Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 News and letters
 Architecture...down to the last...
 Interview with Michael Graves
 1981 FA/AIA design awards
 Office practice aids
 AARRG humor
 From function to form
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00233
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Fall 1981
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00233
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    News and letters
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Architecture...down to the last detail
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Interview with Michael Graves
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    1981 FA/AIA design awards
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Office practice aids
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    AARRG humor
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    From function to form
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
Uni versity- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

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Telephone (305) 44341053

Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
117 West College Avenue
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302



Diane D. Greer
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen
Art Direction
Mel Hutto Associates, Inc.
Editorial Board
William A. Graves, AIA
Rick Fernandez, AIA
William Harvard, Jr., AIA
Perry Reader, AIA
Yahya Koita, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
John Totty, AIA

Ted Pappas. AIA
100 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Vice President/President-Elect
Glenn A. Buff, AIA
9369 Dominican Drive
Miami, Florida 33189
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Blvd.
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Past President
Howard Bochiardv. FAIA
Post Office Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
Regional Directors
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., FAIA
1823 North Ninth Avenue
Pensacola, Florida 32503
E.H. McDowell, Jr., FAIA
Post Office Box 3958
St. Thomas, VI 00801
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank Building
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
FLORIDA ARCHITECT. Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and published by the Asso-
ciation, a Florida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907 It is published quarterly at the
Executive Office of the Association. 117 West
College Avenue. Tallahassee, Florida 32302.
Telephone (904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed
by contributors are not necessarily those of the
FA/AIA. Editorial material may be reprinted
provided full credit is given to the author and to
FLORIDA ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to the
publisher's office.
Single copies. $2.00, subscription, $16.00
per year. Controlled circulation postage
paid at Tallahassee, Florida

Postmaster: Please send address changes
to Florida Association of the American In-
stitute of Architects, Post Office Box
10388, Tallahassee, Florida 32302.

Fall, 1981
Volume 28, Number 4


Diane D. Greer

Joanna Cenci Rodriguez


Jim Moorhead

Theodore F. Wolff and Diane D. Greer

Mary Ann Kidd

3 Editorial
4 News and Letters
25 Office Practice Aids
27 Legal
35 Viewpoint

The Cover
Exterior detail of the Tallahassee-
Leon.County Civic Center. Architects:
Barrett, Daffin and Carlan, Inc. Photo
by Donato Pietrodangelo




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In this issue, Florida Architect has devoted its editorial space to
the subject of architectural detail and its effect on style.
In selecting this theme my thought was to deal with those
components which I traditionally think of as "style
determinants"-the ornamental appendages which adorn a building
and immediately identify the period, and in some cases the architect,
which produced it. Mine is a vocabulary of quoins, brackets and
rusticated walls.
I quickly found myself challenged, however, by the architectural
vocabulary which Michael Graves expounded on in his interview
which also appears in this issue. His is a vocabulary of windows,
doors and thresholds.
I am in a quandary as to whether he and I agree or disagree
about the importance of the architectural vocabuTary, both in
definition and application. Maybe it's unimportant whether the detail
is the door or the pediment over the door. I do hope that our
respective viewpoints make interesting reading.
Michael Graves is a noted and accomplished architect. I am an
architectural historian. Maybe the twain will never meet, but I don't
think that invalidates our respective thoughts on what determines
style. -Diane D. Greer




Dear Editor:
I wanted to write to express again
what I said during our telephone
conversation-that the Summer, 1981
issue of Florida Architect is very well
done. It reflects a high degree of jour-
nalistic professionalism, and is a credit
to the A.I.A.
It is well organized graphically,
which I felt was a problem with the last
issue; and apparently was a problem
which you and your staff were aware of
because, as I note, it has been success-
fully and artistically resolved.
You have dealt with a difficult sub-
ject in an indepth manner, which is in-
formative and of direct interest to the
profession. I look forward to future
issues dealing with equally important
With my congratulations, I am,


I.S.K. Reeves V, A.I.A.
architects design group of florida, inc.

Dear Editor:
The editorial photo of the prison
wall (in Summer, 1981 issue) aroused
my ire sufficiently to write this com-
Many architects may very well
gloat over the possibility that prison,
in the mind of the tenant, has no
"humane" redeeming features-after
all, it was designed by "another" archi-
What disturbed me was the pure
unadulterated hogwash which was im-
plied as one viewed the photo. Why not
print some pearly wisdom from the
toilet walls of that prison?
What kind of compassion did the
inmate, who supposedly wrote those
words of wisdom, show to society?
Like so many aspects in today's
society, we have things bass ackwards.
Are slums created by architects or
the inhabitants of the buildings?
The entire "cotton pickin" criminal
justice system is out of kilter. We archi-
tects are partly to blame. The new air
conditioned prison in Broward County
costs more than $60,000 per inmate.
Bull Crap!
Criminal facilities must get back to
basics. We have been led down the

primrose path by so-called specialists,
sociologists, criminologists, etc. The
criminal certainly has rights-but
aren't his responsibilities tied in with
this. Doesn't society and the victims
have rights?
Building expensive, elaborate pris-
ons is a waste of taxpayers money.
What's wrong with simple build-
ings located in the boondocks on farm-
ing acreage? Several layers of electric
fencing should handle the security.
When it comes to rehabilitation, no-
thing is better than self sufficiency. Let
them run the show in a democratic
manner and learn a trade, as well as
producing their own food maintaining
their own facilities.
If the open, fresh country air isn't
the best place for rehabilitation, then
why do so many of us spend thousands
each year to get away into the country
for vacations.
The editorial photo tells a true
story only if we accept it without recog-
nizing we are to blame for a decadent
society that publicizes such trash.

Very truly yours,

F. Louis Wolff, AIA
Wolff-DeCamillo Architects, Planners,
Assoc., Inc.

Dear Editor:
I just saw a copy of your excellent
issue on Architecture For a Captive
Audience. Congratulations on a fine
The editorial photograph was par-
ticularly touching, and has affected
many people in our office. Is it possible
for us to get your permission to reprint
the photograph? We would, of course,
credit Florida Architect as the source.
Janice Fillip/Editor

Dear Editor:
Thank you for the opportunity to
comment on the features of the 1981
Although womewhat brief, the de-
scription of the material indicates a
good opportunity for Florida Archi-
tects to be challenged and informed.
The theme for the Spring '82
issue will, hopefully, show the Archi-

tect as a leader in energy efficient de-
sign and not reacting to public con-
cern and code requirements.
However, the Summer '82 issue
should be quite interesting in describ-
ing architectural design solutions to
this requirement and still maintaining
the concepts of noninstitutional archi-
The Fall '82 issue, I expect, will be
very interesting, as it is very satisfying
to see an issue with an emphasis on
design of specific types.
William B. Harvard, Jr.
Harvard, Jolly, Marcet
& Associates Architects, P.A.

Dear Editor,
Many thanks for the Summer,
1981 issue of Florida Architect. It not
only furnished us with a couple of in-
teresting leads, but quite a title for an
article ("Architecture for A Captive
Audience"), if we ever get around to
prisons again.
Charles K. Hoyt, AIA
Associate Editor


Our Mistake
In the Spring 1981, issue of FA,
two Orlando firms were not credited
as recipients of the 1981 Governor's
Design Awards. Those firms are
Schweizer Associates, Inc. and Tuttle/
White Constructors, Inc., both of
whom were cited along with Barrett,
Daffin and Carlan, Inc. of Tallahassee
and DeLeu, Cather Associates (an out-
of-state architectural firm) for their
outstanding design of the Capitol
Center Parking Garages in Tallahas-
see. The project, which won in the
Transportation Related Facilities cate-
gory, was a three-firm joint venture of
architects and engineers. Tuttle/White
was the contractor for the project
which was completed in 1977.

ANSI Digest Available
Arizona architect Robert J. Lynch,
FAIA, has just published a book of
specifications for making buildings
and facilities accessible to and usable

by physically handicapped people. The
book, entitled Robert Lynch's ANSI
Digest of A 117.1 (1981) is available
from the author at a cost of $15.00
per copy, including postage. The book
may be obtained by sending a check to
Robert J. Lynch, FAIA, 8325 Via De
Encanto, Scottsdale, Arizona 85258.
Bob Lynch is a paraplegic and an
architect who has specialized in bar-
rier-free design and the removal of ex-
isting barriers for sixteen years. He
was the prime mover for the new
ANSI Standards, of which he has been
a constant advocate and critic. Lynch's
book contains over 100 drawings to
show the ANSI requirements. To this
he has added thirty pages of com-
ments and sixty pages of additional in-
formation to help architects, building

and code officials.
Florida Architect Wins Award
Florida Architect received its first
award in August with the presentation
of the 1981 Magazine Award by the
Southern Public Relations Federation.
The Award ot Excellence was pre-
sented to FA Editor, Diane Greer, at
the SPRF Awards Banquet held Au-
gust 8, 1981, at the Grand Hotel in
Point Clear, Alabama.
Several southern states participate
in the competition each year, which in-
cludes entries in a number of cate-
gories, including magazines. This year
there were forty entries from Florida
alone, several in the Magazine Cate-
gory. Judging is based on editorial
content, graphics and overall design. a


"A Line on Enerpg and Design" was given to Governor Bob Graham earlier thti year during the (Governor's Public Construction Design Awards Program
by FAIAIA President Ted Pappa., at left, and Vice President Glenn Buff. The FA 4AIA has rcosponsored three workshops on the Florida Energi' Code this
year and will conduct an Energn Seminar and Workshop in Tampa November 12 & 3 f13eaturting noted designer P. Richmond Rittleman, AIA, of Burt,
Hill, Kosar and Rittleman, Butler, Pa.

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by Diane D. Greer
Roof, wall, door-probably the ,
most basic parts of every kind of build-
ing from treehouse to skyscraper. They.
always have been and, I suspect, always ;'. ,
will be the basis of our architectural vo-
cabulary. In contemporary verbage
they are generic terms which tell you
little more about a building than that
you can enter it, leave it and stay dry in
But, how about the buildings' per-
sonality? A building doesn't develop a I
personality until we reach a little deep- e '
er into our architectural bag-of-tricks
and come up with a mansard roof or
rusticated walls. What we've done then
is given the building style-a STYLE.
We've created something that can be la-
beled for future generations. We've
given the building identity.
Every building, it seems, must
wear some sort of a label. It cannot
simply be. If the labelers run out of
neos, pseudos and revivals, the style
assumes the name of its designer.
Hence, we end up with buildings which
are Eastlake or Meisian or Wrightian.
Or, an occasional handy monarch will
do as in the case of Queen Anne or .,r
Queen Victoria. Then there are always
the so-called descriptive labels such as
Modernistic and Brutalistic. These
labels are particularly interesting be-
cause they tell you nothing. What was
modern or brutal at the time the style

Top: Doorway detail, Viscaya, Miami.
Photo by Steven Brooke.
Below Right: Brick steps, main entrance Le Moyne
Art Foundation, Tallahassee.
Photo by Donato Pietrodangelo.
Below: Interior detail, JacksonvilleJewish
Center. Architecture by Freedman, Clements,
Rumpel, Inc. Photo by Bob Braun.


was named may not be so now. Ah,
well, there's always the New Formalism
to ponder. Things could get worse.
As an architectural historian, I am
poking fun at those of us who've been
trained to label, clump together and
dissect our buildings every few years to
come up with a new style, or genre. In-
teresting, because all-we're really talk-
ing about is details, another good
generic word for the thinga-ma-jigs
that adorn our buildings and give them
identity. All buildings have details.
Some are functional, some are aes-
thetic, some are required by law and
some are the personal signature of the
architect. Each of these is a credible
reason for adorning a building in a cer-
tain way, but let's examine the issue of
style, or perhaps taste, a little further.
The matter of details has been on
architect's minds, and tongues, for
some time. "It's in all the small things
that we do learn that God is in the de-
tails," Frank Lloyd Wright once said. In
a more contemporary vein, in his inter-
view which appears on page 11 of this
issue, Michael Graves referred to de-
tails as "the small connections of archi-
tecture." It is implied in the Graves
statement that details are the cement of
the style.
Even in literature, references to
taste and style abound. In the 1959
horror classic, "The Haunting of Hill
House", author Shirley Jackson de-
scribed the brooding mansion in this
"It's altogether Victorian. They
simply wallowed in this kind of great
billowing overdone sort of thing and
buried themselves in folds of velvet and
tassels and purple plush. Anyone be-
fore or after would have put this house
right up there on top of those hills
where it belongs, instead of snuggling
it down here." Jackson was probably
correct. The Greeks would have put it
on top of the hill and Frank Lloyd
Wright would have as well.
This summer, the American Insti-
tute of Architects had an exhibition of
architectural drawings and artifacts on
display at the Octagon in Washington,
D.C. Entitled "Architecture and Orna-
ment in Late 19th Century America,"
the AIA describes the exhibit as show-

