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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 News and letters
 Architecture for a captive...
 Correctional architecture
 FA interviews
 Color and its effect on behavior...
 First annual governor's design...
 FA/AIA fall conference schedul...
 Viewpoint
 Back Cover


AIAFL



Florida architect
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00232
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1981
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00232
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    News and letters
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Architecture for a captive audience
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Correctional architecture
        Page 13
        Page 14
    FA interviews
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Color and its effect on behavior modification
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    First annual governor's design awards
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    FA/AIA fall conference schedule
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Viewpoint
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.






IAUP


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Carl Feiss, FAIA
3716 Southwest Third Place
-Gabesville, Florida 32607


41.



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from Period


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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
117 West College Avenue
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


FLORIDA ARCHITECT

SiOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


Editor
Diane D. Greer
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen
Art Direction
Mel Hutto Associates, Inc.
Editorial Board
William A. Graves, AIA
Chairman
Rick Fernandez, AIA
William Harvard, Jr., AIA
Perry Reader, AIA
Yahya Koita, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
John Totty, AIA

President
Ted Pappas, AIA
100 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Vice President/President-Elect
Glenn A. Buff, AIA
9369 Dominican Drive
Miami, Florida 33189
Secretary
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Blvd.
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Treasurer
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Past President
Howard Bochiardv, FAIA
Post Office Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
Regional Directors
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., AIA
1823 North Ninth Avenue
Pensacola, Florida 32503
E.H. McDowell, Jr., FAIA
Post Office Box 3958
St. Thomas, VI 00801
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank Building
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and published by the Asso-
ciation, a Florida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907 It is published quarterly at the
Executive Office of the Association, 117 West
College Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32302.
Telephone (904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed
by contributors are not necessarily those of the
FA/AIA. Editorial material may be reprinted
provided full credit is given to the author and to
FLORIDA ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to the
publisher's office.
Single copies. $2.00, subscription, $16.00
per year. Controlled circulation postage
paid at Tallahassee, Florida

Postmaster: Please send address changes
to Florida Association of the American In-
stitute of Architects, Post Office Box
10388, Tallahassee, Florida 32302.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


Summer, 1981
Volume 28, Number 3


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22


CONTENTS


7 ARCHITECTURE FOR A
CAPTIVE AUDIENCE/
Diane D. Greer


13 CORRECTIONAL ARCHITECTURE
WHERE WE'VE BEEN &
WHERE WE'RE GOING/Randy Atlas


16 FA INTERVIEWS
KORACH ON HOSPITALS &
ROGERS ON JAILS


21 COLOR AND ITS EFFECT ON
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
THE ORANGE COUNTY 33rd STREET
CORRECTIONAL CENTER/I.S.K. Reeves, V, AIA


23 FIRST ANNUAL GOVERNOR'S
DESIGN AWARDS
FA LOOKS AT THE WINNERS

DEPARTMENTS
3 Editorial
5 News and Letters
33 FA/AIA Fall Conference Schedule
36 Viewpoint


4


The Cover
Interior study of the Orange County
33rd Street Correctional Center; Architects
Design Group of Florida, Inc. Photo by
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Photo by Kenneth M. Sturgeon, Courtesy of
A Critical Look at the Modern American Prison
by William G. Nagel


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Five reasons why the

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2Two, compared to
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Three, composite design pro-
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Four, cellular units add
mechanical benefits
of acoustical control, air
diffusion and distribution.
Five, Security Plus incorpo-
rates electrical distribution
and lighting in an architec-
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Fast installation, maintenance
ease and long-span design
flexibility are additional fea-
tures that add up to truly
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For more information: Bud Alex-
ander, H. H. Robertson Company,
Dept. F-7, 4100 W. Kennedy Blvd.,
Suite 221, Tampa, FL 33609.
Phone: (813) 872-8347




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Lexington-Fayette Urban County Detention Center, Lexington, Kentucky.
Prindle, Patrick and Partners, Ltd., Architects, Columbus, Ohio.


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LETTERS AND NEWS









Letters


Dear Editor:
Hurrah!
Hurrah!
Hurrah!
Congratulations on your marvelous
publication. I'm not sure how you took
a bunch of 35 mm slides and a cassette
and turned them into the best issue of
Florida Architect I've seen since becom-
ing a member of FA/AIA.
Keep up the good work.
Don Sackman, AIA
architects: baldwin & sachman
Coconut Grove, Florida

Dear Editor:
Your Spring issue of the Florida Archi-
tect is printed testimony to the zest, vi-
tality and energies of some architects
who exemplify and help comprise the
The Florida South Chapter.
All members of the Florida Associa-
tion/AIA should be extremely proud of
this issue as to the growth in content
and quality of our own magazine.
Congratulations.
Michael Jason Bier, A.I.A.
President, Florida South Chapter
American Institute of Architects

News

Standards Released for Adult Correc-
tional Institutions
The second edition of the Stan-
dards /or Adult Correctional Institutions is
now available through the American
Correctional Association. The revised
standards has been increased from 465
to 495 standards with most of the addi-
tions in the areas of health care services
and safety and emergency procedures.
Other chapters cover such topics as ad-
ministration, fiscal management, in-
formation systems, physical plant,
sanitation, inmate rights, rules and dis-
cipline and education and work pro-
grams.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer. 1981


Another major change in the
second edition of standards is the elimi-
nation of the "desirable" weight cate-
gory and the addition of a "mandatory"
weight category which requires 100
percent compliance when the standards
are used in accreditation by the Com-
mission on Accreditation for Stan-
dards.
The manual can be ordered at a
cost of $10.00 from the American Cor-
rectional Association, 4321 Hartwick
Road, Suite L-208, College Park, Mary-
land 20740.

FA/AIA Seminars Set
A series of seminars to be held in
the Host International Hotel in Tampa
International Airport has been
arranged by Seminar Committee
Chairman, Larry Schneider, AIA.
The first seminar will be held July
22, 1981, and speakers will be William
E. Flaig, David A. Minter and Randy
Butts. The subject of their talk will be
Marketing. Bill Flaig is Vice-President
of Mills and Jones Construction Com-
pany in St. Petersburg, Dave Minter is
with Greenhorne and O'Mara,
Architects and Engineers and Randy
Butts is President of Public Com-
munications, Inc. of St. Petersburg and
Miami.
On Friday, September 11, 1981,
Charles B. Goldsmith, AIA and.Roof-
ing Consultant will conduct a seminar
on Roofing.
The third seminar in the series will
be held November 12 and 13, 1981,
and will address the subject of Energy
Conscious Design. The speaker for that
program is P. Richmond Rittleman,
AIA and Vice-President of Burt, Hill,
Kosar and Rittleman Associates of But-
ler, Pennsylvania.

Orlando Architect Goes to Governor's
Staff
Thomas E. Lewis, Jr. has been


named a Special Assistant to Governor
Bob Graham. Lewis, who was President
of Lewis and Burke Associates, an
Orlando-based architectural planning
firm, will serve as liaison with the Cab-
inet and Legislature and handle a wide
range of administrative matters.
Lewis, a former member of the
AIA, is Chairman of the City of Orlan-
do Zone Commission and a member of
the Orlando Municipal Planning
Board.



Florida A&M Gets NAAB Accredita-
tion
The architectural program at Flor-
ida A&M University in Tallahassee has
been accredited by the National Archi-
tectural Accrediting Board effective,
January 1, 1980. A & M's accreditation
is Type C-Master of Architecture, a
program for students who obtain a
prior pre or non professional degree,
usually completed after four years of
undergraduate work, before entering
the two-year graduate sequence leading
to the professional degree.
Richard K. Chalmers, AIA, is
Dean of the School of Architecture at
Florida A & M University.


Bullock Receives Dual Honors
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr. received dual
honors at the 1981 AIA National Con-
vention in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Bullock was invested into the AIA
College of Fellows and elected a
Vice-President of the American Insti-
tute of Architects.
Vice-Presidency of the AIA is the
highest office anyone from Florida has
attained in recent years and it carries
with it a one-year term of office.
Fellowship in the AIA is a lifetime hon-
or bestowed for notable contributions
to the architectural profession.





