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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Florida's downtowns: Jacksonville...
 Flying blind
 FSBA opinion
 Miami Beach: Resort style...
 Chapter design awards
 Newslines
 Back Cover


AIAFL



Florida architect
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00229
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: January 1977
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00229
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Advertising
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Florida's downtowns: Jacksonville and Miami
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Flying blind
        Page 16
        Page 17
    FSBA opinion
        Page 18
    Miami Beach: Resort style moderne
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter design awards
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Newslines
        Page 26
    Back Cover
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.


































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fabled Suwanee River in 1888, who
changed her name to "Suwanee". In 1900
the Suwanee was purchased by Conrad and
Fred Menge of Ft. Myers, Florida and
operated successfully on the Caloosahatchie
River for the next twenty years. One of
her most famous passengers was Thomas A.
Edison, who rode the Suwanee up-river
on fishing trips. In 1920 the vessel was


moved by the Menge brothers to Lake
Okeechobee, where she was abandoned and
later sunk by a violent storm in 1920.
Stirred by Edison, in 1929, Henry Ford
managed to salvage her engine. He hired
Captain Conrad Menge to supervise the
design for construction of the colorful
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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Directors of Florida Region
James E. Ferguson, Jr., AIA
2901 Ponce de Leon Boulevard
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
(305) 443-7758
Frank R. Mudano, AIA
1189 N.E. Cleveland Street
Clearwater, Florida 33515
(813) 446-1041
Executive Director
Fotis N. Karousatos, Hon. AIA
7100 N. Kendall Drive, Suite 203
Miami, Florida 33156
(305) 661-8947
General Counsel
(Branch Office)
J. Michael Huey, Attorney at Law
1020 E. Lafayette, Suite 110
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
(904) 878-4191
1977 FAAIA OFFICERS
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., AIA, President
1823 North Ninth Avenue
Pensacola, Florida 32503
(904) 434-5445
James A. Greene, AIA, Vice President/
President Designate
5401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 531
Tampa, Florida 33609
(813) 879-6782
Howard Bochiardy, AIA, Secretary
P.O. Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
(305) 851-0840
Carl Gerken, AIA, Treasurer
P.O. Box 9490
Daytona Beach, Florida 32030
(904) 255-5471
1977 FAAIA Board of Directors


Howard B. Bochiardy
Glenn A. Buff
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr.
James V. Burnette
Cecil Cannon
Donald W. David, Jr.
John Dyal
Norman N. Giller
Alberto Gomez
Carl O. Gutmann, Jr.
Prentis Howard
James A. Hunt
Jerome A. James
Ivan E. Johnson, III
Charles E. King, FAIA
David C. Leete
Gordon T. McGee
Richard H. Morse
Emily Obst
George Palermo
Lester Pancoast
Herbert A. Pecht
Mark H. Ramaeker
Ed Saar
Newton L. Sayers
Frank H. Smith
Ludwig Spiessl
Richard Wensing
Felipe Prestamo, RA


Mid-Florida
Florida South
Florida Northwest
Florida North
Florida North Central
Florida Northwest
Jacksonville
Florida South
Broward County
Mid-Florida
Florida Central
Florida Southwest
Florida Central
Florida North Central
Jacksonville
Daytona Beach
Florida Southwest
Florida North
Palm Beach
Florida Gulf Coast
Florida South
Palm Beach
Florida Gulf Coast
Broward County
Daytona Beach
Jacksonville
Florida Central
Palm Beach
Associate Director


The Florida Architect
Fotis N. Karousatos, Hon. AIA/Publisher
John W. Totty, AIA/Editor
Kurt Waldmann/Photography


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Suite 203
Miami, Florida 33156


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /3





































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PPG: a Concern for the Future




INDUSTRIES







Prologue
The AIA judiciary process for handling
questions of violations of the ethical
standards is a little known and, for that
reason, a much maligned procedure.
AIA Secretary Bob Lawrence briefly
discussed the process at Florida Grassroots
and it might be well to review it here. As
set down in Chapter XIV of the AIA Rules
of the Board, the process consists of
regular and special procedures. The major
differences are that special procedure cases
take less time, are heard by a one-man
panel, penalties are limited to censure or
admonition and appeal can be made only to
a full National Judicial Board panel. The
following summary outlines the special
procedure:
* A complaint may be filed by any person,
a corporate member, a chapter, a state
organization or a registration board
with the Secretary of the Institute.
* Notification of the charges are sent to
the complainant, accused and the
respective regional directors and
chapter presidents.
* The complainant then has 20 days to
submit information and data supporting
his charges to the Institute and the
accused.
* The accused in turn has 20 days in which
to file like information back to the
Institute and complainant.
* Prior to the time the AIA Executive
V.P. sends the file to the National
Judicial Board, the complainant may
withdraw the charges, with Judicial
Board approval.
* If not withdrawn, the Chairman of the
National Judicial Board selects one
member to hear charges, at a time and
place fair to all parties and with 15 days
notice.
* Following the hearing, and within 30
days, the Board member who heard the
case will forward a report, including
a verdict, to the Chairman of the
National Judicial Board. The Chairman
will review it and, if all is in order,
report to the Executive V.P. and AIA
Secretary. The Secretary will then
advise all parties involved of the findings.
* Either party may appeal for a new
hearing before a full 3 or 5 man panel
of the National Judicial Board.
* Decisions are made public, depending
on the penalty imposed, by publication
in AIA MEMO or the local chapter
newsletter.
Throughout the entire procedure both
sides have the right to be represented by
legal counsel, though the hearings are not
designed to be conducted with the
formality of a court proceeding.
One effective means Lawrence stressed
for handling ethics questions is to have a
strong, functioning committee at the
chapter level. This committee should hear
routine disputes and offer visible activity
as evidence to the membership that ethics
can be enforced.


The


Florida


Architect
VOLUME 27 NUMBER 1 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977


19 i E I


19


Cover:
A fisheye camera view of downtown Jacksonville, only one of
a number of Florida cities exhibiting impressive redevelopment
and renewal. See the coverage of Jacksonville and Miami
beginning on page 9. Photo courtesy of Communications 21,
Jacksonvillc.




9 Florida's Downtowns: Jacksonville & Miami
A three section feature on recycling downtown spotlighting the
urban plans for Jacksonville and Miami with photographs of
built and proposed projects

16 Flying Blind
or "Financial Management by the Seat-of-Your-Pants"
Architect Don W. David, Jr., AIA of Ricks/Kcndrick/Stokes/
David Architects, Inc. discusses simplified techniques of financial
management for small firms

18 FSBA Opinion
James C. Rinaman, General Councel of the Florida State Board
of Architecture, clarifies some of the business organization
alternatives for the practice of architecture in Florida

19 Miami Beach: Resort Style Moderne
Art Historian Arlene Olson explores the Art Deco and Streamlined
styling of hotels and apartments built on South Beach in the
1930's

24 Chapter Design Awards
Completing coverage of 1976 Chapter Architectural Design
Awards with these winners from the Broward County Chapter
26 Newslines
Advertisers


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned and
published by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for profit. It
is published bi-monthly at the Executive Office of the Association,
7100 N. Kendall Drive, Miami, Florida 33156. Telephone
(305) 661-8947. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor of the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted provided full credit is given to the author
and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT and copy sent to publisher's
office. Single Copies, 75 cents, subscription, $6.50 per year.
Controlled Circulation Postage Paid, Miami, Florida.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /5


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Recycling Florida's Downtowns


The City, heartbeat of civilization, has
not failed it is only changing. It is
changing to fit new patterns of social
forces whose acceptance has been
almost mandated by recent crises:
environmental, energy and inflation/
recession. These forces are manifested
in public resistance to new taxes and
increasing cost of services, coupled
with spreading understanding and
acceptance of crisis imposed limits.
All of these influences are
combining to force a new and realistic
look at existing downtown, for the
most part an enclave of old blighted
buildings, vacated stores and outdated
office buildings. And well known is
the fact that most downtown areas
are virtually abandoned after 5:00
pm as daytime workers flee to
suburban amenities which formerly
were available close in to center city.
There are isolated new buildings
continually being constructed in core
areas, many which reflect early but
now defunct urban renewal programs.
Through these varied programs most
large cities have for a decade or more
been turning the tide of decay with
some dramatic renewal and
redevelopment projects.
However, for today and the near
future, suburban America cannot
afford to ignore its core city. Usually
the geographical area with the largest
concentration of daytime workers, it
contains an investment too great in
time, money and human resources to
be tossed aside in favor of further
suburban sprawl.
The tax monies required to repeat
and support public utilities and
services already within the existing
infrastructure of downtown cannot
be afforded by any city or other form
of metropolitan government. The
investment capital required for new
office and commercial facilities
cannot be afforded by private
enterprise when there exist so many
structures which might be more
economically recycled for new uses.
And most of all, no fragmented
suburb can offer the amenities of
living embodied in cultural,
entertainment and educational
facilities which can only be supported
by large concentrations of people.