Right: Roof details, Victorian residence,
c. 1980. Mt. Dora. Photo by Bob Braun.
Next Page: Exterior stair, Talla-
hassee-Leon County Civic Center. Archi-
tecture by Barrett, Daffin and Carlan.
Photo by Donato Pietrodangelo.

casing the vital role of ornament (which
we're calling detail) in late 19th century
building design. For example, the ex-
hibit will include stencilled wallpaper, a
Frank Furness weathervane and a
Louis Sullivan doorplate. I rest my
An exhibit of 19th century orna-
ment at the AIA headquarters is an in-
teresting point to ponder.
The AIA was established in the
middle of the nineteenth century in the
heat of passion and controversy within
the profession. One of its founders was
Richard Morris Hunt, a "frenchified
Yankee" architect who wrote to his
mother in 1855 that, "It has been rep-
resented to me that America is not
ready for the Fine Arts, but I think
they are mistaken. There is no place in
the world where they are more needed
or where they should be more encour-
aged. Why, there are more luxurious
houses put up in New York than in
Paris! At any rate the desire is evi-
denced and the money spent and if the
object is not attained, it is the fault of
the architects."

Hunt was one of the founders ot
the American Institute of Architects
and its first secretary. Before the estab-
lishment of the AIA in 1875, Henry
Van Brunt wrote, "Community of
thought and mutual friendship hardly
existed among architects. The hand of
each was turned with jealousy and
suspicion against his brother. His pro-
cesses of design and his business
methods were personal secrets. Each
concealed his drawings from the rest,
as if they were pages of a personal di-
ary. There were no ethics of practice,
no common ground of mutual pro-
tection. no uniformity of action or
thought, no national literature of ar-
While founding the Institute may
have brought the architects together
and resolved some of the aforemen-
tioned problems, it also set them at
each other's throats on some other
issues, one of which had to do with
style. In the early days, the Battle of
the Styles was raging tempestuously.
The advocates of the Gothic Revival,
full of the rich arguments and even


richer vocabulary of Ruskin and Pugin,
defended the "natural forms" of the
pointed style, while the advocates of
the "classic" were led by Hunt with his
wealth of knowledge of the archi-
tecture of the Renaissance and his
Beaux Arts training. The arguments
over the merits of the various styles be-
came so heated and the members of
the Institute found them so engrossing
that it was finally necessary to pass a
resolution to exclude "this dangerous
subject" from the AIA's discussions.
This controversy which raged
within the halls of the AIA did not
originate there, however. Feelings on
the subject were intense in the early
18th century and in 1731 Alexander
Pope included the following poem in
his Epistle to Lord Burlington:
You show us, Rome was glorious, not
And pompous buildings once were
things of use.
Yet shall (my Lord) your just, your no-
ble rules
Fill half the land with imitating fools:
Who random drawings from your
sheets shall take,
And of one beauty many blunders
Load some vain church with old the-
atric state,
Turn arcs of triumph into a garden
Reverse your ornaments and hang them
On some patched dog-hole eked with
ends of wall;
Then clap four slices of pilaster on't,
That, laced with bits of rustic, makes a
Shall call the winds through long ar-
cades to roar,
Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door;
Conscious they act a true Palladian
And, if they starve, they starve by rules
of art.
The "true Palladian part" as refer-
S enced in Pope's letter does exist and
not every critic takes as dim a view of
architectural adaptation as Pope does.
Without question, styles, or elements of
style, are passed through the ages.
While fads and follies come and go, the
best and purest forms will remain to be
"adapted" by the architects who follow.
Some influences from the past are too
strong to deny. In my teaching of ar-
chitectural history, I traced a definitive
line from the Greeks to Thomas Jeffer-
son right through Palladio's Villa Ro-

tunda with little or no effort. It would
be foolish in such an instance to say
that all good design is original design.
Palladio and Jefferson were highly in-
novative in their use of Classical orna-
ment and in adapting Old World sym-
metry and harmony to New World de-
Style, including the components of
ornament and detail, is an interesting
subject for discussion however it
evolves. Style, one might say, is dictated
by taste-public, private or corporate.
The American "passion to sell" as Louis
Sullivan once described it, brought
wave after wave of contradictory advice
about the nature of good taste and
panacea after panacea by which every-
one might be saved from a fate worse
than an unstylish residence. Today, the
mass media has turned the making of
taste in America into a major industry.
Without exception, there is a magazine
available on every subject to guide us
away from doing anything that might
be considered tasteless-in our home,
our office. our clothing, the cars we
drive. What was once our personal de-
light has become our private dilemma.
"Buildings are often erected by in-
dividuals at considerable expense,"
wrote Thomas Jefferson in his Notes on
the State of Virginia. "To give these
buildings symmetry and taste would
not increase their cost. It would only
change the arrangement of the mate-
rials, the form and combination of the
members. This would often cost less
than the burden of barbarous orna-
ments with which these buildings are
often charged."
Terence Conran summed up the
question of modern design in this way:
"Why do we try so hard to produce
well designed buildings? Why do we try
to have well designed publications? I
think the answer is quite simply that we
enjoy it. Enjoyment is perhaps not real-
ly a good word, but humanity is too
pompous, and fun too flippant-and

enjoyment is the essence of our de-
Today, I believe that statement is
close to the truth. Taste will always be a
part of design. But defining taste is dif-
ficult. "You can't get high aesthetic
taste, like trousers, read-made ... "
But, today's buildings seem less con-
cerned with what came before and
more concerned with what is good for
the people. Our buildings are less fad
and more fun. Architects are imitating
less and innovating more. Today's ar-
chitect can ill-afford to be frivolous in
either design or ornament. Materials
are too precious and too expensive.
Moreover, demands on the profession
to conserve energy and other valuable
resources prohibit the flights of fancy
permitted our Victorian counterparts.
The day of excess is gone, probably for
ever, and in its place are architects de-
signing buildings for people that don't
assault the senses or the environment.
What the future will bring we can
only imagine. But in the early 19th cen-
tury an anonymous architect wrote, "It
has even been said that the future
house will be of glass."
"Since the days when public taste
was emancipated," critic Russell Lynes
wrote, "it has traveled a path of wind-
ings and turnings, of peaks of frivolity
and abysses of dinginess. It has crossed
through fairylands filled with imitation
castles, decorated with silks and velvets,
and through dismal towns all painted
brown. It has produced buildings of
stark beauty and crude bombast. It has
followed the enticements of faddists
and has been led by the serious preach-
ments of missionaries for art. But, it
has never been without honest striving,
or without vitality or individuality, and
it has never been allowed to escape for
long from the checkrein of humor.
Through the story of our taste has run
a constant theme-if America is to be
great, America must have culture. m


L ~"~-~Cr5





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MICHAEL GRAVES byJoanna Cenci Rodriguez

Michael Graves was born in Indianapolis,
Indiana in 1934. He received his training in
architecture at the University of Cincinnati
and at Harvard University. He was awarded
the Prix de Rome in 1960 and studied at the
American Academy in Rome for two years.
Graves is Professor of Architecture at
Princeton University, where he has taught
since 1962. He has also served as Architect
in Residence at the American Academy in
Rome, of which he is Trustee and President
of the Society of Fellows. He has lectured on
his work throughout this country and
Europe and has served as Visiting Professor
at several universities. In his private prac-
tice, Graves, who is a Fellow of the Amer-
ican Institute of Architects, has completed a
variety of projects, including housing, med-
ical facilities, offices, cultural facilities, and
town plans. He has won nine PROGRES-
SIVE ARCHITECTURE design awards and
two National Honor Awards from the
American Institute of Architects, for the
Hanselmann House and the Gunwyn Ven-
ture- Office. In 1980, THE NEW YORK
TIMES named Graves the "architect of the
year" and his Portland Public Office Build-
ing the "building of the year", and IN-
TERIORS magazine named him the "desig-
ner of the year".

At the invitation of the Palm Beach
Chapter of the AIA, architect Michael
Graves, FAIA, gave an evening lecture at
Whitehall, the historic Flagler mansion in
Palm Beach, Florida. Before showing slides
of his own work, Graves led his audience
through a process of re-education in the
uses, both literal and symbolic, of the wall,
the window, the door and the threshold
throughout the history of architecture. He
then illustrated, through carefully selected
examples, how modern architecture has ne-
glected and rejected these traditional ele-
ments in the development of its own archi-
tectural vocabulary.
Some of the subjects Graves was asked
to comment on stemmed from themes he ad-
dressed in his lecture to the Chapter. Others
address the controversy surrounding his
In the past fifty years the making
of "great modern architecture" has
meant the making of great spaces. It
seems that you are trying to come up
with a different definition of what
makes architecture great by using a re-
discovered vocabulary of walls, doors,
windows and surfaces. What has your


experimentation up to this point taught
you about the ways to turn these ap-
parently ordinary elements into great
I think the best way to answer that
is to say that while one is certainly not
against "space", it is the attribution
given the space as a limitless dimension
that ultimately bothers me. With the
idea that one can extend space by vir-
tue of glass and diaphonous members
that would characterize the boundaries
of a place, one loses the ability to speak
a language that has character. The the-

matic interests of architecture have al-
ways related to things we identify with,
like the ground and the sky, and not
just with the surface of the wall, but
with the materiality of the wall. Ulti-
mately, one is interested in the recip-
rocity between space and the figure
that surrounds it-the boundary of the
I try not to use words like "sur-
face" because people take "surface"
almost in the pejorative, as if one is
making a kind of theatre. That isn't my
interest, but it is my interest to char-
acterize space, to give space a

c~c~-* r


14, p o

characterization by virtue of its bound-
aries, in that kind of interlock between
the planes that surround a room and
the room itself.
You know, just the way we say
things helps determine what it is we're
about. If I say "room" and a modern
architect says "area" you've already
started to couch the argument in terms
of boundaries, in quantifiable, qualifi-
able understandings of our surround-
ings. There is an enormous difference
I think that without the simple lan-
guage that society is used to, the famil-
iar language of doors, windows, walls,
etc., we are lost because without the
door we can't have the threshold, with-
out the threshold we can't have the
ritual of crossing.
You refer to a familiar language of
ordinary elements. Do you feel that ar-
chitects like Robert Venturi or Chris-
topher Alexander, who are searching
for a "pattern language", are achieving
an end-product which is more easily
identifiable? There seems to be a level
of abstraction in your work which
many people find difficult to relate to.
If I'm to discuss one of those two,
I'd rather discuss Bob Venturi's work.
Chris Alexander, it seems to me, is in-
terested in documentation of patterns
that do exist. Venturi is interested in
that, as well as being able to take the
standard language and turn it into a
poetic language by combining what
might be seen as general to the society
and what is particular to a situation.
The two together neither overparticu-
larize nor generalize, but have gone
together into kind of a combined lan-
guage. The language isn't necessarily
new, but is a combination of things
which wakes us up to the fact that this
really is a window, and that we really
do stand like Proust's Swann at that
window and look out at the landscape,
and have the landscape look back at us.
This is a glorious event in architec-
ture-where the light comes in and
where our view goes out.
You draw upon a lot of references
from mythology and literature in the
explanation of your work. Do you feel
a kinship with literature in your work,
and is there a relationship between lit-
erature and architecture?
Of course there is, because litera-