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ARCHITECTURE FOR A


CAPTIVE AUDIENCE
by Diane D. Greer
"Architecture For A Captive
Audience"-an almost humorous play
on words intended to describe the con-
tents of this issue in a most literal sense.
A cliche to be sure but, an accurate
one.
I've always wondered. If "walls do
not a prison make," what does? Walls
do make a prison, and they make a
hospital and they make a school. Walls
make buildings, and the buildings we'll
examine on the pages that follow are
buildings which hold people-confine
them literally-and because they con-
fine, they impact. And they impact
hard!
The buildings discussed here are
those which Michael Graves, FAIA, de-
scribes as "mean buildings." In an ex-
clusive interview for Florida Architect
which will be published in its entirety in
the October, 1981 issue, Graves calls Above: Entrance, Brevard Com-
ourjails and hospitals "Mean buildings prehensive Mental Health Center,
which have somehow slipped out of the ProjectDa-vi--r ,-n A Hum-
grasp of our architects' interest." P .. phrevs; ,. ( -- -7
In conducting research for this i A. Van,denBulc, P.E.; Left:
issue, FA found the latter part of Tozlet; Bottom: Patient Room.
Graves' statement questionable. In Flor- Photos by Bob Braun
ida, at least, there is a growing number
of architects whose primary interest is
designing architecture for a captive
audience-be they informed, impaired
or sentenced. Their interest in institu-
tional architecture extends beyond the
demands imposed by county, state and
federal authorities and actually
attempts to become a viable part of the
rehabilitative process.
Almost from the beginning of our
lives, we are all captives of one kind of
building or another-not by choice,
but by law, or infirmity, or so often, the
very condition in which we're born.
Most young children are confined
from birth to day care centers from
which there is no escape between 7:30
and 6:00. Following that, school ... a
place where a child spends his days, not
by choice, but by law. Many of us
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981














experience physical illness at one time
or another and if we become sick
enough to be hospitalized, then we ex-
perience captivity of yet another kind.
Frequently, it is a very traumatic kind
of captivity which combines strange
surroundings and alien equipment with
a sense of not knowing what is being
done to us or for us.
For the mentally ill, for those who
break the law or cannot live within the
norms established by society, for the
physically or mentally handicapped
and for the old and dying ... each
knows captivity of a different and more
extreme variety. Each knows what it is
like to have to deal with a building, day
in and day out, in the most intimate
possible way. Each is affected by his
surroundings and, if affected adverse-
ly, has no power to affect even the
smallest change.
The impact of this type of institu-
tional architecture, i.e., jails, detention
centers, correctional facilities, hospitals,
mental health centers, and even
schools, on people is particularly hard-
hitting. For a certain period of time, be
it a few hours a day or the rest of one's
life, the captive is forced to deal with
his surroundings. Terms like "prison
gray" and "hospital green" with all


their negative connotations are a direct
result of many years of established
tradition in the design and construction
of institutional buildings.
Designing buildings for a captive
audience is a challenge to the architect
in the total sense of the word. In addi-
tion to the basic responsibility of all
buildings to provide shelter and protec-
tion for those on the inside, our institu-
tions must often protect those on the
outside as well. They must be safe, se-
cure, humane, energy-efficient, func-
tional and cost-efficient. Most recently,
they must also be aesthetically pleasing,
at least in the public areas, and re-
habilitating to those who are incar-
cerated or hospitalized.
Moreover, while the architect is
charged with the responsibility of re-
habilitating, he must also deal with a
variety of client imperatives as well as
state, local and federal dictates. If, as
Michael Graves stated, designing
"mean buildings" has fallen out of our
architects' interest, there is little won-
der why.
The design for the Brevard Com-
prehensive Mental Health Center is a
case in point. Herbert J. Sands, AIA,
described the situation which con-
fronted his firm in this way: "Once we


were contacted to provide design ser-
vices, we sought the assistance of the
Department of Health and Rehabilita-
tive Services for guidance. What we re-
ceived was a copy of their Rules, Chap-
ter 10D-28, Hospital Licensure, which
is a set of guidelines established for
housing patients with physical prob-
lems. We learned very quickly that
HRS has not yet developed criteria for
evaluating a design concept based on
the level of need within the mental
health community."
The Brevard Center is a facility
which was designed and built to suc-
ceed almost in spite of the client. The
project provides a full range of mental
health services for the rapidly growing
Melbourne and South Brevard area.
Administration, maintenance and out-
patient services are located in the front
quadrant of the building. Counseling
rooms along the exterior provide space
for individual psychotherapy, group
psychotherapy, marital and family
counseling, psychiatric evaluation and
psychological testing.
The facility also contains a day
hospital. This department bridges the
gap between hospital discharge and full
return to family life and also provides
the alternative to hospitalization by


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preventative therapy methods. These
therapy methods include such activities
as household skills, painting, wood-
working and gardening. The physical
facilities located within this area in-
clude showers and lockers, a covered,
screened exterior dayroom, a
multi-purpose room, occupational ther-
apy area, residential kitchen and group
room.
A great deal of planning and sensi-
tivity to the confined patients' needs
went into the planning of the inpatient
housing in the two rear quadrants of
the building. Each of these rear quad-
rants is designed around an activity
center, an area where patients will easi-
ly interact with one another. All patient
rooms open onto this activity center.
Individual room toilets are located
around the perimeter to reduce air
conditioning operational costs.
At the intersection of the four
quadrants as they connect to the overall
complex is located the emergency ser-
vices. This area is fully equipped to
serve the community as no other fa-
cility can on a 24 hour-a-day basis.
The entire complex is reduced in
scale by the use of low overhangs which
gives it a non-institutional atmosphere.
A variety of finish mediums in warm
colors combines to brighten the facility.
A treatment area in the shape of a
star at the Mount Sinai Medical Center
Out-Patient Dental Clinic in Miami
Beach fosters efficiency in space util-
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


lization and work flow management,
and provides an effective environment
for instruction of dental residents.
The unusual star-shaped plan was
created by the Smith, Korach, Hayet,
Haynie Partnership. Dental services
provided include dentistry for chil-
dren, root canal treatment, treatment
of gum diseases, appliance replacement
and surgery involving the jaws and
other facial bones. The elderly indigent
dominate the Clinic's patient popula-
tion.
The star arrangement was devised
to incorporate all necessary facilities
and equipment into an already existing
clinic without overcrowding. The star
has four points, one at each corner of
the main treatment room. Within each
point is a dental opertory-a chair at
an acute angle to the corner of the
room, surrounded by instruments and
equipment used in patient care.
Because.the star arrangement re-
quires 10 to 15 percent less space than
a conventional design, the main treat-
ment room appears quite spacious de-
spite its compact size. Adding to this
feeling of space are vinyl tile floors and
vinyl wall coverings in warm earth
tones. A particularly cheerful note is
injected as sunlight streams in through
the clerestory windows at the top of the
wall.
The Mount Sinai Out-Patient Den-
tal Clinic and the South Dade Com-
munity Health Care Center, also de-


Proceeding Page: Mt. Sinai Out-Patient Dental Clinic
corner of main treatment room; top: South Dade Com-
munity Health Care Center, lobby; above: Exterior,
Seven Rivers Communa't Hospital and Medical Center,
Crystal River
















