges which will guide
man into the 21st century, and are
dedicated to the most important
goal of all-helping other people by
improving the world we live in.

The Urban Interchange, a major breakthrough for eliminating traffic
congestion in highly developed urban areas.


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Excepted From A Joint Conference Lecture
by Gene Bebermeyer, AIA and Thomas C. Blanton Planner

In 1968, there were roughly
twenty architects in the Central Florida
chapter. Today there are 167. There
were twelve design firms at that time.
In 1969, the list of architects in the
yellow pages was approximately six
inches long. Now it is a page and a half.
To give you some idea of the
growth in tourism in Central Florida,
we had less than a million tourists a
year in 1970 prior to the opening of
Disney World. We're projecting in
excess of 18 million for 1985. The
average tourist's expenditure rate (total
dollars spent in relation to the total
number of visitors into the market) in
1979 was approximately $347 million
for 10.7 million visitors. In 1985, it's
going to be almost a billion dollars. In
1975, there were 28,000 hotel rooms in
the central Florida market. We're an-
ticipating 66,000 by 1985. A linear look
at where these hotel rooms are located
places them in direct relationship to the
tourists attractions.
"What is a tourist?"

In terms of selected goods and
services, one tourist has the equivalent
spending power of ten permanent resi-
dents. What that means is that you
have a thousand room hotel and if you
put it in at 70% occupancy, you'll end
up with the equivalent purchasing
power of a small town or
approximately 17,000 people. That
would be the same as putting up one
hotel in central Florida and taking out
all the theatres, stores, eating places,
etc. and putting them all at the base of
the hotel. To carry that one step
further, if you take all the hotel rooms
in a particular tourist corridor off of
Interstate 4 and put 18,000 rooms in
that corridor, that translates into
purchasing power of a town of

To get an idea of what's going to
happen to Orlando in the next ten
years, Disney World, Circus World, Sea
World and others have a drawing
capacity that after October, 1982 is
going to escalate up to nearly

18,000,000 visitors a year. This
phenomena has not happened all at
once, however. In order to accommodate
this steady increase in the number of
tourists, there had to be hotel and
motel rooms and most of those rooms
were built in the first few years of the
seventies in anticipation of what would
happen during the rest of the decade.
In fact, it took no time at all for those
28,000 rooms to fill up. Now, we're
looking at the 1980-84 window as the
time when another building flurry will
take place. That window has been
narrowed slightly by a sewer mora-
torium and high interest rates. But the
fact remains that Disney is going to
open EPCOT in less than a year and
many more people are going to be
lured to central Florida. What we're
going to do about it becomes another

Orlando was not guilty of
proposing any of those attractions


which look like the "War of the
Worlds." Most of those things were
located under county jurisdiction. The
governmental response to future
attractions is going to be one of panic.
I remember what happened in
1971 when Disney opened. Not much!
No one got very excited. About a
month and a half later, however, there
was a ten mile traffic jam in two direc-
tions from the intersection of I-4 and
192 and, believe me, that woke every-
one up and since then the name of the
game has been catch up.
I, along with others, became lulled
into a sense of acceptance. I have for-
gotten some of the furors that took
place immediately after Disney opened.
But there are some who haven't for-
gotten. Paul Pickett, who was Chairman
of the Orange County Commission at
the time Disney opened, has just
authored a series in the Orlando
Sentinel. It was Pickett who predicted
the massive expenditures on the impact
which the opening would have on the

area. Well, he was right. In 1970,
Orange County's operating budget was
$23.6 million. In 1980, it was $213
million. The Sheriffs Department
alone increased to $23 million in 1981
from a budget of 3.2 million and 300
employees when Disney opened.
I personally know very few people
who haven't visited Disney World. Paul
Pickett, to this day has not set foot in
the theme park and I quote you his
reasons from the Sentinel. "If you've
seen one carnival, you've seen them all.
Well, I'm here to tell you that Disney
has the best camouflaged amusement
park in the world and that's a fact
because the whole world is beating a
path to our door."
Pickett's attitude is shared by
others and what he says may be true.
Pickett's feeling from the beginning has
been that Disney's saying, "Hey, all
you hicks. I'm here and I'm impor-
tant." I'm not so sure that Pickett may
not have been right because that was
the kind of thing you found in Florida




1980 S

in the late 60's and early 70's. The com-
munity image was really suffering. It
wasn't all tourist-related, but most of
the carnival and honky-tonk
atmosphere was associated with the
impact of tourism. And, it's a hard
thing for government to overcome.
That's a sad commentary on
government in the central Florida area.
Their concern was primarily with the
public health, safety and general
welfare and the aesthetic could go hang
itself. Finally, however, Orlando and a
few other communities decided to put
some muscle into their ordinances and
land regulations. It worked in Orlando
and in 1971 a landscape ordinance was
adopted and in 1974 comprehensive
sign regulation was adopted. As a
result, building facades began to
On the positive side of tourism, the
preponderance of people in the
Orlando area feel that Disney, and all
that came with it, are welcome because
of the increased economy. The com-


18.200.000 VISITORS
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1970 180 198

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ment was made recently that there is
not a mayor in the U S. who would not
like to have Disney sitting on his
doorstep. That's probably true!
Disney knew better than we did
what the problems of tourism were
because they'd been through it in
California. Disneyland sits on about
2,450 acres. For those of you who've
been there, I don't have to tell you
what it's like. You can almost drive past
Disneyland in California and never

know you've passed it because of all the
tourist-related activities and
honky-tonks that came with it. In
Florida, Walt Disney World bought
27,000 acres in central Florida and it
hasn't been exposed to the kind of
environmental damages that were
encountered in California.
The regulations that Orlando
adopted have impacted the
environment and made it a great deal
more pleasing and aesthetically

appealing. But, private development
has not relied on government to pro-
tect it, to resolve its problems or to
adopt regulatory language that they
feel is necessary to protect the image
they want to maintain. The State of
Florida saw a few years ago that there
had to be some consideration given to
regulating development statewide, and
planning was mandated. Many
communities have adopted growth
management plans and are using

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innovative techniques, but they really aren't sufficient be-
cause the private sector is putting more muscle into their
development standards, i.e., increasing setbacks, establish-
ing easements where they maintain control . they even
discuss and restrict locations of curb cuts where govern-
mental entities will allow almost any number. Landscaping
and sign regulation have become critical because they are
what keeps a high tourist area from looking like a garbage
Overall, the Central Florida picture is good. I think
that all of the things the private sector has done coupled
with what government has accomplished have done a
great deal to improve our image. I just hope it continues.*

Gene Bebermeyer, AIA, is with Reynolds, Smith and
Hills in Orlando. Thomas C. Blanton is a Project
Manager with Davis and Associates, Architects and
Planners in Orlando


-k Tl,,qp d ,od TRACTION

1301 N.W. 27th AVENUE
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(305) 351-1011 FLORIDA WATTS: 1-800-432-0561


A Socio /Historical

/ Climatic Response By JorgeRiau, AIA

The following is an abbreviated version of
Mr. Rigau's comments which were
delivered at the 1981 FA/AIA Fall
Conference in Jacksonville, Florida.
As co-founder of COLACION, a
group of architects interested in the
development of architecture and
urbanism is Puerto Rico, mv concerns
are addressed at the essence of our
architecture (in the islands) and the
responsibilities of change within it.
As conceived by the 'Modern
Movement' in architecture, the contem-
porary city should aim at disassociation
from the past. But, by now, we know,
that the joy of building as evidenced in
the Miami and Tampa presentations
(which discussed the development of
their respective downtown cores) can-
not be confused with the true joy of
living and being.
Identity in architecture is an issue
once again and unlimited development
is clearly not the answer.
A search for "the most constant
facts of the art," as a common base or a
frame of reference is imperative. I
think this is the essence of what we
have come to call regionalism.
Unfortunately, we continue to ignore
these references which, if understood
and reinstated, could make our
architectural work appear to be more
than a series of divertissementss" or

Left: Flatl f/ad of Fl mnan,'\ HoIse
in Ponce, Pai P i ..I ., .
relief in wood: Belo lefl: I ., ..
old San Juant Haou i the iolo;iial
urban context; Below: A mode, rn
neighborhood houe, detwlahed and uw-
ing the Old Srian 'iJant lel. PIhotos
courtesy ofjotgr Rigau. AI44.


unrelated pieces. Construction is at a
halt in Puerto Rico right now and be-
cause of that, this is the proper time to
think about what, in my own jargon,
are important references for
contemporary design in the islands.
I refer to these points of reference
as 1) the type of building to toy with; 2)
the flat facade and 3) the defining
First, let's look at building types.
The Hacienda de Esperanza in Puerto
Rico was built by a Marquis as his pri-
vate residence in a rural setting. The
entire facade is of wood, on both
floors, expressing a unity of concept.
The same man also built for himself
another house, in the tight urban con-
text of old San Juan, but this time he
used masonry construction for both
floors. The country house is a solid
volume but it was designed to overlook
nature outside via a balcony which was
later to evolve, in other examples, to an
extensive veranda. The urban house,
on the other hand, is self-enclosed with
an interior patio and interior gallery.
The rural structure is extroverted and
the urban structure is introverted. With
the development of inland towns, these
two types expressing the opposites of
city vs. country or rural vs. urban
developed into a peculiar type in-
corporating both concepts with the
ground floor in masonry and the top
floor in wood. As this new prototype
emerged from the two older types, it
could eventually be seen all over the
Island and its emergence can be
attributed to-many diverse factors,
among them climatic and social con-
siderations, both of which modern
architecture has ignored.
The basic concept for this new
prototype came to us through a long
line of development that traces the idea
of a ground floor for commercial use
and a first floor for living quarters back
to Roman times as exemplified by the
House of Diana at Ostia, to the
Renaissance Palazzi of Bramante and
Raphael and to the Spanish conquerors
settling in the New World.
The idea, so deeply engrained in
our minds, found its way into popular
expression and contemporary regres-
sions. Similar examples of other
evolved prototypes can be found all
over Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands. The issue being raised here is
why has modern architecture chosen to
ignore these prototypes which evolved
so logically?