ture, like architecture, conditions who
we are and what we do and what we see
and how we act. It offers us, in the best
sense, a forum upon which our actions
take place.
I think that many writers are bet-
ter architects than architects are. Let's
take Proust again. If Proust is to set up
his character, Swann, he can discuss for
us Swann's attitude, his melancholy, his
joy, his feelings, by simply describing
the room. If he allows Swann to pass
through the door, without-ever saying
anything about Swann's mind, or what
he's thinking at the moment, all he
needs to do is to talk about the light
and the color of the wallpaper, the
characteristics of the furniture, the
quality of the room itself, etc. Little by
little, by using architecture as meta-
phor, he sets in our minds what Swann
is thinking.
If an architect thought about the
wall or the floor or the pattern or the
light in the way that Proust was able to
do, he would be able to chacterize our
room, our space, in ways that would
allow us to think in a variety of ways,
and allow us to sense some identity
with that.
I don't mean to say that the room
should be characterized in only one
way. It seems to me, as in good litera-
ture, several things can be said simul-
taneously. The way you'll read a pas-
sage and the way I'll read it will have
something to do with each other, but
they will be different as well, and
that's quite wonderful.
You talk about wanting to re-
establish the boundaries between
spaces, or rooms, to get away from the
amorphous flow of one space into
another. Yet you have, in a way, dis-
solved a symbolic boundary between
painting and architecture. Do you feel
that people sometimes feel uncomfort-
able about your work because they
don't know whether to interpret it as
painting or architecture?
Well, I love your question. I wish
that were possible, but I'm afraid the
art isn't good enough to do that. I first
started painting when I was frustrated
by my own architecture, by not being
able to do in my architecture-play
out, shall I say-some of the themes
that I thought were necessary. I used
low budgets at the time and all of that
was an excuse for not being able to
portray the kind of ideas that I wanted

to fully explore in my work.
I think that's been one of the de-
corative roles of painting, and that will
be misread by alot of your readers. But
certainly if we put a Matisse on the
wall, and see it as an easel painting, it is
a one time object in the room, and then
it is a window to the landscape outside.
It is that double-sided idea of extend-
ing the space of the room and also
acting as a mirror to the room. That is
a three-dimensional construction,
and if that is possiblejust in easel paint-
ing, certainly the fact that I paint a
whole wall is equally genuine. The dis-
tance between us and that painting and
its space, is always literal enough that
one senses what reality is.
Do you see any similarities between
the Post-Modern period that we are
going through now and the Mannerist
period, during which there was a lot of
aesthetic game-playing and taking of
elements and combining them in dif-
ferent ways, sometimes for their shock
Well, certainly there is some. In a
curious way, architecture is always in-
volved in mannerism. Again, that will
upset some people, but if there is a lan-
guage, my inflection of the language
against your inflection of the language
is always seen as something that would
assume standardization of our code. If
we always had a stock kind of response
to a given situation, obviously all archi-
tecture would be alike.
Of course, the local situation and
the general ideas which are embodied
in the architectural language are always
confronting each other in ways which
distort that language. As far as I'm con-
cerned, that distortion is always part of
our ability to speak. But you can't have
anything said with significance if it isn't
a personal language. You also can't say
anything significant if that language
isn't to some degree distorted by par-
ticular conditions of the context. So, if
we're talking about Mannerism as dis-
tortion of a known code, then I think it
is, and always will be.
Your question really asks, "Is there
more distortion now than there nor-
mally would have been?" I think that
the degree of distortion today is prob-
ably more evident because we are at
one time a bit anxious about re-
establishing the language, and that
anxiety, I think, shows in the work. At
the same time, we are, as modern ar-

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chitects, all "original". And that's prob-
ably where the difficulty lies, Modern
architecture taught us to make things
out of our minds, totally sweep the lan-
guage aside, and be original, and that
originality has taken a toll in the land-
scape as we see it now.
Where Mannerism traditionally
distorted the element, the details, the
small connections of architecture, Man-
nerism in modern architecture dis-
torted the whole object and turned it
on its head. It did that through mate-
rial. So we saw quite bizarre, DaDa-ist
things in the landscape and in time
they meant nothing to us. The shock
value of DaDa, the shock value of those
elements seen for the first time lends a
kind of bizarre condition to what we
see, but, seen again and again, that
same bizarre quality loses its original
value of shock. Therefore, from Pop
Art to DaDa, one goes to sleep on it
ultimately, and it no longer has that
same meaning. It's an historical prob-
lem then.
Unless we are able to reinstate the
simple language of elements, and wake
ourselves up to those various attitudes
of living and the way we understand
our work, then I think it's really a
hopeless situation. But I don't think
that's going to happen. I'm not talking
about the future, but I think there is
enough momentum now for an interest
in the re-establishment of the language,
and that ultimately the level of distor-
tion will return to the smaller element.
I'd like to pick up on that thread
of how the original eventually becomes
the mundane, which seems to have
happened in modern architecture. You
gave the example in your lecture of the
cab driver who took you to see Arthur
Erikson's space frame building in Van-
couver*, and who was so proud of it.
The language of modern architecture
seems to have imbued itself into the
culture to such a point that people now
are used to these forms and this means
of expression. Do you think that
re-establishment of the language now is
going to shock people? (*Graves made
a reference to Erikson's Law Library in
Vancouver during his lecture the eve-
ning before this interview.)
Yes, of course it is. Modern archi-
tecture has been going on for some
time of course, and it's completely won
all of us over to a point. I think the cab
driver in Vancouver was excited about
that building because of its size and its
enormous glass roof and its technical

feat, the idea that light poured out of
that thing at night and lit the sky. And,
like the World's Fair, it is energizing.
It's exciting to see something like that.
But to see it again, and again-it's not
its shock value but its value to surprise
which is reduced in time.
So you want to be able to find the
front door..
I do want to be able to find MY
front door.
Last year Progressive Architecture
magazine awarded you for three
houses in New Jersey.* I'd like you, if
you would, to answer some of the jury's
comments. (*The Kalko House, the
Plocek House and a Beach House, all
in New Jersey, were featured in the
January 1980 issue of P.A.).
Helmut Jahn stated that your
buildings "only address themselves to a
particular element of architecture, the
aesthetic, cultural side and not the side
that deals with the more real problems,
and ultimately with the problems of
getting buildings built."
On the other hand, Robert Stern
said that to him, "the aesthetic is the
only important thing about a building."
Whether or not you totally agree with
Stern's statement, don't you feel that
this line of thought ignores the multi-
valent nature of architecture?
Certainly, I think Bob sometimes
overstates the case when he finds some-
body violating a rather philistine view
of construction. I think it's interesting,
in Helmut's case, that soon after he
made that comment the roof fell in in
Kansas City*. One doesn't wish that on
anybody, but it's surprising that an ar-
chitect building the kinds of buildings
that Helmut does build would talk ab-
out, and not understand, that most
things are buildable. That's a pity. But
my things are clearly as buildable as
his, and I think that's kind of a veiled
thought in his statement. He, of course,
knows that the building is buildable.
What I think he's really saying is the
other side around: there's too much art
for him. But it's interesting to look at
Jahn's work. It is more distant and
more abstract than one would ever
have guessed that it would become,
given statements like he's made in the
very recent past. (*A reference to the
Kemper Arena.)
I think that the heart of the ques-
tion is how does one express the poetry

of the work and convince us that one
has not gone too far, that the building
is substantial in terms of its craft and in
terms of its ultimate buildability. That
becomes one of the more interesting
questions for me today, and I see it this
way: If one is to establish a craft lan-
guage within the thematic language of
elements, the closer one gets to the ex-
pression of putting things together, the
closer you get to science and the closer
you get to the discursive elements in
architecture, and the further you get
away from expression.
You see in Leon Krier's work, for
example, that he gets closer to arche-
typal sources, he draws the expression
free of the work and shows surround-
ing sculpture and other kinds of ele-
ments of the city. We then identify
these with the work somehow, but as
separate pieces. It's not in my interest
to do such things. It is, however, in my
interest to find a more familiar way of
expressing material, and at the same
time see that expression as offering a
chance to give character to the room or
the space at hand. That's going to be a
tough job.
There's a certain richness and con-
sistency of detail in all of your draw-
ings. Do you find that it's difficult to
transfer that same quality into a real
building? Do you find, in the building
process, that some things have to be
compromised, or are you able to main-
tain that same richness and con-
I don't maintain the same richness,
I attempt another richness. I say that
because people have looked at my
drawings and have said: "Will you get
this same quality in a building?" And
the answer is "no". The building is a
building and the drawing is a drawing.
And yet I can't make the building imi-
tate the drawing either. If there is an
essence in the drawing about the act of
participation in the life of that thing,
then that's about all I can ask of it. On
the other hand, if, in the building,
there is a familiarity with the surfaces
and the plan and the idea of space
embodied by that plan and those sur-
faces, then I'll be comfortable with it.
But, I would lead you astray if I said I
was trying for that same richness in
drawing and building.
Now, to qualify that, some people
read that as saying what good is the
drawing? Isn't it a tool for building? It
is, but only in the sense that it tries to

maintain a quality of life about it that
will be thought to be extant in the
building. But I can't imitate one by vir-
tue of the other, without making a kind
of superficial rendering. But the IDEA
of the drawing and the IDEA of the
building should share the most of that
kind of cross-current, that cross-
fertilization, without an imitation of
style, of drawing, of rendering, the
The AIA Convention theme this
year was a "Line on Design and Ener-
gy." Have you addressed this rela-
tionship in any of your work, and what
do you think of buildings which derive
their forms almost entirely from their
relationship to the forces of sun and
wind, rain and temperature? Do you
feel these are valid form-givers in ar-
Sure, they always have been. I
think it's a curious state of affairs, the
whole energy question, the way it's
being described and understood by

many architects. We are, again, throw-
ing the baby out with the bath water
and we somehow never learn.
If, in the past fifty or sixty years
during modern architecture, we had
seen north as north and south as south
and not as reflective glass, I would im-
agine that we would not be in the kind
of state of re-evaluation that we are to-
day. When we opened the whole wall
up on the north side of the building,
and then in turn put reflective glass on
it-no sun, right? Nobody ever
screamed bloody murder, that this was
not good for energy. But if somebody
like myself makes a window in a wall
where a window traditionally goes, peo-
ple say: "Ah, but where's the sloped
roof, where's the trombe wall, where's
all the stuff that's going to make this
building seem like it's a part of this cen-
tury and a part of this new code of
energy conservation?"
Well, I think that if we're very,
very skillful and if we work with the
path of the sun, the local site, etc., we
probably don't have to overstate the

case, like some people are attempting
to do. I think that those experiments
are wonderful. At the same time, I
think all of the kinds of things that
people like Harrison Fraker and Doug
Kelbaugh are doing are appropriate
and must be done, because they are
stretching the question to a limit that
would have us understand more of the
kind of ramifications of describing a
building primarily through its energy
I think buildings probably need
first to be described through our own
human requirements and energy is
part of the craft. I probably take a
more conservative view than most ar-
Let me go on to say that the people
that were screaming the loudest in
Portland, *for instance, were people
who made steel and glass towers, and I
had to ask them these kinds of ques-
tions. They were saying: "How does
your building address the question of
energy?" Well, it turns out that our
building is the most energy-efficient
Continued on page 28

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There were fourteen winners in this year's FA/AIA Design Awards Competition and, according to the jury, "a lot of discussion over a dozen others." That's a pretty strong
indication of the quality of the overall submissions.
This year's jury was composed of ''.. . ,,. ..' professionals including AIA Vice President George M. NotterJr., FAIA, author and designer Paul D. Spreiregen,
FAIA and Michael J. Pittas, Director t.. i g ., m for the National Endowment for the Arts. The jury was particularly pleased with "the spread of the awards into the
different building types as well as the spread of solutions to problems within the various areas in which Florida architects are working."
The jury, according to Paul Spreiregen, was looking for four things in particular in each project it reviewed. First, they looked for buildings well-suited to the climate.
Second, they sought as winners those buildings which were good places for human beings to inhabit. Third, they looked for buildings which were works of craft, even art, as
well as pieces of architecture and fourth, they looked for particularly good solutions to proto-typical structures.
In reviewing the entries as a whole, the jury stated emphatically that "architecture is alive and well in Florida."

