Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Ambulatory centre
 AIA Grassroots '76
 Can you put a price on good...
 Bellamy elementary school
 Accessibility: A cost versus need...
 Value of AIA membership
 News, people, and letters
 Concrete structure awards
 AIA membership
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00223
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: January-February 1976
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00223
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Ambulatory centre
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    AIA Grassroots '76
        Page 10
    Can you put a price on good judgement?
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Bellamy elementary school
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Accessibility: A cost versus need dilemma
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Value of AIA membership
        Page 18
    News, people, and letters
        Page 19
    Concrete structure awards
        Page 20
    AIA membership
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

SJanuary/February 1976
S Ambulatory Centre
AIA Grassroots '76
Competitive Bidding for Services
Bellamy Elementary School
SValue.of AIA Membership


Journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects


- *

In. 1

* *


"A. .-.

4* ;>.



r I r i


-c- .._ _v

0J -- ,s:
/,5 r c ^ -- .
,- ".;O %, .i l/ "-7-- ... .. .

Treated with Cabot Products

Bring Out the Best in Wood ..

Cabot's STAINS

On land or sea... even the restoration of the For exteriors: Cabot's Stains, available in 87
U.S.S. Constitution relied on Cabot products unique colors, are suitable for all types of
for natural historic beauty. Cabot's Stains bring lumber and all wood surfaces. Stains offer a
out the best in wood, enhance the grain and unique combination of beauty, economy, and
texture, preserve the natural beauty of wood. protection for shingles, siding, clapboards,
paneling, decking, and fencing. A stained sur-
face will not crack, peel or blister.

For interiors: Cabot's Stain Wax combines the
soft penetrating color of a stain with a satin-
soft lustre of a wax. It stains, waxes, and seals
in one application. Available in 14 pleasing
colors plus ebony, white, and natural. Suitable
for all interior paneling, beams, timbers, wood-
work, and floors.

Cabot's Stains, the Original Stains and Standard for the Nation since 1877.
For color cards and further information, contact the following Cabot distributors:

2503 Coral Way, Miami, Fla. 33134

715 25th St., West Palm Beach, Fla. 33041


C1-_. _ ----
- ~-~I


-lorida Association of the
\merican Institute of Architects
directorss of Florida Region
ierbert R. Savage, AIA
S .O. Box 280
3 /vliami, Florida 33145
305) 854-1414
.-rank R. Mudano, AIA
.189 N.E. Cleveland Street
'learwater, Florida 33515
:813) 446-1041
S'xecutive Director
Fotis N. Karousatos, Hon. AIA
7100 N. Kendall Drive, Suite 203
Miami, Florida 33156
(305) 661-8947
General Counsel
( Branch Office)
j. Michael Huey, Attorney at Law
1020 E. Lafayette, Suite 110
Sallahassee, Florida 32303
;904) 878-4191
FAAIA Officers for 1976
-Nils M. Schweizer, FAIA, President
P.O. Box 1120
Winter Park, Florida 32789
(305) 647-4814
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., AIA, Vice President/
President Designate
1823 North Ninth Avenue
Pensacola, Florida 32503
(904) 434-5445
Carl Gerken, AIA, Secretary
P.O. Box 1431
Daytona Beach, Florida 32015
(904) 255-5471
James A. Greene, AIA, Treasurer
P.O. Box 22889
Tampa, Florida 33622
(813) 872-8407
FAAIA Board of Directors for 1976
James H. Anstis
Bruce Balk
John McKim Barley, II
Howard B. Bochiardy
William W. Brainard
Glenn A. Buff
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr.
Ishmael A. Byus
John W. Dyal
Bill G. Eppes
Norman M. Giller
Robert G. Graf
Raymond W. Graham
Carl O. Gutmann, Jr.
John Hobart
Jerome A. James
Charles E. King, FAIA
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Emily Obst
Mark H. Ramaeker
Richard T. Reep
Henry A. Riccio
Roy L. Ricks
Michael Ritter
Ed Saar
Newton L. Sayers
Ludwig Spiessl
Frank A. Vellake
Francis R. Walton, FAIA
The Florida Architect
Publications Committee
Lester C. Pancoast
Charles H. Pawley
Richard Schuster
Donald I. Singer
Fotis N. Karousatos/Publisher
John W. Totty/Editor
Kurt Waldmann/Photography

Coming in
The Florida Architect
for March/April

A comprehensive roundup
of current applications
of energy conservation
principles in Florida

Any firms or individuals with
work in these or other areas
of energy design are invited
to submit material for review
and possible publication.

Write or call:
Editor: The Florida Architect
7100 N. Kendall Drive, Suite 203
Miami, Florida 33156

Architectural photography
of significant buildings
on a speculative basis for
possible publication in
leading architectural journals


i o


^ L
^ ^


p i il S
qe- i
^- ^^ '

*' II ;v





p 3,



Miller Associates
2605 NW 75th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33122
(305) 592-6440








* Supplies demineralized and
high purity water, reclaims
waste water.
* Desalinates salt water.
* Removes common organic
* Built-in safety devices pro-
tect high pressure pumps and
* Engineering assistance

....'... .....i;.. .."
JlJ hIl i_ L ': ' :"

"It is time we told the nation that our industry is here
to stay, and that we will still be the major supplier
of energy to homes and businesses 25 years from now."
Wilber H. Mack, Chairman of the Interstate
Natural Gas Association of America, made this
statement at I.N.G.A.A.'s recent annual convention
in Denver, Colorado.
Well said, Mr. Mack! Members of the Florida Natural
Gas Association wholeheartedly concur with your
optimistic attitude.
While the natural gas industry is over 150 years old
nationwide, it is a relative newcomer to Florida. Our
state's first natural gas system began operations in
1959. Yet in the span of just 17 years, the 34 members
of the EN.G.A. doing business within our state,
both municipal and corporate, have invested over
$735,000,000 in pipelines and mains, buildings
and property, service facilities and vehicles
... and, most importantly, people.

Obviously, this represents a major capital investment
in Florida's future. We feel it is a future filled with
the bold promise of a brighter tomorrow. A future
in which our industry will play an important role.
But what about today?
We're going to have enough natural gas to meet the
immediate needs of our residential and commercial
customers. And, as natural gas is deregulated and
well-head prices are permitted to seek a level at which
additional supplies of gas can again be developed and
produced, we will see an increase in drilling and
exploration. This will mean more gas for everyone.
It all boils down to this ... with the tremendous
investment we've already made in Florida, you can
rely on gas people throughout the state to
continue serving you with safe, economical,
dependable gas.

We're not going to let your pilot lights go out!

T LA w: ]*1" "** *"* ::"*N ;;;';*^ :
The!".. ".... h nAssociation
: 11 :r;,iiiii .;.;:: i:' : ;'.;:

David M. Lapham, President, PO. Box 610907 North Miami, Florida 33161

"'P, 51Z ...1
1iF- J 9

John W. Totty, AIA was named Editor
of The Florida Architect in January.
A native of Florida, he is a graduate of
the University of Florida holding a
Bachelor of Architecture degree. His
journalism experience began there as
Editor of the Seminole yearbook, a
position which earned membership in
Florida Blue Key leadership honorary.
John has fifteen years of varied
experience in a number of architectural
firms covering all phases of practice,
including work in research. In addition
to several years of individual practice,
he previously served seven years on
part time basis as Assistant Editor for
the magazine.

"A New Day" FAAIA President
Schweizer called these times in his
preconvention message on these pages.
A new one also for "The Florida
Architect" as a new editor-also an
architect- begins to seek new and
meaningful ways this magazine can best
serve the architectural profession in
As I see it, this journal is a
communication vehicle whose purpose
is to portray the many facets of
architecture from education, to design,
to office practice, to legislative matters.
We must portray these not only to
fellow professionals but most
importantly to the lay public who, all
too often, just doesn't understand what
it is the architect does-and what the
architect is capable of doing.
"The Florida Architect" is your
voice, the voice of AIA members who
practice architecture in Florida. Each
issue stands as a challenge to fill its
blank pages in a manner which will
help build this voice of the architect
into an effective presence in the affairs
of the State of Florida.
In order for the magazine to
adequately and appropriately reflect
your activities and concerns, I ask that
you continuously keep in touch by letter
by telephone or in person as I have an
opportunity to travel around the state.
Only with such support can our goals
be achieved.