?-In


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


signed by the Smith, Korach, Hayet,
Haynie Partnership are two good ex-
amples of what Irvin Korach calls the
"thrust of medicine away from curative
and toward preventive."
For those who require in-patient
hospitalization, however, the Severn
Rivers Community Hospital and Med-
S ical Center in Crystal River is a thor-
oughly modern and complete complex
which serves the residents of five Flor-
ida counties.
i Seven Rivers is an acute-care hos-
pital which provides its patient com-
munity with an unusually pleasant,
modern and spiritually uplifting en-
vironment. According to its designer,
Blanchard E. Jolly, AIA of Harvard,
Jolly, Marcet and Associates, the phi-
losophy of caring for the patients also
extends to concern for his or her psy-
chological well being. Throughout the
hospital, innovations such as bright
wall-coverings, modern graphics, large
windows, carpeting and tasteful, but
comfortable, furnishings were used.
The doors and wardrobes in pa-
tient rooms were treated in light oak
woodgrain finish to continue the con-
tinuity of a residential atmosphere. As
you walk through the facility, a blend-
ing of earth tones such as soft beiges
and warm browns with a splash of
green and orange provides an expres-
sion of joy in an exciting, yet quiet,
manner.
The first thing a visitor sees upon
entering Seven Rivers is warm, brown
brick pavers which create an attitude of
cleanliness, yet friendliness. As he pro-
ceeds from the Admissions Area, Jolly
describes the visitors' passage through
"pleasant experiences of live plant
material to bring the outdoors in and
natural wood paneling to create the
mood of relaxation." Carpeting in the
corridors and patient rooms creates the
necessary quietness while being admin-
istered in the best medical care.
Seven Rivers Hospital is located in
a grove of 100 year old oak trees which
sets the scene for large glass windows
covered by soft elegant casements

Top: Loble. Seven Rivers Com-
munity Hospital, Blanchaid E.
Jolly, AIA: Center-left; Waiting
room, Seven Rivers; Center-right:
Cell area, Pasco County aJil. Ted
Prindle, AIA; Bottom: Exterior.
Pasco County Jail. Photos bv
Dave Cox











which offer patients a view of the wide
expanse of oaks. This hospital is one in
which the architect endeavored to
actually reduce the patient's length of
stay by creating an atmosphere condu-
cive to healing through psychological
well-being.
When Florida Architect asked Percy
Folsom of the Florida Department of
Corrections to mention facilities which
he felt were particularly successful, he
mentioned the Orange County 33rd
Street Correctional Center and the Pas-
co County Jail without even stopping to
consider the answer. "They both
work," Folsom told FA, "and they work
well."
Ted Prindle, AIA, President of
Prindle, Patrick and Partners, is the
designer of the Pasco County Jail. For
the past twelve years, Prindle's firm has
specialized in the design of criminal
justice facilities and it is now recog-
nized as one of the leading firms in the
country in the design of deten-
tion/correction facilities.
The Pasco County Jail, which com-
Continued on page 31


Architect's model for Western Regional Institution, an
adult detention complex in Puerto Rico. Photo supplied
by architect.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


SCHOOL



ARCHITECT
DUVAL COUNTY
SCHOOL SYSTEM
-NEEDEDJACKSONVILLE, FL
Minimum Requirements: Graduate Architect, licensed in the State of Florida.
Experience in design of educational facilities. Working with instructional personnel
and transmitting educational needs into building design is highly desirable.
Salary Range: $21,000-$30,500
To Apply: Send letter of application along with resume to:
Dr. Cecil L. Allison
Director, Certificated Personnel
Duval County School Board
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CORRECTIONAL


ARCHITECTURE

WHERE WE'VE BEEN AND

WHERE WE'RE GOING


by Randy Atlas
Florida leads the nation in the
number of its prisons that have passed
the rigorous accreditation audit by the
American Corrections Association.
Fourteen Florida prisons are currently
accredited and the goal is to have twen-
ty-five accredited by 1985. In the next
ten years, it is foreseeable that prisons
will have to meet accreditation stan-
dards in order to operate. The result of
court intervention has been that stan-
dards are being generated that will de-
fine minimum goals and design criteria
for institutional architecture.
But things weren't always so.
The development of the physical
correctional facility as we know it today
was a painstaking process extending
over four hundred years from crude
beginnings in the sixteenth century.
Reformed penal policies resulted
in the development of the Auburn and
Pennsylvania systems for correctional
facilities. The Pennsylvania system had
the resident living, sleeping and work-
ing within the confines of his individual
cell. The architectural response to the
Penn system was to place cells on out-
side walls with radiating cell blocks.
While penance was thought to
rehabilitate, the Penn system had an
adverse effect on the mental and
physical health of prisoners, and build-
ing and maintenance costs were high.
In 1816, the U.S. government built
a new prison in Auburn, New York, to
relieve overcrowding in the New York
City prison. Auburn's tiny cells were in-
adequate for work, and in addition,
there were no exercise yards and no
outside visitors permitted. This and the
use of the silence system, was the ap-
proach used to facilitate a change of
attitude in the inmate. Prisoners work-
ed in congregate workshops under the
silence rule and moved to and from
cells in lock step. Since all inmates were
considered to be serious escape risks,
the entire structure was built with the
main emphasis on security.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


The style of architecture of the
Pennsylvania and Auburn prison
systems was considered a matter of
great importance because of its in-
tended effect on the inmate's attitude.
The exterior of the prison was formed
in a heavy and sombre style which forc-
ibly impressed the viewer with a sense
of gloom, if not terror. However, this
gloom and terror did nothing to
rehabilitate the criminal or prevent
recidivism. The simplicity of the nine-
teenth century approach to custodial
facilities was no longer adequate to ac-
commodate the prescriptions for in-
mate treatment.
New physical facilities, often
identified according to plan form,
emerged. The panopticon developed
during this time along with the self-
enclosed institution, the open prison,
the skyscraper prison and the unit or
open campus layout. In addition, the
"big house" maximum security prison
developed from the earlier Penn and
Auburn systems. The "big house" as it
quickly came to be called, was built to
be internally and externally secure and
its population frequently numbered
from one to four thousand men. Build-
ing design and prison policies were
used to restrict the inmate's movement
and minimize his control over his en-
vironment. As late as 1976, roughly
half of the approximately 100,000
felons in maximum security facilities in
the United States were still housed in
prisons built prior to 1900 ... prisons
which were ill-suited to their physical
or psychological needs.
But, attitudes were changing, and
in the late 1960's and early 1970's
through the intervention of the courts,
the role of architectural design became
an important factor in changing the
face of correctional facilities.
The 1970's brought to life a style
of facility developed by the National
Clearinghouse for Criminal Justice
Planning and Architecture (1970-


The Role Of The Architect
In Prison Architecture (F. Moyer,
Architectural Press, 1977) the author
describes four levels of impact which
the architect has on the physical en-
vironment of a prison. The most ele-
mentary is the provision of ample space
for program activities. If counseling,
education, recreation and rehabilitation
are to occur, space must be provided to
support these kinds of activities.
Second, architecture fosters the ac-
tivity patterns of new programs. The
correctional environment must be
adaptable to the changing range of ac-
tivities and patterns of behavior.
Third, architecture influences the
way in which the physical environment
structures relationships between people
inside the facility (staff and residents)
as well as between the prison and the
community. This suggests the applica-
tion of normative design consideration
to an environment which seeks to pro-
mote normative behavior.
The fourth level of impact is
architecture's role as a communication
system. The environment is composed
of signals that give socio-psychological
cues to events taking place in the living
space. Architecture needs to be consid-
ered as a component in the treatment
process as a means of communicating
values and attitudes. The physical
setting can give perceptual cues of
blind spots, areas of danger or areas of
security and surveillance. Hostile en-
vironments tend to carry over the
message into other activities and may
impede the rehabilitation process.
The architect's role in prison
planning can influence the behavioral
1979). The "clearinghouse" style of
advanced correctional practices
resulted in open campus, low profile
prisons. The demise of the "clearing-
house" however, along with the "crash
of '79" of the economy is changing the
face of institutions for the 1980's.















outcome of the building's users, both
inmates and staff. In his 1972 publica-
tion, Physical Components of Correctional
Goals, McReynolds suggests that archi-
tects should have more objectivity in
the redesign process. That input
could serve to define and describe
necessary spaces that in turn help cre-
ate a better correctional program. The
architect should further question the
parameters of the project, the purpose
and intent of the facility as well as the
validity of what he, as an architect, is
perpetuating.
The reality of the situation is often
this: the architect has little or no input
into programming considerations. The
design capacity is often pre-established.
Unfortunately, there are many realities
such as lack of control to prohibit in-
mate mixing in overcrowded facilities,
lack of intended staff for the designed
inmate capacity, the low priority of
funding for upkeep and maintenance,
which can undermine even the best of
architectural intentions and design.
The increasing crime rate in Flor-
ida coupled with a scarcity of resources
(staff, beds, space, privacy, equipment,
vocational and educational programs,
materials) has resulted in increased
stress on the system, staff and inmates.
In the first nine months of 1980, vio-
lent crime in Florida soared by 29%
over the previous year. The Depart-
ment of Correcitons projects 27,000 in-
mates by 1990.
Creating Jobs For Architects
A major issue of the 1981 Legisla-
ture was the problem of crime, and a
major debate revolved around the Gov-
ernor's recommendation of $209
million to improve the criminal justice
system. The Governor's Advisory Com-
mittee on Corrections has determined
that by 1990 a need for 7,000 more
beds will be impending. This will result
in a need for nine 800-man prisons
over the next ten years at an approxi-
mate cost of $25 million per facility.
Sixty-six million dollars is allocated for
two new facilities to be constructed in
1982. The estimated cost to the tax-
payers for the building of seven new
prisons currently on the drawing
boards is more than $204 million and
that figure is for state prisons only ...
it does not address the need of county
jails. According to a Department of
Corrections study, Florida's jails need
no less than $83 million worth of new
construction and additional staff to
meet current minimum standards.