New Legislation
Planners visions of 21st century
urban living, too often in the past
merely pipe dreams without substance
in reality, are today beginning to
come alive in cities across the nation.


In Florida, there has been legislation
passed in recent years which has
helped bring about these more realistic
plans.
In 1972 the state legislature enacted
the Environmental Land and Water
Management Act, now Chaper 380,
Florida Statutes. This was official
recognition that growth and
development were of such magnitude
that the state should be concerned
with certain types of development in
order to protect its citizens, as much
as possible, from unfavorable
consequences of large, ill-planned
development.
A later section of this act
established an Environmental Land
Management Study Committee. As
one of several major recommendations
in its final report, the committee felt
the state should adopt legislation to
insure that local government units
would undertake and implement
comprehensive planning programs for
development within their jurisdictions.
After failing to be passed in 1974,
the Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1975 was adopted by
the legislature and signed into law by
the governor. Where previously
legislation authorizing local
government units to prepare and
implement comprehensive plans was
permissive or enabling in character,
the 1975 act required that
municipalities and counties must
prepare and adopt a comprehensive
plan by 1 July 1979.
Incentives Needed
While these laws will aid in bringing
about realistic, co-ordinated and
comprehensive plans, there remain
other legal vehicles which must be
enacted in order to provide the proper
incentives for private developers to
undertake development projects of
any magnitude in downtown areas.
These elements, embodied in the
proposed Constitutional Admendment
Four which was narrowly defeated in
the November general elections,
contain two essential ingredients:
financing techniques and private
incentives. Two states, California and
Missouri, have enacted such financing
and incentive laws, known respectively
as the California Plan and the Missouri
Plan.
Under the California Plan, a method
of tax increment financing, all
property assessments within a project
area are frozen at the time of adoption
of a redevelopment plan by a governing
body. Existing tax agencies continue


to collect taxes on the basis of the
frozen assessment only, while taxes
are levied on the total assessments as
they increase with development. This
increase over the frozen base is
remitted to the Redevelopment
Authority which uses it to retire bonds
sold to fund redevelopment project
costs. Upon repayment of such bonds
the increased tax revenues can either
be distributed to appropriate taxing
bodies or utilized to fund other public
purposes including subsidies to
commercial and residential renewal
developments which are in the public
interest.
The Missouri Plan is a tax
abatement and incentive program. In
this situation a private redevelopment
corporation, having an interest in a
piece of property, would pay general
ad valorem taxes at a rate based on
the assessment for land only in the
year immediately prior to acquisition
of the property and for a period of 10
years after the date of acquisition. For
the next 15 years the redevelopment
corporation would pay general ad
valorem taxes at a rate not to exceed
50% of the total assessed valuation of
the land and improvements. After 25
years the general ad valorem taxes are
assessed at 100% valuation. Such tax
relief provides the necessary incentive
and capitalization to make
redevelopment feasible.
Both these plans have been utilized
extensively in the respective states and
have been upheld as constitutional
under their laws. Without the
implementation of such laws in
Florida it seems unlikely that large
scale private redevelopment projects,
especially in the field of housing, will
become feasible in downtown core
areas. Such needs are sure to be
addressed in the 1977 legislative
session as well as by the upcoming
Constitutional Revision Committee.
Downtown Development Authorities
There also exists under the laws of
Florida enabling legislation providing
for the creation of Downtown
Development Authorities. Such
authorities, acting in the role of
catalyst, do much to co-ordinate
efforts of public and private agencies
in downtown redevelopment.
The power to create such
authorities is vested in the governing
body of every municipality in the
state having a population over
250,000, according to the most
recent official census.
The domain of such an authority
covers a prescribed downtown district
whose boundaries are defined in the
municipal ordinance establishing the
Continued >


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 / 7







authority. Affairs of the authority are
under the direct supervision and
control of a seven member board
appointed according to criteria set
forth in Chapter 65-1090 of the
General Laws of Florida.
Two of the first such authorities
established in the state are in Miami
and Jacksonville. Miami established its
Downtown Development Authority
in January 1966 and Jacksonville
followed suit in 1971.
Though established under the same
enabling laws, each city has taken a
slightly different approach in the
organization of its Authority.
In Miami the boundaries enclose a
relatively tight downtown core area of
approximately 770 acres situated
between 1-95 and Biscayne Bay and
lying north of the Miami River. Within
this district a special property tax of
one-half mil is levied to provide
operating funds for the authority. The
mayor of the city serves as a member
of the Board and as its chairman.
In Jacksonville the Authority's
district covers a larger area of several
square miles and extends across the
St. Johns River to encompass a
portion of the southern shore close in
to downtown. The Authority is an
independent agency within the city
government of Jacksonville and is
supported by funds from the general
operating budget of the city rather
than by a special tax levy. In addition,
the Board is made up entirely of
members from the private business
community with no representation
from the city government. However,
the operating budget for each year
must be approved by the city council,
thereby insuring protection of the
public interest.
In both cities progress in
redevelopment and rejuvenation in
recent years has been impressive.
Private enterprise as well as public
projects have reshaped both city
cores. Both have commissioned
comprehensive urban plans, each still
in the process of updating and
adoption through public hearings.
Each has proposals for people mover
transit systems, viewed as a major
element of any urban core
redevelopment.
The following pages examine in
further detail the downtown plan
for Miami and Jacksonville,
illustrating projects built, under
construction or proposed which are
transforming these cities. They are not
alone. Other Florida communities,
most too small to establish similar
Downtown Development Authorities,
are nonetheless realizing the value of
their core areas. JWT


Jacksonville
In Jacksonville an Urban Plan
Creates a Tight Downtown Core


The urban plan for downtown
Jacksonville was prepared for the city
in 1971 by RTKL, Inc. of Baltimore.
The years since have witnessed the
implementation of a number of the
proposals and today several aspects
of the plan are in the process of
updating.
The planning process followed in
preparation of the plan, diagrammed
in Figure 1, was interesting in that it
recognized that an effective planning
process must incorporate community
participation. To accomplish this, a
Committee for the Downtown Plan
was formed, which included
representatives of the Downtown
Development Council, City of
Jacksonville and various City
Agencies. In addition there were 14
nonvoting advisory members.

Urban Design Principles
Nine basic urban design principles
were arrived at to form the basis of
the Jacksonville Downtown Plan
illustrated here. Taken directly from
the RTKL report, these were:
* Establish strong, high intensity
activity centers and circulation
linkages between these centers to
create lines of activity for natural
market regenerative forces.
* Establish a pedestrian oriented
precinct within the transportation
loop street.
* Establish a strong linkage from the
CBD core to the St. Johns River.
* Initially structure high intensity
land uses and pedestrian activities
and circulation channels along a
north-south axis defined by Laura
and Hogan Streets. In later stages
establish a similar structure along
an east-west axis defined by Bay
Street and the riverfront between
the government center and the
Laura-Hogan axis.
* Anchor the pedestrian concourse
and activity nodes with open space
focal points at Hemming Park and
Riverfront Park.
* Encourage complementary
development of public and private
uses along the riverfront.
* Encourage superblock development


/


//
I,


4:


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\\
A JOINT USE
REDEVELOPMENT
CONCEPT
A CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM for
the development of the key pro-
perty just north of the city-owned
lands on the riverfront suggests
skyway connections to Sears and
Independent Life as well as a con-
nection to the Riverfront Civic
Center Complex. Parking at lower
levels could be entered from
Water Street with upper level
walkway and retail uses tied to
the platform of the combined
people mover station. This public
use base can thus serve as the gen-
eration of office use on upper
levels. The critical elements of
this joint use block involve careful
coordination between adjacent
public and private blocks and con-
struction coordination of public
parking and people mover areas.
A mixed use program in this
privately owned block is critical
for the success of the riverfront
activity center development. Plans
for such a center have not yet
been developed.