S6 Ambulatory Centre of Miami
Architects Spencer & Richards of Coconut Grove plan for a new
medical center type

-. 10 AIA Grassroots '76
A brief overview of what chapter officers got at Florida and AIA
I Grassroots

6 11 Can You Put a Price on Good Judgement?
Why selection of professional services should never be made on
the basis of price

A l 13 Bellamy Elementary School
Architects Rowe Holmes Associates explain the planning
W process and rational of their award winning school

16 Accessibility: A Cost Versus Need Dilemma
13 Architect William Bigoney discusses the need to consider all
Handicapped in accessibility legislation

18 Value of AIA Membership
FAAIA Executive Director Fotis Karousatos outlines many of
the advantages derived from AIA

20 Concrete Structure Awards
14 Six buildings were winners in the 1975 Florida Concrete
16 Structures Awards

19 News
21 AIA Membership

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. It is published bi-monthly at the Executive Office of the
Association, 7100 N. Kendall Drive, Miami, Florida 33156. Telephone
(305) 661-8947. Opinions expressed by contributors are no necessarily
those of the Editor of the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted provided full credit is given to the author
and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to publisher's
office. Single Copies, 75 cents, subscription, $6.50 per year.
Controlled Circulation Postage Paid, Miami, Florida.

Cover: The portico gable of "Merrick Manor" in Coral Gables. The
mansion was completed in 1906 by Rev. Soloman Merrick from plans
drawn by his wife Mrs. Althea Fink Merrick. Its walls are coral rock
18 inches thick, quarried from what is now the Venetian Pool.
S The timbers and flooring are Dade County heart pine. The house,
which was the boyhood home of George Merrick, founder of Coral
Gables, has been acquired by the City for restoration and use as an
official Reception Center. Photo by Bill Diffenderfer.
For each issue of this year The Florida Architect will feature on its
cover a detail photograph or drawing of a building of historic interest
in the state. Submission of material for these covers is solicited.


Spencer & Richards, Architects of
the Ambulatory Centre, speak on
their Philosophy

"The 'people factor' makes the
difference in our work. It tends to be
non-heroic, non-monumental,
non-regimented." Bruce Spencer and
Bob Richards were verbailizing on their
approach to the practice of architecture.
In 32 years of practice as a small office
they have done few freestanding
building projects. Spencer & Richards
has maintained a general practice-as
much out of necessity as choice- with
most projects being related to housing,
education and medical building types.
How does one market services in this
situation? To do this, Spencer &
Richards have gone individually to
potential corporate and agency clients
offering a high quality of services,
stressing expertise, ability and
competency. They feel they are fairly
traditional in this respect and maintain
a highly professional approach. In
everyday work each is a generalist,
neither wanting to become specialized
in any one phase of practice, though
they often split office administration
tasks and public relations work. On an
individual basis each takes a project and
handles the entire range of required
architectural services, constantly
consulting with the other to maintain
office continuity. Returning to the
"people factor", Spencer & Richards
believe that each client has a very
specific problem and that their task as
architect is "problem solving". But
that is not the end. People carry
"images and dreams" with them and the
architect, to humanize buildings, must
touch on these going beyond mere
problem solving. Taking this step
involves looking closely at history, and
for Spencer & Richards, travel has been
a great influence. They try to feel the
"magic" of certain places they have
especially enjoyed and to analyze where
this magic comes from. What of the
future? "Of course, we would like get
larger projects to continue to broaden
the scope of our practice. Also we
would like to approach design in an
urban context-the design of people


Ambulatory Centre
A Facility in Miami points to new
directions in health care planning

The cost of running a household is
literally rising every day, and as the
statistics pour in there is little to be
optimistic about. A good portion
of those costs consists of providing
health care for our families. The
U.S. Department of Health Education
and Welfare tells us that "in 1974
we spent $104 billion dollars for health
care, which works out to $485 per year
for every man, woman and child in the
country." National health costs have
quadrupled since 1960 and have
increased ninefold since 1950, resulting
in a national reassessment of our health
care delivery system. The National
Health Planning and Resources
Development Act of 1974 provides the
basis for improvements and reforms
in our health care delivery system and
sets the stage for new directions in
health planning. One of the many
provisions of the Act includes
providing various forms of financial
assistance for the building of new
outpatient medical facilities.
The substantial increase in outpatient
visits to hospitals in the last 20 years
indicates that there are a great number
of procedures which no longer require
the traditional 2 3 day hospital stay.
Experts have estimated that 20% or
more of all surgery performed in
hospitals could be done on an outpatient
basis, possibly reducing hospital charges
by hundreds of millions of dollars a
year. Some doctors suggest that within
a few years, more than half of all
pediatric surgery can be done on an
outpatient basis.

One of the major innovations in
outpatient care has been in the
development of ambulatory surgical
units, which, while still embryonic in
development, seems to have the
potential of reducing national health
Capitalism, being what it is, has
spawned two basically different modes
of delivering this service, the first being
hospital affiliated day surgery units,
with its variations, and the second being
the totally freestanding, independent
surgical facility.
The basic premise of ambulatory
surgery as a means of economizing
health care is that major savings can be
passed on to the patient by eliminating
many of the "hotel expenses" such as
room, food, maid service and the high
overhead costs involved in maintaining
a 24 hour facility. Patients can realize
savings of 40 to 60 percent of the
cost of uncomplicated surgical
procedures through the elimination of
these expenses. Freestanding facilities
are usually able to offer the greatest
savings simply because they are compact,
efficient and do not have to underwrite
the financial losses of some of the more
complex surgical procedures often
performed in a life or death situation.
In addition, freestanding facilities are
able to eliminate many unnecessary
tests and procedures that still remain as
"policy" in many hospitals. While
hospital affiliated facilities tend to have
their standards controlled by State
licensing regulations, independently
operated facilities are generally self

policing, and quality of care can vary.
Federal and state guidelines are
forthcoming for freestanding facilities
and in the meantime peer review and
other safeguards have resulted in quality
of care that, in most cases, equals that
of hospitals and in some ways is superior.
Since the advent of ambulatory
surgery as a potential contributor to
reducing health care costs, there has
been considerable disagreement as to
whether the hospital based day surgery
unit, or the totally freestanding
outpatient facility, best serves the
"consumer". The most critical issue
seems to focus on the fact that
freestanding facilities can reduce or
increase health costs to any given
community, depending on the structure
of health care services in that
community, and basically whether or
not the existing facilities are being used
to their capacity. This, of course, is an
oversimplification of the issue but it
does point to the need for management
in health planning. The lack of rigid
guidelines, notwithstanding, a number
of facilities have been built, mostly
through diligence, patience and the
scrutiny of a variety of councils, boards,
departments and agencies. Among these
facilities is the Ambulatory Centre of
Miami, a totally freestanding, outpatient
surgical facility located in an existing
professional complex in the south part
of Dade County.
The Ambulatory Centre of Miami
occupies 14,500 square feet, the entire
first floor of an existing two story
building and contains four operating

rooms, separate waiting, holding and
recovery rooms for children and adults
and facilities for anesthesia, pathology
and radiology. Doctors, nurses and
orderlies have been provided with
separate lounges, locker rooms and
dressing areas. The Patient receiving
and admitting area consists of reception
area, separate waiting rooms for adults
and children, and patient interview
rooms; while the administrative area at
the north end of the building contains
executive offices, an employee lounge,
and space for clerical help in accounting
and insurance processing. The Centre
also contains conference rooms, various
medical supplies, storage, receiving and
decontamination spaces. The design of
the Ambulatory Centre is generated
primarily by the movement of the
patient to and from the O.R. suite and
the movement of supplies, equipment,
personnel and services that sustain and
comfort the patient along the way. An
equally significant determinant was
the existing building shell, consisting of
rather expansive floor to ceiling glass
areas alternating with a series of round
cornered masonry walls. While large
glass areas are generally considered a
liability to those wishing to perpetuate
the tomb-like institutionality of most
hospitals, the Ambulatory Centre
attempts to take advantage of all those
conditions which serve to
de-institutionalize the experience of
In most cases, perimeter glass areas
are assigned to the "people" domains
such as waiting, holding and recovery