While the proposed $204 million
1982/83 budget for Florida corrections
is up 14% from 1980, the $67 million
which Governor Graham wants to
spend in the next two years for prison
construction and renovation is only
half of what Secretary Louie Wain-
wright has requested in his 1981/83
biennial budget recommendation.
The Wainwright v. Costello de-
cision which was finally upheld in the
Fifth Federal Court of Appeals, was a
milestone decision in terms of prison
policy and construction. The decision
resulted in a number of standards
which must be implemented in Florida
prisons by 1985. These standards in-
clude cells with less than 90 square feet
holding only one inmate, open dorms
which hold only one inmate per 55
square feet and the design capacity for
the entire prison cannot be exceeded
by more than one-third (meaning a 600
man prison cannot hold more than 800
men). The agreement includes a
pledge by the State to try to keep the
prison system at design capacity.
Currently, the State is within the
maximum capacity but well above the
intended design capacity.
Summary
In the 1970 publication, Environ-
ment and Behavior, Van der Ryn wrote
that the architectural profession, be-
cause of its dependence on institutional
clients, is inherently conservative and
elitist. Architecture, as used by mass in-
stitutions, is more often a means to
promote the continuity of traditional
values than a means to promote
change. Since the architect, even a
powerful one, is hired to build what the
client wants, his ability to innovate is
severely constrained.
The institutional environment is a
unique behavioral setting in that it
must be a small self-supporting com-
munity within a community. Within a
prison exists the capability of the en-
vironment to totally support itself.
Since the clientel are unable to leave at
five o'clock, the users (both staff and
inmates) are much more sensitive to
the environment than might normally
be expected. While it has been said that
being sentenced to life imprisonment
in the Waldorf-Astoria would get old
eventually, special attention must be
paid to the effects of institutionaliza-
tion as characterized by standardization
and compartmentalization. While the
1980's have been looked at by correc-
tions experts as a decade of doing your


time and getting out, the goal of insti-
tutional architecture is to provide a safe
(no blind spots, good surveillance, non-
slip floors, safe equipment) and
humane (not overcrowded, not danger-
ous, proper classification, good lighting
and accoustics) environment.
Institutional environments, with
their great size, standardization, de-
personalization and hierarchal
structure are often static and fixed.
The facilities of the decade of the eigh-
ties will need to be adaptable, change-
able, flexible yet secure, constitutional
and yet energy and cost efficient. Ar-
chitects can be agents of social change,
since their decisions affect the behavior
of a captive audience-the users of
their buildings.m
-"A building is alive, like a man. Its
integrity is to follow its own truth,
its one single theme, and to serve
its own single purpose. Its maker
gives it the soul and every wall,
window and stairway to express it."
(Ayn Rand, Fountainhead, 1943)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Correctional Association. Causes, Preven-
tive Measures, and Methods of Controlling Riots and
Disturbances in Correctional Institutions. Washing-
ton, D. C.: American Correctional Association,
1970.
Atlas, R. Architectural Determinism: Violence in Prison.
A paper presented at the American Institute of
Architects Seminar on Architecture for Justice,
Gainesville, Florida, 1980.
Department of Corrections (Florida) 1981/83
Budget Recommendation Proposal. Tallahassee,
Florida, 1981.
Governor's Advisory Committee on Corrections.
An Interim Report: Prioritized Goals. Tallahassee,
Florida, 1980.
Guiseppi, G. Prison Architecture. Social Defense
Research Institute. London: Architectural Press,
1975.
McCain, G., Paulus, P., & Cox, V. The Effect of
Prison Crowding on Inmate Behavior. (Final Report,
LEAA Grant.) University of Texas, Arlington,
1980.
McReynolds, K. Physical Components of Correctional
Goals. Ottowa, Canada: Department of the
Solicitor General, 1972.
Megargee, E. The association of population densi-
ty, reduced space, and uncomfortable tempera-
tures with misconduct in a prison community.
AmericanJournal of Communitv Psychology, 1977, 5,
289-98.
Van der Ryn, S. Architecture Institutions Social
Change. Environment and Behavior, 1970, 3: 28-
33.

Randy Atlas is an interning architect with an
M.S. in Architecture from the University of Illi-
nois and a doctoral candidate in the School of
Criminology at Florida State University. Mr.
Atlas is currently conducting his dissertation
research on prison violence and attending the
Governor's Advisory Committee on Corrections.
All inquiries should be addressed to Randy Atlas,
School of Criminology, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, Florida, 32306, (904) 575-6846.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981






FA INTERVIEWS


KORACH
ON HOSPITAL DESIGN


Irvin Korach, AIA, is Senior Architectural
Partner of the Smith, Korach, Hayet,
Haynie Partnership. He is presently serving
his sixth term on the American Institute of
Architects Committee on Architecture for
Health. Mr. Korach was interviewed for
Florida Architect by Mary Catherine
Chesser on the subject of hospital design.

FA: How did.you get into this business
of designing hospitals initially?
Korach: Thirty years ago, Don Smith
and I recognized that there was a need
for architects who understood the spe-
cialized, technical design necessary for
hospitals. We began preparing
ourselves and the firm to meet this
need. We read everything we could get
our hands on and we visited every
hospital in each city we went to.
Interestingly, I believe that we got our
first commission because of our lack of
hospital design experience. That may
sound crazy, but the fact that we had
no preconceived design notion is what
I think got us the job.


FA: What was your design approach
for this first hospital project?
Korach: Oddly enough, my design
philosophy is much the same today as it
was when we worked on that first proj-
ect. Purpose dictates design, and pa-
tient rooms are the core of the hospital.
Of course, hospital design begins at the
curb and follows through to the most
complicated of treatment units. Every
aspect from traffic flow to the mail
room to radiation therapy must be
carefully planned and designed to give
each patient a sense of security, com-
fort and well-being.
In the design of our first hospital,
Don Smith and I laid out the floor
plans so patients couldn't look from
window into window. We used easy
maintenance interior finishes new to
hospitals, such as ceramic tile on corri-
dor walls instead of institutional two-
tone paint, pure vinyl to cushion the
floors, vinyl wall coverings in patient
rooms, stainless steel cabinetry at the
nurses stations and in the kitchen. You


know, these materials are so common-
place today that it's hard for me to real-
ize that they were considered innova-
tive and ultramodern in the 1950's.
FA: Were there other innovations that
came out of those early years of design-
ing hospitals?
Korach: Well, for one thing, I remem-
ber that even 25 years ago when energy
was cheap, Don and I were energy con-
scious. We installed a system of alumi-
num shutters that were placed on all
exterior sashes for sun control, result-
ing in a 50% decrease in air-
conditioning load. When the shutters
were open, there was an unobliterated
view, and when closed, they provided
hurricane protection. Also, the air-
conditioning system used 100% return
of outside air, thus reducing airborne
contamination hazards as well as the
"hospital" smell.
FA: What about color and its applica-
tion in hospital design?
Korach: I have always felt color to be
an important ingredient in patient
comfort and orientation. Despite
trends, psychologists have corroborated
what we know simply by empirical
knowledge. The fact is that the greatest
number of patients, as opposed to in-
mates or other incarcerated persons,
receive.the greatest degree of satisfac-
tion from the "institutional look." By
"institutional" I mean neutral pastels
and subdued patterns. More vivid stim-
ulation is effectively used in public
areas where the improving patient can
visit.
Another reason for the use of subdued
colors is purely medical. Highly chro-
matic colors have been known to raise
havoc with medical staffs visual assess-
ment of a patient's skin colors.
FA: What are the present trends in
hospital designs?
Korach: Since human crisis requires
exquisite skill in monitoring and, fre-
quently, instantaneous intervention,
medical science has advanced rapidly
and the need for special care units,
Continued on page 18
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981