Private Residence
Tampa, Florida

John Howey, Design Architect
John Howey and Associates, Architecture
and Planning, Inc.

Consulting Engineer
Rast Associates, Structural Engineers

General Contractor
Ostie Miller
Situated on an in-town lot and built for a
bachelor, this house was designed on a
three-zone concept: recreation-sleeping
zone, living zone, guest bedroom zone. The
wood and steel frame is sheathed in ply-
wood with vertical lapped siding on both
straight and curved surfaces. The built-up
roof is surfaced with brown river gravel
and the exterior decks are cypress.

Jury Comments
"This project represents a very good relationship
of forms and the space derived from them. There
is great geometrical presence on the exterior of
the house which works very well with interior
spaces and what they are supposed to do. Siting
is excellent and the materials work nicely
together. It is a very nice composition of wood."

Boulevard Shops
Miami, Florida
Bouterse Perez and Fabregas Architects
Landscape Architect
Allen Fernandez
Mr. Rafael Kapustin
General Contractor
Marks-Seiden Construction Co.
This building represents the adaptive reuse
of a 50-year old, two-story masonry struc-
ture. The walls of the original Art Deco
building were stripped of paint to bring
.. back the original beige coquina cast stone
facing and to accentuate the intricate bas
relief. Floors, both interior and exterior,
are clay tile. Interior ceilings are glazed
ceramic tile and smooth plaster and store-
fronts are natural aluminum and glass.
Jury Comments
"This is a very sensitive restoration with a par-
ticularly appropriate additional treatment on both
interior and exterior. The building was very fine
to work with initially and what the architect has
added are real improvements. All changes are
specific and appropriate to the original style of
the building. Nothing seems contrived."

Awards For Excellence in Architecture

Miami Free Zone
Miami, Florida

Principal-in-Charge: Hilario F. Candela,
Project Manager: James F. Armstrong, AIA
Director of Architectural Design: Julio Gra-
biel, AIA

Landscape Architect
Ferendino/Grafton /Spillis/Candela

Miami Free Zone Corporation

General Contractor
Frank J. Rooney, Inc.

This foreign trade complex contains two
warehousing and display buildings and one
office building. It is constructed of precast
and poured-in-place concrete columns, tilt-
up wall panels with cast-in-place concrete
beams and PSI floor slabs. Bridges are con-
structed with long-span steel trusses with
floor-to-ceiling glass panels. Exposed duct-
work systems are a part of the building's in-
terior design.
Jury Comments
"This is a very strong treatment of industrial
warehousing .. it makes a very strong state-
ment. It makes very good use of bright primary
colors which are appropriate to its function, pur-
pose and setting."

School of Business Administration
University of Miami
Miami, Florida
Boerema, Bermello, Kurki & Vera, Inc.
Firm Of Record:
Severud, Knight, Boerema And Buff

Consulting Engineer
Hufsey-Nicolaides Associates

Landscape Architect
University of Miami

General Contractor
The Winter Company
This multi-storied reinforced concrete
building has a classroom "tower" which
contains all classrooms, utility areas and ele-
vators. Faculty offices are in an "L-shaped"
structure which is first occupied at the
second level. It is separate from the tower
but joined to it at each floor by a pair of
pedestrian bridges. This design concept is a
result of extensive environmental con-
siderations and its composition is oriented
to facilitate natural ventilation.
Jury Comments
"This project presents a well-solved solution to a
tough kind of problem. It is a clean design with
crisp detail and it is very attentive to climatic
conditions, sunlight and its relationship to neigh-
boring buildings. On the negative side, the class-
room and teaching buildings should have more
spaces where people can meet as characterized in
old college quadrangles."


~ :

Awards For Excellence in Architecture
"Reflections One"
Ormond Beach, Florida
% Architect
"r -. Alford Associates Architects
SV Jacksonville

Consulting Engineer
kHaley Keister

Landscape Architect
Dale Lott

The Eddy Corporation

h w- General Contractor
,~ Blosam Contractors

In this low rise suburban office building
mirrors were used on interior spaces to util-
ize exterior character throughout and also
to expand small and uninteresting areas.
Rough sawn cedar and painted gypsum
board are common interior materials. The
building has a steel frame and precast con-
crete floor slabs. There is solar reflective
glass in the north and south walls with insu-
.-t lated bulkhead and spandrels. There is a
roughsawn cedar sunscreen in the south
S. elevation.
& jury Comments
A #, 0 "This building, with its narrow courtyardfront,
S. 4 has a really spectacular entrance. It is the most
At. -. imaginative design that we saw and it is im-
; aginative without being silly. The trellis space is
-- wonderful and the mirrored glass is fun and
: amusing without being trite. The building shows
a quality of imagination that we all search for."

St. Armands House
Sarasota, Florida

J. West, AIA
." ..West and Conyers Architects and Engi-
neers, Inc.

A.L. Conyers, J.M. Lombard, E.M. John
son, D. Joy, J. West

General Contractor
Cosentino Construction Co., Inc.

This house was built for speculation and
completed in 1980. Constructed on a steel
frame, the house is built of white painted
V concrete block and plywood columns and
beams, stained cedar siding, bronz alumi-
num and bronze solar glass. The house is
designed for natural ventilation and all win-
dows have exterior bronze aluminum shut-
?ters. Trees were retained on the relatively
low site by placing the house on stilts.

Jury Comments
"This prototype house is very modest and simple
inform. The plan is very livable and it sits well
on the site. It does, however, present a lot of op-
Sportunity for more gracious detailing, particu-
4 0 larly on the staircase and some of the windows."


Awards For Excellence in Architecture

M. Sterling
Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Donald Singer, AIA
Fort Lauderdale
Consulting Engineer
Gaston De Zarraga
De Zarraga & Donnell

Landscape Architect
Ted Baker Group

Arline Sterling Norman *.

General Contractor
Fisher-Payne Construction Co.
Roy Pearthree, Superiritendent

The main objective of this project was the
creation of a new image for, and a new en- -
trance to, a men's clothing store. The exist-
ing building, which was 40 years old, re-
quired renovation and an addition. Site de-
velopment was to permit future expansion I
of the addition to the north. The new con- Bi
struction consisted of a two-story concrete
block bearing wall building. Renovations

Jury Comments
"The addition to the rear of this building created
a new entry which seems to be a very strong solu-
tion to the client imperative. Space was created
that wasn't there before and it has the effect of
drawing people inside. This is a very high quality
design for which both owner and architect should
be commended."

Lido Bayfront Residence
(Dickson/ Drinkwater Residence)
Sarasota, Florida

Carl Abbott Architect
Consulting Engineer
A.L. Conyers, P.E.
Dickson /Drinkwater .

General Contractor
Saunders Construction Co.

The form and plan of this house were
determined by the force lines of the site:
large-scale privacy walls on the north and
in the other directions openings to the sun
and to exotic views of the bay and thejun-
gle. The house, whose dominant material is
heavy blown-on stucco, has a structural
orientation designed to take advantage of
the sun's angle and the seasonal winds as
they change throughout the year. It has a
system of exhaust fans and natural cross

Jury Comments
"This house represents an effort which success-
fully combined rectangular forms with 45 degree
relationships and some circles and made them
work quite well. Also, on the living side of the
house, the materials are appropriately warm in
color and softer in feeling than on the public side
of the house."


Awards For Excellence in Architecture

Corporate Headquarters of R.J.
Pavlik, Inc.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Donald Singer, AIA
Fort Lauderdale

Consulting Engineer
... Gaston De Zarraga
I De Zarraga & Donnell

Interior Designer
S __ The Pavlik Design Team

R.J. Pavlik

General Contractor
Edward Manestar and Terry Harkins

This concrete block office building was de-
signed to fill the zoning envelope in a
transitional area zoned for low rise profes-
sional office use. Entry to the building is
through the center court, into which all
three levels face. The separation of areas
for the owner-tenant is a program require-
ment based on the functional breakdown of
the building.

"" Jury Comments
S- ."This project is simple in its massing and refresh-
ing in its simplicity. The building's designer
worked very conscientiously on the forms and de-
tails which are very elegant. On a critical note,
the drafting room and design office seem
cramped. Some softness in these areas would
have contributed to the overall feeling of ele-
l gance found in the rest of the building."

The Bouterse House
Miami, Florida
Bouterse Perez & Fabregas Architects Plan-
Landscape Architect
Allen Fernandez
Donald Bouterse, AIA
A narrow lot and restrictive zoning necessi-
I- tated lifting this house off the ground and
into the air and the palms. Side walls,
which are only 8 inches from the adjoining
houses were treated as common walls and
left without openings, but with movement
and undulating profiles to avoid monu-
mentality. Transparency is achieved
inside the house with a flow of site lines
which are strongly directional toward a su-
perb view of a canal. Throughout the
house there is a strong awareness of place,
and a conscious absense of strong color in

Jury Comments
"The forms in this house are a quotation of inter-
national style associated with the 1920's and Le
Corbusier, but they are well used on an appar-
ently tight site. This is a strong statement of both
form and materials. Although the site didn't
allow for placing living spaces on the ground
floor, there is ample stair between the pool and
the main living areas of the house.

4 21


Awards For Excellence in Architecture
City of Miami Heavy Equipment
Maintenance Facility
Miami, Florida
Wolfberg/Alvarez/Taracido &
General Contractor
Garcia Allen Construction Co., Inc.
Landscape Architect
The Ted Baker Group
City of Miami
Opposition from local residents and busi-
nessmen had caused a number of proposals
for this site to be rejected. Out of concern
for the surrounding community, the design
was people-oriented. Extensive landscaping ,
using berms minimizes noise and creates
visual screening of activities. A 15,000
square foot public plaza with a large sculp-
ture and extensive landscaping makes the
facility resemble a college campus on the
outside. On the interior, special considera-
tion was given to low maintenance and
energy conservation. Clerestories provide a
naturally lit interior supplemented by metal
halide light grid with split switching capa-
bility to illuminate only those areas being
Jury Comments
"This is an example of a utilitarian structure
that got a chance to be architecture and suc-
ceeded. It is pleasing to see this kind of a struc-
ture treated in a way that is pleasing not only to
the people who work inside, but to the whole com-
munity. The community applied pressure and
they got a beautiful cover of significant design
on a much-needed facility which has too often
been given short shrift."

Federal Building-United States
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Gonzalo Gaitan, Project Architect
William Morgan Architects
Consulting Engineer
H.J. Ross Associates
Landscape Architect ,
Stresau. Smith and Stresau. P.A.
General Services Administration
General Contractor
Henry C. Beck Company
This structure is composed of reinforced
concrete columns, beams and slabs with
rough textures split face concrete masonry ,
unit infilling for the exterior walls. Roofing
is built-up on rigid insulation. The architec-
tural order is based on the discipline of
cantilevered concrete "trees" which support
each level in 30 by 30 foot bays. The build-
ing welcomes visitors into a four-story ter-
raced piazza open to the street corner. Spe-
cially designed water courses produce the
sounds of waterfalls which accoustically
dampens street noise and imparts a sense
of serenity to the plaza.
Jury Comments
"This is a very carefully conceived tour de force.
It is a public building which says 'come in' rather
than 'stay away.' Particulary handsome is the
way the scale of the building's cornice matches ." ,- ..... .
the cornice line of the neighboring church. The
building has a particularly good internal pre- FLORIDA ARCHITECT/Fall, 1981
sentation in the courtyard."

Awards For Excellence in Architecture
Museum of Science and Industry
Tampa, Florida

Rowe Holmes Associates Architects, Inc.

Consulting Engineer
Mechanical/ Electrical/ Plumbing
Ossi Consulting Engineers, Inc.

Rast Associates, Inc.