1. Reception
2. Adult waiting
3. Children's waiting
4. Patient interview
5. Children's dressing
6. Adult dressing
7. Operating rooms
8. Children's recovery
9. Adult recovery
10. Medical staff
11. Administrative staff



areas for the patient and lounge and
office areas for the staff. Where it was
not possible to give exterior glass to a
space desiring it, interior glass walls
were provided as a means of borrowing
dimension in some areas, and color,
light, texture, etc. in others. Spaces for
storage, mechanical equipment, traffic
flow and surgery, where natural light is
either not required or desired, are
located at the interior of the facility or
along blank exterior walls.
Color and graphics also aid in
providing a much more humane image
than is usually the case in medical
facilities. A recent Hardy Holtzman
Pfeiffer article in Architectural Record
suggests that "long green tiled corridors
and polished metal surfaces have come
to symbolize hygiene and .. hospitals
are not in fact cleaner than airports,
banks or missile silos; they only look
cleaner." Color is used to intensify a
source of sunlight, to create an artificial
sunlight where none exists, to indicate
an abrupt change in direction or to
introduce the patient to the next series
of events. Directional graphics tell the
patient where he is or where he is going
while 8 foot high building block letters
and caricatures of clouds set the stage
for play or repose. Vinyl wall coverings
provide a wide range of colors which
are durable and easily maintained.
Natural wood, fabrics, plants and
artwork are used in reception, waiting
and administrative areas; together with
carpet, which is used extensively, the
exception being the O.R. suite, recovery
rooms and highly utilitarian areas. An



extremely flexible system of wall hung
modular units is used for the
transporting and storage of medical
supplies and equipment within patient
and staff areas, replacing fixed cabinetry,
shelving, and the endless array of supply
rooms usually found. Equipment and
supplies are thereby available where
needed, handling is kept to a minimum,
and storage containers can be
thoroughly sanitized at a central
The ultimate goal of any business, of
course, is to show a profit. Traditionally,
most clients have been concerned with
initial costs as opposed to long term
costs. The Ambulatory Centre is a case
where good business sense and quality
environment are not only compatible,
but appear to be symbionic.
Encouragement, confidence and comfort
play a major role in attracting patients,
surgeons and staff to a facility which
represents a new and unfamiliar
concept in health care. An initial
investment in quality materials,
equipment and services will ultimately
promote both patronage and the
reduction of overhead.
The concept of "in and out on the
same day" surgery is in itself
encouraging, in that the surgery is
usually elective and the recuperative
process takes place, for the most part,
in the familiar environ of ones own
home. In addition, the lack of red tape
and the amount of personal attention
received by the patient and family make
the Dr. Welby concept a bit more of a

While the Ambulatory Centre is not
a major tour de force in medical
facilities design, it is representative of a
new direction in health care. Hopefully,
the concept of outpatient health care,
and the recent tendency to scale down
medical facilities and make them more
responsive to specific community needs,
will point to the alternatives that are
and have been available in health
planning and design.

Robert F. Richards


1. Bobrow, Michael and Thomas, Julia,
"The Evolving Health Care System:
A Framework For Design." Architectural
Record, September 1975, 122-124.
2. Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer, "The Columbus
Occupational Health Center."
Architectural Record, October 1975,
3. Mann, George, "The Health Planning
Law: Crisis or Opportunity for
Architects?" Architectural Record,
September 1975, 110-111.
4. O'Donovan, Thomas, Ph.D. "The
Dynamics of Ambulatory Surgery."
Hospital Administration, Winter 1975,

Architect: Spencer & Richards
Engineer: H.J. Ross, Inc.
Interior Design: A 1 Group, Inc.
Contractor: F & R Builders, Inc.

Adult waiting Children's waiting

0b, & I 1


Ic _

Typical operating room

Children's recovery


AIA Grassroots '76
Spreading the word of AIA plans,
programs and practice aids for 1976

AIA Grassroots '76 was subtitled,
"What you see is what you get" and
what chapter and component officers
from all across the eastern U. S. got for
two days was a solid indoctrination
into what the AIA does for you-the
individual practitioner.
Florida Grassroots, attended by
representatives from all but one chapter,
was held for the second year in
Washington just prior to national
Grassroots, thus acquainting
participants with functions and
personnel of the Institute as well as
facilitating attendance at both meetings.
Capping off the occasion was the
second annual reception in honor of the
Florida Congressional Delegation
sponsored by the FAAIA at Florida
House. Attending this year, in addition
to conferees, were representatives of
Florida's congressional delegation,
General Service Administration officials,
officials from other government agencies,
as well as officers and staff of AIA. This
reception has rapidly become a vital
occasion for Florida architects, as well
as the Institute staff, to strengthen
personal relationships with decision
makers in government important to the
"AIA is not 'they'-it is all of us"
was a recurring theme expressed by
speaker after speaker emphasizing that
active participation in chapter affairs
pays dividends in personal and
professional growth.
Grassroots is a time of intense
participation-a give and take between
those attending and those presenting.
Ideas, suggestions, opinions were
solicited and offered on subjects as
varied as energy programs, revisions to
ethical standards, public relation
programs, dues and membership
categories, and many other individual

4 I

Gomez, Feito, Pancoast and Karousatos:
Grassroots offers many occasions for
informal discussions.

Florida Grassroots covered a number
of topics of interest to all members.

Legal Council
Mike Huey, Legal Council for
FAAIA, explained his work as General
Council and lobbyist for the
Association. He indicated such
restrictions are being placed on the
architectural profession that
participation in the legislative process
is an absolute necessity. The
Association is already monitoring 65
profiled bills and expects the 1976
legislative session to be a banner year in
the number of bills introduced of
concern to architects. In calling for
support of architects all across the state,
Mike reiterated that the average
legislator, like the public as a whole,
does not understand the range of
architectural services and compensation
for those services.

Compensation Management
FAAIA Treasurer, Jim Greene,
presented a slide show explaining the
AIA "Guidelines For Compensation
Management", a document which has
become a "best seller". Jim briefed
the officers present on the availability
of a mini-seminar workshop on this
vital subject. Chapters interested in
this should contact FAAIA
headquarters in Miami.

AIA Library
How many AIA members know the
tremendous resources available through
the library at AIA headquarters? A two
week loan service of all circulating
books is available and members and
chapters may borrow from a range of
audio-visual materials. Reference
requests will be answered as best as
possible, although the library isn't
equipped at present to undertake
extensive research. Call librarian
Susan Cosgrove (202-785-7294) or
write her at AIA headquarters for
further information.

James Greene, FAAIA Treasurer explaining
AIA's Compensation Guidelines Book.

AIA Research Corporation
John Eberhard, President of AIA
Research Corporation, presented a slide
show covering an extensive range of
projects both under way and proposed
in fields of solar energy, housing,
building processes, various guidelines
and others. He indicated that research
grants and funds reached a new high
last year and professional participation
has increased dramatically in this field
which offers many opportunities for
alternatives to traditional practice.

Ethical Standards
National Secretary, Hilliard Smith,
FAIA, from our own state, outlined
four ethical standards being considered
for modification. These four standards


are those dealing with advertising,
competitions, conflict of interest and
contingency compensation. First, the
consideration is to delete standard
number 12 which presently prohibits
offering services in a design competition
other than those approved by the AIA.
Regarding the other three-
"Professionalism as we know it, where
every man's unique service is to be sold
on the basis of its own value, is under
attack" stated Smith. Of grave concern
are questions relating to the relevancy
of the Standards in a time of changing
modes of practice. These questions
revolve around concepts of contracting,
design-build teams and advertising. In
addition, the rising dominance of
foreign practice brings forth serious
concerns involving bribery,
discrimination and consideration of just
where Institute Standards do apply.
This was a time of reaction. Further
discussion on these ethical Standards
will take place in May at the national
Chapter officers left AIA Grassroots
'76 with a "show-and-tell" slide show
package designed to present an overview
of tools and services which the national
Institute offers each individual member.
An additional copy is available for loan
from the Florida Association office
for any chapter which failed to receive
one. JWT

Hilliard Smith, FAIA speaking to the
Florida group on ethical standards.

I- L

Can You Put a Price
on Good Judgement?