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ROG
ON JAIL DESIGN
James Gamble Rogers, II, AIA, is the humane
founder of the Winter Park firm of Rogers, mates so
Lovelock and Fritz, Inc. Rogers is a member state actu
of the National Jail Association, Past Presi- FA: Wh;
dent of the Florida State Board of Archi- in the de
tecture and Past Chairman of the Florida ROGER!
Regional Judiciary Committee of the A.I.A. with an u
Mr. Rogers was interviewed for Florida to his cli(
Architect by Doug Gooch on the subject of will occu
jail design. their imp
people w
FA: What is your experience in jail de- commun
sign in the State of Florida? of respox
ROGERS: First, I might point out that
a jail is only one type of detention irn
stitution, and usually means a city or
county facility for short term law
breakers. Little, if any, attempt is made
in these facilities for rehabilitation.
Tenure of the prisoner is too short. .\
prison or penitentiary is designed foi
long term prisoners who serve sen-
tences up to 25 years or more. It is
here that opportunities for rehabilita-
tion are valuable. My experience in '.lI
design goes back to 1935 when I was
called on by the State of Florida to de-
sign a "Prison Farm" at DeLand. Thil
was a minimum security institution
where inmates left to work every da\
This project was the first of 50 such
buildings which we have designed foi
various counties and the State Depart-
ment of Corrections.
FA: What do you see as the purpose of
a correctional facility?
ROGERS: The purpose of a state c'i-
rectional institution is (1) to protect Ihe
public from further mischief by the
offender and (2) to rehabilitate him, II
possible. All detention facilities are con-
trolled by the State Department of (C r-
rections, within reasonable limits, so
neither the cities nor counties have to-
tal says in planning their jails.
Architectural drawings forjails and
prisons must be submitted to the Staei
Department of Corrections for appr,\ -
al at the sketch state and again when
working drawings are complete. The
State has a fixed list of requirements
designed to produce secure and


ERS


accommodations for the in-
the purpose from county to
aally changes very little.
at role does an architect play
sign of a correctional facility?
S: An architect's role starts
understanding of his obligation
ent and to the offenders who
py his building. Jails leave
)rint for good or evil upon the
ho return to their places in the
ity, placing a serious measure
visibility on those charged with


its planning. The jail must be safe, not
only for the prisoner, but for the offi-
cers who must handle them, and it
must provide decent food, a degree of
privacy and reasonable comfort for the
inmates. To properly develop a con-
cept, the architect must gather in-
formation about the type of prisoners
who will occupy the building. For ex-
ample, the requirements for accom-
modations in Miami's Liberty City
would be quite different than they


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 198 I


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building committee which would in-
clude representatives of the Sheriffs
office, the County Commissioners and
community leaders. The committee
should be kept small, not over 6 or 8 at
the most, with frequent meetings
where progress sketches can be re-


viewed.
FA: What special training or knowl-
edge is necessary on the part of the ar-
chitect in designing this type of build-
ing?
Rogers: Courses in criminology at


Korach continued from page 16
such as cardiac units and trauma cen-
ters, has accelerated. These special
units require special attention from the
architect. Also, community out-patient
clinics are becoming more important as
the thrust of medicine shifts from cura-
tive to preventive. These clinics serve to
educate and treat patients in their
neighborhood setting, thus reducing
hospital stays.
FA: How have the changes in hospital
design in the last thirty years changed
the demands on the architect?
Korach: Room sizes have increased,
ancillary services have doubled or tri-
pled because of new technology, septic
codes are much stricter and there are
many more amenities to make the pa-
tient comfortable. There are also fewer
patients per nursing station. That fig-
ure has dropped from sixty to about
thirty. And parking is an ever-present
problem. Because of the great need for
staff and visitor parking, much larger
sites are necessary for hospital con-
struction than ever before.
FA: What would you say has been
your greatest contribution in the past
forty years to improving hospital de-
sign?
Korach: First of all, let me say that any
contribution I've been involved with
has been in the area of improving the
hospital environment. Our firm de-
signed and patented a unitized air con-
ditioning module system (UAM) which
uses 100% fresh air supply thus elim-
inating the hospital smell and removing
through a system of filters any airborne
hazard. Plus, I would like to think that
we contributed to the humanizing of
hospital design by constantly striving
for the best possible patient room lay-
out, laboratory, waiting rooms, admis-
sions office and every other sector of
the facility. After all, architecture is a
process of meeting human needs. m

Rogers Continuedfrom page 17
would be for, say, Clermont. The Sher-
iff and his assistants can be quite help-
ful if they have kept detailed records of
their jail population for ten or more
years. The architect should also inform
himself concerning any half-way
houses where first offenders could be
placed. Also, a study of the direction of
growth in the area should be under-
taken. Is gambling legal or other activi-
ties that might introduce a new type of
citizen in the community? The architect
should request the appointment of a


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Florida State University and other col-
leges are invaluable in training archi-
tects who plan to work in this highly
specialized discipline. A basic knowl-
edge of behavior patterns is important
so facilities can be designed to imple-
ment and aid rehabilitation programs.
Other special training includes a
knowledge of case-hardened steel, cell
door mechanisms, special windows,
vandal proof plumbing and electrical
fixtures and particularly the State laws
controlling jail design.
FA: Are there new materials available
which are well suited for use in deten-
tion facilities?
Rogers: The three types of cells
most widely used in jails today are the
single cell, the four-person cell and the
dormitory. There is little doubt that the
single cell is the best, but few counties
or cities can afford a whole jail made
up of single cells because of the high
cost per prisoner. A few one-man cells
should be included in all jails, however,
regardless of cost, so mentally re-
tarded, trouble makers, moral deviates
and those with contagious disease can
be segregated. Two-person cells are not
recommended because their use may
encourage homosexuality. A few trus-
ties' or honor cells may be included in a
minimum security section of the jail.
Another special item is windows. Bars
are seldom used in modern jails. There
are "maximum security" awning type
windows on the market with built-in
tool resisting bars which are as secure
as barred windows and which are less
demeaning to the inmates. Each win-
dow should have a heavy guage deten-
tion-type insect screen on the inside to
prevent the introduction of contraband
and to inhibit inmates' contact with
persons outside of the jail.
State and national codes prescribe the
number of plumbing fixtures required
in jails and usually the type. Each cell
should have a prison type water closet
and lavatory or a combination of these.
Day rooms and dormitories, in addition
to toilets and lavatories, should have
showers. Jail fixtures are subject to a lot
of vandalism and it is money well spent
to buy those which will best stand
abuse. Stainless steel is practically in-
destructible and has proven to be
the best choice in spite of its high cost.
All fixtures should be fitted with self-
closing faucets or push buttons. It is
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


important to keep pipe runs and fit-
tings out of the prisoners' reach to pre-
vent unruly inmates from pulling them
off the wall. They should either be con-
cealed or run in areas beyond where
they can be tampered with from the
cells. The same applies to light fixtures
which must either be vandal proof or
out of reach of the cell and day room
occupants.
Some method of emergency lighting is
necessary in all jails. For small insti-
tutions, a battery system is acceptable.
Where more capacity is needed a
generator, preferably diesel, should be
provided. Corridor and stairway lights
should be energized as well as at least
one light in the kitchen, major offices
and in all prisoner processing offices.
A telephone jack may be included in
each cell or day room for prisoner use.
FA: What freedom does an architect
have in designing a correctional
facility?
Rogers: My experience with the De-
partment of Corrections indicates that
reasonable freedom of planning is per-
mitted as long as the building serves its
purpose well. In general, we find that
the Department will go along with in-
novative planning and design provided
it is practical and the costs are in line.
FA: Looking to the past, how have
things changed?
Rogers: Looking back as far as
1935, changes have been broad. Prison
philosophy in the thirties and forties as
directed by the State was pretty rough,
although the authorities did bend when
we suggested a campus-type plan for
the Women's State Prison at Lowell.
This type of plan was also accepted at
the Lake County prison at Minneola
and the State Prison at Sharpes. With
the advent of a group of young archi-
tects at the University of Illinois in the
1940's a new concept in jail planning
took hold, departing almost completely
from the old "stack them in and forget
them" philosophy. While these new
concepts were a vast improvement, the
pendulum went too far in that direc-
tion, resulting in some cases of the
"country club" syndrome. As of now, I
think the trend is good. The aim is to
provide safe, comfortable buildings
with libraries, exercise areas, class-
rooms and vocational shops in State
prisons. Even jails are now mandated
to have to provide recreational facilities


for inmates.
FA: Can the design of a detention
facility (good or bad) affect the re-
habilitative process?
Rogers: A good design can very de-
finitely improve the morale among the
inmates, particularly if constructive pro-
grams are initiated to go with it. Stress
will be reduced and some scheduled
freedom of movement within the pris-
on will lessen tension.
FA: What do you see in the future for
correctional design?
Rogers: Changes are probably in-
evitable but they will come more slowly
now because of the great strides made
during the last 20 years. Currently, ar-
chitects are backing off somewhat from
the extremes of the country club era
and in myjudgement are providing
efficient and practical institutions. a



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Orange County 33rd Street
Correctional Center


COLOR AND ITS EFFECT ON

BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
BY I.S.K Reeves, V, AIA


In September, 1978, Melvin G.
Colman, Sheriff of Orange County,
wrote me a letter in which he stated,
"One of the great problems that faces
all of us in the jail and correctional
business is that of our physical plants.
We are faced, always, with outmoded
buildings, lack of administrative space,
too much steel and concrete and
apathy on the part of the public to our
needs."
Sheriff Coleman's assessment of
the dilemma which faces architects and
law enforcement officials alike, was cor-
rect. From the outset of the project, the
concern at Architects Design Group of
Florida was that we remain true to our
basic desire to humanize the facility to
the extent permissible under Florida
law.
The Orange County Correctional
Center is a 312-man, minimum/
medium security facility located in an
area bordered by residential, commer-
cial and governmental uses. The site
was compact and limited by existing
correctional facilities which were slated
for removal at completion of the com-
plex.
The medium security housing con-
sists of 14-man housing pods and single-
man rooms centered around a com-
mon dayroom. The minimum security
inmates are housed in 16-man housing
pods in four-man rooms, also with
common dayrooms. Each inmate room
is located so as to allow for exterior
windows, placed horizontally, not verti-
cally as is traditional.
The total complex which was pro-
grammed to be developed in four
phases, was constructed at a cost per
inmate which was substantially below
state and national averages. During
Phase I, the Administrative Services
Building and two clusters of medium
security housing for 84 inmates was
completed, with two additional housing
clusters, also having 84 inmates, pro-
jected for Phase II.
The facility also includes major
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


elements for education, inmate/family
counseling, a diversity of inmate/family
visiting areas, a library, clinic and in-
take processing.
Reflecting Orange County's con-
cern and awareness of energy costs, the
Architects utilized both solar and pas-
sive energy sources for the new facility.
Solar energy is captured by a series of
47 collectors, facing due south,
mounted on the Administrative Ser-
vices Building. They are designed to
heat water for domestic usage in kitch-
en, laundry and inmate bathroom
areas. Of the total hot water demand
for the facility, projected at 3200 gal-
lons per day, approximately 70% will
be supplied by a series of roof-
mounted collectors. The backup system
will be fueled by natural gas.
The passive energy systems consist
of a series of earth berms at exterior
walls which give added insulation to in-
terior spaces. Additionally, there was
extensive use of various insulation
materials in wall and roof areas and
there are deep overhangs at large glass
areas for sun protection. This applica-
tion of both solar and passive energy, is
the largest in the Central Florida area,
making it one of the first energy effi-
cient correctional facilities in the State.

But, more important...
Of major importance in the design
concept, as I have already mentioned,
was the architect's and owner's com-
mon desire to have the facility humane
in character. Scale of spaces, window
orientation and placement, color, di-
versity of facilities, and the opportuni-
ties they permit, were direct attempts
to address the basic problem of facili-
ties designed to incarcerate individuals
for substantial periods of time.
The initial spark for our research
on color, and its subsequent applica-
tion, occurred during the pro-
gramming phase of the Correctional
Center. We determined that it was
necessary to understand the environ-


ment of the Center from the viewpoint
of the correctional officers and the in-
mates themselves.
We conducted a series of in-depth
interviews with both parties, and we
quickly found that the inmates, in par-
ticular, had one common com-
plaint-their dislike of institutional col-
ors, so common in government build-
ings, be they correctional facilities or
public schools. As expressed to us by
several inmates, "... we hate these
damn colors ... ", "Why does every-
thing, and I mean everything, have to
be dull green?"
With that clue ... and challenge
... we embarked first on the research,
and subsequently on the actual appli-
cation.

Color ... a few general comments
Architects are becoming in-
creasingly aware of the importance of
color in our man-made environments.
Its use affects such basic concepts as
time, space, temperature, appetite and
behavior. The utilization of color in a
correctional facility requires a basic
understanding of its psychological im-
plications and what is hoped to be
achieved.

Our research indicated that man,
generally, has little reason to boast
about his sensory capacities. Many
other animals can hear better than
man, have a greater range of smell,
and many can see with a degree of
visual acuity that we will never have.
But, in one respect, we are a match for
all-in our ability to see color.

Researchers tell us that the ability
of mammals to see color is limited to
our nearest relatives, the monkeys and
apes. All other mammals are either
totally color blind, or almost so. In all
of the animal kingdom the ability to
distinguish color is limited to some spe-
cies of reptiles, fish, birds and insects.
We must assume that man's ability to

















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"Dunagin's People" rept~oduced with permission (?/ Ralph Dunagin and the Or~lando Sentinel Star -whete~ the cattroon onginally! appea-ed.


see color can only have evolved because
it contributed to our biological survival.
Man has the ability, almost unique-
ly, to apply or use color in places where
it does not grow or occur naturally.
This use of color has almost become a
trademark of the human species. In-
itially, its purpose was for its signal
function, such as to indicate status,
value or danger. Unfortunately, color
is frequently used indiscriminately to-
day, creating what can be described as
an "anarchy of color" which has, no


doubt, dulled man's biological response
to this important element of our lives
We, individually, have our pref-
erences for different colors, but studies
conducted over the past 50 years have
indicated general preferences. Re-
search has also shown that there is a
basic biological cause for our likes and
dislikes of certain colors and that these
preferences change as we go through
the aging process.
Basically, we can identify three dis-
tinct periods of change:


AGE COLOR PREFERENCE
(High to Low)
Birth to 60 Red, orange, yellow
Age 7 to 60 Blue, red, green, violet,
orange, yellow
Age 60 to 90 Green, blue, violet, red,
yellow, orange

The initial change, from age six to
seven, corresponds with the first
psycho-physiological changes that occur
Continued on page 26


s of t l h s g p s s g t t f I P
Denrtooms of typical hoping podt shouwg utilization of I '' .... 'olor schemes. Pholtm h Bob Brauiln,


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981







in the human body, the period of
change in teeth.
As man reaches advanced age,
there is a gradual process of deteriora-
tion of the eye. A direct effect of this is
the loss of ability to discriminate be-
tween blue and green. Perhaps the eye
is seeking "peace" in the passive
colors-the blue and green hues poss-
ibly being perceived as neutrals. (See
Korach on Hospital Design, page 16, for
his discussion of passive colors and the
sick.)
The research that Architects De-
sign Group conducted admittedly
found wide diversification in opinion as
to how and why color affects the hu-
man being the way it does. The most
amazing fact is that there is an almost
total lack of research regarding color
and its effect on behavior modification
in a correctional facility. Hundreds of
thousands of persons are incarcerated
in confined spaces for substantial
periods of time some for the rest of
their lives. The behavior of these in-
mates, and anything which dramatically
affects that behavior, is of basic import-
ance. Whether it is a correctional facil-
ity or an office building is not really the
issue. The important fact is that it is
incumbent on all architects to be aware
and knowledgeable of how we can
affect, in a positive manner, the en-
vironments we create.
Color... and its practical applica-
tion
By the very nature of the Correc-
tional Center, we, at Architects Design
Group, had to address all the environ-
ments that the individual inmate would
be subjected to or had the opportunity
to participate in. These included such
diverse activities as eating, living,
education, counseling, hospitalization,
preparing food and visiting with
friends and relatives.
The concept which I have chosen
to illustrate for the purposes of this
article relates to the section of the Cen-
ter which houses the inmates and the
space in which the vast majority of
their time is spent. Inmates are housed
in pods, or living environments, con-
sisting of 16 one-man rooms. These
rooms open onto a dayroom where the
day-to-day contact with fellow inmates
of his pod occurs.
Both spaces are small, the areas
being mandated by the Florida Depart-
ment of Corrections, and perhaps
more correctly, by the high cost of
housing inmates. The effect then was
to select a color scheme which accom-
plished the following:
The creation of identity, i.e., the
need of an inmate to feel that he had a
"place". In response to that criteria,
each pod received a different, but re-
lated, color scheme.
The psychological enlargement of
space was achieved through the use of
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


colors which make rooms appear big-
ger than they actually are.
Colors were used which had a
calming effect on inmates, which re-
duced tension and relaxed the indi-
vidual.
Time factors even came into play
in our choices of color. Colors were
used which psychologically make the
individual feel that time is underesti-
mated, that it seems to pass quickly,
thus reducing boredom.
Basic color concepts used in the
living pods consist of combinations of
yellow, green and blue and yellow, rust
and brown. (See photos which illustrate
this use). These colors were selected be-
cause it was found that:
Yellow enlarges space and tends to
psychologically reduce tension by mak-
ing the individual feel happier. Green
relaxes the inmates, perhaps because of
man's association of the color with na-
ture and open spaces. Blue is consid-
ered a calming color, it assists in the
mental process of underestimating time
and it increases the apparent size of the
room. Brown and rust, the so-called
"earth colors" have strong associations
with nature and are used to soften
large spaces such as dayrooms.
Because of their relatively inex-
pensive cost, the colors used in the
Orange County Correctional Center
are anticipated to change as our under-
standing of their implications and
effect are more fully understood. We
architects view it as a continuing
effort-a continuing commitment to

humanize the facility for those who are
housed, as well as those who work
there. m


I.S.K. Reeves, V, AIA, is President
of Architects Design Group of Florida, Inc.
in Winter Park. He is also a member of the
American Society of Planning Councils.
The Orange County 33rd Street Correction-
al Center was the only correctional facility
in Florida chosen for publication in the
Directory of 1979 Justice Facilities. It
was also given a special award by the Mid-
Florida A.I.A. for the research and applica-
tion of color.
James Pat Strollo, co-designer of the
Orange County Correctional Center, is Vice
President ofArchitects Design Group of
Florida.


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Architectural Photography
6406 Eldorado Drive
Tampa, Florida 33615


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FIRST ANNUAL

GOVERNOR'S DESIGN AWARDS


Governor Bob Graham recently
announced the winners of the First
Annual Governor's Design Awards
Program. The Program's objective was
recognizing in eight categories proven
examples of outstanding achievement
in the development of public facilities
by state and local government. An
agency of State or local government
was able to nominate any project which
was developed or acquired using public
capital outlay funds and which had


been completed and was in continuous
use for its intended purpose for a mini-
mum of two years prior to October 1,
1980.
Nominations were received in the
following categories: educational,
recreational, administrative, health and
rehabilitative services facilities, other
public service facilities, transportation,
utilities and environment facilities and
restoration and recycling projects.
The award's jury for the 1981


program was Dean Richard Chalmers,
School of Architecture, Florida A&M
University, Howard Bochiardy, FAIA,
Clyde Brady, AIA, Peg Gorson, Presi-
dent, South Florida ASID, George D.
Smith, President, Florida Chapter
ASLA, Billy Bishop, PE, Florida En-
gineering Society and a contractor
representative and a lay member.

The FA/AIA salutes the eight winners
whose projects are shown here.


-FI

T i 0 4? e -








A-I -












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--






1 Mayport Junior High School
Mayport, Florida
Owner: Duval County School Board
Architect: Clements/ Rumpel/ Associates
24


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


,


-9a~












































6 University Auditorium, addition and restore
tion
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Owner: Department of General Services
Architect: James D. McGinley Associates



















7 Third District Court of Appeal
Miami, Florida
Owner: Department of General Services
Architect: Ferendino/Grafton/Spillis/Candelh

8 College of Education Complex
P University of Central Florida
S: Orlando,'Florida
-Owner: Department of General Services
S,'.. Architect: Lemon and Megginson












2 William J. Rish Park for the Handicapped
St. Joseph Peninsula, Florida
Owner: Department of Health and Rehabilita-
tive Services
Architect: Charles J. Benda, AIA






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3 Capitol Center Parking Facilities
Tallahassee, Florida
Owner: Department of General Services
Architect: Barrett Daffin and Carlan Inc


-A -144


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4 Miami-Dade Community College
Medical Center Campus
Miami, Florida
Owner: Miami-Dade Community College
Architect: Ferendino/Grafton/Spillis/Candela
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


Ll























II



















The Florida Association of the
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS

Thanks
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Thanks
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Captive Continuedfrom page 11
bines a correctional facility with Sher-
iffs administrative facilities, incor-
porates a total of 47,340 square feet.
The correctional facility was designed
to accommodate 107 adult males and
females.
According to Architect Prindle,
"Through years of experience with
standards of practice in various states
as well as at the federal level, we have
developed (in the Pasco County Jail) an
efficient and economical facility which
meets or exceeds the Florida Standards
for Correctional Facilities. The primary
objectives for this project were: to pro-
vide a facility that would accommodate
both law enforcement and correctional
activities; to provide separate dormi-


tory and single cell housing for men
and women; to utilize a minimum
number of staff, with emphasis on
direct personal observation of incar-
cerated individuals instead of electronic
surveillance; and to create an environ-
ment conducive to rehabilitation and
community involvement."
Prindle established lofty goals for
his firm, but the building seems to have
succeeded on all counts.
The building is essentially con-
tained on a single level with a partial
second level over three of the single
cell housing units. The plan is devel-
oped around a control center located at
the interface of the public areas, the
law enforcement division and the jail.


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Adjacent to the public entrance are the
community services, school liaison, the
sheriffs office and administrative sup-
port areas.
Inmate services are an important
element in the operation of this facility.
Each inmate, depending on his or her
classification, has access to congregate
or secure visitation, private consulta-
tion, classroom instruction, medical
care, the commissary, a mini-gym, and
outdoor recreation. While security for
all parts of the building is obviously
necessary, safety vestibules, glazing,
window openings, locking devices, se-
curity fixtures, visual accessibility and
circulation patterns are all geared to
maintain, as much as possible, a norma-
tive environment.
At the other end of the spectrum
from medium/minimum security facili-
ties such as the Orange County Center
are the maximum security facilities
such as the Western Regional Institu-
tion at Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. Western
Regional, according to its architect
Ricardo Jimenez, AIA, seeks through
redefinition of the standards of correc-
tional confinement in Puerto Rico to
upgrade the system and increase public
credibility. Jiminez goes on to state
that, "these efforts will be set forth on a
principle of humanitarian reform,
rather than a rehabilitative ideal."
The problems which plague Puer-
to Rico's correctional system are not
unique. Lack of adequate funding, pro-