The relevance of a prototype such
as the one I've mentioned here has
great validity as an idea or concept to
be reinterpreted by modern
architecture. The recognition of build-
ing types, as expressed by architects
Argan, Moneo, Vidler and others
brings the weight of tradition into con-
temporary architecture. As such, the
concept of type implies the idea of
change or transformation, the type
seen as a frame within which change
Building types are not models to
be copied. As an example, I cite a type
of old San Juan house which was
copied and inserted into a single family
detached housing neighborhood with-
out any concern for the context in
which the original example existed.
Such denials of the nature of types
challenge the definition of a regional
architecture and as such need to be
censored. Identifiable types are many
and deserve consideration.
Once the conceptual aspects of an
architecture are disclosed, the en-
closure becomes an important issue.
In Puerto Rico, this is handled in terms
of a flat facade. Tight urban conditions
not only achieve set design character
but also force the solution of
architectural problems into a thin plane
dealt with in a low relief manner.
Structures built under Spanish
rule were flat-surfaced, with a set of
mouldings or retallos, one to three
inches wide around windows and
doors, as if to frame them. The flat
background surface was usually
painted one color and the retallos, in
white, cast shadows of an almost linear
quality due to their lack of depth.
Examples can be seen all over San
Juan. Wood allows for effects of a
similar nature, as do tiles applied to the
Art Deco facades share this same
quality of shallowness or lightly
engraved surfaces. Although in Art
Deco buildings the retallo or moulding
on colonial structures does not appear,
the surface of the building is
articulated to look as if it were slightly
folded, producing similar linear
shadow effects and avoiding any impli-
cation of depth within the building's
facade. This treatment of the facade as
a flat, shallow plane is a thread that
runs through the development of fa-
cade design tradition in Puerto Rico
from colonial times to the present. It is
an element of continuity based on a

rich heritage that encompasses the
classical influences of the Medici Ricar-
di, the Spanish austerity and the
Moorish elaboration of the Alhambra.
We have identified a common
denominator for handling facades and
although reinterpretations are yet to
come, we know that neither the ex-
cesses of South America's Baroque nor
the economy of contemporary Aerican
architecture can render the answer.
Our efforts to this point to get an
architecture which our island deserves
have produced no satisfactory results.
Finally, let us get into interiors to
deal with a most interesting device of
spacial definition called
MEDIOPUNTO. The Mediopunto can
be subjected to diverse interpretations.
Originally it was simply a transparent
divider between two rooms in the
house, usually a living and dining
room. But the mediopunto many times
mirrors the front facade turning itself
into an interior facade as a second spa-
tial zone where the relationships made
evident in the facade outside are
established inside. Through the years
the Mediopunto has acknowledged dif-
ferent styles such as classic, colonial,
Greek Revival, creole or local and
Moorish Eclectic from around the
The Mediopunto addresses itself
to the idea of the arch as developed by
the diverse civilizations to which we re-
late. Further analysis of the
Mediopunto will render the device akin
to the aedicule in Roman temples, a
door, window or niche framed by
columns or pilasters and crowned with
a pediment. At an abstract level the
Mediopunto as an aedicule addresses
itself to the problems of relating a void
to the surrounding surface.
Though no longer in use now, the
Mediopunto remained a formula ele-
ment in houses up until the 1940's. Its
potential for space definition, such as
that of the flat facade and the idea of
type in architecture, are tools for us to
understand our own personality, to de-
fine our identity.
Only when we accept the challenge
that the aforementioned elements
represent will we be able to determine,
successfully, the nature of our build-
ings and our cities and get the archi-
tecture which we deserve and want.e
Jorge Rigau, AIA, is a practicing architect in
Puerto Rico. He is Executive Director of the
Colegio de Arquitectos de Puerto Rico and
was one of the founders of COLACION.



Roy Kenzie, Executive Director
Downtown Development Authority
City of Miami

The following is a portion of Mr.
Kenzie's presentation to the FAIAIA Fall

One of the most important things
about Miami's growth and develop-
ment has been its continuing connec-
tion with South America and the
Caribbean. If you draw a line vertically
through Miami running north and
south, the Caribbean and South
America are east of that line so Miami
forms a natural bridge between the
Americas. We've learned that there are
as many people in as large a market to
the south of us with equal travel time as
there are to the north.
As we concentrate on those mar-
kets, it means a tremendous rate of
tourism, business and commerce flow-
ing through Miami. The greatest indi-
cation of that fact has been the growth
of international banking. We have 69
international banks doing business in
Miami which places it second in the na-
tion after New York as an international
banking center. On top of that, the
legislature recently allowed for an
International Insurance Exchange
similar to Lloyds of London to be
placed in Miami and we expect it to
draw many large insurance companies
into our downtown area.
Also, the Port of Miami is the
largest passenger/cruise ship port in
the world. One third of all the cruise
ships in the world operate out of the
Port of Miami. Right now the port is
undergoing a huge expansion pro-
gram. About $250 million is being
spent to expand the port out to the is-
lands which are now being filled and
bulkheaded. Shortly there will be two

channels coming into the port with ex-
panded tourism through increased
numbers of cruise ships operating out
of the port.
Approximately 1.3 million tourists
a year go through the port, but by 1985
there will be two million and in the
year 2,000 there will be four million
tourists using cruise ships in the Port
of Miami.
We are also expanding our airport.
Miami International is one of the top
ten airports in the world, with 23 mil-
lion passengers a year. We are spend-
ing about $400 million dollars to
expand the facility. This includes new
inboard and outboard terminals, new
parking facilities, new runways and
road systems. The airport is particu-
larly important to downtown Miami
because of its proximity-about a fif-
teen minute drive. This allows down-
town businesses easy access to the
airport which is an important commer-
cial feature.
We are also doing things
downtown to try to capitalize on the
cultural facilities that we already have.
If you looked at downtown Miami six
or seven years ago, One Biscayne
Tower, the tallest building in down-
town Miami, was nearly empty and in
bankruptcy. In fact, one quarter of all
office space downtown was empty. Re-
tail sales were poor, suburbanization
had taken its toll and the malls around
downtown had lost the majority of
their market.
That picture has turned around
180 degrees. One Biscayne Tower
recently sold for $150 million. Today,
downtown office occupancy is about 97
percent. There are no large chunks of

new office space available. In the
Brickell Avenue area next to down-
town, occupancy is about 99%. That in-
cludes new space and buildings under
construction with space that has been
In terms of new development and
construction, Miami is one of the lead-
ing cities in the country in terms of
redevelopment efforts. About 2.2
billion dollars in new construction is
underway with another one billion
dollars in the works. This translates
into about 68 projects that are under-
way right now. These are not projects
which are slated for completion in the
distant future, but buildings that will be
ready for occupancy in the next three
to four years.
One reason we've moved forward
so aggressively in Miami is that we've
had a wonderful working partnership
between the public and private sector
creating a new world center in the
downtown. This partnership has
worked effectively to push projects
forward, particularly the convention
and trade center projects.
We have a very aggressive
downtown development program in
Miami. We have not lost our
momentum in terms of pushing down-
town forward and developing a unified
The accompanying schematic and
related charts provide more specific in-
formation about projects which are
complete, underway and announced.
This information was supplied by the
Downtown Development Authority,
City of Miami and was first published
in City News 6/81. City News is available
upon request from the DDA in Miami.

1. Office Building 13. Nasher Plaza Service Center 29. Everglades Center 36. MI,
2. Intercontinental Bank 14. Riverpoint Condominium 21. City of Miami 30. Marina Park Hotel 37. Cli
3. Caribank Tower 15. Brickell Key- Phase II & III Administration Building 31. United Methodist Church
4. Bamett Centre 16. Brickell Metrorall Station -Phase I 32. El Plaza Hotel 38. MI
5. Flagship Center 17. Brickell Component of 22. Burdines Department Store 33. City of Miaml/University
6. Sunset Commercial Bank Metrorall 23. United States Justice of Miami James L. I
7. Interterra 18. City of Miami Police Building Knight Intemational 39. U.S
8. Four Ambassadors Headquarters 24. Downtown Center Center and Hyatt Hotel <
9. Holiday Inn Hotel 19. City of Miami Police 25. Miami Center of Commerce 34. World Trade Center 40. Me
10. Brickell Key Phase I Headquarters Parking 26. Sun Rok Parking Garage <
11. 1221 Brickell Building Garage 27. American Business Center 35. Southeast Financial 41. Eve
12. Grandvlew 20. State of Florida Regional 28. J. Byrons Department Store Center 42. ME


43. Bank of Miami
44. College Plaza
45. Metro-Dade
Administration Building
46. City of Miami
Administration -
Phase II
47. Dade County
48. Government Center
Metrorall Station
49. Central Support Facility

& Parking Garage 59. Bayfront Park
50. Fort Dallas Park Redevelopment
51. Miami River Walkway Project
Phase II 60. Park West
52. World Trade Center 61. Washington Helghts
53. Dade Center Metrorall Station
54. Harry Cain Tower 62. Downtown Component
55. Ramada Inn Hotel of Metrorall
56. Downtown Intemational 63. Plaza Venetia Phase I
Plaza 64. Boulevard Shops
57. Quality Inn 65. Anna Brenner Meyer
58. Freedom Tower Educational