Should an existing time-tested
successful Government system of
procuring architect/engineering
services, based primarily on
qualifications, be changed to one
essentially determined by price?

Congressional legislation, enacted as
P.L. 92-582, The Brooks Bill, reaffirmed
a long established, highly desirable
system of Government procurement of
architectural and engineering services.
Professionals who represent this
country's practicing architects and
engineers feel that the passage of
legislation serves to protect the interests
of the public by endorsing a practice
which has been in effect for decades,
and spells out a proven successful
method of procurement of architect-
engineering services.
The need for legislative clarification
and reaffirmation arose as a result of a
comprehensive review instituted by the
General Accounting Office of the
methods by which the Federal
Government contracted for
architect-engineering services. Primarily,
the Comptroller General's office
questioned the legality of the procedures
which had been followed by the
construction agencies (both on the
military and civilian side) in that, it was
claimed, there had not been effective
competition in the awarding of
contracts for such services. The General
Accounting Office's interpretation of
"competition" includes an emphasis
on "price", with a desired ultimate
system of "competitive bidding." They
currently use phraseology in describing
this system as "competitive

Problems of competitive bidding
Various methods of submitting
competitive prices only serve to place
contracting officers in the unavoidable
and unenviable position of choosing
Architects and Consulting Engineers on
the basis of price vs quality of service.
If so called "competitive negotiation"
becomes the standard, it will soon
become increasingly difficult for

contracting officers to justify A-E
awards on the basis of professional
qualifications over the lowest possible
price. The result will be an accelerated
deterioration in quality and irreparable
long range loss to the government and
the public.

"Fee" is not profit
The professional "fee" is not profit,
contrary to popular concept. Out of a
small percentage of the total cost of
projects, the A-E firm must pay the
salaries of many experienced
professionals, clerical help, office space,
plus administrative overhead, and taxes.
Considering these costs, and allowing
for a small margin of profit, there
remains little leeway for the kind of
priced competitive negotiation proposed
occasionally by State and Federal
Government. It is also from within this
highly skilled group that comes the
creative, imaginative procedures,
judgement, and experienced talent that
will determine the design, concept and
economic excellence of our
governmental structures.
An A-E fee is made up of three parts:
professional salaries, overhead, and
profit. Profit is only a small fraction of
the gross fee.
Overhead costs such as rent, payroll
taxes, supplies, are going up! Our
inflationary economy offers little or no
opportunity to reduce overhead costs.
Therefore, it is not hard to understand
that the only place where reductions
'can be made is in the very heart of the
professional service itself, the technical
and professional salaries, which are also
subject to inflationary pressures.
By adopting the process of priced
competitive negotiation poor standards
and mediocrity will be promoted.



"There is no absolute guarantee that this
system or any other system will result in the
best design, but this system does result, it
seems to me, in the best design with the least
possible cost to the government .. I feel our
system encourages architect-engineers to offer
careful and painstaking service at the highest
possible quality .. as a lawyer, I would not
submit to a bidding procedure, and if I were
ill, I would not bid to see which doctor would
take our my appendix."
7he Honorable Robert L. Konzig, in
testimony before the Committee on
PRICE ON GOOD JUDGEMENT Government Operations of the House.

Public interest at stake
What is at stake here is, as always,
the public interest . in essence the
taxpayers' dollar, and establishing
methods that will insure receipt of full
dollar value on government contracts.
This safeguard is already in existence
through a sound, successful and
completely workable system of
professional negotiation emphasizing
competition in qualification and
Current contracts are negotiated on
such determinants as capacity (1) this is
assurance that the firm and the job are
not mismatched; competence (2) based
on a study of a firms' professional scope
and depth of experience; compatibility
(3) the ability of a firm to work
smoothly and efficiently over the entire
joblife of a project in an atmosphere of
mutual trust.

Professional excellence undermined by
Here are some pitfalls which will
further threaten the quality of
professional services:
The high cost of repeated preparation
of competitive designs and price
proposals will eventually be borne by
the taxpayer.
The definition of project scope and
criteria of services will often be
misinterpreted, resulting in high
variation proposals.
The two envelope system has
problems. Qualification,
hypothetically, reviewed first, and
A-E firm priority established will
only have to be reviewed once again
when the prices are revealed. Which
base of selection will the contracting
officer choose to defend?
The following are some of many
frequently asked questions concerning
competition and "bidding".

Why shouldn't architects bid
competitively for public projects?
When competition for design work
involves price comparison, it is
inevitable that the low bid will be
selected. This results in low quality
design work, and therefore, poorer
Why would the low bid mean low
quality work?
The only firm which can promise low
cost is the one which must limit the
level of services it can provide. It
cannot spend the time needed to
research the most economical materials
and systems for the project, and the
project then must cost more in the long
How can you be certain a low bidder
would be selected in a bidding situation?
Competitive bidding is a legitimate
and acceptable means of obtaining
certain products and services. The low
bidder on a construction job must meet
specifications dictated by the project
design, and cannot skimp on quality.
The public recognizes the merits of the
bidding process in public procurement.
But the distinction between the actual
construction of a building and its design
is a little-recognized one and
governments would be hardpressed to
avoid selecting a low bidder for
architectural work, even when a higher
price means higher quality.
Do architects dislike competition?
Not at all. The preferred method of
hiring architects provides stiff
competition among applicants. There
are a broad range of logical
considerations that suggest a relative
capability among the A/Es interested
in a specific contract. Architecture and
engineering involve countless different
specialties and approaches. There is a
broad variation in the expertise and the
experience of the firms competing for

government work. Other considerations
are a firm's geographical proximity to
the project, the availability of senior
staff personnel, and unique solutions to
prior commissions.

How does this kind of competition
Following public announcement of the
project, all applicants are reviewed
according to qualifications and
performance data. From this group,
three are selected and ranked on their
ability to perform the work needed for
the specific project. A contract is
negotiated with the top firm, at a price
considered fair and reasonable. If no
agreement is reached, negotiations are
terminated and begun with the second
firm. The process is repeated with the
third firm if no contract can be signed
with the second. This is competition
based on qualification and competence.
How do you keep political favoritism
from becoming a factor in the choice of
an architect among the top three?
Ranking is the important factor in
eliminating political favoritism from that
step. Florida's "Consultant's
Competitive Negotiations Act," which
follows the federal method, clearly
tells public agencies to pick the three
best qualified firms among all applicants,
and rank them on the basis of their
abilities. The agency is then required by
the law to negotiate a contract with the
first firm.
In light of Florida's famous
"Government in the Sunshine" law,
the public has the right to know about
all government actions. If the first
ranked is not selected for negotiation,
the public has the right to ask why. The
Competitive Negotiations Act echoes
the demand for governmental openness
by stating that "the public shall not be
excluded from the proceedings under
this act."


Bellamy Elementary School

The Francis J. Bellamy Elementary
School received an Honorable Mention
design award in 1975 from the FAAIA.
A subsequent letter printed in "The
Florida Architect" for November-
December decried such an award to
a windowless school. We felt the
building and the issue to be of sufficient
interest to warrant further presentation
and asked the architects to prepare an
article outlining their design approach.
Here is their response. The Editor.

~~ ;s r~d' ~$

Innovative planning and construction
approach produces a low cost award
winning school.

Exterior of the building is painted in bold
red, white and blue graphics in
acknowledgement to the school's namesake.