8 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977


K4 /


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".. '^ .*





DECISIONS DECISIONS DECISIONS I

STEP STE 2 STEP 3-- -- STEP 4 -- STEPS STEP 6
PROJECT ORGANIZATION RECONNAISSANCE OEJECTIVES&STRATnGIES DESIGN CONCEPTS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION





PHASE I \

PHASE II _


THE PLANNING PROCESS
The Plan for Downtown Jacksonville


PHASE
I ______ PHASE III


Urban Design Plan
JACKSONVILLE C.B.D.


and utilization of air rights to
increase the development potential,
to provide variety within the
existing grid pattern and create
dynamic urban spaces within the
fabric of building masses.
Reinforce the existing retail-
department store core with the
addition of pedestrian amenities
and activity generators, linking this
core directly to the residential and
office activity centers of the CBD.
Concentrate off-street parking in
peripheral structures located within
the Transportation Loop Streets
and provide direct pedestrian
walkways between these storage
facilities and intense uses within the
CBD core which generate these
parking demands.
A keystone to the implementation
of this downtown plan as presented in
1971 was to be the formation of a
Downtown Development Authority.
Such an Authority was created and
progress in the intervening years
indicates the extent to which this
body has been a co-ordinating force
and catalyst in a number of extensive
projects.

Major Projects
DDA Executive Director Don
Ingram listed five major projects
which he sees as essential to the future
of downtown.
The first of these, a people mover
system was not a part of the original
plan but was integrated into it in a
1973 proposal. Though Jacksonville
was not among the cities recently
approved for Federal funding for such
a system, construction of this still
remains an important objective.
The second is the development of
a riverfront complex consisting of an
activity center, designed to be a focal
point of the entire community as well
as the downtown core, and a major
convention hotel.
Third is a system of elevated
enclosed skywalks connecting all the
major points of community activity
and employment. Within the core
business area these skywalks would tie
in with the people mover system at its
elevated level.
Housing is integral to the success of
any future downtown activity and is
the fourth item Don listed. Portions
of property in areas to the west of the
core have been designated for middle
to upper income market-rate housing
units, to be developed as soon as
incentives and the market exists.
Finally, several projects are planned
to upgrade a number of existing streets
to boulevards providing increased
access along well landscaped traffic
arteries. *


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977/9







Jacksonville
These projects are shaping the
future Jacksonville in keeping
with the Downtown Plan


FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH
This recently completed 3000
seat Sanctuary creates a lively
center of downtown activity. The
pedestrian bridge connects to
existing facilities.
ARCHITECTS: Willis & Veenstra


POLICE ADMINISTRATION
BUILDING
Now nearing completion, the low
profile of this concrete structure
contains a series of roof top urban
plazas.
ARCHITECT: William Morgan


.--
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-








U,.


INDEPENDENT SQUARE
The State's tallest office structure
for Independent Life with its
distinctive profile now dominates
the city skyline.
ARCHITECTS: Kemp, Bunch &
Jackson










SCLI RIVERCENTER
Conceptual studies for this pro-
ject, proposed by Seaboard Coast-
line Industries, Inc., have been
prepared to include a hotel, office
building, specialty retail, recrea-
tional and entertainment facilities
with multi-level parking.
ARCHITECTS: Kemp, Bunch &
Jackson


10 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977


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~r-~.y
Flg~Y~~i~





FLORIDA JUNIOR COLLEGE
This campus, under construction
to the north of the downtown
core, is scheduled for completion
in mid-1977. Such a project is
sure to become a catalyst for fur-
ther development in the imme-
diate area.
ARCHITECTS: Reynolds, Smith
and Hills


DOWNTOWN STREETS DESIGN
A program for special lighting and
traffic control structures now in
place on Main Street, above, and
studies for pedestrian oriented
mall concepts, below, are ongoing
parts of the Downtown Plan.
PLANNERS: Reynolds, Smith
and Hills


'L -

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REGIONAL SERVICE CENTER
The new State Office Building
under construction on the river-
front steps back at each floor,
creating a series of terraces and
viewing platforms.
ARCHITECT: William Morgan
(ATLANTIC NATIONAL BANK
The new headquarters building
for this bank brings to the down-
town core a solid, urbane struc-
ture significally enhancing the en-
vironment.
ARCHITECTS: Kemp, Bunch &
Jackson
ST. JOHNS PLACE
The schematic layout of a devel-
oping 50 acre commercial, retail
and recreational center located on
the south shore of the St. Johns
River, created by Gulf Life Hold-
ing Company and Fruehauf Corp.
The Gulf Life Building, Hilton
Hotel and I.B.M. already occupy
the site and a racquet club will
soon be under construction.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977/11


r.


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-






Miami
Miami Urban Plan Provides
Framework for New Downtown Zoning


In 1972 the firm of Wallace McHarg
Roberts & Todd prepared a downtown
urban development and zoning plan
for Miami providing guidelines for
growth and development for the
period 1973-1985. This plan, still in a
process of refinement and adoption,
was formulated as a basis for new
zoning classifications designed to
encourage redevelopment projects and
especially to permit new in-town
residential construction on a large
scale. Since that time the same firm
has completed a comprehensive plan
for the entire city of Miami,
co-ordinating this with the previous
downtown plan.


Urban Design Framework
In order to support a co-ordinated
development framework the following
urban design principles form the basis
for this plan.
DEVELOP AMENITIES AND
CATALYSTS: In addition to Bayfront
Park and River Walk improvements,
the plan proposes a linear park along
the F.E.C. railroad, a large-scale
residential community north of the
Community College and activity







r II ,lfTIF


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i I ,


Ceritrai Comertal Cormerca/Resiential
Gaed Ccmreroca Reks and ReFceatsio
- huism Resr hi dqm-
P" Rtc FacRs Res=7 (meod dmAv


1985 LAND USE

I l i i i I i ]


ILLUSTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT PLAN


12 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977





streets connecting existing and
proposed development and providing
day and night activity.
JOIN ACTIVITY CENTERS AND
AREAS OF HIGHEST
DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL: Three
major existing downtown activity
zones, Flagler Street Core, Midtown
Core and Biscayne Boulevard Hotel
Row should be connected by transit
systems. The corridors between these
zones offer the best potential for
future development.
LOCATE NEW DEVELOPMENT
IN RELATION TO
INFRASTRUCTURE CAPACITY:
Centers of new construction should
be located with regard to existing
streets and transit patterns as well as
near established employment and
retail facilities.
CONNECT NEW DEVELOPMENT
WITH A PEDESTRIAN
CIRCULATION SYSTEM: Pedestrian
improvements are required to improve
the environmental quality of downtown
reducing conflicts between pedestrians
and automobiles and take advantage of
direct connection between transit
stations and surrounding employment.


To guide in implementing these
principles, the plan encompasses the
following three major elements.

Plan Elements
The first of these elements is land
use. This element largely responds to
existing conditions of office, retail
and hotel uses, all of which will be
expanded by new construction or by
renovation to existing structures. This
element also proposes the possible
development of a new in-town
community of approximately 7000
mixed income residential units along
with required support facilities.
Realization of this type project will
require public-private co-operation
and the attraction of other amenities
to urban living.
A second element is that of
transportation and parking,
transportation being critical for
downtown development. Short range
proposals deal with the automobile
and improvements to street systems
and parking facilities. Long range
plans involve the locations of mass
transit stations and an internal smaller
scale people mover system.


The last major element looks at the
downtown environment and pedestrian
circulation, the human scale of the
city. The subtropical climate requires
protection from summer heat while
fostering vegitative growth producing
an attractive environment. This
element considers waterfront parks
and amenities on Biscayne Bay and
the Miami River, downtown urban
parks and mini-parks and pedestrian
improvements which would include
landscaped streets and paths, arcades
and elevated pedestrian walkways and
plazas.
The total plan, of course, is much
more extensive than this brief account.
It goes into an implementation
program looks at the regional context,
and looks at downtown as it was in
1973 as well as at the future of
downtown. It also outlines the process
of change, method of analysis and
studies a probability growth model.
An appendix contains a proposed
zoning ordinance for the downtown
area which will permit and encourage
growth along the guidelines set
forth in this plan.


m ~-


A NEW IN-TOWN MIAMI
RESIDENTIAL RIVERFRONT
COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT


A new in-town residential com-
munity is proposed for Down-
town Miami. Economic forecasts
indicate that a large scale, mod-
erate density, mixed income com-
munity is possible. The most ap-
propriate location for this devel-
opment would be north of the
Community College to 1-395 and
east of the F.E.C. railroad adja-
cent to Bicentennial Park. This
area presently contains only a
very small residential population,
is under-utilized and is easily ac-
cessible by both auto and pro-
posed transit.
The site is sufficiently large to
accommodate a residential com-
munity with a population of 7000
as well as retail and other commu-
nity services.
Implementation of this pro-
posal would require public-private
cooperation with the City provid-
ing land assembly assistance,
write-down or other actions.


The Miami Riverfront is proposed
as a major redevelopment area in
the City of Miami. Presently the
riverfront is one of the City's
most hidden and publicly under-
utilized resources. It is well suited
to redevelopment due to its pre-
sent underutilization, its amenity
value and its proximity to major
employment centers.
The riverfront is comprised of
a variety of uses, ranging from
marine industrial and commercial
to residential and recreational.
The riverfront area has potential
as a tourist and entertainment
area as well.
Development objectives
promote an active, working river
with marine commercial, residen-
tial, recreational and tourist/
entertainment uses intensified.


TRANSIT
STATION AREA
DEVELOPMENT
The proposed Mass Rapid Transit
system is probably the largest sin-
gle capital investment which Dade
County will undertake in the next
ten years. The first phase of the
system will run from Dadeland to
Hialeah, with more than half of
the stations located within the
City of Miami. In addition to
providing transit service, the pro-
posed system will have a great
effect on future development pat-
terns. Each transit station area
can be planned in order to achieve
preservation or development ob-
jectives. Activity nodes are pro-
posed around many transit sta-
tions with intensive concentra-
tions of multiple use develop-
ment, pedestrian activity and
lively public uses.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /13






Miami
In Miami a number of large projects
will create a renewed downtown environment


OMNI
INTERNATIONAL CENTER
A $76 million megastructure in-
cluding shopping, hotel, dining
and entertainment facilities, now
under construction and scheduled
for completion in 1977.
ARCHITECTS: Toombs,
Amisano and Wells, Atlanta


- ~ ~ ~ ~ s m"EJUIUhf IP(
II1IC1~C ~ W_ 7V Ilk~bFI
T_-


REGIONAL SERVICE CENTER
A complex of four interrelated
office structures to be built as
part of the Government Center.
The first ten story building is un-
der construction and will house
state offices presently scattered
around the county. Other units
will be built at approximate 5
year intervals.
ARCHITECTS: Russell-Wooster-
Associates








MIAMI POLICE DEPARTMENT
The first building to be construct-
ed within the area of the pro-
posed Downtown Government
Center, this award winning design
sets the tone for future buildings.
ARCHITECTS:
Pancoast Architects
Bouterse Borrelli Albaisa


001P
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DOWNTOWN GOVERNMENT
CENTER
A master plan for a centralized
government center to include:
Miami Police building, city, state
and federal government offices,
library, art museum, transit sta-
tions and parking garages.
ARCHITECTS: Connell Metcalf
& Eddy

FLAGLER STATION POST
OFFICE
To be built immediately north of
the government center, this build-
ing is designed with a landscaped
entrance plaza to relate to the
police station and state office
building across the street.
ARCHITECTS: Severud.Knight.
Boerema.Buff


14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977


L





JAMES L. KNIGHT
INTERNATIONAL CENTER
A proposed joint use center to
house a City of Miami Convention
Center and a University of Miami
International Conference Center.
The site is on the Miami River
S adjacent to the Brickell Avenue
bridge.
ARCHITECTS: Ferendino/Graft-
on/SoillislCandela


MIAMI RIVER WALK
The first phase of a planned Mi-
ami River Walkway beautification
project eventually to extend from
Dupont, Plaza along the north
shore of the river to Flagler
Street.
PLANNERS: Connell Metcalf &
Eddy


F-^-'---1



MIAMI DADE COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
The Downtown Campus of this
community college, constructed
several years ago, has had a great
effect on the urban environment.
ARCHITECTS: Ferendino/Graft-
on/Spillis/Candela


MIAMI NEW WORLD CENTER
A conceptual model of the type
of development which could take
place adjacent to MDCC includes:
Community College expansion,
urban center for Florida Interna-
tional University, high rise hous-
ing and the proposed Courthouse
Annex.
ARCHITECTS: Ferendino/Graft-
on/Spillis/Candela


- ... .

BICENTENNIAL PARK
Miami's new 33 acre bayfront
park located on the old Port of
Miami site features fountains, a
fishing lagoon, small child play
area, walks and open spaces. 1
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT:
Edward D. Stone Jr.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /15






This view of financial management from
a medium sized office might fit the
needs of many firms.

Flying Blind
or
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
by the SEAT-of-your-PANTS

by Don W. David, Jr., A.I.A.


6


Don W. David, Jr., A.I.A. is
Treasurer and Business Manager
of Ricks/Kendrick/Stokes/David
- Architects, Inc. of Fort Walton
Beach, Florida. He actss a finan-
cial management consultant to
small to medium-sized architec-
tural firms and is a Corporate
Member of the Florida Northwest
Chapter, A.I.A.


I can't believe you are really reading
this. What could be a more boring
subject for us creative people to be
devoting some of our precious time to
than financial management? It seems
like that is always the case at least,
for some of us anyway. "I'm so busy
right now doing architecture I just
don't have time to stop and prepare a
lot of figures or charts. Anyway, my
accountant takes care of all that at the
end of the year when he fills out my
tax return." Sad but true. Could this
quotation have come from you?
How would you like it, if the next
time you were flying somewhere, you
overheard the pilot say he didn't have
time to look at all those controls, dials
and gauges he's too busy flying the
airplane? Besides, it's so overcast he
has to constantly stare out to try to
find the airport. This is the situation
with so many small to medium-sized
architectural firms. Sometimes you will
hear a remark which goes
approximately like this: "We've been
in practice hump-t-hump years and
we've always done all right. Sure, we
lose money sometimes, but sometimes
we have a little left over and everyone
gets a bonus."
The attitudes reflected above may
often be the case. Hopefully, they are
not as often as one may think.
Financial management will not happen
by chance. Financial management is
not waiting until pay day and then
realizing you have to make a loan to
meet the payroll. Have you ever made
that trip to your friendly banker on
Friday morning to ask for just enough
to make the payroll with your tail
between your legs, hat in hand and
cussing the whole bother of having to
deal with money anyway? If you
have, you know the feeling well. Often
the check that would have covered the
loan you had to make comes in
Monday's mail and you kick yourself
again. We are basically planners and as
planners we are capable of properly
planning our financial affairs. In many
respects financial planning involves
the same steps and thinking processes
which we go through when we plan a
building.
A positive approach must be taken
in controlling the financial portion of
one's practice. As architects, we so
often pay little attention to this and
consequently fail to realize a proper
return on our efforts, or worse, get
into financial trouble by just: "Seeing
how we came out at the end of the
year." We should be able to control
this outcome by making adjustments
during the year. Many firms do not'
know what it cost to do business or
whether they lost or made money on
a particular job.


I am firmly convinced that the
reason most architects are architects is
not strictly to make a profit or be a
financial success. I believe the most
important thing to most architects is
the ARCHITECTURE, not the bottom
line. It is a truism that one cannot
totally concentrate on design and do
good architecture if his financial affairs
are not in order.
The basic elements of financial
management are rather simple. You
need to budget (plan) your operation
and then follow-up to see how you
actually did compared with your plan.
Of course, getting from here to there
can be done rather simply or can be
as sophisticated as one may like -
sophistication meaning less manual
operation and greater detail. The basic
objective is to be able to control the
financial operation of your firm by
checking the indicators and seeing
when to make adjustments. Back to
the pilot analogy you need to be
"instrument-rated" so you can fly in
all types of weather.
The hardest part of all is making
the commitment to plan and manage
the financial operation of your office.
Once this is done, the rest will follow
with a reasonable amount of effort
and within a reasonable amount of
time. Please note again it's not
going to happen all by itself. There are
two usual ways of initiating a financial
management system. One is to do it
yourself and there are plenty of aids
to help you. The A.I.A., through
several of its publications and seminars,
is the best place to start. This approach
usually takes the longest, takes the
most dedication, and the most money.
This approach often results in
reinventing many wheels but
sometimes results in a deeper
understanding.
The quicker and usually cheaper
approach is to obtain someone who
specializes in this field and get their


"A positive approach must
be taken in controlling the
financial portion of office
practice."


help. Unfortunately many CPAs do not
understand what we do and
consequently have a very difficult
time helping in many areas. Don't fire
your CPA, just be sure you have him
doing the right thing. (After three
years of constant struggle our CPA
has finally taught me a little about
accounting and I think I have taught
him a little about the practice of
architecture; however, neither of us
are sure of this from time to time.)
A snare in which it is easy to fall


16 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977





is to think that you can get a system
started and then turn it completely
over to a key secretary. One of the
principals in the firm has to assume
the responsibility of being in charge of
monitoring the financial gauges and
indicators which have been initiated.
Possibly one of the better methods
overall to handle this in a small to
medium-sized firm is to have a
secretary designated as the financial
secretary along with other duties and
let it be her responsibility to prepare
the necessary reports, gather the data
required and act as the liaison between
your CPA, your bank, your computer
service, your savings depository, etc.
The financial secretary will take care
of the daily work required; however,
the principal in charge of finance must
evaluate the information made
available and put it in a form that he
can use himself, communicate it to
other principals in the firm, or to a
board of directors. He must then
follow through to see that financial
decisions are timely made and that
they are carried out. If he does an
adequate job, he will find a ready ear
from his other associates to listen to
the information which will be
presented. The main point here being
that the system once installed needs
to be operated or otherwise no
benefit will be derived.
There are many residual benefits
which follow from having a good grasp
on your financial operations. One of
these is that you may find a trend in
your practice which indicates what
kind of job or what size project is
usually a loser for the firm. You may
even get to the point that you would
consider turning down a commission.
Sounds like total heresy I know, but
it is absolutely amazing what you will
find out about yourself and your
firm. On the other hand, you will
know on which type project you
historically do the best and you can
make an extra effort to land these
commissions. You will know how
much time in relation to your total
effort you should spend in trying to
obtain work or in indirect time in
general. One of the better by-products
of knowing your financial situation is
that you will be able to use some of
the new information and techniques
being published by the A.I.A. on
setting your compensation and
negotiating fees. The Cost Based
Compensation System is one good
example. You may also find a better
and easier way to do some of the
routine tasks you now perform such
as the payroll, billing, collections, etc.
Have you ever said: "I just didn't
know how bad off I was until ... ? "
I imagine good pilots have said this


when they get to the point of feeling
comfortable looking at all those
weird dials and gauges and know
what these indicators mean and what
should be done based on what they
are reading in order to get to the
destination. It must be a nice feeling
to plan your course, monitor your
progress and then break out of the
clouds headed right down the runway.
One thing I feel for sure that this
isn't done by intuition or by the
"seat-of-your-pants". The financial
management of your firm should not
be any different. *


Illustrated is the "profit-goal" chart for
1976 for Flyright Architects, Inc., A.I.A.
This is one of the indicators they review
monthly to be sure they are on course. This
chart shows the minimum profit goal on the
bottom solid line. Their desired profit goal
is the top solid line. The dashed line is their
actual progress. (The total of their billings to
date). The amount they billed monthly
without including any past due accounts
receivable is shown across the bottom.
The desired and minimum profit (you
know you have to make a profit to stay in
business) is taken from their yearly budget
and profit plan. To meet expenses which
must be paid out of profits, 10% of their
total billings must be profit. This establishes
their minimum profit goal. Their desired goal
is 20%. This is the amount of profit they try
to budget on each job. The respective total
yearly budgets for minimum and desired
profit; therefore, were $300,000. ($25,000./
mo. x 12) and $337,500. ($28,125./mo. x
12). In April, they increased their staff
which changed the required billings per
month to the amounts shown. This also
changed their yearly goals to $324,000.

FLYRIGHT ARCHITECTS, INC., A.I.A.
GROSS
FEES
an Fb. Ma. Apr May ]un
$400,00.





$300,000











(100,0W.



--

CURRENT 4 4 a, a,
MONTHS S S S 8 a,
BILLINGS a


minimum ($25,000./mo. x 4 plus $28,000./
mo. x 8) and $364,500. desired ($28,125.
x 4 plus $31,500./mo. x 8).
You can easily follow their progress
through the year. They started off a little
rough, but got caught up in March. (The
trick is to keep the dashed line between the
solid lines). They fell behind again until
July. Things went well until the bottom
must have fallen out in September and
October, but then pulled it up to finish
with some excess profits at the end of the
year $11,700. to be exact ($335,700.
less $324,000.).
Now that they have accomplished the
terrific feat of coming out on course and
clearly seeing the runway, all they have to
do is land, i.e., collect what they have
earned. The collection of that final profit
should not be too difficult if they billed
monthly all year like they should and
followed up on their past-due accounts.
Flyright Architects, as well as this
author's firm, find this a very useful tool
and indicator. It's easy to understand,
construct, update and monitor. It may serve
your firm well in the up-coming year.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /17






From the

State Board

Business Organization Alternatives
for the Practice of Architecture
in Florida











The requirements for establishment of
a business entity for the practice of
architecture in Florida are controlled by
general laws pertaining to business
organizations and by Chapter 467,
Florida Statutes pertaining to
architects, particularly Section 467.19
authorizing the practice of architecture
by corporations and partnerships. The
statute is supplemented by the rules
of the Florida State Board of
Architecture, particularly Chapter
2 1B-7 "Application by Partnerships
or Corporations for Certificate of
Authorization" and 21 B-9 -
"Requirements in Practice".
The following is intended as a brief
outline of the alternative business
organizations authorized to practice
architecture in Florida; (References
are to Rules of the FSBA).
1. SOLE PROPRIETOR. An
architect registered in Florida may
practice as a sole practitioner. He must
practice in his own name and may not
use a fictitious name (21 B-9.07). The
Board is presently adopting a new rule
which will require individual architects
to use the word "architect",
"architecture", or "architectural"
whenever the architect's business
name is used or displayed to clearly
indicate that he engages in the practice
of architecture. Such an individual
may employ other registered architects
or draftsmen and if he does so, may
use with his own name the word
"associates". The use of the word
"associates" where no actual
associates exists could be construed as
a violation of the Board's rule against
exaggerating, misleading, or false
publicity. (21B-9.04b)
2. PARTNERSHIP. A partnership
in Florida is an association of two or
more persons to carry on a business
for profit as co-owners by agreement
between themselves subject to the
provisions of Chapter 620, Part III,
Florida Statutes. A partnership may


practice architecture in Florida if it
has first obtained a Certificate of
Authorization to do so. At least one
of the partners must be a registered
architect in Florida and all of the
partners must be architects,
professional engineers, or landscape
architects registered in Florida. (21 B-
7.06). Therefore, a corporation,
another partnership, or a professional
who is not registered in the State of
Florida cannot become a partner in a
partnership which is authorized to
practice architecture in this state. A
partnership name must include the last
name of a partner who is a registered
architect in Florida and must otherwise
be approved by the Board as to its
professional dignity, appropriateness,
or tendency to deceive and confuse
the public. (21B-7.10) The Board is
presently adopting an amendment to
the rule requiring that a partnership
name shall not be used or displayed
without the word or words
"architect", "architecture", or
"architectural", clearly indicating that
such partnership engages in the
practice of architecture. It should be
noted that a partnership whose offices
are outside of the State of Florida
can obtain a Certificate of
Authorization to practice in Florida
so long as all partners are registered in
Florida as required by the rule.
3. JOINT VENTURE. Joint
Ventures or associations between two
or more separate and independent
architects or firms which have
combined to furnish architectural
services for a particular project are
specifically exempted from the
requirement to obtain a Certificate of
Authorization for the practice of
architecture as a partnership or a
corporation. (21B-7.11) Such a Joint
Venture must otherwise comply with
the Board's rules, however. A Joint
Venture may be composed of any
combination of individuals,
corporations, or partnerships, at least
one of which is an architect registered
in Florida or a partnership or
corporation authorized to practice
architecture in Florida. All
architectural services offered or
rendered by or on behalf of the Joint
Venture must be performed by
members of the Joint Venture
registered or authorized to practice
architecture in Florida. Any
continued or repeated job. seeking or
performance by such a Joint Venture
beyond "a particular project" will be
construed as a partnership requiring a
Certificate of Authorization to practice
architecture in Florida as a partnership.
4. LIMITED PARTNERSHIP. A
limited partnership in Florida is a
partnership formed pursuant to


Chapter 620, Part I, Florida Statutes
composed of one or more general
partners and one or more limited
partners. A limited partnership from
another state, territory or country can
obtain a permit to transact
business in Florida pursuant to
Chapter 620, Part II, Florida Statutes.
The limited partnership is seldom, if
ever, used for the practice of
architecture in Florida. A limited
partnership would be required to obtain
a Certificate of Authorization to
practice architecture as a partnership.
At least one of the general partners
would be required to be registered to
practice architecture in Florida and all
of the general and limited partners
would be required to be registered
to practice architecture, professional
engineering, or landscape architecture
in Florida. (21B-7.06) A limited
partnership name must include the
last name of at least one partner who
is a registered architect in Florida
(21 B-7.10)
5. PROFESSIONAL SERVICE
CORPORATION. Chapter 621,
Florida Statutes provides for creation
of a professional service corporation.
That law requires that all shareholders
be registered to practice architecture
in Florida. The name of a professional
service corporation must contain the
last name of one or more of the
shareholders and the word
"chartered", "professional
association", or the abbreviation
"P.A." Therefore, a professional
service corporation for the practice of
architecture could not include as
stockholders professional engineers or
landscape architects. Such an
organization would otherwise be
required to meet the requirements of
the State Board of Architecture and
obtain a Certificate of Authorization
to practice architecture as if it were a
corporation.
6. CORPORATION. A general
corporation may be organized in
Florida pursuant to Chapter 608,
Florida Statutes, or a corporation
incorporated in any other state,
territory, or country may obtain a
permit to transact business in the
State of Florida pursuant to Chapter
613, Florida Statutes. Any such
corporation may offer or engage in
the practice of architecture in Florida
upon receipt of a certificate of
authorization from the Florida State
Board of Architecture. To qualify for
a certificate, one or more of the
principal officers and all personnel of
such corporation who may act in its
behalf as architects in Florida must
be registered architects in Florida.
The corporation must disclose the
Continued, Page 22


18 /THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977












In the South Beach area there still
exists today a wealth of undisturbed
examples of 1930's design.

Miami Beach:

Resort Style

Moderne
By Arlene Olson


Arlene Olson is presently an Assistant Pro-
fessor of Art History at the University of
Miami, a position she has held for four years.
She holds a Ph.D. in History of American
Art and Architecture from Case Western
Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio.


The frantic revival of the Style
Moderne-Art Deco and Streamlined-
has been with us for more than
fifteen years. Mercifully what began as
campy nostalgia has metamorphosed
into a serious study. Books and
articles on these modernistic styles
which grew up between the two world
wars (1920-1940) abound. Generally
the reevaluation that follows this
attention poignantly points out what
has been lost in the interval of
neglect. Fortunately for us in Miami,
this is not the case. The southern-
most tip of Miami Beach-known as
South Beach-remains much the same
today as it did in the 1930's when the
area was first developed. Since the
1950's, the building boom of the
Beach has moved geographically north,
beginning where South Beach ends.
Hence, South Beach is something of
a rarity as it is a relatively unaltered
community from one period in time.
The concrete constructions; hotels,
apartment houses, theaters and
commercial buildings are intrigingly
fine examples of modernistic design.
South Beach is painted in bright
sun-drenched resort colors: white,
green, orange and a whole array of
pastels. The facades sport decorative
motifs which have now become well
known icons for the spirit of their
day: rounded corners, zig-zag step
backs, sunbursts and geometric floral
patterns.
Miami Beach is a relative youngster
as U.S. cities go. It was incorporated as
a city in 1915. The first developers,
Carl Fisher, J.N. Lummus and John
Collins envisioned the paradise island
as an Atlantic City of the south. The
original scheme was to sell plots of
land for private residences. Luxury
hotels like Fisher's Nautilus or
Flamingo were built only on the bay
side of the island, thereby leaving the
ocean frontage free for bathing and
recreation. The hurricane of 1926 and
the great depression was to change
all of this.
Before the crash, Miami Beach had
been sparcely inhabited as a relatively
exclusive domain of the well-to-do
crowd. In the 1920's there were no
more than a hand full of hotels for
less than 30,000 winter tourists.


Fisher spent lavishly on his structures.
The construction cost alone for his
Flamingo was over one million dollars.
But the indulgent, reckless days of
the jazzy 20's gave way to a more
down to earth, sensible economy of
the 30's. The subdued decade of the
recovery produced for South Beach
and its newly arrived middle-class
society simpler, less costly buildings.
It was well in keeping with the subtle
pace of the swing era.
Recovery from the crash came to
South Beach around 1933-5, and with
it came a fevered pitch of speculation
and building. By 1937 there were 176
hotels on South Beach and just three
short years later there were 276
hotels for over 300,000 visitors.
Regretably there was little guidance
for urban or environmental planning.
The first of any type of zoning
ordinance came in 1933 but it was
minimal at best. The law only
demanded a 5' set-back for buildings.
Ocean frontage became free booty and
the result, as we can see today,
produced a serious cluttering with
little more than 10' separation
between structures. The major
concentration of public buildings-
hotels and apartment houses-line
Collins Avenue and Ocean Drive from
First Street to several blocks north
of Lincoln Road.
In keeping with the age and cost
limitations, the constructions and
layouts of the buildings on South
Beach were functional and to the
point, rather than innovative or
inventive. Generally the materials used
in construction were concrete block
and stucco keeping rent down to $5-7
a day per room. Most hotels had
adequate though not lavish lobbies.
Central corridors ran the length of the
building with rooms, or the even more
popular pullman flats, which ran
laterally off the hallway. The majority
of the hotels and apartment houses
were modest in size, three or four
stories, with a few rising seven stories
or more (the 1933 zoning law set a
height limit at 166'). It was the
facades in almost every case which
received the lion's share of attention
and that which we today find so
appealing.
The architectural style of South
Beach was clearly a part of a wide
spread national movement. The Style
Moderne is an umbrella term of which
Art Deco (1920's) and Streamlined
(1930's) were subdivisions. The
Streamlined, unlike Deco, did not
have lavish over-decoration,
extravagant colorism or rampant
eclecticism. The word Streamlined
was borrowed from the sciences of )


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 /19







Miami Beach Moderne
The Tudor Hotel
L. Murray Dixon, 1939
In typical Streamlined fashion,
this structure wraps around the
corner of the Avenue. The Buck
Rodger's rocket needle soars high
above the building, giving an il-
lusion of verticality to another-
wise horizontal structure.





'L

r e







Palmer House
L. Murray Dixon, 1939
One of several hotels by Dixon
along Collins Avenue, this hotel is
painted in a creamy beige and ac-
cented with green details. Popular
motifs of the period are the
stipes, modified ziggurate finial,
and sunbursts along the upper
edge of the building.


-U r-


Lr;IS


ISO


I -~wss

BI^^R -- -~- *-'---
The Carlyle Hotel
Kiehnell and Elliot, 1941
The organic feeling ever present in
the Streamlined style is well illus-
trated here. The flat facade un-
dulates and wraps around the
entire structure, creating an effect
of continuous motion. The hori-
zontality of the extending win-
dow ledges is balanced by the
pronounced, tripartite facade
which reaches up in a strong ver-
ticle thrust above the body of the
building.


The Century Hotel
Henry Hohauser, 1939
A maritime theme is used on this
small scale, two storied building.
The "ship's mast" is a striped pole
symetrically placed in the center
of the facade. The "portholes"
are opened on the guard rail in
the front porch but deceitfully
filled in on the upper portion of
the hotel. Note the three little
stripes on the upper corners of
the building. What we might call
"racing stripes" today were a very
popular motif in the 1930's and
can be spotted on many hotels on
South Beach.


20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977












uS`
-V~


Pr U


The Shepley Hotel
Henry Hohauser, 1938
The Neron Hotel
Henry Hohauser, 1940
The Berkley Shore
Albert Anis, 1940
These hotels are particularly nice
if not typical of the smaller hotels
on South Beach. They all feature
symetrically balanced facades,
modified step back patterns, and
rich ornamental details.


- W'1RC


hydro and aero-dynamics implying
speed, efficiency and functionalism.
As the facades on South Beach
demonstrate, this style was
characterized by reductive design,
light smooth surfaces, rounded edges
and spare, geometric patterns. The
Tutor Hotel bends gracefully around
the corner of 11th Street and Collins
as does the Essex Hotel on 10th
Street and Collins. The sides of the
Carlyle wrap around to the front of
the hotel creating a counterpoise to
the emphatically stated horizontal and
vertical facade. In each case, the
rounded contours achieve an effect of
unbroken continuous motion.
The Streamlined style of the 1930's
was unashamedly optimistic about the
future and it hitched itself to the
machine as the ultimate symbol of
progress and change. Motifs which
suggested movement and dynamism
became the talismanic stamp of the
age. The Tudor Hotel's finial is
finished off with a Buck Rodger's
rocket needle-curiously like that on
the top of the Empire State Building.
The Century Hotel sports a nautical
look replete with a ship's mast and
port-holes. Machine made materials;
chrome, bakelite, vitrolite and plastics
became universally employed as
symbols of the new era. Interiors of
many hotels which have escaped
extensive renovation still exemplify
the love which embraced these
shimmering, reflective materials.
Large plate glass windows etched in
Floridiana-palm trees and
flamingos-can still be found on the
Shepley, Breakwater, Senator and
Primrose Hotels.
The Style Moderne grew up
simultaneously with the better known
International Style or Bauhaus. In
theory and philosophy they both drew
from many of the same ideas: to
develop a style which was up to date

"The architectural style of South
Beach in the 30's was a part of
a national movement."

with the 20th century, to be reflective
of the machine age and above all to be
functional. But the similarity ends
here. The International Style was
ruthlessly severe, adamantly austere,
and strictly denied all ornamentation.
The Style Moderne, on the other hand,
clung to the human touch and scale. It
excelled in decorative details and
coloristic motifs. This style may just
be our last link with our romantic past.
One of the more appealing aspects
of the Style Moderne was its sheer
versatility. It adapted itself to chic,


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 / 21


rich materials just as readily as it
could be scaled down to inexpensive,
mass produced products. The style
was as well suited to automobiles
and airplanes as it was to toasters and
ladies compacts. In architecture, one
finds the style applied to projects grand
and small; from skyscrapers to the
modest offerings on South Beach. All
are equally satisfying. The designers
and architects who lent their hand to
the definition of the style ranged
from internationally known
personalities to those of local
reputation.
Regrettably, little is known about
the architects of the South Beach
area. Several names do stand out.
L. Murray Dixon, AIA., Henry
Hohauser, AIA., and Albert Anis were
local residents of South Beach and
were frequent contributors as
architects. Hohauser had an active firm.
Between 1936 and 1940, he designed
more than a dozen structures which
are still standing today; the Century
Hotel, The Essex Hotel, the New
Yorker Hotel, the Greystone Hotel,
the Shepley Hotel and Hoffman's
Cafeteria, to name just a few. Dixon
was equally as prolific. From 1939-
1940, he produced the Tiffany Hotel,
the Tutor Hotel, the Senator Hotel,
the McAlpin Hotel, the Kent Hotel,
the Ritz Plaza Hotel, and others.
Due to length and space, this
article has been limited to mostly the
hotels on South Beach. But the area
is equally rich in other types of
buildings which well exemplify the
style of the 1930's. The commercial
edifices along Lincoln Road were
designed and put up during this
period-Burdine's opened in 1937. The
U.S. Post Office on Washington
Avenue opened in 1939 and has
recently been reproduced in at least
one major publication and called by
that author a fine example of the
"Depression Modern" style.
One thing remains clear, the
architecture of South Beach was well
in step with the rest of the country.
The city may have a short history but
it soon caught up in population as well
as style. It is true that much that was
built in this area was never meant to
be grand or elegant design.
Unfortunately many buildings have
fallen on hard times. Years of neglect
are seen by the peeling paint and the
decaying stucco. The wheels of urban
renewal are spinning. Preservation is a
costly and complicated issue, not to be
dealt with lightly. Regrettably, much
is deemed expendable by the want of
assessment. Certainly South Beach
is worthy of closer inspection, further
research and fuller recognition.






FAPAC Contributors
The following is a listing of those
individuals and firms who have
contributed to the Florida Architects
Political Action Committee from 1975
through January 1977:


1975
C. Robert Abele
James Anstis
Barrett, Daffin & Figg
Ernest T. H. Bowen
William G. Crawford
James Garland
Carl Gerken
Edward G. Grafton
John Dragash
Mays Leroy Gray
Greenleaf/Telesca
Mark Hampton
James M. Hartley
Marshal & MacNeill
McCall & Lynch
Richard Morris
William S. Morrison
Alfred Browning Parker
Ricks/Kendrick/Stokes/David
Harold Seckinger
Hilliard Smith
Nils Schweizer
Francis Walton
Donald V. Young

1976
AE Production
Howard Bochiardy
Robert Boerema
A. Oru Bose
William W. Brame
Ellis Bullock
Arnold Butt
Philip Clark
Harry Denyes
William Dorsky
John Dragash
J. Vance Duncan
Fasnacht & Schultz
Fleischman/Garcia
Robert E. Forsythe
Irbye Giddens
Albert G6mez
Raymond W. Graham
Greening & Sayers
Greenleaf/Telesca
Mark Hampton
James B. Holliday
Roger Humphreys
Allen Isaac
Jerome Jeffers
R. W. Kenworth
Leff & Alexander
Richard Levine
Marshall & MacNeill
Lester N. May
Robert McMahon
Claus Moberg
Jack Moore
Clack C. Nelms
Wendell Orr
Fred G. Owles
Roger A. Paulzzi
Alfred B. Parker
Miles A. Price, Jr.
John H. Rogers
Russell & Wooster
Ed Saar
Don Sackman
John J. Schlitt
Harold Seckinger
Frank J. Sindelar
Roy D. Smith
Craig Thorn
Kenneth Treister
F. Louis Wolfe


JANUARY 1977
Dwight Baber
Ellis Bullock
Harry Burns
Clements/Rumpel
William Cox
Al Dompe
Robert E. Forsythe
Gary Frick
William Greening
James Hartley
Robert Isaacs
Richard M. Jones
C. Conrad Kenerson
Thomas Kruempelstaeder
Steve Little
John Marion
Claus R. Moberg
Murphy, Hunton, Shivers & Brady
Henry Nichols
Joseph Paluga
Raymond Poynter
Edward Saar
Joe W. Sayers
Severud, Knight, Boerema, Buff
Larry W. Sibley
Robert D. Vodicka
Kenneth Woolf
Emilio Zeller


FAPAC BAROMETER

The 1976 Convention approved a
resolution affirming continued support
of the Florida Architects Political
Action Committee and calling for a
contribution goal of $10,000 over the
next two years. Each issue THE
FLORIDA ARCHITECT will show
progress in attaining this goal.
Have you contributed?

S$10,000


9,000

8,000

S 7,000

6,000

5,000

4,000


3,000

2,000

1,500


FSBA, Continued from page 18
names and addresses of all of its
officers and directors, the number of
shares of stock issued and, except in
the case of publicly held corporations,
the names and addresses of the owners
and the number of shares owned by
each. (21 B-7.04) Control and
coordination of architectural direction
and production for Florida projects
must be exercised only through
architects registered in Florida who
are officers or employees of the
corporation. (21B-7.05) Stock of the
corporation may be owned by any
person, partnership, other corporation,
or combination of these. (21 B-7.04) A
corporation may have any name subject
to Board approval as to its professional
dignity, appropriateness, or tendency
to deceive and confuse the public.
(21 B-7.10) The Board is presently
adopting an amendment to the rule
requiring a corporate name to include
the word or words "architect",
"architecture", or "architectural".
7. CONSULTANTS. A registered
architect on a project may employ a
consultant for any type of service.
The consultant need not be a
registered architect in Florida and can
be an individual, partnership, or
corporation. Where consultants
are utilized the title and name of the
consultant or consultants must be
subordinated to the name and title of
the architect and the type of service
and location of the consultant's
principal office must be clearly shown.
(21 B-9.08)
8. BRANCH OFFICES. Any
individual, partnership, or corporation
registered or authorized to practice
architecture in the State of Florida
may open a branch office. Where
architectural services are performed in
such branch office located in the State
of Florida or outside of the State of
Florida for a project located in
Florida, there must be an architect
registered in Florida in charge of such
branch office, whose principal place
of business is such branch office, and
who exercises responsible supervising
control over all architectural services
performed in such branch office.
(21 B-9.09)
9. SUCCESSOR ARCHITECTS.
No architect shall sign or seal any
documents which were not prepared
by him or under his responsible
supervising control except that work
performed by an architect who
becomes deceased or is unable to
complete a particular project may be
reviewed, approved, or modified, and
adopted as his own work with full
responsibility as an architect for such
work by a successor architect, and


22 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977





completed, signed, and sealed by
such architect as his own work.
(21 B-9.10)
10. USE OF NAMES OF
RETIRED OR DECEASED
ARCHITECTS. The name of an
architect who is deceased, retired or
not actively engaged in the practice
of architecture shall not be used in
any way which would indicate that he
is in the practice of architecture.
Where the name of a retired or
deceased architect appears in the
corporate or partnership name of a
firm authorized to practice architecture
in Florida, or on a letterhead or on
professional documents, such retired or
deceased architect should be clearly
shown as being retired, deceased or in
a consulting capacity. (21 B-9.07)
I hope that this brief outline will .
be of assistance to architects evaluating
the most desirable business organization
for their practice. Further inquiries
should be addressed to Mr. Herbert
Coons, Jr., Executive Secretary, AMERICA'S MOST SENSIBLE ROOF
Florida State Board of Architecture, Economical Colorful Durable
2009 Apalachee Parkway, Tallahassee, Incombustible Easy to Install
Florida 32304, or myself. Prompt Delivery Nationwide
James C. Rinaman
Marks, Gray, Conroy & Gibbs
General Counsel
Florida State Board of Architecture
231 East Forsyth Street RO O F TILE
Jacksonville, Florida 32202 RO O F TILE
Positi s For further information, write to:
|Positions MONIER-RAYMOND CO., P.O. Box 5567, Orange, CA. 92666




DEAN: The College of Architecture,
University of Arizona, seeks Dean to assume
administrative responsibilities. Professional
registration expected; minimum of Master
of Architecture with teaching, administrative
and professional experience. Position open
after June, 1977. Send complete resume,
with references, to Professor Gordon Heck,
Chairman, Search Committee, College
of Architecture, University of Arizona,
Tucson, Arizona 85721, by March 15, 1977.
The University of Arizona is an Equal
Employment Opportunity/Affirmative
Action Employer, under Federal and State
Laws and Regulations, including Title IX,
1972 Education Amendments.


FACULTY POSITION: Begin September,
1977, 10 month appointment. Construction
processes influence on architectural design
and professional practice at undergraduate
and graduate levels. Masters degree and five
years practice experience required.
Associate Professor rank at competitive
salary level. Applications to Arnold Butt,
Chairman, Department of Architecture,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611. Equal Employment Opportunity/
Affirmative Action Employer.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 / 23







Broward County Chapter Awards










Architects Jamie Borrelli and Don Lee
of Miami were Jurors for this Chapter
Design Award Program


HONOR AWARD
Residence
ARCHITECT
Donald Singer

"Handsome solution with the use
of basic materials and uncom-
plicated architectural forms. Care-
ful siting and properly scaled
berms achieve great privacy with-
out the sacrifice of openness.
Good color and sense of playful-
ness characterize the interiors."


-9141111"b


HONORABLE MENTION
First Federal of Broward
ARCHITECTS:
William T. Vaughn &
Robert J. Wunsch

"A clean straight-forward solu-
tion, obviously a good neighbor."


HONORABLE MENTION
Addition to a Residence
ARCHITECT:
Daniel E. Adache

"An imaginative solution, achiev-
ing variety and excitement from
an otherwise non-descript existing
structure."


24 /THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977






Architectural Products


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FLA. Toll Free (800) 282-9583


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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977 / 25


9.23/Rop
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Rubber: Cove Base (1/8")
Stair Treads
Flooring Accessories
Distributed by:
Walton Wholesale Corp.
7110 NE 4th Court
Miami (305) 754-2518
Serving the trade in Southeast
Florida since 1957








Newslines
FSC Medallion Awarded

The Silver Medallion, highest honor given
by the Florida South Chapter, AIA, has
been awarded posthumously to Russell T.
Pancoast, FAIA. Pancoast was one of the
founders of the Florida South Chapter and
served on the Florida State Board of
Architecture. He retired from active
practice in 1967 and died in 1972. The
Medallion was presented to his widow, Kay,
at the Chapter's Annual Installation Banquet.

Lewis Recognized
Architect Thomas E. Lewis, Jr. of Lewis &
Burke Associates, Inc., Orlando, has been
recognized by ENGINEERING NEWS
RECORD for making one of the top 30
achievements of significance to the
construction industry in 1976. Lewis,
along with Consulting Engineer Sidney A.
Silver, was recognized for work on the
Florida State Regional Service Center in
Orlando, one of the first buildings designed
under the state energy conservation law.
The 9 story building bettered state energy
use requirements by 21% and was bid 20%
under the architectural estimates.



-A


Federal Courts Facility
Now under construction in Ft. Lauderdale
is the new United States Federal Courts
and Office Building, designed by William
Morgan Architects of Jacksonville. The
structural frame consists of a series of
concrete "tree" columns giving support to
floor and roof slabs. The rectangular
building is open in the center to a series of
multi-level roof top terraces whose staggered
configuration and landscaping will be a
focus for interior spaces.

ANNOUNCEMENT

Emory University School of Medicine,
Department of Rehabilitation
Medicine, and the Emory University
Regional Rehabilitation Research and
Training Center, announce a course,
"Barrier-Free Design: The Best
Man-Made Environment", to be held
Thursday and Friday, April 21-22,
1977. Course Director is Frances A.
Curtiss, M.Ed., Administrator of the
Department and of the Research and
Training Center. Limit of enrollment
is 75 and tuition is $35. Make checks
payable to Emory University and send
to Mrs. Ethel Warner, 108 Woodruff
Medical Administration Building,
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
30322.


New Members
The following are new Corporate members
of the FAAIA for the period July 1976 to
January 1977:

BROWARD COUNTY
Richard E. Burnette
Robert J. Wunsch

FLORIDA CENTRAL
R. John Clees
Frank M. Henderson (reinstated)
Graydon Howe
Edward Lunz
Gene Leedy
FLORIDA GULF COAST
John Bodziak
Harold H. Hoskins
Laurance H. Poinier
Michael Ritter

FLORIDA NORTH
Mark T. Jaroszewicz
Murray R. Tuckerman
Frederick Lee Vyverberg
Robert W. White

FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL
Daniel Donovan
Edward Hill
William Luger
Douglas E. Schmitt

FLORIDA NORTHWEST
Donald Acton
Carl Evans

FLORIDA SOUTH
Roger A. Bass
Willy Bermello
Brian Canin
William Cox
Walter Daly
Arthur W. Dearborn
Leonard DiSilvestro (reinstated)
Boris Dramov
Hedvika Meszaros
Manuel P6rez Vichot

JACKSONVILLE
John J. Brennan
MID FLORIDA
Richard Awsumb
Charles S. Braun
Leonard Davis
John Dickerson
Delbert B. Ward
E. Kayden Wood
PALM BEACH
John W. Calmes
Timothy Hoffman
William Romberger
Lawrence W. Smith


Letter

EDITOR:
An architect friend gave me his copy
of Volume 26, Number 6, November/
December, 1976, "The Florida
Architect". The cover is a beautiful
picture of our home, The Grove.
Could you send me six copies of this
issue. I know our children would like
to have one.
Sincerely,
LeRoy Collins


Advertisers
3
AIA Documents

25
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2nd Cover
Cabot's Stains
3rd Cover
Dunan Brick Yards, Inc.
23
Monier-Raymond Company
26
New England Divers, Inc.
4
PPG Industries

6
Southern Bell

23
Kurt Waldmann
Architectural Photography


26 /IHE FLORIDA ARCHITECT JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1977








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Why Not AIA?

Given today's practice climate if AIA didn't already exist,
it would have to be organized

* The architect no longer practices as a lone individual.
Political and economic influences affecting practice call
for a voice of professional unity AIA SPEAKS.

* No individual can pay the cost of development of contract
documents, nor can any individual afford the price of
writing their own AIA CAN.

* No individual can spend the necessary time in the halls of
government seeking support of professional interests,
nor can his voice carry the weight of numbers AIA ACTS.

* The individual architect cannot advertise, yet the professional
organization can on a broad scale, as well as formulating
other award and recognition programs, keeping the
profession in the public eye AIA DOES.

Collective numbers and dollars are capable of achieving
significantly more than individual actions.


IF NOT AIA THEN WHAT?