FLORIDA ARCHITECT /Summer, 1981


-r













grams and delivery of service, coupled
with poor maintenance, overcrowding,
and understaffing have plagued Puerto
Rico's system to near critical propor-
tions. The net result has led to in-
creasing public skepticism as to the sys-
tem's ability to function properly and
the growing indifference toward the
human treatment of the confined.
Jiminez seeks to remedy these
problems in his plan for Western Re-
gional by developing a solution that will
serve as exemplary to the future de-
velopment of the correctional system in
Puerto Rico.
Western Regional is to be a deten-
tion facility for 550 adults. The major
institutional components consist of ad-
ministrative, service, living, dining, acti-
vities and community facilities and sup-
port services. The most significant
design/planning goals of Western Re-
gional Institution are security, flex-
ibility and budget control.
At Western Regional, security is
the most important design constraint
since it affects both the broadest con-
cepts as well as the smallest details.
Unique to Western Regional and its ar-
chitect is the philosophical attitude re-
garding the security issue translated
into practical application.
Most traditional prisons derive
their expression and image from the
use of design elements related to the
security problem: high solid walls, cell-


blocks, towers, bars, non-destructible
materials. The objective at WRI is to
accomplish the necessary security mea-
sures by means of "normal" elements
of architecture. Good physical planning
and design can help insure not only the
goal of security and containment, but
also the individual security of each in-
mate, an increasingly important objec-
tive as crime rates rise inside our
prisons.
Architect Jiminez sums up the de-
sign teams' goals this way: "To provide
a humane and secure institutional en-
vironment which will encourage the de-
velopment of programs and activities,
thereby alleviating some of the more


detrimental aspects of confinement and
finally, to provide an organized func-
tional system which will provide effi-
ciency of operations."
In interviewing various architects
for this issue, FA found that each
seemed to have his own set of priorities
and they varied, sometimes dra-
matically, from project to project. But,
perhaps that's what designing in-
stitutional buildings is all about. As
Irvin Korach, AIA, put it so well, "Pur-
pose dictates design." Each of the
buildings FA examined had a very spe-
cific purpose which will affect all of us,
at one time or another whether we
like it or not!m


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?? IS FLORIDA

GETTING THE

ARCHITECTURE

IT DESERVES ??
This provocative question will be addressed
at the FA/AIA Fall Conference in six theme
sessions. It will be posed to a panel of experts
who will, in the course of the Conference,
examine the architecture of the Florida/Carib-
bean Region from a variety of points of view
and then render their verdict. This year's con-
ference will be at the Sheraton St. John's
Place in Jacksonville. You won't want to miss
this!


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981


FA/AIA
FALL CONFERENCE SCHEDULE
Thursday, October 1, 1981
9:00 Registration Desk Opens
10:30 12:00 Board of Directors Meeting
9:00 11:30 FA/AIA Committee Meetings
12:00 1:30 Lunch (on your own)
1:30 3:00 Annual FA/AIA Meeting
3:00 5:00 Architectural Photography Workshop
6:00 8:00 Salute to Exhibitors Reception
8:30 Dinner for Fellows (by Invitation)
Friday, October 2, 1981
8:30 Registration Desk Opens
9:00 10:20 Theme I
10:40 12:00 Theme II
12:00 2:00 Exhibitors Buffet Luncheon
2:00 3:30 Theme Ill
3:40 5:00 Theme IV
7:30 Host Chapter Party
Saturday, October 3, 1981
8:30 Registration Desk Opens
9:00 10:20 Theme V
10:40 12:00 Theme VI
12:00 2:00 Exhibitors Buffet Luncheon
2:00 2:30 Exhibit Prize Announcements
2:30 4:30 Theme Critique & Summary
7:00 Awards Reception/Banquet


LV









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functional.
If you have requirements for split, scored, fluted otha
special designs, your inquiry will be promptly answsed. Call
813-443-2635.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 198I







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FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Summer, 1981














THE TEAM APPROACH TO

HOSPITAL CONSTRUCTION

by Marc Fortune


Viewpoint is an open forum for allied
professionals within the construction indus-
try. Articles expressing opinions or view-
points of interest to Florida Architect
readers should be addressed to the editor.

As all design professionals are
aware, the planning and construction
of hospitals is a complex task. Recent
improvements in medical technology
and additional safety regulations which
have been imposed by the government
have caused traditional methods of
hospital development to come under
scrutiny. This includes close examina-
tion of everything from feasibility stud-
ies to certificates of occupancy. The
fact is that the conventional design-bid-
build approach is used by fewer hospi-
tals today than ever before.
Today, many architects/engineers
and general contractors are finding
that a "Team Approach" to hospital
construction is an efficient time-saving,
cost-effective way of ensuring that the
difficult task of getting a hospital com-
pleted on schedule is met. The concept
of the "Team Approach" is hardly new.
It is quite simply an arrangement
whereby the owner, architect/engineer,
contractor and consultant play separate
but equally important roles in the con-
struction of the building. Each brings
to the project a special expertise and
unique perspective on the various
facets of the building program. With
the Team Approach, the General Con-
tractor (GC) does a significant portion
of the construction work with its own
forces and guarantees completion by a
certain date and a not-to-exceed pro-
ject cost.
On a construction project as com-
plex as a hospital, the pre-construction
phase is most critical in determining
whether a job will come in on time and
within budget. Under the Team Con-
cept, pre-construction services by the
General Contractor do not involve de-
sign which is the exclusive respon-
sibility of the architect. Rather, they in-
clude input on various issues which
36


may significantly impact the cost and
schedule, but would maintain the integ-
rity of the buildings' design. Spe-
cifically, such pre-construction services
include:
... advice on site use and improve-
ments, selection of materials, building
systems and equipment.
... recommendations on relative con-
struction feasibility, availability of mate-
rials and labor, time requirements for
installation and construction, and fac-
tors related to cost including costs of
alternative designs or materials, pre-
liminary budgets, and possible econo-
mies
. updating of a project time schedule
that coordinates and integrates design
services with construction schedules
. preparation of a preliminary con-
struction budget for owner and archi-
tect review as soon as major project re-
quirements have been identified
... advising the owner and the
architect if it appears that the project
budget will not be met, and making
recommendations for corrective action
... development of a guaranteed max-
imum cost based on a quantity survey
of partial drawings and specifications
... conducting a comprehensive esti-
mate of construction costs to determine
consistency with cost constraints, design
intent and contract terms
... review of the drawings and speci-
fications as they are being prepared,
recommending alternative solutions
whenever design details affect con-
struction feasibility or schedules
. investigation and recommendation
of a schedule for purchase of all mate-
rials and equipment requiring long
lead time procurement, and coordina-
tion of the schedule with the early
preparation of contract documents by
the architect
. analyzing the types and quantity of
labor required for critical phases
... preparation of lpre-qualification cri-
teria for bidders and development of
subcontractor commitments for the
project


. establishing building schedules and
conducting pre-bid conferences to
familiarize bidders with the bidding
documents and management tech-
niques and with any special systems,
materials or methods.
As any architect is aware, activity is
not synonymous with results. Pre-con-
struction activities which involve all
team members from project inception
have a greater probability of achieving
desired results for several reasons.
First, early design stages can be
finalized and a fast-track program can
be implemented which allows construc-
tion to commence several months be-
fore construction documents are com-
plete.
Second, development of a pre-
liminary construction schedule during
design stages can result in identifica-
tion of potential bottlenecks, such as
long need items, and early procure-
ment, thereby eliminating delays at a
later date. Other bottlenecks-
particularly in hospital additions and
renovations--might include the accom-
odation of facility operations during
construction.
The underlying reason, of course,
for an architect to add a general con-
tractor to its team is the timely, cost
effective completion of the project. It is
typical for a hospital which is built in
this fashion to come in at a cost which
is 10 to 15% lower than the con-
ventional design-bid-build process. Per-
haps as important is the working re-
lationship among the team members.
All members are allies for a common
goal and is current trends in the indus-
try indicate, owners, architects, and
general contractors see this Team
Approach as simply the best way to
build a hospital or a similarly complex
project.



Marc Fortune is Director of Marketing
for Rodgers Construction, Inc., St.
Petersburg, Florida.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT / Sunlmuer, 1981
































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