Two major goals were established by
the School Board of Hillsborough
County, Florida, for the design and
construction of the new Elementary
School "B" at the time they awarded
the project to the Architects:
(1) The school needed to be completely
designed, built and occupied within
one calendar year's time in order
to relieve two neighboring
elementary schools from double
(2) The Architects were asked to
explore any and all possible means
of cost savings, as the Board had
become increasingly cognizant of
and concerned with the rapidly
spiraling, inflationary construction
cost curve.
The last school bid prior to this time
cost $25. 00 per square foot and

determined the construction budget for
this school. It was deemed adequate
even should no new approach be elected.
The first problem tackled by Rowe
Holmes Associates, the Architects
appointed to the project, was not one
identified by the Board. The Board
had been using a contract form wherein
the Architect's fee was the traditional
six percent of the construction cost.
Recognizing that this contract form
would end up penalizing them if they
were to accomplish the goals established
by the Board, Rowe Holmes Associates
called this to the Board's attention and
instead negotiated what they termed
"an incentive contract. Under this new
contract form they were paid 6% of the
construction cost plus 10% of any
savings under the budget. This
effectively guaranteed them 6% of the

original budget plus, as an incentive,
4% of any savings under that budget.
They also proposed that this contract
feature should work both ways. If they
had ultimately ended up "busting the
budget" they would have reduced their
fee by 10% of any costs over the budget.
In order to achieve the two goals
established by the Board, it was
determined that neither a conventional
design approach nor conventional
construction techniques could be
employed. It was also agreed that only
a totally spartan, unembellished, and
completely "open" physical plant could
be considered and further that both
design and construction would need
to be staggered or overlapped in order
that they might simultaneously take
Planning for the project began in



floor plan
10 0

A classroom pod showing the industrial
light fixtures and exposed structure.
', Z _21111109L --- V _.

October of 1973 and occupancy
occurred in November of 1974.
Construction was segregated into three
major phases and included seven
separate "bid packages" requiring
twelve different construction contracts.
The result has been a composite of
"Fast Tracking," "Construction
Management" and conventional
construction practices. Ground was
broken less than two and one-half
months from the time the Architects
began their initial design work and
the final contract was awarded only
six weeks prior to the project
completion date.
The educational specifications
prepared by the Board and their staff
described requirements for a full-facility,
30-classroom elementary school which
was to accommodate 2 kindergarten,
14 elementary, 12 primary and 2
special education classes. In addition,
facilities were to be provided for
language arts, itinerant teaching and
music education. An Administration
suite, a media or materials resource
center, a multi-purpose space and a full
cafeteria facility were also required.
Although the school system has
been utilizing team teaching techniques
for a number of years, they had not
previously committed to a totally
"open plan" facility such as this. The
16 classroom "quad-pod" concept was
a deliberate and intentional response to
the requisites of time and cost savings
and seemed uniquely suited to the
educational program. By grouping
kindergarten and elementary classes
into one major element, primary and
special education into the other, pooling
all support functions into a third, and
grouping all three elements as simply as
possible, the building assumed a logical
and "straightforward" discipline. At
the same time, the extremely open plan
was designed to encourage maximum
flexibility in the use of the various
teaching spaces. As another first in
Hillsborough County, the Architects
were given complete responsibility for
all furniture selection and interior design
which brought about increased
opportunities for flexibility through
use of highly mobile modular storage
units, space dividers and modular chalk
and tackboard units within each of the
classroom pods. Team teaching was
encouraged by locating teacher
planning areas centrally within each
major quad-pod. These areas contain


individual teacher office carrells and
provide for common conference and
planning space. Toilets are grouped
at the entrances to each quad-pod, thus
providing each access from both interior
spaces and from the outside play areas.
Upon completion of Schematic
Design and formal presentation to the
Board of the plan of action designed
to meet the Board's goals, the school
was named the "Francis J. Bellamy
Elementary School." Francis Bellamy,
author of the Pledge of Allegiance, is
America's forgotten patriot. During
the last 20 years of his life, he resided
in Tampa. Inspired by this Board action
and in search of some straightforward
embellishment for their plain "shoe
box" school, the Architects prepared
and presented to the Board the red,
white and blue exterior graphic color
scheme ultimately used for the school.
The Board enthusiastically endorsed
this acknowledgment of the school's
namesake and suddenly "the little red
school house was red, white and blue."
The need for critical timing of the
several phases of construction led to
the majority of material choices and
selections. The structural frame was
developed within the parameters of
the now available steel "systems"
structures (although through
"performance" bidding, a conventional
frame was determined to have been less
expensive). Likewise, the perimeter
wall construction assembly was dictated
by time and cost comparisons of various
assemblies and the availability of
strategic materials. Initially it was
thought that "tilt-slab" concrete walls
would have been used, however, it was
determined that conventional concrete
block construction was not only cheaper
but also considerably quicker. Both
roof decking and insulation were in
extremely short supply during the time
of construction and again, the decision
to use exposed fiberglass formboard
on bulb tees was determined through
"performance" analysis and availability.
Design decisions and material
selections were constantly analyzed and
re-evaluated, always with the desire to
reduce the number of assemblies and
thus reduce costs and construction time.
Many preconceptions in schoolhouse
design and construction were abandoned
in order to achieve the desired goals.
By eliminating a conventional suspended
ceiling assembly, the Architects were
able to increase the "apparent" ceiling

height in the building thus allowing use
of industrial type lighting, also
considerably reducing the amount of
ductwork required from the roof top
air-conditioning units and significantly
enhanced the acoustic characteristics
of the spaces.
By exaggerating the size of wall
clocks (actually the numbers are painted
on the walls) only four clocks are
needed for an entire 16 classroom suite.
Likewise, the number of intercom
speakers were greatly reduced as were
other internal systems such as CCTV
distribution networks. Plain, veneer
plastered, interior partition walls
provided a surface for the Architects
to employ a variety of brightly colored
graphic designs, both as visual teaching
aids and for internal orientation within
the major spaces. The resulting interior
spaces have been enthusiastically
endorsed by teachers, children and
administrators as being very refreshing
and a fun place to work, teach and
The full cooperation of the School
Board, their staff and the Architects
resulted in the full achievement of the
goals earlier established, with the final
cost of the completed facility being
just $19.50 per square foot, producing
a savings of $300,000 under the budget.
The unique incentive fee arrangement
resulted in the Architect's receiving a
fee considerably higher than
conventionally would have been
available. However, in retrospect, the
additional construction administration
caused by the twelve separate contracts
resulted in additional man-hour
expenditures on the part of the
Architect, which consumed the majority
of this additional fee.
The school has been enthusiastically
accepted and endorsed by the
community, teachers, children, School
Board and staff. The School Board
elected to retain the Architects to
repeat the school which is presently
under construction. The school was
also afforded the honor of receiving an
"Honorable Mention" design award
from the FAAIA at the 1975 State
convention and was also accepted
by the AASA for display at their
national convention in February. It
previously was displayed in Preliminary
Design form in Atlanta in August of
1974 at the national meeting of the
Council of Educational Facility

Architect: Rowe/Holmes Associates Architects, Inc.

The media center divided by a planter from
the reception area.

Reception and general office.
5ij&._ 111-^KmB~ra



A Cost
Versus Need

by William F. Bigoney, AIA

William Bigoney is Chairman of the FA/AIA
Architectural Barriers Task Force, regional
representative of the AIA Architecture for
Health Committee, and Chairman of the
Architectural Barriers Committee of the
Broward County Board of Rules and Appeals.
Educated at Pratt Institute, B.A., Harvard
University School of Design, M.A. under
Walter Gropius, and advanced work at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he
has been practicing in his own firm for
27 years.

t ^ ,_,3

God, mother, country and apple pie-all
hallowed objects- is the wheelchair too
becoming a sacred cow? Considerable
legislation for physical accessibility has
been sought and enacted in recent years,
some because of unquestionable need,
but also some because compelled by
the extreme desires of a few whom
society has been trained to treat gently
and never assail, never question because
of the subtle, sub-conscious guilt
feelings of those who are whole being
nurtured into empathy by some of those
who are not, thereby destroying the
ability to subjectively criticize. But it is
time to put aside emotions and get
down to economic and social realities.
The sacred cow needs to prove its
contentions are justified.
For several years the AIA has actively
sought legislation that would provide
the handicapped with the facilities
necessary for a meaningful, productive
life but which would simultaneously
be feasible requirements to which the
general public could adapt.
Unfortunately the current laws and
proposals have not fulfilled this goal.
Florida, in particular, has strong laws
relating to accessibility and much
more stringent ones are being proposed.
For an economy so dependent upon
construction, the increased costs made
mandatory by extensive and in many
cases unnecessary specialized
requirements can only be promulgated
by specious humanitarians for eventually
the pocketbooks of all are affected in
one way or another through higher
consumer costs, increased taxes, and
decreased income forcing impractical
construction costs to grind the industry
and related economy from a run to a
walk to a halt.
The current solutions to the
handicapped problems are treating the
complaint, not the disease; sadly
reminiscent of the barn door, the
horse, and the inept farmer. The
trouble has been with the falacious
initial premises, which inevitably
produced inaccurate deductions,
attributable to improper perspective
and faulty definition of the problem.
The present legal inequities derive
primarily from two highly overrated
basic assumptions, both of which are
deceptively misleading:
1. "approximately 1 out of 7 persons
in our nation has a permanent
physical disability" (ANSI
A117.1-1961; R 1971); and,
2. by designing to the needs of the