66. Plaza Venetia Phase II
67. Keyes Building
68. Omni Component of

FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Winter, 1982 19

Phase I
insion -





1. Office Building HIaleah Associates 4 story office building with 21.600 sq. ft. of space. $2.8 Million
1339 S.W 1st Avenue Fraga. Alonso and Felto Completed March, 1980
2. Intercontinental Bank Intercontinental Bank Properties 9 story office building with 42,000 sq. ft. of space. $5 Million
1395 Brlckell Avenue Watson, Deutschman, Krause. Lyon Completed May, 1981
3. Carbank Tower Banac Development Corporation 13 story office building with 86,000 sq. ft. of office space and $10 Million
848 Brickell Avenue Ferendino, Grafton, Spills & andela 270 parking spaces. Completed February, 1984
4. Barnett Centre Intercap Investments, Inc. 15 story office building with 190000 sq. ft. of office space, $30 Million
800 Brickell Avenue Ferendino, Grafton. Spillis & Candela 20,000 sq. ft. of retail space and 560 parking spaces. Completed February. 1981
5. Flagship Center Nasher Company 13 story office building with 280.000 sq. ft. of office space, a $20 Million
77TBrlckell Avenue Hellmuth, Obata. Kassabaum, Inc. 5 lane auto banking facility and 765 parking spaces. Completed March, 1980
6. Sunset Commercial Bank Doran Jason Company 10 story office building with 88,000 sq. ft. of office space and $4.5 Million
799 Brickell Plaza Ted Roux & Associates 300 parking spaces. Completed December, 1980


7. Interterra Interterra, Inc. 19 story mixed-use complex with 187,466 sq.f. of office $22 Million
1200 Brickell Avenue Skidmore. Owings & Merrill space. 32.700 sq. ft. of retail space and 650 parking Estimated completion August.
spaces. 1981
8. Four Ambassadors Jerry A. Gross, Laurans A. Mendelson Renovation of North Tower to Hotel Ambassador with 200 $6 Million
801 S. Bayshore Drive Lapasso Associates with Selphler & rooms. The three remaining towers will be converted to Estimated completion June. 1981
Delkman residential with 543 units.
9. Holiday Inn Hotel Johnson Properties. Inc. 17 story hotel with 600 rooms. $32 Million
495 Brickell Avenue John H. Summer & Associates Estimated completion
September, 1981
10. Brickell Key Phase I Swire, Cheezem. Ltd. Multi-phased development on 33.59acres. Phase I will $35 Million
Claughton Island Wilbur Smith & Associates consist of a 27 story residential tower with 301 Phase I estimated completion
condominium units and 16,000 sq. ft. of office space. late 1981


11.1221 Brickell Building BLK Company 35storycondominium office building with 266,000 sq. ft. of $27 Million
1221 Brickell Avenue Urban Core International office space and 872 parking spaces. Construction estimated to begin
June, 1981
12. Grandview Mel Schuster 36 story condominium tower with 67 units $20 Million
1100 S. Bayshore Drive Charles Sieger Construction estimated to begin
July, 1981
13. Nasher Plaza Nasher Company 14 story office building with 285.500 sq. ft. of office space, a $35 Million
777 Brickell Avenue Hellmuth, Obata, Kassabaum. Inc. 4 story parking structure with 1,580 parking spaces, and Construction estimated to begin
40.000 sq. ft. of retail space. July, 1981
14. Riverpoint Condominium RIverpoint. Inc. A twin-tower condominium with 160 units and 300 parking $20 Million
401 Brickell Avenue Jose Sierra Architects spaces. Construction estimated to begin
15. Brlckell Key-- Phase II & III Swire, Cheezem. Ltd. Phase II: a 24 story condominium with 336 residential units. $138 Million
Claughton Island Wilbur Smith & Associates Phase III: a 27 story condominium with 410 residential units. Construction estimated to begin
16. Brickell Metrorall Station Metro-Dade County A 3 level Metrorall station that will serve over 8,000 patrons $3.85 Million
S.W 1st Avenue between 10th and 11th Streets Russell. Martinez & Holt with Finch, daily Construction estimated to begin
Alexander, Bomes, Rothchild & May. 1981.
17. Brickell Component of Metrorall Metro-Dade County South leg: A 1.14 mile, two way shuttle system with 5 stations. $46.8 Million
Consultants: Gannett Flemming/S83 Construction subject to funding.
a joint venture


18. City of Miami Police Headquarters
Government Center
400 N.W 2nd Avenue
19. City of Miami Police Headquarters Parking
Government Center
400 N.W 2nd Avenue
20. State of Florida Regional Service Center
Government Center
401 N.W 2nd Avenue
21. City of Miami Administration Building -
Phase I
Government Center
275 N.W. 2nd Street
22. Burdines Department Store
22 East Flagler Street

23. United States Justice Building
Miami Avenue at S.E. 2nd Street
24. Downtown Center
200 S. Miami Avenue

25. Miami Center of Commerce
S.E. 1st Street and 1st Avenue
26. Sun Rok
17 S.E. 1st Avenue
27. American Business Center
34 S.E. 2nd Avenue

28. J. Byrons Department Store
51 East Flagler Street
29. Everglades Center
282 N.E. 2nd Street
30. Marina Park Hotel
340 Biscayne Boulevard
31. United Methodist Church
400 Biscayne Boulevard

City of Miami
Pancoast, Bouterse. Borelll, Albalso.
Architects. Planners, Inc.
City of Miami
Pancoast, Borelli & Albaiso

State of Florida
Russell. Martinez & Holt

City of Miami
Poncoast, Borelli & Albaisa

Federated Department Stores. Inc.
Herbert Johnson & Associates and The
Walker Group interiors
Florida East Coast Properties
Herbert Johnson & Associates
Paul Rosen
William Friedman

Moreno Habif and Guillermo Sostchin
Jaime Schapiro
Natan Rok
Oscar Sklar
American Business Center. Inc.
Rudy Glass Construction Engineers

Byron-Flagler. Inc.
Oscar Sklar
Natan Rok
Moises ChorowskI
Marina Park Associates
United Methodist Church
WW Baggesen

5 story police headquarters with 440,000 sq. ft. of space for
approximately 1,000 employees.

City of Miami Police Headquarters parking garage with 598
parking spaces and an automotive service facility.

10 story office building with 169.000 sq. ft. of office space for
approximately 620 employees.

5 story municipal office building with 70.000 sq. ft. of space
for 300 city employees.

Renovation of a 6 story department store including 2 new
restaurants and a new facade.

14 story office building with 175,000 sq. ft. of space.

Renovation of 150.000 sq. ft. building with 30,000 sq. ft. of
retail space and 90,000 sq. ft. of office space on floors
A 2 level retail mall with 18.000 sq. ft. of retail space fort2
bi-level stores.
6,800 sq. ft. building with space for 3 retail shops.

Adaptive re-use of Urmey Hotel. Two levels of retail shops
with 20,000 sq. ft. of space, a restaurant, and 25.000 sq. ft.
of office space in upper floors.
Interior and exterior remodeling of 36,000 sq. ft. of retail
3 story, 51,000 sq. ft. retail center with 20 shops and
10 story hotel renovation with 200 refurbished hotel rooms, a
restaurant, and exterior improvements.
450 seat church including space for social and office

$7 Million
Completed May. 1976

$2 Million
Completed May. 1976

$6.4 Million
Completed September, 1978

$4 Million
Completed September. 1980

$6 Million
Completed March. 1980

$15 Million
Completed May, 1980
$4 Million
Completed April, 1981

Completed April. 981
Completed August, 4980
$5.8 Million
Completed December, 1980.

Completed April. 1980
$2.5 Million
Completed June. 1980
$5 Million
Completed June, 1980
$1.5 Million
Completed June. 1980



32. Best Western
El Plaza Hotel
100 N.E. 10th Street

Mit-So Enterprlses. Inc. In affiliation with Renovation of Dolphin Hotel with 52 single rooms and 26 $2.2 Million
Best Western, Inc. deluxe suites, swimming pool and parking. Completed May. 1980
Taquechel Associates


33. City of Miami/University of Miami., James L.
Knight International Center and Hyatt
Regency Hotel
400 S.E. 2nd Avenue
34. World Trade Center Parking Garage
S.E. 2nd Street at 1st Avenue

35. Southeast Financial Center
Biscayne Blvd. and S.E. 3rd Street

36. Miami Center Phase I
One Chopin Plaza

37. City of Miami Parking Garage
180 N.E. 3rd Street

38. Miami-Dade Community College
Expansion Phase II
101 N.E. 4th Street
39. U.S. Courthouse Complex
300 N.E. 1st Avenue

40. Metro-Dode Cultural Center
Government Center
Flagler Street between N.W 3rd and 5th
41. Everglades Hotel
244 Biscayne Boulevard

42. Metromall
1 N.E. 1st Street

43. Bank of Miami
140 East Flagler Street
44, College Plaza
N.E. 2nd Avenue and 3rd Street

45. Metro-Dade Administration Building
Government Center
N.W 2nd Ave. & N.W 1st St.

46. City of Miami Administration Phase II
275 N.W 2nd Street

47. Dade County Courthouse
73 West Flagler Street

48. Government Center Metroroll Station
West of N.W 1st Avenue between Ist and
2nd Streets
49. Central Support Facility & Parking Garage
Government Center
Flagler St. & N.W 2nd Avenue

50. Fort Dallas Park
Miami River between S.E. 1st Avenue and N.
Miami Avenue
51. Miami River Walkway Phase II
North bank of Miami River from S.E. 2nd
Avenue to Fort Dallas Park
52. World Trade Center
S.E. 2nd Street and 1st Avenue

53. Dade Center
104 E. Flagler Street

54. Harry Coin Tower
N.W 2nd Avenue and N.E. 5th Street

55. Ramada inn Hotel
N.E. 2nd Avenue & N.E. 25th Street

56. Downtown International Plaza
N.E. 2nd Avenue & N.E. 3rd Street

57. Quality Inn
530 Biscayne Boulevard

58. Freedom Tower
600 Biscayne Boulevard

59. Bayfront Park Redevelopment Project
Biscayne Boulevard between Chopin Plaza
and N.E. 2 Street

60. Park West
Planning area bounded on the North by
1-395. East by Biscayne Blvd. & South and
West by FEC Railway tracks.
61. Washington Heights Metrorall Station
West of N.W 1st Avenue between N.W 1st &
2nd Streets
62. Downtown Component of Metrorail

Joint Development: City of Miami,
University of Miami. Miami Center
Ferendino, Grafton. Spills & Condela
City of Miami/University of
Miami/Miami Center Associates
Ferendino, Grafton. Spillis & Candela

Gerald D. Hines Interests
Skidmore, Owlngs & Merrill

Holywell Corporation
Pietro Belluschl. Vlastimll Koubek

City of Miami Off-Street Parking
Conrad Associates East
Miami Dade Community College
Ferendlno, Grafton. Spllls & Condela

United States Government, G.S.A.
Ferendino, Grafton, Spllls & Candela

Metro-Dade County
Phillip Johnson and John Burgee with
Connell, Metcalf & Eddy

New Everglades, Inc.
O.K. Houston

Aesop Enterprises
Pancoast & Albalso Architects

Bank of Miami
Sebastian Trujillo
Moreno Hablf & Guillermo Sostchln
Jalme Schapiro

Metro-Dode County
Hugh Stubbins Associates and
Collaborative 3

City of Miami
Pancoost & Albalsa

Dade County
Milton Harris Associates

Metro-Dade County
Cambridge 7 Associates with
Hernando Acosta & Assocla
Metro-Dade County
Ferendino. Grafton, Spllls & C

City of Miami
City of Miami Dept. of Parks &
City of Miami
Connell. Metcalf and Eddy &
Hanna Olln
Dade Savings
I.M. Pel Associates

Luis Brill, Oscar Sklar. Natan Ro
Oscar Sklar

Metro-Dade HUD
Ferguson, Glaskow and Schust

Norman Neirenberg, Errol Eisint
Wallace Lazarus. Henry Arm
Charles Glller
N.B.E. Development Corporati
Juan Gutierrez

Donald Doctors and James Bill
Marshall Bellin & Associates

Venture Development Corpora
Perry, Dean. Stall & Rogers

City of Miami Dept. of Parks &
Isamu Noguchi

Developer undetermined
Consultants: Wallace. Robers
American City Corporation
Parsons Brinckerhoff
Metro-Dade County
Hatcher, Zellger. Gunn & Assoc
with Heery & Heery
Metro-Dade County
Supplier and prime contractor:
Westinghouse. Architectural
consultants: F.G.S.C.; Engines
consultants: Post Buckley

Multi-use development with a19 story, 608 room Hyatt
Regency Hotel; a 400,000 sq. ft. conference center and a
5.000 seat auditorium; 26.000 sq. ft. of retail space and
30.000 sq. ft.of exhibit space.
A 1,450 space parking garage to serve the Convention
Center, Hyatt Hotel and World Trade Center. Parking
structure will serve as platform for air-rights development
of the World Trade Center.
55 story corporate headquarters building with 1,210,300 sq.
ft. of office space, a 12 story banking structure with 30.000
sq. ft. of retail space and 1,150 parking spaces.
Phase I: A mixed-use development with a 630 room hotel, a
750.000 sq. ft. office tower with 45,000 sq. ft. of retail
space and 2.635 parking spaces. Phase II: Two residential
towers with 324 condominium units & townhouses.
S.nliclipal parking garage with 700 spaces.

Academic/administrative complex with 134.000 sq. ft. of
space for classrooms, faculty offices and laboratory
11 story tower with 186,000 sq. ft. of space for judicial
chambers and courtrooms. Two, 3 story wings to house
anxillary functions.
Cultural complex Includes a Main Library with 204.500 sq.
ft.; Art Museum with 27,600sq. ft.; Historical Museum with
37,200 sq. ft.; and a central plaza and restaurant.

Major Interior renovation to the 371 room hotel, including
new conference facilities and 22,000 sq. ft. of retail
Conversion of 7 story building with 92.000 sq. ft. of retail
space on levels 1-3 and 130,000 sq. ft. of office space on
Remodeling of interior bank lobby and second floor.

A split level retail moll with 15,000 sq. ft. of space for 7 stores.


30 story administration center with 600,000 sq. ft. of office
space; 40,000 sq. ft. of retail space and 60.000 sq. ft. for
Government Center Metrorail and telecommunications
20 story municipal office building with 318.838 sq. ft. of

Exterior renovation of 28 story courthouse building Including
restoration of exterior terra cotta tile, granite walls and
pyramid roof.
Three-level Govemment Center Station to be built adjacent
to Metro-Dode Administration Building. Projected to serve
tes over 50,000 patrons dolly.
A multi-use facility with 295.000 sq. ft. of space; a 600 car
andela parking structure integrated with the Energy
Management Center. Security and maintenance will also
be Included.
22,500 sq. ft. tract of land designated for the development
of a riverfront park.

1.200 linear feet of landscaped walkway along the north
bank of the Miami River.

35 story World Trade Center with 600,000 sq. ft. of office
space to be built on top of parking garage serving
Convention Center.
k Renovation of former Dade Savings Building with 104.000
sq. ft. of office space and 58,000 sq. ft. of retail space. An
18 story hotel with 500 rooms will be built on top of a 2 story
annex building at 119 E. Flagler Street.
13 story public housing center with 150 units and 30.000 sq.
er, Inc. ft. of retail and support services.

ger. 14 story hotel with 264 rooms. 35.000 sq. ft. of retail space
an and 248 parking spaces.

on 10 story office condominium tower with 60,000 sq. ft. of
office space above a two level retail mall with 10.000 sq.
ft. of space.
Wings Conversion of former Parkleigh House apartment building to
hotel with 214 rooms and 4 rental apartments.

itlon Restoration of 17 story tower with 34,400 sq. ft. of space to
original condition. A 66 story mixed-use tower will be built
behind the original structure.
Re-development of 18 acres of Boyfront Park. This will
include amphitheatre, two founfain/plaza areas.
baywalk, children's play area. rock garden, international
visitor's plaza, restaurant, people mover station and
possible parking areas.
Proposed re-development area. 85 acre site with potential
& Todd, for 3,000-4.000 residential units.

Two-level transit station serving the Overtown Neighborhood
latest to the West and the proposed Park West community to the
CBD Loop: a 1.9 mile two way loop system with 10 stations.


$109 Million
Estimated completion February,

$15 Million
Estimated completion February,

$107 Million
Estimated completion mid-1983

Phase 1: $116 Million
Phase II: $60 Million
Estimated completion August,
S5.4 Million
Estimated completion July. 1981

$15.1 Million
Estimated completion
January. 1982
$22 Million
Estimated completion May. 1983

$25 Million
Estimated completion April, 1982

$12 Million
Estimated completion October,
$7 Million
Estimated completion June. 1981

Estimated completion late 1981
Estimated completion
September, 1981

$54.5 Million
Construction estimated to begin
July. 1981

$21 Million
Construction estimated to begin
$1.9 Million
Construction estimated to begin
May, 1981
$7.1 Million
Construction estimated to begin
$15 Million
Construction estimated to begin
December, 1981

Construction estimated to begin
October. 1981
Construction estimated to begin
October, 1981
$40 Million
Construction estimated to begin
in 1982
$35 Million
Construction estimated to begin
late 1981

$5 Million
Construction estimated to begin
in January. 1982
$35 Million
Construction estimated to begin
late 1981
$15 Million
Construction estimated to begin
late. 1981.
$7 Million
Construction estimated o begin
May, 1981
$50 Million
Construction estimated tp begin
$10 Million
Design/Development phase

$300-S400 Million
Consultant study to be
completed May. 1981.

$3.67 Million
Construction estimatedto begin
July. 1981
$92.5 Million
Final Design Phase








-"3~ ~




At the close of the 1981 Fall Con-
ference in Jacksonville, the following panel-
ists responded to the presentations which
were given during the conference. Excerpts
from their critical analysis are presented

William Pena, FAIA, Senior Vice Pres-
ident of Caudill Rowlett Scott, Hous-
ton, Texas:
"The tourist economy shapes the
growth of an area very decidedly. In
the past two days I haven't heard a lot
about orange juice and how it isn't just
for breakfast anymore, but I have
heard a lot about tourism. I heard ab-
out great hoards of people coming into
Florida in almost cartoon-like
fashion-a cartoon of fast food places
which I immediately related to fast ar-
chitecture. I perceived a picture of a
populist invasion coming down the
peninsula, a pop architecture
response-a response that would prob-
ably make Venturi smile.
"And yet, there was a tremendous
planning measure that I saw working
against this cartoon-planning efforts
to combat growth through ordinances
of all kinds, to enhance landscapes, to
preserve the Florida character, to chan-
nel the rivers of vehicular traffic, to
house and entertain the young and the
"In one of the presentations, some-
one complained about hotels in a cer-
tain area being too far apart for walk-
ing. That triggered in my mind a mem-
ory of Gerald Hines, the developer of
the Houston Galleria, who said, "The
price you pay for excitement is conges-
tion." Maybe that's what makes carni-
vals so exciting for us ... the conges-
tion. But, on the other hand, I could
see the planning efforts that were
being made to handle the congestion
with safety and adequacy and that con-
vinces me that the planning people are
taking their roles as stewards of the
land seriously.
The program which concerned it-
self with Architecture in Government
was particularly interesting to me. I
found it refreshing to find so many
awards for government sponsored
buildings as those that won the Gov-
ernor's Design Awards.
"As an architectural programmer,

and you must know from the start that
I am an architect, but I'm also an
architectural programmer, I'm a fana-
tic about budget and area. But, I heard
the word "budget" too many times. I
heard "we have to keep it in the
budget" over and over again.And, even
though this is my song, I didn't enjoy
hearing about it so much. I was not
assured from what I heard that both
the budget and the area were being de-
termined in a reasonable way. I know
this to be the case, because in the last
two years I have worked on three or
four government buildings, and there
has been no agreement on net to gross
when you try to change the net areas to
gross. It is much more of a political
than a rational way of dealing with the
"I was working on an embassy
building with a net growth of 70-30
and I wondered what kind of repre-
sentational building it was going to be.
Either someone doesn't know what net
and gross means, or we're using it for
political reasons so the legislature or
Congress can say "Oh, aren't those peo-
ple efficient." So, I question net and
gross in terms of areas and I question
the programming. As a programmer, I
have to reconfirm areas to make sure
that the perameters are right before I
accept a job. There was no mention of
that in the lectures we heard here.
"I also wanted to know who esti-
mates cost in jobs for Florida govern-
ment. First, the area is of concern be-
cause the cost is linked to the area and
at what level of quality was the cost
established. In my own mind I have six
or seven levels of quality, which, like
cars, range from austere to opulent
and beyond. So, there is a curve of
quality that I always refer to with my
clients to find out what they want to
"In my hometown, we built an
austere auditorium because that was
within the client's budget, their quality
level. Well, I wanted to know at what
quality level Florida's government
buildings are being prized.
"I thought, while listening to the
"Architecture in Government" pre-
sentation, that there was a good chal-
lenge presented to the architect who
exercises design leadership. Leadership

is terribly important on the part of the
architect, and the client. I'm used to
working with committees all the time
and leadership is important within
committees. If strong leadership
doesn't exist, a project will get pulled
apart by going in five different direc-
tions instead of pulling together to give
the building some reason for being
more than the sum of its parts. I think
in post-modern language, that is called
a transformation. In order to have
more than the sum of the parts, people
have to want a better building. So, it
really has come down to "Are We Get-
ting the Architecture We Deserve?"
Well, I ask the question, "Do the peo-
ple want better buildings or do they
just want a better platform for them-
selves or something similarly narcissis-
tic?" For good architecture, the client
has to want a good building and the
architect has to be organized for lead-
"Touching on the Caribbean pre-
sentations for a moment leads me to
say this: I heard about types and trans-
formations and references and mem-
ory and regionalism, all of which are
post-modern and I just loved hearing
about them. But, I think that we are
getting too narrow a definition of arch-
itecture. Let me tell you my definition,
so you know where I stand. My teacher
taught me that architecture is most
likely to occur if, during the planning
process, form, function, economy and
time are considered simultaneously.
The end product will probably have an
equilibrium of those four factors, but
these days we only talk about form and
not about function. Nor do we mention
the client and the hell with cost. We
don't want to discuss cost and yet econ-
omy is stressed. Even Vitruvius, I must
remind you, didn't include cost in his
beauty, utility and strength. I say Vitru-
vius is obsolete. Without a cost factor
you are nowhere. That's what I felt
when we were dealing with the ques-
tion of "where are we going with
architecture in Puerto Rico?" To my-
self, I was saying, "we're going to con-
sider regionalism, which is now called
contextualism, but we're also going to
consider function who is this house
for and how much money do we have
for housing?" We need to give this

whole question of "Are We Getting the
Architecture We Deserve?" some sense
of reality by translating it into some
specific concrete points. That helps
transform a judgemental question into
a realistic inquiry."

George Notter, FAIA, Boston, Mas-
sachusetts, 1982 Vice President of the
American Institute of Architects:
"I particularly enjoyed the pre-
sentations which were made by the
people from the various architectural
schools in the state. The training of
new architects is very important and I
enjoyed hearing about the respective
programs in architecture.
"However, I'd like to address the
bulk of my remarks to the subject of
downtown development in Miami and
Tampa. It appears to me that the de-
velopment in those two cities is going

very much the way someone wants it to
go, and I have some serious questions
about it going that way. Whether you
call it context or quality, I'm not sure
that is the way to go. In terms of what
I've seen happening in Tampa and
Miami, I think that it is important to
stop and look and make some judge-
ments about the quality of life and un-
limited development or quality vs.
quantity. My response to the question
of what should we do in the face of all
this development is that you should
stop and evaluate what it is you want. If
you can't tell people what you want,
then you'll no longer determine what it
is you get.
"I would have liked to hear much
more from the speakers about what it is
that you want from your architecture
here in Florida. That sort of discussion
helps the programming and it helps
find answers that need to be brought

back into the architectural context.
"Florida's architects do not lack the
skill to produce very fine architecture.
As one of the judges of the Design
Competition for the Awards for Excel-
lence in Architecture this year, I saw
very fine submissions produced across
the board. I can tell you that when
comparing other states with Florida,
the architects here have talent. My con-
cern is that the Florida architects are
not getting the opportunity to produce.
"It looks to me like, here in Flor-
ida, you know how to do it, but no
one's decided that they want you to do
it yet. That is the major thing which I'd
be concerned about as an architect
practicing in this state. Florida prob-
ably is getting the architecture it de-
serves, but I think that if you look at
the work of your own architects you
will see that more is possible than what
is being asked for right now.

^ _-N
r 'i"

Ys\y ^_ .--r


Pena & Notter


John Dixon, FAIA, Editor of Progres-
sive Architecture:
"This is my first time in this part of
Florida and I was struck by the ex-
treme difference between the various
parts of the program, the tourism and
urban development people vs. every-
one else. It seems to me that there are
two very different sets of users and
clients related to the question of "Is
Florida Getting the Architecture It De-
serves?" There is the big business, big
government group and big chamber of
commerce and development group that
appear to be going after quantity and
getting it and a much smaller contin-
gent with more taste and less money
that is going after quality. This latter
group, fortunately, contains a few rep-
resentatives from government and
education and they should be thanked
profusely for their efforts.
"So you have this big group on the

one hand getting their quantity and
their budget met and on the other
hand you have the patrons of architec-
ture who are generally doing things on
a much smaller scale except to the ex-
tent that government and education
will support them. The problem is that
the public has all this big business stuff
inflicted on them and in my opinion it
is aesthetically damaging and, although
I don't have the statistics to support it,
I think it is also economically and eco-
logically damaging to the state.
"For instance, we heard from
Orlando about several new develop-
ments including the expansion of Dis-
ney World and all of the people who
are latching onto similar ideas includ-
ing such things as Little England. I ask
you, would anyone really come to Cen-
tral Florida to see something called Lit-
tle England? Many people could see
the real thing for nearly the same

price. I think the pressing question is,
will these things become obsolete and
how soon? Think about places like
Coney Island and Atlantic City which
developers were unable to resusitate as
Las Vegas East. Obsolescence does hap-
pen. In fact, I'm reminded of a funny
line from an old Burt Lancaster movie
in which he said, "The ocean simply
isn't what it used to be."
"In any case, Disney did have very
good management and it didn't go the
way of Coney Island in a rapid, un-
planned way, but it seems impossible to
me that all these attractions are going
to survive competitively. People who
spend a few days at Disney World or
Sea World aren't necessarily going to
spend fourteen days running the whole
tourist circuit of Orlando attractions. I
personally think that Orlando is in for
a letdown.
"I'd like to comment on Disney's


Dixon & Morgan



Dixon & Morgan

iv organ

attempt to upgrade itself after ten
years of operation. It seems to me that
this upgrading is for an adult audience.
That doesn't imply anything scan-
dalous, but that it is designed for an
older audience and that it isn't as radi-
cally impacted by school holidays as is
the Magic Kingdom. Anyway, the ques-
tion I would like to raise is how much
all of this tourist development and up-
grading has done for the life of Orlan-
do citizens? Has it lowered tax rates or
improved life? Another questions is
what impact are all these second home
communities and condo resorts having
on the stable communities in Orlando?
They are a big economic element and
they must impact the year round citi-
zen in a variety of ways.
"In contrast to Orlando, Tampa
and Miami certainly know that they
have a downtown. They seem to have
very specific objectives in mind in
terms of their downtown development
and it seems to me that these have been
built up out of fear of economic de-
cline. I think that originally that fear
may have been real, but I now find it
hard to imagine how Tampa can come
up with figures showing 73% increase
in this and 120% increase in that with-
out becoming suspicious of what is be-
hind the objectives. Fear of economic
decline no longer seems viable. Harbor
Isle was mentioned as an example of an
extension and improvement of down-
town when on a map it looks like a fort-
ress with a moat around it.
"In Miami, it seems shocking that
all that enormous investment in physi-
cal structures has no apparent coor-
dination. I know there is planning
going on, but frankly every picture I
saw looked like a different piece of a
crazy quilt. And they want it all.
"Both in the islands and all over
Florida you have the very definite
problem of absentee architects. You
certainly have it in Tampa and Miami
with people coming in from all over the
country doing these huge chunks of
development. It's kind of like the
Americans going to the Arabian Gulf
States and seizing opportunity. In re-
sponse to the question of "Is Florida
Getting the Architecture It Deserves?",
I'll give you a New York-style response
... "Is Any Place Getting the Architec-
ture It Deserves?"

William Morgan, FAIA, Jacksonville,
"The comments and critiques that
we've heard from my fellow panelists

have been very perceptive and
thought-provoking, particularly since
they are unbiased to the extent that
they do not live in Florida. I think that
the response to the question of whether
Florida is getting the architecture it de-
serves has to do with perception, that is
what we perceive to be our just desserts
or are we in fact well served by our
architecture? Do we really want and are
we prepared to receive good architec-
ture or to go through the sacrifices that
it would take to get it? I have the feel-
ing that what we are getting in Florida
is not wholly good and not wholly bad.
There does, however, seem to be a
great deal of room for moving ahead
with ideas and taking more confidence
in what we're doing and developing an
architecture that indeed reflects the
particular needs of our particular
areas. I think the whole tone of this
conference is good because it addresses
the issues, qualities and aspirations of
our profession.
"We must look at architectural
perceptions that are different than our
own and then examine our own points
of view. Then we must ask, 'how are we
communicating with each other, how
are we expressing the ideas or the qual-
ities that we desire, how are we order-
ing our priorities and what is most im-
portant to us?' Is it most important to
build the building or to create a par-
ticular place or facade on the street?
"I think what it finally comes down
to is that through our own perceptions
and our own understandings comes a
realization of the fact that we exist as
individuals and in respect to each other
we need to consider the kind of archi-
tecture that best serves the greatest
number of people.
"The question of the ideal and the
real are constantly on our minds as
architects. Much of what we've seen
during this program has been a kind of
acquiescence and in many cases we may
be losing many of our ideals. We now
need to look for new and better ways to
implement our ideals while at the same
time bringing ourselves into the focus
of reality. I think what we're all trying
to do, what the game is all about, is
establishing some kind of special re-
lationship between man and his en-
vironment. I think we can do it hu-
manely with a view of history and with
an eye to the future. It's been quite well
said today that we, as architects, are in
a position that requires leadership. We
must all take advantage of that position
and do something about it."O


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By Murray Laurie
R enovation, restoration, reuse ...
Why? Reality. That's why. The
reality is that many architects whose '
reputations have been built in steel and
concrete choose to live in houses '
abounding with bric-a-brac. Firms
whose reputations rest on bringing the
newest and most daring design forms
to Florida set up office space in re- .
stored 1920's commercial buildings., .-.
The Reality is that "No idea is so
antiquated that it was not once modern
and no idea is so modern that it will not
some day be antiquated.. ." (Ellen
Glascow 1874-1945)
The Reality is that while we are de-
ciding if Florida is getting the new
architecture it deserves, we must also
ask the question, "are we preserving
what deserves to be saved?"
The answer, it seems, is that we're
Not all architects are willing sup-
porters of the national wave of en-
thusiasm for the rehabilitation of old
buildings. Those who have traveled
widely in Europe or who hail from
New England are likely to scoff at
efforts to save a 1919 tourist hotel. Old
buildings are inefficient, they may
claim, hard to heat and almost impos-
sible to air condition. Stucco crumbles,
termites consume, salt air corrodes,
tastes change.
But, in Reality, it is the element of
time, or the passage of time, that gives
us perspective on what must be saved.
The same years that errode and cor-
rode and consume a building also bring
the genius of an architectural age into
In the past many buildings have
been torn down with no thought to re-
cording what they looked like, how
they related to other buildings nearby,
what materials were used or how they
had weathered the years. At the Uni-
versity of Miami, Woody Wilkins, now
retired, initiated historic preservation
courses in the School of Architecture
which had students preparing mea-
sured drawings and researching and
documenting South Florida's not very "FAIRBAWKS Fu L--A roamed \ati,,al Regni,, tl., in F erm',da Beachn/i nth astrt. The house,
old but very, very threatened archi- buili in the 1880'. sa god e inipl -/ / I Ith V -ii in li( i lnae shli. Photobv /.ll,nI, r;,r,
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Winter, 1982 91

tectural heritage.
F. Blair Reeves, director of the
graduate program in historic preserva-
tion at the University of Florida has 21
students presently hard at work creat-
ing a comprehensive, county-by-county
inventory of exactly what is recorded
about historic districts and buildings
and what is being done to preserve
This architectural heritage in Flor-
ida is a curious melange of the almost
Baroque splendor of the Medi-
terranean idiom, the utterly simple
Seminole chickee, the transplanted
midwestern or New England residen-
tial and commercial buildings' guarded
responses to the warmer climate, the
once despised, but now chic Art Deco,
and isolated pockets of Victorian prim-
ness and pride.
Gamble Rogers, who came to Win-
ter Park in the 1920s, feels Florida has
fared well in its inheritance from the
masterful designers in the Medi-
terranean style. Most of the important
examples have been deservedly named
to the National Register of Historic
Places. He also points out that two
architects who had a great influence on
contemporary styles, Frank Lloyd
Wright (at Florida Southern College in
Lakeland) and Paul Rudolph (in Sara-
sota), left their imprint on Florida's
architectural fabric.
Bill Arnett was the first Dean of
the School of Architecture at the Uni-
versity of Florida. He thoughtfully ob-
serves that it is not just a question of
age that determines whether or not a
building is historically significant or
worth saving. Each generation has a
different viewpoint and the entire com-
munity must be involved in such con-
siderations. He points to the old State
Capitol as an example.
Herschel Shepard of the firm of
Shepard and Associates, is presently
supervising the restoration job on the
1902 Capitol building. He agrees that
no hard and fast statement can be
made about the criteria for preserving
significant buildings. Architects should
be involved in the process of judging
the fate of old structures, but the ulti-
mate decision should involve the whole
Reeves, Trustee Emeritas of the
National Trust for Historic Preserva-
tion and State Preservation Coordina-
tor for the AIA, commented, as did
several others, on the Art Deco district
in Miami Beach. He appraised the col-
lection of buildings, judged by some as

"too young" to be considered historic, as
being a valid and unique architectural
response to their place and time. Not
all will survive, but if they are faithfully
documented now, there is less chance
that they will be "romanticized" in the
future. The new crop of graduating
architects, city planners and interior
designers with training in historic
preservation as part of their pro-
fessional background are in a position
to help make balanced decisions in the
future about the fate of historical prop-
There are lessons to be learned
from older buildings ... some good,
some bad. Even historical buildings
that must give way to progress can
teach much about the materials and
techniques used by early builders.
Architects continue to use styles that
have stood the test of time and that are
comparable with the climate and the
terrain of Florida. Woody Wilkins re-
called that buildings he studied in
Hawaii with a Historic American Build-
ing Survey team would have been ap-
propriate to this state, especially those
inspired by the architecture of the Ita-
lian Renaissance.
Some striking examples of indig-
enous buildings have survived and,
when the design is good and appro-
priate to the site, the professional
architect has no problem supporting
efforts to preserve these buildings.
Some pointed out that conditions
beyond the control of men often take a
hand in determining which buildings
become historically significant. The
hurricane of 1926 wiped out hundreds
of jerry-built structures in Miami and
almost every Florida city had a "great
fire" in the late 1800s that destroyed all
but the most durable buildings. Strin-
gent building codes sometimes fol-

lowed these disasters, discouraging the
rebuilding of the shoddy and flimsy.
Economics often conflict with
other values when historically sig-
nificant buildings stand on ground that
has become too valuable for their own
good or when the costs of maintenance
outdistance available resources.
An architect with training in his-
torical preservation or at least an hon-
est respect for the past, may present
viable alternatives to demolition. Adap-
tive reuse has become a popular con-
cept, carried to astonishing conclusions
in some of the city marketplace revivals
on the East Coast and in California.
When an architect protectively
wraps a soaring modern cocoon

around a venerable public auditorium
or opens up the interior of an old red
brick cigar factory to a collection of
shops and eateries, who can say any
other architectural solution would have
been more valid?
Hershel Shepard reminds us that
the history of architecture in Florida
begins in St. Augustine, in the oldest
city in the United States. Little remains
of these earliest buildings, but much
does remain that is significant and
worthwhile from the 19th and early
20th century.
These buildings have something to
say about their times .. about a style
of life, a response to the environment,
about urban design and rural life,
about the use of material resources
and human resources. What they tell us
can't be learned as well from studying
photographs, drawings or written des-
criptions. When they are no longer
standing or have been replaced by re-
plicas, we will have lost one of our most
tangible links with the past.
The Federal Tax Reform Act of
1976 has probably had a greater in-
fluence on historic preservation than
any other factor. As disincentives were
written into the law to discourage the
demolition of older buildings, so too,
were tax incentives included to en-
courage the reuse of commercial struc-
tures over a certain age. An historical
designation made the restoration even
more attractive from a tax standpoint..
Recent changes in the law further en-
hance the preservation posture. In
other words, the age of a building can
be an asset rather than a liability.
The client concerned with historic
preservation today is likely to be a
lawyer looking for a tax break and con-
venient downtown office space or a de-
veloper who wants to turn a defunct
retirement hotel into a swank condo or
middle income housing.
Florida's most significant historical
buildings that have been named to the
National Register were important at
the time that they were built and were
recognized then as the finest examples
of contemporary architecture. Each age
has its genius and only the perspective
of time will tell which buildings de-
signed and built in Florida today will be
considered historically significant 50 or
100 years from now.

Murray Laurie is a past editor of PRE-
SERVATION NEWS, the official publica-
tion of the National Trust for Historic Pre-




by J. Michael Huey
FA/AIA General Counsel

With the economy in its present
stretching out stage, it is now more im-
portant than ever for design profes-
sionals to pay attention to pre-
cautionary record keeping and docu-
mentation coordination and follow
It's important to know that a build-
ing doesn't have to fall down or cause
an injury for the designer to be sued. It
can happen for economic reasons born
through construction delays potentially
costing the designer millions of dollars
in liability claims.
A case in point recently came to
fruition when the Leon County Circuit
Court ruled that the construction de-
sign statute of limitations barred the
claim of a general contractor who had
sued an architect for inadequate plans
and specifications. The case involved a
Department of Transportation Turn-
pike Service Plaza which was completed
290 days late. The contractor had origi-
nally sued the DOT for construction
supervision errors and omissions with a
potential claim of more than $1 mil-
Perhaps the most hopeful result of
this case was that the Court upheld the
four year patent defect section of the
statute of limitations applicable to
architects, engineers and contractors.
But, it was the time factor that made it
so interesting.
The project was designed between
1970 and 1972, went under construc-
tion September 13, 1972, and was final-
ly completed May 1, 1975. DOT took
possession April 15, 1975, just prior to
acceptance of construction May 1. The
architect completed construction super-
vision January 21, 1975. However, the
firm had agreed in the contract to con-
duct warranty inspections one year fol-
lowing completion and his was made
on January 19, 1976. The firm also had
agreed to prepare for and appear at

conferences and at court if necessary.
Now, it's important to pay atten-
tion to those dates because the plot be-
gins to thicken. The contractor sued
the DOT December 30, 1976 alleging
economic damages brought on by the
delay. DOT requested the architect to
participate as a witness while the case
was underway in 1977, 1978 and 1979.
Then on January 25, 1980, the
contractor added the architect as a de-
fendant in the suit. The architect asked
the court to deny the claim pointing
out that the DOT took possession April
15, 1975, and the final warranty in-
spection was made January 19, 1976-
both dates placing the suit beyond the
four year patent defect statute of lim-
Of course, that last date was only
six days beyond the limit, but that was
when the architect said his design and
construction services were completed
and the Court agreed.
The contractor argued that the
architect had continued to provide ser-
vices under his contract with the owner
and therefore the "triggering events"
were not germaine and the four year
limitation was not operative.
The court accepted the January
19, 1976 date holding that the con-
tractor needed to sue about a week ear-
lier if the 1974 statute was to be off-
set... and the architect won.
This statute was rewritten in 1979
and made even more specific spelling
out that the triggering dates commence
within four years from "the date of
actual possession by the owner, the
date of issuance of a certificate of occu-
pancy, the date of abandonment of
construction if not completed, or the
date of completion or termination of
the contract between the professional
engineer, registered architect, or
licensed contractor and his employer,

which ever is the latest . ."
The 1979 statute also imposes a
fifteen year maximum time period for
latent defects during which an A/E
may be sued. But, it's important to re-
member that it's the "whichever date is
latest" clause that is important and de-
sign firms should be sure to take the
following precautions:
(a) Clearly indicate in the contract
that the issuance of the certifi-
cate of occupancy or some
other specific event indicates
possession of the premises by
the owner.
(b) Clearly indicate the specific act
or event constituting com-
pletion of the contract. This
may be the issuance of the cer-
tificate of occupancy, the
issuance of the certificate of
completion of construction or
some other event.
(c) If it is desirable to agree to the
fee for performance of addi-
tional services within the con-
tract, clearly state that the re-
quest by the owner for these
services shall in no way extend
the date of completion of the
contract for purposes of the
statute of limitations. The bet-
ter alternative is probably to
provide these services under a
separate contract.

A/E's should realize that courts
will scrutinize the special statute of lim-
itations closely and the establishment of
the occurrence of the events set forth
in the statute is of crucial importance.
If these events can be mentioned in the
contract between the architect and
owner, then the A/E is much more
likely to prevail in an attempt to dismiss
an action by an owner or by a third

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A/. ,

Once there was a cry of distress
over development without sensitivity to
the land or the environment as a
whole. It was a particular front to
the delicately balanced coastline and
the very precious swamp occupying
most of southern Florida. For years
arguments against airports and canals
continued-environmentalists and de-
velopers in an on-going conflict.
Now, it seems the emphasis has
shifted to the urban scene. Florida
cities are coming of age and there is a
need to develop an infra structure
and life quality that is more than sun
and surf.
As far as urban development is
concerned, Miami and Tampa seem to
be right in the mainstream of things
... or so the developers tell us. We
hear that business firms from the North
and from Central and South America
want to relocate to these cities to estab-
lish new bases of operation. Maybe it's
irrelevant to the development issue, but
I think alot of this "relocation" talk is
hype. Whether it is or whether it isn't,
the bottom line is that whoever is cre-
ating all this expansion and urban
sprawl, for whatever reason, must have
a commitment to and consciousness of
the quality of life in that city. Other-
wise, we'll get what we deserve.

It is probably too idealistic to be-
lieve that corporate magnates
have an intrinsic concern for the
quality of our cities.

Also, it is unfair to be critical of'
them if we, the architects and members
of the community, do not make de-

mands which will ensure quality in the
built environment. It is easy to shirk
the responsibility and blame it on gov-
ernment bureaucracy, tax structures
and pork chop politics, but we, as
architects, must share in the blame if
we don't try to affect this period of
rapid growth and development in a
positive way.
It seems to me that some questions
are in order. What do we want for our
cities? Do we want a commitment to
industrial development, to foreign
trade, to the arts? Do we want to re-
vitalize the old or start from scratch?
Cities are for people. They must be
planned for people, to meet people's
needs. It is absolutely essential that
planning be thorough and include the
pedestrian as well as the vehicles. A city
must maintain its community identity
by preserving buildings and details of
special interest, the vernacular archi-
tecture that typifies the area and pro-
vides a base for new development.
Evaluating existing buildings can be of
great help in planning new ones.
If we as a people only build struc-
tures, then what is the point of archi-
tecture? If our only goal is to solve a
problem, whether it is traffic flow or
the need for additional office space,
then we have lost the most significant
quality that we as architects have to of-
fer society-an ability to design an en-
vironment that is aesthetically pleasing,
that reflects an idea, creates a sense of
place and is sensitive to the needs of the
people who use it.

Jan Abell is in private practice in Tam-
pa. She currently serves as Chairman of
the FA/AIA Public Awareness Com-



architects getting involved, it means ac-
tive involvement. If we, Florida archi-
tects, got more involved at the planning
stage we wouldn't see so many out-of-
state "experts" doing large projects in
our major cities. If we do not partici-
pate, we will not be thought of by
potential clients.
Herb Savage is in private practice and is a
State Director of the Florida Southwest

Is Florida Getting the Architecture It
Deserves? Yes, I am convinced that we
are. Unfortunately, what we're getting
is not the architecture we've worked
for, but what we've not worked for.
Confusing double-talk? Not really.
Much of what we're getting, and
have been getting, in Florida is the
direct result of our passivity, or what
we're not working for. We, as experts
in architecture and planning, should
challenge our clients, whether they be
government, industry, education or the
private sector. If we do not challenge
our clients, we as users, along with the
rest of society, will continue to get what
we deserve.
A case in point is the Sheraton St.
Johns Place in Jacksonville, Florida. It
was the setting of the 1981 Fall Con-
ference, a conference which dealt, in
great detail, with the question of what
we're getting in Florida. As I sat in the
lobby of the hotel, I thought how nice
it would be to look out across the water
at the boatyards beyond. After all, the
hotel sits on a point jutting out into the
mighty St. John's River.
No such luck, however. For some
reason, the hotel owners, the client, de-
cided to make a view of the river vir-
tually inaccessible from the main lobby
and waiting area-the logic of which
escapes this writer. I can only assume
that the building is really not for the
guests. It's for the client, but we, the
people, are getting what we deserve.
As long as we, the architects, fail to
confront the client and express our
concerns for fear that they may not
think of us when they are scheduling a
new structure, we will continue to get
what we deserve.

It is passivity, more than
anything else, that will continue
to get us not what we want, but
what we deserve.

In the case of government as a
client, we can't close our eyes, ears and
mouths, thereby allowing others to es-
tablish more and more restrictions on
the construction industry, of which we
are a part. We must stand up and be
counted and reject with initiative some
of the agency "rubs" which do not con-
sider all facets of "private enterprise."
If we are to work with the government,
we must encourage dialogue between
all the participants. When we talk about


Because I am an architect, I would
like to believe that the professional can
exercise control over the direction that
the built environment takes, and can
affect its quality. If we do exercise such
control, then we can certainly take the
responsibility or the blame for what we
see as a built environment clearly lack-
ing the sense of organization and
rationality for which architects are
Generally, what we see as South
Florida architecture is missing the sen-
sitive hand of the visionary professional
and appears to be a product of some
form of natural selection. It bumps,
jumps and spreads out upon our ex-
pressionless flat landscape evolving
from a myriad of sometimes complex,
sometimes obvious stimulii.


We still live with this initial phi-
losophy. We have not invested in an
architecture that speaks of permanence
and stability. We grew in spurts of un-
precedented explosions of population
and have never been allowed the lux-
ury of a thoroughly structured
development pattern. Plentiful land,
and until recently, plentiful gasoline
supply, have permitted us to reach out
with never ending commuter arms dis-
solving any sense of cohesive com-
munity identity-while saluting the
speeding motorist for recognition.
The architectural statements that
line these guantlets may make superb
subjects for architectural academicians
who laud these same statements as
good architecture, even though their
context is rooted in irrational disorder.
Our South Florida community is
very young. Its architecture did not
evolve from an indigenous archi-
tectural base. It matured in a period
when building technology permitted it
not to be subservient to geographic and
regional implications. Rather, our
architecture evolved as a compilation of
transplanted styles and 20th century
building product bazaars.
To deserve a certain kind of archi-
tecture implies the investment of some

The development of our architec-
tural community is surely more
reflective of our history than our
professional attention. Our sense
of place was founded upon the
transitory system of tourism-
our architecture is largely
glitter-not gold.

efforts directed toward its shaping. It
suggests the opportunity to recognize
the challenge, rise to its resolution, and
then be evaluated as to the merits of
your solution. As South Florida archi-
tects or planners, we have been swept
away in the maelstrom of our complex
evolution and have only had the op-
portunity to react to isolated parts of a
more complex architectural develop-
ment pattern not of our making.

Henry C. Alexander, Jr. started his private
practice in a partnership in 1971. He is im-
mediate past president of the Florida South
Chapter of the AIA, and is presently serving
as a Director to the State Association.



... -

Are we getting the Architecture we
deserve in the Florida/Caribbean re-
gion? That question, pondered ex-
tensively at this year's FA/AIA Fall
Conference, is a simplistic yet deceptive
It is quite easy to reply that we will
simply, as the biblical adage goes "reap
what we sow." The truth to this state-
ment is abundantly available in a man-
ifest of physical forms all about us. In a
negative connotation we see such ob-
vious examples as (1) the walled-up ac-
cess to the ocean in Miami Beach, (2)
the dredged phosphoric moon-scopes
of Polk County and, (3) the carnal tour-
ist lures along Orlando's SOB (South
Orange Blossom) Trail-a true mecca
of commercial exploitation and visual
deprivation. These blights on our aes-
thetic sensitivities have been ac-
cumulations of indifference and greed
that have taken years to produce. They
are not overnight phenomenons and
consequently will not disappear within
a short time frame.
On the other hand, we have much
to be proud of throughout our region.
The primitive beaches of the Caribbean
islands, the many well-preserved natu-
ral wetlands and hammocks of our
many State parks, and the family-
oriented development (tourist, residen-
tial and commercial) of many areas of
our region are but a few examples
where man and his mortal touch has
left his environment either in its prim-
itive unspoiled natural state or an im-
proved development benefitting both
mankind and nature. Such examples
are a few of the countless responses to
what quickly becomes a much more
complex question than that which we
first perceived!
In looking at this question as it ap-
plies to my home, the Central Florida
area, I would have to conclude that we
are getting what we deserve. As a
growth area, we have experienced
(with little real interruption) a dynamic
and continuing change in our physical
environment. Some of this has been
favorable change. Other has, un-
fortunately, not been as favorable. But
in general, it has been a direct and de-
served product of the society and times
in which we live.
The competitive forces in our pro-
fessional environment have led to a
variety of changes. We have had to in-
dividually, and collectively, sharpen
our professional skills in both an aes-
thetic and business sense. Competition



PHONE (305) 851-6783

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from larger, more experienced (and
often national) firms has literally
forced an often quantum leap in our
professional abilities and competitive
instincts. Although initially quite a
frustrating and often irritating process,
it has in general led to an up-grading
in the quality of the Florida/Caribbean
region in relation to its more experi-
enced neighbors to the North. This has
resulted in a loss of regional character
and uniqueness in some cases, and in a
more confident and independent ex-
pression of our unique climate and
sociological circumstances in others.

Competitionfrom larger, more
experienced (and often national)
firms has literally forced an often
quantum leap in our professional
abilities and competitive in-
stincts. "

Another positive change has come
about through the State's Competitive
Consultant's Negotiation Act that took
effect in July, 1973. Initially a frus-
trating and often farcical exercise, this
piece of legislature has (primarily in
the governmental field) led to a grad-
ual upgrading of the aesthetic environ-
ment through the forced exposure of
local, regional and state politicians and
bureaucrats to the full resources of the
total architectural community. What a
surprise it was for many of them to
find out that, after having forced ex-
posure to a variety of architectural
firms, their "good ole boy" local archi-
tect was not so sharp as he had led
them to believe all these years! They
saw the best of what our profession has
to offer and, in many cases, liked and
bought it, thus starting a well-deserved
upgrading of their community.
Growth, on the other hand, is a
two-edged sword. With it we also found
the short-sighted politicians who pro-
posed growth at any cost (regardless of
the future consequences), the develop-
ers who quickly exploited the situation
and vanished before the project went
"belly up", and the architects who took
commissions regardless of the inten-
tions of the client or their own abilities
to produce a lasting and meaningful
solution to anything but their own cash
So who is to blame? Or who do we
praise for our environment? Certainly
the architect is at least a part of it! But
is he an independent agent or merely
an instrument of society? The truth, in
fact, lies somewhere in between these

two extremes. Contrary to the pro-
fessed belief of a recent National AIA
President, architecture is not God's
chosen profession and we are not His
disciples! Architects are, by both in-
clination and training, especially quali-
fied in interpreting the aesthetic
aspirations of their society. In this re-
gard, they act as a mirror to focus the
realities of society into concise and
physical representations. These repre-
sentations are the buildings, city
scapes, etc. that comprise a great deal
of our day-to-day physical environ-
Unfortunately, in acting as the
catalyst for this transformation, archi-
tects are more a reflection of their socie-
ty than a purifying focus of the best of
that society. Architects (as all mortals)
come in good, bad and nondescript
models as well as a host of in-between
mutations. As the creators of man's
constructed environment, we merely
reflect the qualities of the society that
has produced and supported each one
of us. Consequently, we truely get what
we deserve and what is a reflection of
our society's ability to produce.
It is very seldom in the history of
mankind that the level of a profession
rises above the aesthetic and cultural
achievement of its society. There have
been a few isolated contradictions to
this; but they are indeed isolated situa-
tions and circumstances. Therefore, we
must conclude that the quality of its de-
sign professionals reflect the ability of
that society to produce such persons
and that the environment produced by
these individuals is a reflection of so-
ciety itself. By our own singular and col-
lective efforts we can occasionally trans-
cend the too-frequent mediocrity in-
volved in the aesthetic comprehensions
of our society and literally pull our soci-
ety up by its aesthetic bootstraps and
provide a synergistic experience where
the whole is greater than its individual
This latter possibility should ob-
viously be a goal of each competent
practitioner in the Florida/Caribbean
Region. We are getting what we de-
serve, but we can and should always
aspire to raise the quality of our efforts
beyond a mere reflection of our social,
political and physical environment. We,
and our profession, deserve at least
that much!

Charles Braun is a Vice President with Hel-
man Hurley Charvet Peacock/Architects.
Inc. in W\inter Park. iHe is past Presidlent o
the Mid Florida Chapter of AIA.0


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By The Rev. Edward B. Anderson
Second Congregational Meeting House
July 19, 1981

"There is something about an old
building that excites the imagination in
a way in which no new building,
however innovative and pleasing to the
eye, is ever completely able ... Don't
you agree?
"Perhaps you don't. Perhaps it is
the Yankee in me that is stimulated by
decrepit ancient structures . as sym-
bols of thrift... or perhaps the his-
torian ... or the archeologist. Yes, the
archeologist. Someday soon you shall
hear of the treasure trove that Charlie
Duce and his boys excavated under the
footings of the 1844 addition to this
building, almost directly beneath my
"When celebrating their fiftieth
wedding anniversary, the wife of a
prominent British archeologist was
asked how she had managed to sustain
marital bliss for a full half century.
"Why," she replied, "it hasn't been dif-
ficult at all. I was fortunate beyond
ignorance in my acceptance of a hus-
band of his particular profession, for
with every passing year he finds me
more interesting."
"Is that all there is to it? The beau-
ty of a configuration of very well-sea-
soned timber is entirely in the eye of
the beholder?
"I know a couple who lived for
twenty-five years or so in a modest, but
very attractive early nineteenth century
house here in town. In fact, I believe
the gentleman in question grew up in
that same house. Anyway, they sold it
and moved to a new place on the out-
skirts, not because someone made them
an offer-they couldn't refuse, but be-
cause, as the woman remarked, "After
all these years I am finally going to
have something modern."
"Well now, modern! It was kind of
ajolt to me at first to think someone
might choose to live in a so-called Cape
Cod style Ranch House, given the
alternative that was an aesthetically

pleasing structure that had been suc-
cessfully providing folks with shelter
for a couple of centuries. But, I can
understand the desire to have some-
thing modern. I do not know of many
old buildings that have not been mod-
ified to incorporate modern plumbing,
heating, appliances, etc. Old buildings
are in a continual state of modification.
They are a lot like old teeth . requir-
ing a certain amount of maintenance
over the years until there finally comes
a day when there may not be much of
the ivory left, just the foundations laid
some years in the past. An old building
just cannot be replaced, but it sure does
wear out. Old timbers compress, post
hole beetles take their toll, things settle
and sag. In those places where it has
worn out, repairs over the years have
been of uneven quality . sometimes
"hurry up and patch it" work done by
cobblers with sledgehammers and no
money to spend.
"I have heard people say that it is
impossible to find craftsmen who could
do the things the oldtimers could do.
Maybe they COULD but that doesn't
mean they always DID! Just because
virgin pine and oak knees were avail-
able doesn't mean that those Yankees
didn't reach for what was handy and
inexpensive. I know of a beam sup-
ported by the stump of an old mast as
big around as a barrel when a simple
4 x 4 would do. That is called over-
"The secret of the durability of
many old buildings is not the careful
skill of the craftsmen, but that the
structures are incredibly over-built. On
the other hand, however, there was
also what is called "casual construc-
tion." Casual construction describes the
wall or foundation that seems held in
place by friction with adjoining mole-
cules of air.
"Isn't it true that one of the ways
in which the imagination is excited is by

the growth of a sense of responsibility?
Antiques are so often unique things
that they are a special trust. Antiques
can also be regarded as status symbols.
There is, however, as much difference
between a status symbol and an antique
artifact as there is between two pounds
of gold and Benvenuto Cellini's salt cel-
lar. To melt down an artifact for the
gold, as Spain ignorantly did with the
treasures of the Americas, is to treat
property selfishly rather than as a trust
... to treat it irresponsibly as strip min-
ing treats the land irresponsibly and as
the destruction of the environment be-
trays a trust placed in us for all time.
"I have heard of cases where an
old building has so completely dom-
inated the resources and energy of a
people that human needs have been
neglected. Social activists have a vaild
argument for placing people before
artifacts. An old house is not as pre-
cious as an old home. A fossil has
value, but of a different sort than a liv-
ing Sequoia. But, without a sense of
trust, social action becomes an end jus-
tified by any means.
"Awareness of responsibility is a
living strength. It is through precisely
such artifacts for which we feel respon-
sibility more strongly than ownership,
that we learn the place in time of our
decisions. Those decisions, be they so-
cial or material, are the way we fulfill
our trusteeship.
"A building can be fuss and bother
as well as an expensive responsibility.
So can our social trust. In some ways
life would be easier without them, but
while it might be richer in money, it
would be poorer in beauty, joy and
meaning. And, all humanity would be
indistinguishable from a hive of ter-
mites contentedly writhing in darkness
with their fat little bellies full of saw-




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- .. ~ For more information, call 904/222-7590.
For a price list on AIA Documents and
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FA/AIA Books & Documents
P.O. Box 10388
Tallahassee, Fl. 32302

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1, 1982
Florida Architect
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Tallahassee, Florida 32302

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