Landscape Architect
New York, New York

Hillsborough County Board of County

General Contractor
CM Associates, Inc.
Houston, Texas
The Architects were retained to design a
regional Science and Industry Museum
illustrating regional climatic responses to
the environment for maximum energy effi-
ciency utilizing phased construction. The
solution reflects these regional environ-
mental concerns with the use of east-west
orientation for prevailing breezes, large
roof overhangs, use of earth berms, north
light skylighting and total shading of south-
ern exposure. The major energy systems
for the building were designed as an inte-
gral part of the exhibits.
Jury Comments
"This seems to be a very innovative solution to a
very contemporary problem. If this building is to
be a place for giving people an education on
energy and energy design, it certainly is a place
that will arouse curiosity while, at the same time,
make good use of current building methods."

Dorado, Puerto Rico

Thomas S. Marvel, FAIA
Torres.Beauchamp.Marvel Y Asociados
Hato Rey, Puerto Rico
Landscape Architect
Torres. Beauchamp. Marvel Y Asociados
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Shelley
The plan of this residence is cruciform, and
upon entering the house, all of the circula-
tion and principal spaces depart from the
foyer. The center of the house is an in-
terior terrace, two stories in height, rather
than a traditional living room. The struc-
tural-spacial modulation reinforces the
singular orientation of every interior space.
The two main concrete bearing walls run
counter to the central view, the rear wall
acting as a screen, a backdrop for the dra-
ma of the open planning of the house.
Jury Comments
"Both in structure and plan, this house takes ad-
vantage of its unique siting. It has an excep-
tionally clear and open plan that is very comfort-
able. The concrete used on the living side of the
house seems a bit heavy, but overall real quality
of design has been achieved."



w- hub
14- 44,

till if



& ,
.w '


by H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, AICP

When the State Board of Archi-
tecture awards the certificate which
permits one the title "Architect," it
makes the practice of architecture leg-
al, but it does not start the practice. A
"legal" architect is one tested by the
State as to his ability to practice safely.
A "practitioner" is another kind of ar-
chitect-one who does many more
things than those studied in college,
learned during internship or tested by
the State Board.
The purpose of this article is to
describe the role of the practitioner, so
that an architect can decide whether
he wants to become a practitioner or
to be otherwise happy. (I use the term
"he" to denote any person, he or she,
who practices architecture).
There are several recent books
which describe the dynamic changes
taking place in the world. In his book,
Future Shock, Toffler describes changes
in society so drastic that people will
have to change their way of living-a
change which leaves people confused
about their place in society.
A professional who not only
serves society, but also leads it in a mea-
sure, must be prepared to predict the
future of his profession. Only a few
people will be prepared to discuss the
uncertain future of any profession.
Yet a professional must know what is
to be expected in order to be effective
in his field. There is no profession for
which this is more true than architec-
For the past fifteen years, The
American Institute of Architects, has
sponsored studies and activities which
try to predict how the dynamic future
relates to the profession of architec-
ture. Although these activities were
ostensibly concerned with various
aspects of education, research and
practice, all have a common theme:
(1) Environmental problems will
become more complex and
larger in scope. These prob-
lems will not be given in neat
precise programs for solution
by disciplines of well-defined
skills and limits.
(2) Society will look to teams of
specialists to identify prob-
lems, to design alternative
solutions, and to effectuate the
construction of all aspects of
the physical environment,
from small components to
large-scale complex regional
projects. The action of all the
teams will include the partici-
pation of citizens in decision

(3) For many of these teams, the
architect will play a significant
role, provided:
(a) the architect has the ability
to participate effectively in
the process by which tech-
nological, social, economic
and political interests shape
the environment and influ-
ence the creative process,
(b) the architect recognizes the
wide range of disciplines,
professions and unorga-
nized abilities needed in the
creative process and finds a
way to work harmoniously
with them in meaningful
joint efforts to improve the
environment as a whole.
(4) Until the turn of the next cen-
tury, architects must continue
to cope with rapid and vital
suburban growth, the con-
servation of energy, popula-
tion explosion, the demand
for money exceeding the avail-
able supply, sky-rocketing land
costs and spiraling construc-
tion costs. Faced with this,
society has a fragmented
building industry which car-
ries professions and archaic
trade unions using old tech-
niques and cumbersome orga-
nizations. As if this were not
enough, existing constraints to
innovations in construction
technology are predicted to
have a significant impact in
1985 for the following decade.
It is easy to understand that in an
era of rapid and dramatic change, in
an uncertain community of frustrated,
anxious people, an architect can con-
tribute to more confusion by blindly
creating change for the sake of
change. When this occurs, even neces-
sary changes become suspect.
Many changes are needed in this trou-
bled world that are not being made.
Ghettos are getting worse, school sys-
tems and governments are inadequate
for current demands (much less for fu-
ture demands), travel is congested, the
automobile overwhelms us and build-
ing methods, the work week, and util-
ity systems are inappropriate to meet
new conditions. Such problems affect
everyone, but especially the archi-
tects-the innovators whose intellect,
creative talents and understanding are
Orthodox processes for creating
the physical environment are failing to
meet demands. Traditional methods
are challenged and orthodox concepts

are being reevaluated. The efficacy of
professional service in a democratic
society is being questioned and new re-
lationships tested-relationships obli-
gating the professional to involve the
user and the community, as well as the
In the past, the practicing
architect plied his skills with little in-
tercourse with people outside his disci-
pline. Each architect recommended
what needed to be done from his
point of view to resolve social, as well
as physical, problems. Except where
public hearings were required by law
for specific public projects, the user
had little or no role in forming the
professional recommendation. Many
times the architect made recommenda-
tions in complete ignorance of the so-
cial, economic and political aspirations
and needs of the user.
Studies of the emerging design
process for man's environment seem
to indicate five characteristics impor-
tant to the practice of architecture if it
is to effectively meet emerging chal-
(1) The architect must be con-
cerned with the impact of his
project on the community en-
(2) To be effective, the architect
must be a leader in the build-
ing design process.
(3) The architect must cooperate
more closely in education and
in practice with other design
(4) The architect must develop a
general working knowledge of
all major building disciplines,
including management, real
estate, financing, law, con-
struction technology, and an
understanding of social dis-
(5) Four characteristics must be a
part of the architect's practice:
registration and renewal
thereof, education, and mem-
bership in his professional so-
Now, one asks, "Is a person ready
for practice just because he has earned
a degree in architecture from an ac-
credited school and passed the reg-
istration exam?" The obvious answer is
"No." The practice of architecture re-
quires many talents, all of which must
be present in an architect's office to
assure a successful practice. Above all,
the architect should possess the:
Social Sensitivity of a social worker,
kindergarten teacher;
Technical Skills of a chemist, en-
gineer, builder;

Creative Talents of an inventor, art-
Business Ability to manage his
client's affairs, as well as his own;
Good judgement to do what is best
for his client and community with-
in their constraints.
No one person excels in all these
talents, although there are some who
are proficient enough in all to serve
selected communities or to organize
offices of exceptional capability. The
relationship between practitioner,
office and community is, in some re-
spects, parallel to the impact of man-
made work to natural phenomena.
The practice of architecture is not
an abstraction. It is very real and must
be related to that reality. For this
reason, there are certain necessary
evaluations of real world issues which
must be made before an architect de-
cides to become a practitioner.
Many architects do not select the
proper location for their practice.
Their internship might be in Glen
Haven, for example, but the existing
firms are already serving Glen Haven
adequately. One should never start a
practice where there is no growth or
where there is growth, it is already
adequately being served by established
firms. This seems a rudimentary ad-
monition, however, one only needs to
look around to see that many archi-
tects start out where they are not
needed. A good example is one's
hometown. Despite the breadth and
warmth of one's reception there, it
may not be the best place to set up
At the beginning of practice, an
architect usually experiences cash flow
as an ebb tide. A steady income from
the practice does not immediately pro-
vide the capital for practice in many
locations. In some situations it can take
years for a practice to provide the in-
come adequate for all cash flow needs
and capital requirements.
It is necessary, therefore, for the
practitioner to have financial resources
other than the income from the firm.
These resources should provide
money by both short-term notes and
long-term loans.
The amount of cash needed will
vary with the locality and the situation.
As a rule the architect should have
enough capital to meet his personal
needs, to equip and organize a firm,
and to operate the firm for one year.
In addition, the architect's borrowing
capability should be sufficient to cover
such unpredictable situations as being
commissioned to another project re-
quiring office expansion so that both
projects can be properly served.
An architect can find borrowing
money difficult. Banks will not lend
money with architect/owner agree-
ments as collateral. Agreements are of

no value until the service is rendered
and an architect needs cash while the
service is being rendered. Most institu-
tions want "hard collateral"-gold bul-
lion, income producing property, dia-
mond rings, or the like. It's far easier
on the architect if he has a rich wife or
uncle to co-sign his notes.
Many architects follow a deliberate
plan to establish a favorable credit rat-
ing. The most common plan it to de-
liberately charge every purchase, no
matter how small, and then to prompt-
ly pay the bills as they come in. By
gradually increasing the amounts pur-
chased on credit, and paying prompt-
ly, a good credit record is earned.
With a good credit rating and a
small accounts receivable (the amount
you have earned, but has not yet been
paid you), a bank will usually lend
small amounts for 30 to 90 days. After
doing this for a time (a decade, quar-
ter century or so), one can borrow
substantial amounts, although by then
he may not need the money.
If one has no financial resources,
he is faced with an unhappy period of
living from hand to mouth and miss-
ing many good commissions because
he has no capacity for performance.
This is especially true of very small of-
fices with many competitors. In many
firms it is much more pleasant to be
an employee than to be a prac-
titioner/ employer.
The criteria for preparedness for
practice is the negative weight of the
answers to the following self-
evaluation. Check out this list of "ifs"
and see what your feelings are.
If you have no assurance that the
community can use your talents;
If you have no money and very
few friends;
If you do not like competition in
the marketplace against colleagues and
If you are unhappy doing many
things as does a businessman, a social-
ite, a friend of the people; and
If you are happy only while at the
drawing board, for goodness sake,
don't try to become a one-man prac-
If after evaluating the above IF's,
you still want to be a practicing archi-
tect, find partners who will permit you
to do the things you like to do, while
the partners do the things you don't
like to do. This is not easy because
there must be such people available in
the community in which you wish to
practice. The potential market in the
community and your capital must en-
tice these people to participate in your
practice, and they must have the tal-
ents you do not have to satisfy the
realities of practice. a

H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, is a partner in the
Miami-based architectural firm of Watson,
Deutschman, Kruse and Lyon.


All State Pipe
Supply Company, Inc.
2253 Dennis Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
(904) 354-3911

1045 North Mills Street
Orlando, Florida 32803
(305) 894-4850

1520 State Avenue
Holly Hill, Florida 32017
(904) 673-0840

Engineering and Equipment
Company of Florida, Inc.
1336 Florida Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
(904) 769-7641

Engineering and Equipment
Company of Florida, Inc.
1748 Old Bainbridge Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
(904) 222-0750

Lawrence Plumbing Supply
31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571

Orange State Pipe
and Supply Co., Inc.
U.S. 41 North
Lake City, Florida 32055
(904) 752-5340

U.S. 17 North
Palatka, Florida 32077
(904) 325-3694

205 N. Ohio Ave.
Live Oak, Florida 32060
(904) 362-5952

Southwest Pipe and Supply, Inc.
P.O. Box 1447
Winter Haven, Florida 33880
(813) 967-4185