person in a wheelchair then the needs
of the majority of handicapped
persons are met (source: all building
codes which, while including all
disabilities by definition of what
constitutes handicapped, limits
the discussion only to those measures
which are specifically wheelchair
The first statement is quite
compelling until it is examined in detail.
That particular statistic, and oft quoted
it is, does not reflect the fact that it is
including a/l mobility, sight, and
hearing disabilities, and here is the catch
-no matter how limited in degree! The
most accurate statistics available are
those published by HUD in the chart
reproduced here. When the handicapped
classifications which do not require any
particular or special construction
modifications are deleted from the 21
million total of all handicaps, the figure
of 4.1 million (or 1 out of every 50
people) emerges; thus 16.9 million, the
vast majority, either wear special shoes,
have partial hearing impairments or
minor loss of sight, have artificial legs
or arms, or use canes.
The 4.1 million figure still seems to
confer some credence upon the second
statement until that number is also
more closely inspected. Wheelchair
users actually comprise a total of only
409,000-1/5th of 1% of the 210 million
total population! If the remaining
categories are examined by type and
quantity it becomes increasingly
difficult to understand what accessibility
needs they share with wheelchair users
and why the laws are so weighted in
favor of one segment. Existing
legislation, without question, is being
based on the needs of the wheelchair
handicapped and presupposes the
problems of all handicaps are similar,
automatically included, and thereby
solved. Obviously not so, since those
with braces or on crutches, using
walkers, having major loss of sight or
hearing do not have the same functional
difficulties as the person in a wheelchair.
It must then be readily apparent that
the time for new premises and new
approaches to the problems are urgently
Initially any discussion or legislation
should acknowledge one essential fact-
the subject is accessibility; that is, the
elimination of excessive barriers and
the addition of necessary aids to permit
ingress and egress while including
appropriate factors relative to general


safety and welfare. Yet this is not the
case. Instead, the laws are being
designed for a small minority and with
the inclusion of unnecessary increased
square footage and other special extras,
all with complete disregard of economic
Even now proposed legislation is in
preparation which will further handicap
and constrict the construction industry
and increase the already inflated costs.
These proposals include requiring a/l
residences, including single family, to
provide unobstructed doorway openings
to bathrooms of 29 inches thus
mandating a 2'-8" door since anything
smaller, when open, does not leave 29
inches of clear opening; consider, then,
the increased square footage this will
require in the average bathroom.
Additionally, a change is proposed for
increasing the standard 36 inch hallway
to 44 inches, and again this would
include single family and all other
residences. The reasoning for including
single family homes apparently lies in
the hazy realm of what if"-so that
someone in a wheelchair can visit, or
buy, any residence. These and other
items of the proposals would affect not
only residences but the entire range of
commercial buildings as well. Those
enumerated along with other extensive

measures will be passed because strong
lobbying interests will see to it that
they do unless sensibility intervenes.
But disagreement with inadequacies
and inequities, in itself, is not enough
to render changes. What is needed
is understanding and a broad scope
approach to effect reasonable and
feasible alternative solutions, not
one-way tunnel vision, that can be
equitable to all factions of the
population. It is vitally important and
undeniable that the needs of the
physically handicapped should be
studied but is pointless without a
broad-brush view of the various types of
handicaps as well as the physical and
financial interests of the general public.
It is far more valid to produce a study
of the problems and develop the
answers through a group composed of
people representing each of the types
of disabilities, the architects who must
design to the needs, general contractors
who deal with the costs involved, and
people representing the general public
who have to use the spaces and amortize
the extra costs without being
specifically benefitted, than it is to have
laws lobbied into existence by a small
self-seeking special-interest group.
Another possibility exists which has



+Wheelchair 409,000 .2045% 1 person in 489
+Crutches 443,000 1 person in 451
+Walkers 404,000 1 person in 495
+Braces 1,102,000 1 person in 181.5
Sub Total 2,358,000 1.18% 1 person in 84.8
Canes 2,156,0001
Artificial limbs 172,000 Physical Barriers undetermined
Special shoes 2,337,000

25% Impairment 4,105,000 1 person in 48.7
+50%-100% Impairment 1,285,000 1 person in 155.6

Partial Loss 8,088,000 needs undetermined
+Nearly Total Loss 461,000
Total 8,549,000 1 person in 23.4

Total of above 20,962,000 10.48% 1 person in 10.5
Items marked + added, yeild a total of *Data from "Barrier Free Site Design"
1 person in 50 with restricted disabilities of published by the U.S. Dept. of Housing &
mobility, hearing and sight Urban Development, HUD-PRD-84,
April 1975

yet to be given serious consideration.
Because the majority of accessibility
requirements dwell primarily on space
requirements for the wheelchair, then
redesigning the wheelchair to make it
more accessible is an idea whose time
has come. The accompanying diagram
shows that the average wheelchair is
about 25 inches wide, but equally
apparent is that much of this is wasted
in the wheel and arm portions. It is
interesting to note that the wheelchair
has remained virtually unchanged since
the mid-1940's, almostunbelievable
considering its inherent awkwardness
and the hundredfold increase in
technology since then. While extremes
in design are not being suggested, it
would seem far more logical and
sensible to investigate redesign
possibilities that would meet the needs
of the existing environment rather
than the reverse. Itis possible,
witness a Florida man whose wife was
wheelchair confined. He took a
standard 18 inch kitchen-type armchair,
attached battery operated electric
power and wheels.His wife wasvery
happy with the final product since it
was just as comfortable and thus
enabled her to move about with much
more freedom in a normal world. This
particular solution does not solve all
the problems but certainly a sufficient
number in existing space criteria to
warrant redesign as a practical concept
for both the handicapped and the
general public. It is apropos to note
that some of the increase in
constringencies under current legislative
consideration are not physical
necessities but are simply for greater
ease of mobility; a 25 inch wheelchair
can navigate a 36 ihch hallway or even a
2'-4" door opening.
Ultimately the question of howmuch
for how many must be squarely faced.
Today's building trends are reflecting
inflationary labor and material costs by
reduction and consolidation of needs
into smaller spaces. Numerous health,
safety, environmental, and even esthetic
requirements are already substantially
increasing, almost daily, the
construction costs of both new and
remodeled buildings. Is it, then,
morally fair or economically justified to
ask all to adjust for some with special
problems when it is easier, more feasible
and less costly for the some to at least
partially compromise and adjust to the
world inhabited by all? It is time to put
the sacred cow into proper perspective.*



of AIA


"What is the AIA doing for me lately?",
is the question so often asked by the
Many of the services of AIA, the
local AIA Chapter and the State
Association cannot be measured
accurately in dollars and cents. They
are worth something only when you
need or use them, for example:
the lien law privilege for architects
worth thousands when you need it,
but nothing when you don't.
Legal preservation of "Hold
Harmless" clause in the general
conditions-worth thousands if you
and the contractor are jointly in
error, but otherwise nothing.
Licensing law for architects-only
worth something if you want
reciprocal privileges in other states or
if you don't think unqualified people
such as Interior Designers, Residential
Designers, or others should practice
A fair method for selecting architects
for public work--worth something if
you value equity or getting a job for
your ability-worth nothing if you
prefer the old patronage game.
* Continuing Education Programs,
tapes, and books, of benefit to those
who use these services certainly not
worth anything to those who don't.
* Contract documents, a clear tangible
result of AIA efforts. These are living
instruments, being revised constantly
in answer to the demands of our
changing social and legal conditions.
Were it not for such standard forms,
can you imagine how architecture
and building would be conducted in
our highly legalistic and complex
world? Can you imagine the costs of
attorneys for each project?
* Professionals do not advertise, thus
it is forbidden to members of the
Institute. This is one area wherein it
might be possible to place actual
d..I 1l figures on what the Institute
saves a member. What do you
estimate you would pay out in
advertising costs if architects
advertised their services?
* What value do you place upon the
relative peace of mind you now have,
knowing that your client will not be

Without being actively involved,
members and non-members alike
fail to comprehend the range and
scope of Institute Programs and

solicited, nor shown a lot of
uninvited sketches? (We know this
does happen at times, but also know
that members have been disciplined
for such conduct.) Generally the rule
is followed, which would not be true
if there were no Institute and no
12 year statute of limitations-worth
a lot if you're sued 13 years after
your error, but otherwise nothing.
Legislative effort by the Association,
a necessity. Individually the
profession could not achieve the
results of a unified effort.
Legal counsel for the profession
through the Association. When a
legal problem arises that is
determined to have state-wide
implications, the Association
authorizes legal counsel to sue on
behalf of the profession or to take
other legal remedies.
Public relations, an intangible
service, but yet an important service
for the profession.
The film library of the Association
and the Institute is a service available
upon demand, its value depending
upon use.
Informational service for individual
members, an intangible value.
Members who use the service receive
direct value through answers to
their questions.
* The new AIA Energy Notebook
will be a valuable tool to those who
have requested it.
* The new AIA Compensation
Management Guidelines for
Architectural Services is the modern
concept in developing compensation
for services. Use it and you will find
considerable worth.
* The study Economics of
Architectural and Engineering
Practice in Florida sponsored by your
State Association and the engineer's
society is a useful office tool to
compare your operation with other
* State Agency liaison provides input
from the profession.
* The State and National annual
conventions provide opportunities
for several days of learning and for

establishing rapport with your
colleagues. Again, this program is of
great value if participated in.
The State Association's newsletter
Contact and the Legislative Bulletin
are the primary means of internal
communication, supplemented by
The Florida Architect, the external
public relations tool. From national
AIA the Memo and Journal provide
factual information to the
membership. These are valuable
communication tools if read,
otherwise valueless.
The national AIA library is a very
important resource center. Books are
available on a loan basis and research
material is available at your fingertips.
A valuable service when needed and
if used.
The list of value received could go on
and on. It is important to understand
that the State Association and the AIA
are not "you" organizations, they are
"we" organizations, and as a results,
will largely reflect what we want and
what we contribute toward getting
what we want.
The American Institute of Architects,
which includes the local AIA Chapters
and the State Association, could not be
the effective organizations they are
without the voluntary contribution of
many of its members. It is estimated
that the value of this voluntary
professional time runs into millions of
dollars each year. It is much easier for
members to sit outside the ring of
involvement and criticize. The
non-member registered architect who
usually criticizes the professional
organizations and avoids involvement,
still reaps many benefits of what the
AIA produces for the profession.
He is content to let the 1500 plus
members in Florida pay the bills and
volunteer their services. To many, this
person is not really a true professional,
he just thinks he is.
The challenge is there for additional
members to become involved. Instead
of continuing to ask "what has AIA
done for me lately?", ask yourself
"what have I done for my profession
lately?". FNK S


Energy as a Design Criteria

The Mid-Florida Chapter A.I.A. in
association with other design
professionals and Florida Technological
University is planning to sponsor a
quarter length course to be offered three
times in 1976 as part of its continuing
education program. The course has
been planned by a special joint
professional committee with the
assistance of P. Richard Rittlemann,
AIA, a national authority in the field
of energy as a design criteria. As
presently planned, course sessions will
be run one evening per week for twelve
weeks. The location will be at FTU in
Orlando. For further information call
Dr. John B. Langley, AIA, at

Miami Downtown Government

Highlighted by a 52 story County office
building, Connell Metcalf & Eddy of
Miami has unveiled the master plan for
Miami's proposed Downtown
Government Center. It will be located
on a 32 acre site in the heart of the
city's central business district. The
center will house all phases of
government activities-local, county,
state and federal. It is the only such
project in the state. The center will also
encompass a library, art museum, a
rapid transit station and landscaped
public use spaces. The design system
focuses on a dynamic rather than a
fixed plan, which is crucial to the goals
of the center. The master plan allows
for three decades of growth and change
without sacrificing architectural unity.
Presently a police station is almost
completed and the first of four 10 story
state office buildings is expected to
start construction this spring.

Ferendino/Grafton/Spillis/Candela of
Miami announce that Jaques L. Clarke,
PE, Vice President of the firm and
Director of Engineering, has been
elected to the position of Senior Vice
President. Also, Raul L. Rodriguez,
AIA, an Associate member of the firm,
has been elected to the position of Vice
President. In addition the following
people have been elected to the position
of Associate: Aramfs Alvarez, AIA,
Prem N. Bhandari, AIA, Daniel D.
Capotorto, AIA, W. Ronald Hunt, PE,
J.N. Garcfa-Hidalgo, AIA, Thomas H.
Maxwell, Jr., PE, Rafael Pefia, Jr., PE,
Richard S. Sciandra, AIA, and Howard
Snoweiss, Interior Designer.

Professor Harold Lewis Malt, AIP,
IDSA, ASID, has been appointed Acting
Chairman, Department of Architecture,
Architectural Engineering and Planning,
of the School of Engineering and
Environmental Design, University of

New officers of the State Board of
Architecture are: Jeff Hoxie, President,
Harry Burns, AIA, Vice President and
Andrew J. Ferendino, FAIA Secretary-
Treasurer. Other members are William
S. Morrison, AIA and R. Carroll
Peacock, AIA.

Architect Peter Rumpel, AIA, of
Clements/Rumpel Associates Architects
Jacksonville was featured as one of eight
Young Builders of America in the
February 9, 1976 issue of U.S. News &
World Report.

- .-, -- **---
The Florida Central Chapter has presented
to the College of Architecture at the
University of Florida a plaque honoring the
memory of Sanford W. Goin, FAIA of
Gainesville. Pictured with the plaque at the
January FAAIA Board meeting are
Dr. Robert Bryan, Vice President for
Academic Affairs, U.F., Robert H. Levison,
FAIA of Clearwater and Arnold Butt, AIA,
Acting Dean, College of Architecture, U.F.

I have attended many meetings of the
Florida Association, however, regret I
did not get to the last one. Your
November-December issue covers a
matter that seems to occupy the
undivided attention of our members.
The more important ones seem devoted
to the demise and interment of the
ARCHITECT in future years.
I know so many vigorous voices in
the Florida membership and have
listened with quiet patience for them
to speak up. I think there are still some
few of us left who resent the drift of
our leadership in this great rush to
become pallbearers and morticians for
what once ranked as a respected
In their haste they rush to become
Construction Managers, Fast Trackers,
Comprehensive Practitioners, Value
Engineers, etc. and have succeeded in
murdering the one important service
that we provide as a reason for being.
We used to be the protectors of health
and safety, accountants for clients
dollars, watchdogs of careless and
sloppy construction while creating
charm and beauty and doing all this
for a pittance.
I have been warned by Presidents of
the Institute and a multitude of articles
in the press that my days as a small
Architect are numbered. I have also
been told, as Caudill infers, that any
attempt to DESIGN a building in the
future is doomed. I do not choose
to believe this and further, do not feel
that the FACELESS building, the
MACHINED structure or the BLANK
BOX is the future of our civilization.
I cannot further believe that
Architecture of BRUTALITY will be
our lot. I choose to think that ours
is a dynamic profession and like
Judaism will survive many shocking
experiences. Those of us who recall
the Great Depression will probably
be told that it can't recur, however, one
of the results was the radical drop in
wage rates and the rebirth of
construction when the value of the
dollar became more realistic.
In all the advice of the seers, no one
dares strike a blow for radical labor cost
cuts and fear of Labor Unions seems to
have the Octagon paralyzed. The
silence of the Institute has been
deafening. All of this while Architects


; r .L; i t


The Fifth Annual Awards for the Outstanding Concrete
Structures in Florida
Co-Sponsored by Florida Concrete and Products Association, Inc.
and South Florida Chapter, American Concrete Institute
1 Award of Excellence
Snapper Creek Service Plaza, Florida Turnpike
Architect: Schweizer Associates Architects, Inc.
2 Residence of Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Klein
Architect: Donald I. Singer
h-. t~-2
3 The Admiral's Walk Condominium
Architect: Schwab & Twitty Architects, Inc.
4 Sims Crane Service
S -Architect: Lee Scarfone & Associates
5 Alhambra Southern Bell
Architect: Ferendino/Grafton/Spillis/Candela
6 Bay Harbor Islands Town Hall
.I Architect: Rentscher, Haynes & Associates

- -t





4.-3'~~~~ *"

"' P


are in a race to cut fees, reduce staffs,
cut salaries and close up. This present
deep freeze has not spared the tycoons
either. All of the new techniques
have not prevented wholesale dismissals
by giants of our profession. What
surprises me most is the unanimity of
vocal opinion demanding our demise.
Isn't there a countering voice to be
heard? Is this the final solution? What
happened to the soap salesman, store
front designers and chain store
practitioners all of who grew into great
Architectural organizations? Is this
their final word also?