Legal Notes


by George A. Allen
FA/AIA Executive Vice President

Bill Juhn has been charged with
alleged negligence and misconduct in
the design of a building which col-
lapsed during construction, killing
eleven men and injuring 23 others.
Bill Juhn is a registered architect
in Florida and Ohio. He has been in
practice for thirty years and has de-
signed many buildings, none of which
has fallen down to anyone's knowl-
edge. Now that one of Juhn's build-
ings has fallen down, the State says
that he was negligent and his license
might eventually be revoked along
with his ability to practice in Florida.
Juhn is not a member of the
American Institute of Architects, but
he is one of nearly 6,000 architects
now licensed to practice in Florida.
He's not the first to be charged with
misconduct, but because the collapse
of his building, the Harbor Cay Con-
dominium in Cocoa Beach, caused
eleven people to die, he is receiving
more notoriety than others have.
And, Juhn is not the only person
to be charged in the Harbor Cay Con-
dominium case. The engineers and the
contractor have all been charged by
the Department of Professional Reg-
ulation with misconduct.
We are drawing attention to this
case because it involves modifications
to the regulatory system which will
have impact on the architectural pro-
fession in the years to come.
First, the basic part of the law
Juhn allegedly violated is Section
481.221 (5) Florida Statutes: "Plans,
drawings, specifications and other re-
lated documents prepared by a regis-
tered architect as part of his architec-
tural practice shall be of sufficiently
high standard to assure the user there-
of against misunderstanding of the re-
quirements intended to be illustrated
or described by them. To be of the re-
quired standard, such documents
should clearly and accurately indicate
the design of the structural elements
and of all other essential parts of the
work to which they refer."
That section of the law is not real-
ly new. It is part of the Architectural
Practice Act passed in 1979 by the
Florida Legislature.
What is new is that the Florida
Board of Architecture actually heard
the complaint and determined there
was probable cause for the charge to
be levied against Juhn.
Prior to this year, the Board had
delegated the authority to determine

probable cause to the Department
staff. Late last year the Board decided
to take that authority back.
The Board's action signaled a shift
in the regulatory winds within DPR. It
turned out that many other regulatory
boards were dissatisfied with the way
things were being handled and they
felt some of the authority which had
been shifted to the Department staff
in 1979 needed to be shifted back to
During the 1981 legislative ses-
sion, the boards, with the backing of
professional societies and associations,
supported a bill which did accomplish
the shift of authority which ultimately
will have an impact on the regulated.
One provision is that the Board of
Architecture and other boards will es-
tablish criteria by which investigators
are selected. This means that if an ar-
chitect is subjected to an investigation,
the person conducting the investiga-
tion should know something about ar-
chitecture and construction. Of course,
this may help or hinder the architect
being investigated, depending upon
the actual case.
Another provision directs the De-
partment to investigate any complaint
which is filed as long as it is in writing,
signed by the complainant and legally
sufficient. During testimony on the bill
in the House of Representatives, it was
brought out that many complaints are
not investigated by the Department.'
Certainly, this has been true in the
construction field where complaints
have been made against persons who
were illegally performing professional
services which they were not licensed
to perform.
The new statute now says that the

Department must investigate, but it
must be .shown that a licensee or a
group of licensees has violated a Flor-
ida Statute or rule. This has caused
the Department to change the way it
handles investigations slightly. Minor
violations are to be handled through a
"desk" investigation. In other words,
someone in Tallahassee or in a branch
office will check the complaint out by
phone rather than traveling to the site.
Another change is that persons in-
stituting complaints will have to sign a
complaint form. This is an outgrowth
of some feelings by boards that com-
plaints were being made anonymously.
Under certain circumstances, the stat-
utes now allow the Department to
withhold notifying a licensee if he is

under investigation. Those circum-
stances generally relate to criminal ac-
tivities in which notification would im-
pede investigation or apprehension.
But the priority system used by
DPR on complaints has not been
altered since February. It consists of
four classifications ranging from a top
priority involving misconduct or negli-
gence of a professional causing im-
mediate danger to the health and safe-
ty of the consumer to the fourth prior-
ity which poses no immediate or direct
threat to the public health, safety or
Most complaints which have come
from the design professions concern
an unlicensed individual practicing
illegally. The Department places these
complaints in their lowest priority
classification where investigations are
rarely, if ever, carried out because of
staff limitations.
Until the recent modifications
were made to the DPR law, there was
very little information about investiga-
tions or disciplinary proceedings being
communicated from the Department
to the Board of Architecture.
Another change in the law pro-
vides that the Department must now
refer to the Board any investigation or
disciplinary proceeding that has not
been completed or reached the admin-
istrative hearing stage in one year.
And, if the Board is not satisfied with
the legal counsel supplied by the De-
partment, it can hire its own counsel
with the consent of the Attorney Gen-
The modifications to the DPR
statute took some important steps to-
ward more equitably balancing the au-
thority between the boards and the
Department, but it remains to be seen
whether the professional regulatory
system will be able to function any bet-
ter than it has insofar as the design
professions are concerned.
Certainly, the priority system of
investigating complaints will need to
be altered if the Department and the
Board of Architecture ever want to
prevent a Harbor Cay Condo disaster
before it becomes a disaster.
That would involve not only inves-
tigating complaints but following
through with enforcement action-a
tough assignment for any governmen-
tal agency but a job that needs doing
nonetheless. m

Continued from page 15
building that the Trane Company has
ever put through their computers, of
any building in the United States.
Now, that's only one company, but it's
one of the biggest, if not the biggest.
Simply by scaling the windows appro-
priately, by facing the building appro-
priately, by having mechanical systems
in accord with the thickness of the
walls, etc., all the things that we would
normally do, we are not playing
against the sun; we're playing with it.
And yet, the building doesn't go far
enough. My building doesn't go far
enough and most don't. (*A reference
to Grave's controversial design which
won the competition for the Portland
Public Service Building.)
If the AIA wanted to really do
something at their convention, they
would probably try to put through
some sort of law that would say that in
every room there ought to be "x"
number of square feet of operable
sash, not just windows, not just outlets,
not just all the things that are there
currently in the code, but operable
sash. Because in Portland we have
fixed windows.
I tried to get around the question
by having key-operated windows, hop-
ing that all the worker bees would ulti-
mately find the key and could open the
windows. Can you imagine? There it is
in Portland, Oregon, which has a tem-
perate, wonderful climate. It's 68 de-
grees outside, and you've got the
bloody machines going all day long to
keep it 68 degrees inside. The most
ridiculous series of events have led to
that kind of thought, most of them
having to do with building mainte-
nance. They think it's going to make all
the stuff inside dirty if the windows are
open. Modern architecture doesn't like
screens. Big deal. Let's have screens,
let's have operable sash, let's turn the
machinery off when it's appropriate
outside. All of our spring, all of our fall
in the Northeast, for instance, our
buildings could be standing open, espe-
cially our towers. The law won't let
them. But somebody ought to blow the
whistle at some point and say: "Okay
guys, the jig's up, let's open the win-
dows," and let's have this as one of the
major sources for energy conservation.
I spoke on a panel in the Midwest
recently on energy. I was the Formalist
freak that was supposed to be set up
for this panel, and I spoke on this kind
of line that I'm addressing now. But we
were sitting in a room, of course, in a
Ramada Inn, somewhere in the bowels
of this enormous hotel, no windows
anywhere, a huge room that could be
subdivided twenty-seven times, you
know, for smaller groups, and there
were no fewer than a hundred and fif-
Continued on page 30


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BUILD ARKS, RIGHT? byimMoorhead

The following article is reprinted with the
permission of The ARG Corporation, Ar-
chitects and Environmental Planners, St.
Petersburg, Florida. The article originally
appeared in "ARrgggh Times Are Com-
ing," a newsletter which is published by
the firm.
When my great and good friend,
the pseudonymous but never pusillani-
mous "A.T. Square," asked me to do
an article on architects, I had a one-
word response:
And the next thing I know, he had
turned around and formed a company
by that name.
Architects are like that. Very crea-
tive. They fabricate from nothing at all.
They take notions that are pure pie in
the sky, add a lot of crust, and come up
with very expensive confections-
gingerbread houses, for instance.
They consider their vocation di-
vinely inspired. "In my father's house
are many mansions," they will quote
you biblically-adding that somebody
had to do the blueprints. And just as
"man does not live by bread alone," an
architect will say, neither does he abid-
eth solely in mud hovels. He must
haveth a teepee for the beach, a tree-
house for the mountains, and a lean-to
for when the lean years cometh.
Then, pressing his case, the archi-
tect sayeth: "Consider the average man.
He designeth not, neither does he
sketcheth." And so saying, the architect
doth give his best shot to be commis-
sioned to design the teepee/tree-
house/lean-to of your dreams. It has
ever been thus, and thus be it ever, as
the second stanza of The Star-Spangled
Banner sagely tells us.
And because architecture does not
stand still, just as other professions do
not stand still with the possible excep-
tion of sentry duty, the art of building
design has changed vastly over the
years. No longer do architects slave for
hours to produce precise renderings of
willow frames sagging under elk hides,
or caves cleverly ensconced in the sides
of mountains.
Staggering advances have been
made. The profession, through the
centuries, has introduced such struc-
tural innovations as the flying buttress,
the buckling lentel and the eternal tri-
angle (architect, building contractor
and their client's meddlesome wife).
Among other architectural devel-
opments over the years, the following
list contains some of the best known:
Rampart-that section of a forti-

fiction which the enemy always puts
the log to first.
Bay window--protuberance
dreamed up by the Greek archi-
tect-king, Edifice Rex, making fun of
his father's waistline.
Gable-one of several profiles that
gained popularity in Hollywood in the
Dome-the origins of this structu-
ral crown are obscure, but it is known
that it was regarded as a capitol idea.
Minaret-onion-shaped domes,
popular in Russia and Turkey; big
ones are called maxarets.
Cupola-cute little do-whatchie on
top of a house, named after the Missis-
sippi town where it originated.
Piazza-another pie-in-the-sky
Balustrade-fancy name for a
bannister which is a fancy name for a
Colonnades-houses occupied by
the American side during the Revolu-
tionary War; houses on the British side
were known as limeades.
Pilaster-gloppy stuff that high-
priced craftsmen slap on walls; usually
French-made, and properly referred to
as pilaster of Paris.
As the definitions show, the terms
are unnecessarily obfuscatory, which is
one of the reasons they're priced so
high. Have your architect agree before-

hand to generic descriptions and you'll
end up spending less money. Wall
board doesn't cost near as much as
History has produced many styles
of architecture, but in this country pri-
marily four have survived. Roughly in
descending order of cost, they are
Mediterranean, Continental, do-it-
yourself, and Jim Walter.
Unfortunately, architects are out
of reach for many people. In fact, after
discussing their plans for a dream
house with the architect of their choice
most young couples move in with his or
her parents instead.
As a result, the majority of
architects have had to do one of three
things: dull stuff, such as apartments,
office towers, government buildings
and schools; run for public office; or
create. The latter group may or may
not be responsible for such modern
creations as Shell stations that look like
Tudor cottages, and fast-food drive-
through ordering stations that resem-
ble fat clowns, with speakers where
their teeth should be.
All little boys go through a stage of
wanting to be an architect, sometimes
even before they know what it is.
When I was 3, I went to my mother
and said, "I'm going to be an
artichoke." She ran off screaming to
my father, "Gordon, our son's turning
into a vegetable!" And she was very
nearly right.
Among the architects I have
known over the years is one who was
my commanding officer m the Army
Reserve. If there was ever a fellow who
knew a straight line, even when he
couldn't walk one, it was he. 01' Slide
'n' Rule, we called him. His fellow offi-
cers played ajoke on him at summer
camp once, arranging a widely wit-
nessed rendevous between him and an
auburn-haired madam from the nearby
town. Ever after, she was known as the
Red Queen-and he, of course, was
the Blue Prints.
But, seriously, my favorite archi-
tects are A.T. and his Square Roots, the
jivest little Rapidograph-playing combo
around. And, I wish them well as some
of the keepers of that eternal seal
whereupon those ageless words are for-
ever engraved:
"Back to the drawing board." w
JIM MOORHEAD is entertainment writer and
columnist for the St. Petersburg Evening Inde-
pendent. An ardent admirer of things archi-
tectural, he once wood burned twin outhouses on a
set of bookends at summer camp.

Continued from page 28
ty-seven lights on in that room, three
hundred watt floods in the ceiling
beaming out its little energy into this
room of a group of architects talking
about energy. Instead of sitting around
the pool as we are now, or sitting out-
side, or sitting somewhere in light, all
these lights were turned on. It was just
quite incredible to me. All these kind of
do-gooders were sitting there talking
about trombe walls, and the lights were
beaming away. Something somewhere
is amiss.
You sound as if you'd like to do a
building in Florida.
I, like most architects, like to do
buildings almost anywhere, but espe-
cially in contexts that have a certain
quality to them. We're doing a building
now in southern California* and the
Spanish Colonial context is something
that energizes the building because
there's something to play off. It's not a

benign landscape, as it isn't here. I also
would love to do a building in a climate
like this because of one's ability to use
the landscape, the green. It grows, it
can be altered, it can be left, it can be a
number of things. Of course, in the
New York area where I live that isn't in
the cards to any extent. Though cer-
tainly we have green, we have it on a
very different scale than you do here.
The ability to make outdoor rooms,
and the ability to locate the building
within its local landscape here is awful-
ly exciting. (*The Library of San Juan
We're starting to get calls from ar-
chitects around the country who want
to go into joint venture with us, and I
think that will help extend one's chance
to build other places. This is one of
those places where I obviously would
love to work.
Do you feel that your formal
vocabulary would change much in a
subtropical climate?

Well, I think that the general
things would stay similar to what they
are now, and the particular ones would
be altered because of the local context.
Could you talk a little bit about
your collaboration with artist Lennart
Anderson in the exhibit which is sup-
posed to be open in New York in
March*? (*The exhibit, entitled: "Col-
laboration: Artists and Architrects",
opened in New York City on March 6.)
To celebrate the 100th anniversary
of the Architectural League in New
York, the NEA, the New York State
Council for the Arts, the League itself,
sponsored a collaboration between a
number of architects and a number of
artists. The architects were the invitors
of the artists in most cases, so of course,
we all invited people with whom we
were compatible.
Lennart is a friend of mine from
Continued on page 34

by Theodore F. Wolff and Diane D. Greer
Theodore F. Wolff, Art Critic for Th
Christian Science Monitor, wrote a stim-
ulating review last year on the work (.1
two men-sculptors William Seversonr
and Saunders Schultz. At SCOPIA,
their studio-workshop in Chesterfield
Missouri, the two have worked together!
for over 20 years designing magnificent
pieces of sculpture "to complement at
chitecture and be complemented by al
chitecture." Their most recent piece ..I
sculpture to be installed in Florida is
the subject of this article. Titled
"SOLARIS", the sculpture hangs in lie
atrium of TECO Plaza, the new corp-
orate headquarters of Tampa Electri.
Company. As an introduction to the
discussion of SOLARIS, FA received
Theodore Wolffs permission to reprint
his fine commentary on the work beini.
done at SCOPIA by Severson and
"'Responsibility is the current dii -
ty-word of art literature. Once can
write of an artist's responsibility to him.
self and to his art, even touch upon /
overall responsibility to his culture an, I
society-as long as that is kept vague
and general-but any hint that an
artist should modify his private im-
pulses for the sake of a collective vision
or purpose smacks too much of the
persistent 20th century arguments for
state, class, or ideological control of t: I
arts to be tolerated lightly.
'Art must be, the argument goes,
as free as a bird. The artist must not
concern himself for even a split-second
with the wishes and tastes of his viewed i
or he risks contaminating the purity (o
his art.
'Now, a great deal of the best art II
this century results from this point of
view, but a great deal else of what is
good in it stems from the endeavors (f
those who find their deepest creative
identities while engaged in a dialogue
with the wishes, needs and visions of
others. Among these are the men and
women who create within the public
sector, especially those who create art
to enhance civic, corporate and relig-
ious structures. For these artists "re-

Photo L.\
Gary Englehai .li

sponsibility" is not a demeaning or a
constricting word, but one which im-
plies dynamic and creative challenge.
'Saunders Schultz and William
Severson, working together as a team,
are among the best of these publicly
engaged artists. Concerned about the
dehumanizing aspects of much of con-
temporary life, and aware of the de-
moralizing effects of a mechanistic view
of society, these sculptors have devoted
their joint professional lives to the cre-
ation of public sculpture designed to
encapsulate man's deepest cultural and
spiritual aspirations and to serve as
highly visible and attractive clues to the
identity and function of the architec-
tural environments for which they
were designed.
'Schu tz and Severson are restless
and dynamic creators who think
nothing of the fact that some of their
pieces are bigger than a two-car garage
and weigh 20 tons. Or that their tools
are more likely to be huge cranes and
welding and grinding equipment than
the traditional chisels and pots of clay
utilized by less ambitious sculptors.
'They think big. As Severson says,
"What stimulates and drives us end-
lessly is the desire to create art that
energizes the environment. Long ago I
was thrilled to the challenge of the
artist actively engaged in the throes of
'They feel a profound respon-
sibility to the community for which
they create, to the environment, their
client, the integrity of their art, and to
the nature of their materials, but not to
any particular school or "ism" of ex-
pression. They prefer to let the pro-
posed work's site and purpose suggest
ideas and images rather than arbitrarily
dictating its design themselves.
'"Nature has been my main source
of inspiration," Schultz declares."Cap-
turing the images around me in the
natural world and restructuring them
as art is endlessly fascinating. There
can be no substitute for the quality of
mystery and magic found in nature." '
'Twenty years of designing sculp-
ture for banks, libraries, religious insti-
tutions, parks and corporate head-
quarters has neither stifled nor stylized
their creative efforts. Their search for
precisely appropriate symbolic images
continues unabated.
'If anything, they are searching
harder and are digging deeper than
ever for the symbols and forms com-
mon to our humanity. They search for
subliminal images derived from the
shared fantasies of human experience,
explore the imagery activated by ortho-
dox and eclectic analysis, and examine
any and all natural and mechanical de-
sign principles utilized by our society.
Their creativity is continually alert to
any and all clues to our common visual
and formal heritage, to anything which

can help encapsulate human values and
ideals within sculptural form."
-Theodore F. Wolff
1980 The Christian Science Publishing Society
All Rights Reserved
In a recent interview with FA Editor Diane
Greer, Sculptors Severson and Schultz discussed
SOLARIS-the sculpture which has just been
placed in the atrium of TECO Plaza in Tampa.
Questions directed to the sculptors were in four
main areas: how the sculpture integrates with the
building; how sculptors work with architects; what
the client imperatives for the sculpture were; and
how the sculpture operates. Their answers are
part of the following discussion of SOLARIS.

The containing rectilinear space
created by the ten-story building at
TECO Plaza is an invitation-an op-
portunity for the art of the sculptor.
This sculpture, according to the artists,
was seen not as an object in space, but
as part of the spacial experience. It was
intended to be one of the foci as the
eye roams around the atrium space.
Without specifically focusing on the
art, one is aware of its centricity in
space. The sculptors thought to keep
the sculpture open, to be seen through.
They describe it as a line drawing in
space, scaled to the atrium ... as kine-
tic ... as an expression of the power of
the sun converted into motion by solar
cells. It is not built of the same material
as the atrium itself. Rather, it is
bronze-an always quality surface and
one which, when polished, attracts light
and reflects that light helping integrate
it into daily light variations that happen
in that space. For instance, in the
morning, a beautiful spectrum spreads
across the floor and up the wall and as
the light rises, it appears to rise up the
bronze surface of the sculpture as it ro-
tates. The light changes the en-
vironment in which the people at
TECO work. The atrium which con-
tains SOLARIS is TECO's formal en-
trance and very majestically heralds
everyone's arrival and departure from
the plaza.
It has always been the approach at
SCOPIA to invite dynamics from the
client, particularly of those things that
belong to the milieu of client's con-
cerns, values or aspirations. At SCO-
PIA, Severson and Schultz rely, as all
artists do, upon internal inspiration
while allowing, and even seeking, the
stimulus of a rich, cultural environ-
ment in which the client operates. The
client is considered one of the sources
of the final creation.
For some time, Severson and
Schultz have been interested in solar
energy. Men have been aware of the
sun since the beginning of self-aware-
ness, delighting in the power of the sun
to warm, in its beauty within the celes-

tial sphere and, as we now know, its
endlessly productive source for all life.
With the oil/fuel problem and our
scramble to find alternatives to the
Arab cartel forcing prices ever upward,
people have turned again to the sun
and its power.
When TECO spoke of the sun as
possibly supplying energy to their elec-
tric grid in the twentieth century, it
brought the interest of sculptors and
client together in an aesthetic display of
that power source.

"Architects create the environment
in which we live and work and we, with
our sculpture, begin the process of in-
habiting them," says Bill Severson.
"There is something intensely human
about the involvement of art in an ar-
chitectural space-in the way it works to
make the space and the art become a
One may, for instance, put up a
brick wall or, like the Assyrians, put up
a carved brick wall, depending upon
the function and aesthetics to effect a
special sense of place about that en-
vironment. At SCOPIA, scale relation-
ships, form relationships and structural
relationships are all important. All of
their work requires the input of a
structural engineer, but in the final
analysis the work of art must stand as a
whole unit having its particular sense
of presence while being carefully tai-
lored to belong to a particular space.
"Any commission that we do," says
Severson, "is a neat and particular ex-
pression. We do not strive to make our
sculptures Florida-like or Indiana-like,
but to make them our articulation of
the culture in which the sculpture
occurs: to be expressing something in
art that is important to say and do in
the finest possible way."
SOLARIS is a sculpture which was
designed to be symbolic of the energy
industry. It is a solar demonstration ...
"a spacial thing," as sculptor Schultz
describes it, "rather than a thing in
Since the reception platform juts
into the lobby space, the sculpture tips
its hat to that architectural feature and
parallels that thrust into the lobby. It
can be seen from all ten floors of the
building but, according to Schultz, "it is
especially dramatic when viewed from
the lobby floor looking through the
heavily treed section directly up toward
the sky."
Photons of sunlight are converted
by photo voltaic cells to electricity. Four
banks of 36 silicon chips are mounted
on the south parapet wall of the atrium
at roof level where they are in max-
imum sunlight. At twelve volts, each
bank generates 1.4 amps-enough to

run the direct current motor housed
within the four sculpture support
beams. As sunlight is available, the
motors operate to rotate the 32 ele-
ments of the sculpture. Each of the
four 3-inch by 6-inch steel beans sup-
port light elements of the sculpture.
These elements are each hung on sepa-
rate shafts mounted in the beam with
bearings and bushings to rotate freely.
Each shaft is capped with a sprocket
gear and all light gears are bound to-
gether in unison with a drive gear by a
sprocket chain of steel and
polyethelene plastic. Aluminum guides
keep it in position and in tension. The
power from the solar panels is brought
to an electric control box which directs

the motors to run in proportion to the
amount of sunlight available. A light
sensor finely tunes this control.
The sculpture, SOLARIS, is an
aesthetic expression of the conversion
of sunlight into motion through the use
of photo voltaic cells. It expresses a
great concept in sculptural bronze and
motion to herald our emerging world
of 'new' energy.
Pendant in space from the atrium
skylight, the sixty foot sine-like waves
of three inch bronze tubing rotate ran-
domly in four ranks of eight, phasing
in and out for a visual effect of pul-
sating waves. A six volt motor drives
the rotation, transferring the energy
along thirty foot beams by chain and



sprocket gears. Motion occurs only as
sunlight is available and the speed is
directly proportional to the power of
the available light.
Harmoniously integrated into the
architecture, the sculpture is a poig-
nant expression of contemporary re-
search and development in the field of
power generation.
SOLARIS Advisors:
John W. Higginbotham
Senior Technical Specialist
McDonnell Douglas Corp.
Jack E. Ramsey
Mechanical Engineer
McDonnell Douglas Corp.
Arthur Monsey
Structural Engineer
Horner & Shifrin Inc.

TECO Plaza
Associated Architects
Thompson, Ventulett, Stainback
and Associates, Inc.
Atlanta, Georgia

' McElvy, Jennewein, Stefany and
Architects-Planners, Inc.
7 z i Dlpa.e ed Tampa, Florida
'F'0'- aId V~/^ ^^^^^^^^^









1301 N.W. 27th AVENUE


Phone (305) 635-6432

Continued from page 30
time spent at the American Academy in
Rome. In a sense, Lennart is in a large
part responsible for the way I think ab-
out color. I have an enormous debt to
him for showing me Piero, for showing
me Montaigne, for showing me a lot of
people, even.early De Kooning, and
talking about issues of color and how
they affect the thematic resonace of a
work. I also picked Lennart because of
my lack of interest in abstraction. Len-
nart being a figurative painter works
well with my work because, if anything,
it's figurative. So the two things, not by
contrast,-but by helping to reinforce
each other, one through architecture,
one through painting, make a figura-
tive suggestion about a very old theme.
I really took the cue from Len-
nart's work because he was at the time,
and is now, painting a series of bac-

chanal themes, modern bacchanals.
You might ask why a bacchanal in
1981, but it could be read as a picnic.
Again, like the difference between
the sill and the threshold, the way you
say it means something else. So, with
Lennart painting modern bacchanals, I
did a little research into that theme in
painting, and found that it was the
First Offering, it was the festa around
the First Offering. That festa led to the
first theatre. So much of what we do is
combined in that day when thanks was
given with joy. Of course, they ate and
drank until they became other people
in that feast, but I love the idea that it
was partly involved with the idea of the
first theatre, and in a sense, make-
believe, because in part that's what
painting is.
I had seen a number of these
paintings that Lennart had done and

we decided that ideas from certain of
the compositions that he was making
would be appropriate for this. We, as
architects, then tried to identify the
surround of the painting, put it in an
architectural context. We first played a
very orthodox game in that the paint-
ing went on a wall, the painting was
framed by paired columns, and it had a
kind of foreground that led up to that
painting. But later what I did was to
use the painting as a framed object and
lifted it up on an extended wainscot, or
chair rail, that ultimately became a
table. The table is then the altar for the
offering, if you will. The table has two
artifacts on it, one the thespian's mask,
which alludes to the beginning of the-
atre; the other is a simple drapery,
which has to do with the veil between
us as actors in the play of life, and real-
ity itself.
It's been a joy, actually, to do that.
I'm anxious to see the other collabora-
tions, but Lennart and I had a very
good time with it. m

Joanna Cenci Rodriguez is an architect with
KBJ in Jacksonville, Florida. She received
her Master's degree in Architecture from
the University of Florida with a special-
ization in architectural history. Ms. Rodri-
guez worked for several firms in the Palm
Beach area before returning to her home-
town of Jacksonville to work for KBJ.

Harvey J. Kelman
Architectural Photography
6406 Eldorado Drive
Tampa, Florida 33615

(813) 885-4166



by Joan Jefferson

Viewpoint is an open frum r for allied pro-
fessionals within the construction industry. Arti-
cles expressing opinions or viewpoints of interest
to Florida Architect readers should be addieissed
to the editor.
A National Fire Protection Associa-
tion's publication states that trying to
understand fire-related federal agency
programs is like trying to put socks on
an octopus. The sources of informa-
tion, technical assistance, and funds is
incredible, but details are often hard to
uncover and follow.
The Florida architect, trying to
garner local fire code or standard in-
formation throughout the state, might
consider putting socks on an octopus
an easy chore.
The state fire marshal's office, in
1979, adopted "NFPA, No. 101, Life
Safety Code, 1976 Edition," as the state
fire standard.
Currently, a committee, appointed
by the State Fire Marshal's office, is re-
viewing the 1981 edition for adoption.
The 1981 edition includes all
structures with the exception of public
schools. For the first time, the code ad-




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dresses existing as well as new struc-
tures. It also introduces equivalency or
alternative methods for fire safety in
hospitals and nursing homes.
At the local level a multitude of
fire related codes, standards, regula-
tions and ordinances abound. There is
no state agency that has a record of the
fire-safety standards adopted by local
While fire-safety related activities
are seldom startling or exciting, there
are several items that may interest or
affect the Florida architect:
* A building fire simulation model has
been developed by NFPA and HUD
that is capable of predicting (among
other things) smoke and carbon
monoxide movement, people move-
ment, and critical events in case of
fire. The model may be available to
architects within the next five years.
* There are indications that the
Reagan administration may require
the de-regulation of fire criteria de-
veloped by such federal agencies as
HUD, FHA, VA, etc. in favor of

three model codes: BOCA. ICBO
and the Standard Building Code.
Projects affected would be those
federally-funded or mortgage-in-
* NFPA has included a new section for
architects. The scope and direction
of this new section will be deter-
mined this fall.
* A 32-hour fire education course for
architects, developed at a cost of
$65,000, has been prepared by the
National Fire Academy in coopera-
tion with the AIA.
* It is expected that legislation which
was introduced at the last session
that would have funded a program
to have architect's plans reviewed by
the State Fire Marshal's office will be
re-introduced and supported by the
FA/AIA at the next legislative session.

Joan Jefferson is Business Manager for
Peter Jefferson, Architect and a mem-
ber of the National Fire Protection





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by Mary Anne Kidd

In 1955, Walter Gropius, the re-
nowned German architect, designed a
civic center for Tallahassee. Un-
fortunately, the Gropius Center never
made it through a local referendum
and consequently was not built. But
the dream didn't fade with Gropius's
blueprints, and now, 26 years later,
Tallahassee has its dream, on a scale
never imagined in 1955.

Tallahassee's Biggest Building
The recently completed Tallahas-
see-Leon County Civic Center is fre-
quently described as colossal. The de-
scription is accurate: the Civic Center
is, by far, Tallahassee's largest struc-
ture. Longer than two football fields
laid end to end, rising as high as a 12-
story building, and capable of hold-
ing the state's entire 22-story Capitol,
if it were laid on its side, the Civic
Center's size is awesome.
While the building is imposing in
its sheer mass, it is impressive for
purely architectural qualities as well.
Ernest Daffin, director of architecture
and spokesperson for the Tallahassee
firm of Barrett Daffin and Carlan Inc
(BD&C), which designed the structure,
offers the Civic Center's size as the
creator of a number of unusual design
and engineering problems. The
finished building is a striking geo-
metric answer to these problems.
Beginning in 1969, when the
potential uses of the then only-
dreamed-of Center were being consid-
ered, it seemed that the anticipated
functions were practically unlimited.
Tallahassee wanted a facility that
would allow for such diverse entertain-
ment as ice shows, rodeos, concerts
and sports events as well as meetings,
exhibits, conventions, etc. The main
arena needed to seat a maximum of
13,500 spectators, but it was also to be
flexible enough to handle much small-
er audiences without the visual, acous-
tical, and psychological effects of a

partially empty arena.
The projected activities required
dressing rooms that would not only ca-
ter to big-name talent but also physi-
cally separate energy charged sports
rivals and more dignified game offi-
cials. Specially reinforced trusses were
essential to support not only the im-
mense roof but also the more tempor-
ary strain of Ringling's flying elephant
act or Kenny Roger's additional 48,000
lbs. of speakers. A damage-proof ele-
phant door was also critical if ele-
phants and other animals were to en-
ter and leave the arena quickly and
Security precautions for the facil-
ity and entertainers on the arena floor
make restricted access necessary. A se-
cure entry to the staging arena posed
additional design problems for
emergency exits. Adequate storage
space and easy access to the arena for
stage, props, additional seating, equip-
ment for changing sets quickly, etc.,
were important.
Undaunted by the many needs to
be met, BD&C spent months research-
ing other civic centers and the prob-
lems each had encountered. The re-
sulting observations supported func-
tion, flexibility, and future use as the
keys to the final architectural design.
Not surprisingly, it is the architect's
attention to these demands to design
for efficiency and public use that make
the Tallahassee-Leon County Civic
Center a spectacular building with
almost breath-taking power.

Beginning with Function
The architectural design began
with the arena floor and the variety of
uses it would serve. From there BD&C
considered the projected need for
13,500 seats and what it would take to
span both arena and audience. The
building, which was designed on a 30-
foot cubic module, required trusses
that would clearspan 300 feet. The

huge trusses-each weighing 50
tons-which were designed to solve
these first problems, resulted in the
exterior roof line and the structure's
truncated pyramid shape. The bottom
of the trusses are 90 feet from the are-
na floor and each truss is 30 feet deep
at mid-sectiofi and 30 feet on center.
Each unit was so large that at one
point the contractor considered using
a helicopter to deliver the huge steel
members which were finally partially
assembled on site.
Scale was immediately recognized
as a primary factor and, while form
truly followed function, the super-
human dimensions of the Civic Center
needed to be humanized.

Humanizing the Huge
To make the huge building
appear smaller and more compatible
with the neighboring university and
government buildings, jumbo bricks
and concrete trellises were used. The
jumbo bricks, when viewed from any
distance, create an illusion which ties
the structure's size to other nearby
brick buildings. The concrete trellises
serve several functions: they remind us
of earlier American architecture and
building materials; they shield from
the sun the large expanse of glass sur-
rounding the Civic Center's entrances;
and, like much of Frank Lloyd
Wright's work, they create a zone in
which indoors and outdoors seem
almost to merge. This zone is re-em-
phasized in the concrete plaza at the
main entrance, which provides out-
door exhibit space. The plaza, which is
the roof of the exhibit hall, will event-
ually serve as a tie between the arena
entrance and the not-yet-built theatre.
The trellises also link the exterior but-
tresses which support the considerable
outward thrust of the multi-ton roof.
The entire building was designed
with 50% of its volume below ground

Right: Main plaza level, west elevation;
Photo by Donato Pietrodangelo.
Below: Interior of auditorium.
Photo by Donato Pietrodangelo

to help reduce the above ground mass, for energy con-
servation, and to have all functional areas on the same
level and easily accessible via service corridors. The arena
floor and its storage areas, dressing rooms, and support
staff and equipment are on the same floor as the kitchen,
meeting rooms, and exhibit hall. Refreshments, supplies,
equipment, or staff can easily be brought to any place on
this floor with minimal disruption of on-going activities.
Also as a result of sinking the first level, a person enters
the arena seating at the half-way point, reducing the maxi-
mum number of up or down steps needed to locate seats.
The needs of the physically impaired were also taken into
account by the architect, and subsequently, 110 of the best
seats in the house are accessible by ramp and set aside for
the physically handicapped.
The arena, 410 feet long and 300 feet wide, also
posed some unique difficulties with scale. While the arena
floor is large enough to easily accommodate a C-5 airplane,
with its 240 foot length and 220 foot wing-span, the stag-
ing area was designed not with size, but primarily with
flexibility, in mind. This flexibility was needed so that a
performance could vary in size with the anticipated audi-
ence. The speaker system, lights, and catwalks that make
them accessible can all be quickly moved as the staging
area is altered. Storage space for props and other equip-
ment is located nearby.
To fit a smaller audience, one third of the arena can
be closed off with a huge curtain, made in five segments to
fit the varying heights of the stadium rows.
Even the colorful arena seating was designed in a pat-
tern that would give the illusion of a full house-no mat-
ter how many people were in the audience. The same col-
or and pattern is then repeated throughout the Civic Cen-
ter carpeting to create a visual continuity from the arena to
meeting rooms.
Designed with Crowds in Mind
The entire complex, which covers some 19 acres and
includes a theatre and parking facility not being built at
this time, was designed with large numbers of people in
mind. (The 2200-seat performing arts theatre is already
designed and working drawings are complete.) There are
several ticket areas for indoor and outdoor ticket sales, a
must for North Florida's suddenly changing weather. The
arena floor is inaccessible from the fixed arena seating for
safety reasons. Even the movable seats fasten together in
rows to prevent people from hurling chairs in "concert
mania." (Many of the civic center's which BD&C visited
were chagrined to report much damage during certain
rock concerts!)
Concessions are conveniently located around the are-
na, and restrooms are plentiful and strategically placed.
Special tunnel-like corridors were designed for emergency
exits. And, as architect Daffin is pleased to point out, there
isn't a bad seat in the house because of the placement of
restrooms and other service areas in the corners of the are-
na. The building is designed for everything except opera
and ballet, and the flexibility that BD&C and Tallahassee
planned for is certainly there.
The final architectural design, both interior and ex-
terior, embodies notions of both simplicity and logic,
structural ingenuity and a plain facade.
The work seems part sculpture and part architecture
and, on both counts, it makes a powerful statement that
will be functional for years to come. I

Mary Anne Kidd is president of Publication Services, Inc., a Talla-
hassee publishing firm which specializes in creative communica-
tion. Kidd, who has 10 years of publications, editorial, and
management experience, currently manages a variety of news-
letters and other client-oriented publications.







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