Architectural Products &
Professional Services 22
Cabot's Stains
2nd Cover
Dunan Brick
3rd Cover
Florida Natural Gas Association 4
Kurt Waldmann 3
Miller Associates 3
Monnah Park Block Company, Inc. 21

Klein Residence
Donald I. Singer, Architect


The Admiral's Walk
Boca Raton
Schwab & Twitty Architects

Award Winning Customized Masonry

5050 N.W. 74th Avenue
Miami, Fla. 33166
(305) 592-3960

Termination of AIA Corporate
Members/Non-payment of dues

Broward County Chapter
E. Robert Culliney
David H. Kautman
David E. Martin
Gene C. Monaco
Arthur H. Rude
Walter E. Swanson
Ronald L. Uphoff

Daytona Beach Chapter
Robert G. Howard
Larry W. Robinson

Florida Central Chapter
Lee DeFranco
Frank M. Henderson
Roy M. Henderson
Donald C. F. Miller
Russell J. Minardi
Angel Oliva Jr.
Gus N. Paras
E. A. Quenneville
J. Bruce Smith
Ira B. Wagner
Tom N. Watts

Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
Dale T. Kincaid
Michael Pack
Ralph Steinhauser

Florida North Chapter
C. Frank Creekbaum
Samuel F. Evans
Avens F. Liles
Hal T. Reid

Florida Northwest Chapter
Marvin Allen
Warren L. Lisenbee

Florida South Chapter
Yiannis B. Antoniadis
Marshall R. Bellin
Edward C. Berounsky
Edward I. Camner
Arnold W. Eckhoff, Jr.
Harvey C. Ferber
Donald J. Frederick
Robert K. Frese
Joseph Gentile
Gordon A. Gilbert
Thomas P. Gill
Carroll Klements
Walter Klements
James Merrifield
Matilde M. Ponce
Celestino G. Sarille
Donald J. Seidler
Rene Valladares

Florida Southwest Chapter
Edward S. Reeves
Robert V. Taylor

Jacksonville Chapter
Robert C. Broward
Robert C. Goodwin
George E. Hapsis
John W. Herbert
Ronald J. Masters
Ronald Williams

Mid Florida Chapter
Thomas G. Alberts
Herbert L. Banks
Gerald R. Gross
Frank A. Lamb
Lowell L. Lotspeich
George Tuttle, Jr.

Brevard Section
Jeffe G. Hoxie
Ronald Garman
Frank T. Edson

Palm Beach Chapter
Hilmy E. Adeeb
Dillard Duff
Ralph Erickson
C. Eugene Lawrence Jr.

Virgin Island
Peter B. Brill
George Emery
Frederick Oman

AIA Associates
Hernando R. Punto (Florida Central)
Bijan Keramati (Florida North)
Richard H. Gregorie (Florida North Central)

Transfer Out-of-State
Joe L. Judy (Miami)

Larry B. Freeland (Florida South)
Donald W. Shuey (Florida South)
Murray B. Wright (Florida South)
Joseph R. Thimm (Brevard Section)

Additions-as of January 1976


Florida Northwest Chapter
William Yorman
Florida South Chapter
Plas Alligood
Florida Southwest Chapter
Robert Thompson
Raymond Fenton
Jacksonville Chapter
Kevin J. P. Daly
Palm Beach Chapter
Philip A. Crannell
Mrs. Suzanne A. Marshall


Florida Central Chapter
George H. Ballans, Jr.
Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
Brent Parker
Florida North Chapter
Edward S. d'Avi
Florida North Central Chapter
Daniel Donovan
Florida Southwest Chapter
Jay P. Collier

AIA Associate
Boris Dramov Florida South Chapter


V 4 L.', .;;' .s w w t, V

vt r.4 A *1 J i, AWN5

5 i4

L~~~~a tpl -,~ ~;.j j
A. ::?;it. ;i.~1 d d:

V .4V ._ 66,y So

tBi~.----i. -I '0 -

r-~~~~t A-lp *- *~~-~rS~ -~

t~~tl~aUhIr inc.:: t~


-- _- -tN
samqq~d~jtiflhiyfng L~j r t'
1ttfl i-~-~-~~-Vss ~~- s< A~ i.; 4',.:.
-Ti7!1 at I

-;n- V-
WV ~,Rd&36 -35G or-wrftl- tx 4 f ,r
'-Warn iNa it3 3J 60 t1$ 1

Ij;--~ 0rjlaniq i3~-- t'r .: P1 - ---i -' 7 a


It. ft

MV i 13 , vr t iTU p 1 Lf C

1-- gW


4-7 C-W -J,*t
~1--- --~- -rERIE, PA. 16512-~

t r~~~~ l~~~Ld -i z~- %aY.E'-WQi-~
Z.,aV V
gw4ticpg~po V A -Artl .44'

g -V-1' ,

!f d;V ViVa Vt a *-
Xf' 1, rI -6 -a 4
5~2;~B c.~'~;~~Yt-f:~~fpse~d

th-4 N "M4~:jp~4,~~.~
V ercer1- P h ny 1 414:: ;' F ~IF
E Flac~e
E ;ia-~ r r~l~~ r- !~2l~~~t~w~; a Y:.- IT
-~-~ ~~f- ~ a~~` 9~~ ~I" ~ ~ 4L 4~




The Florida Architects' Political Action Committee is a
voluntary, nonprofit, unincorporated group whose membership
consists of concerned architects interested in the practice of
architecture in Florida.

Government evolves from the political process. The
architectural profession can further its desire for good
government more effectively if its members operate politically
as a cohesive group with common objectives. Architects
concerned with the selection of political leaders who effect
the future of the profession can be more effective if they
work together.

You may join FAPAC by forwarding your contribution to the
FAPAC Office, 7100 N. Kendall Drive, Suite 203, Miami,
Florida 33156. Active Membership dues are $25, or more, per
year. Sustaining Membership dues are $100, or more, per year.

7100 N. Kendall Drive
Miami, Florida 33156
Controlled Circulation Postage Paid
Miami, Florida

What are the objectives of FAPAC?
(1) To promote and strive for the improvement of government
by encouraging and stimulating architects and others to take
a more active and effective part in governmental affairs.
(2) To encourage architects and others to understand the
nature and actions of their government, as to important
i political issues, and as to the records of office holders and
candidates for elective office.
(3) To assist architects and others in organizing themselves for
more effective political action and in carrying out their civic
Who directs FAPAC Activities?
A fifteen member Board of Directors guides FAPAC activities.
These members are knowledgeable leaders of the architectural
profession. FAPAC Board members include one member from
each FAAIA chapter appointed by the FAAIA Board of
Directors, the President, Executive Director and General
Counsel of FAAIA.
Are Contributions to FAPAC Legal?
A Federal Statute, Title 18 U.S. Code, Section 610, prohibits
corporations from making any contribution or expenditure in
connection with any federal election. Furthermore, Title 18
U.S. Code, Section 611, prohibits any person, corporation
or professional association which has a federal government
contract or a contract which uses any federal funds from
making any contribution to any federal candidate for public
office. However, any person, corporation or professional
association can contribute to state political candidates, and
therefore, FAPAC can use your contribution in whatever
form-individual, corporate or professional association. But,
FAPAC must be notified if Section 611 above applies to
you so that your contribution will only be utilized for state
political candidates.

FAPAC Enclosed is my.personal check for my contribution to FAPAC
7100 N. Kendall Dr.
Suite 203 NAME






University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs