Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00204
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: November-December 1972
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00204
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Back Cover
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text

-7;-o .(-


Stucco may be habit forming

Just take a look around Vancouver or Winnipeg,
Canada ... or Minnesota ... California and
Florida. Wall-to-wall stucco. Because architects
and builders in these areas have discovered
two things: stucco is entirely suitable for a
severe winter climate like Canada, as well as a
moderate climate like Florida; once you try
stucco, you're hooked. And for good reason.
Modern portland cenient stucco has a new
look. New mechanical methods of application,
new aggregates, new inert pigments that blend
perfectly with the environment, give beauty
and long life never before possible. Stucco
finishes don't have to be refinished every few
years, and, being a portland cement product
actually grow stronger with age.

What's more, stucco is unlimited in textures
and patterns ... finish it rough or smooth,
raked, grooved or dashed. Even make it look
like wood, brick or stone. And stucco is non-
combustible, termite proof, resistant to
rot and fungus.
So it's easy to see how stucco might become a
habit once you give it a try. But then, what's
wrong with a good habit for a change? For
further information, contact Stucco Marketing
Manager, General Portland Cement Company.

Florida & Signal Mountain Cements
General Portland, Inc.


Thomas H. Daniels, AIA, President
425 Oak Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
(904) 763-0381
Frank R. Mudano, AIA, Vice President/
President Designate
11189 N. E. Cleveland Street
Clearwater, Florida 33515
(813) 446-1041
Rudolph M. Arsenicos, AIA, Secretary
321 Northlake Blvd.
North Palm Beach, Florida 33403
(305) 848-9661
James E. Ferguson, Jr., AIA, Treasurer
2901 Ponce de Leon Boulevard
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
(305) 443-7758

Thor Amlie
James Anstis
George H. Bail
John M. Barley II
Elis W. Bullock
Rudolph J. Fletcher
Arthur A. Frimet
Stanley Galsgow
Robert G. Graf
Robert B. Greenbaum
James A. Greene
Jack F. Harden
Charles F. Harrington
A. Reese Harvey
Thurston Hatcher
James B. Holliday
Stephen C. Little
Byron G. Mclntyre
Roger A. Pierce
Ray Poynter
Hal T. Reid
Roy L. Ricks
William K. Rinaman
Claude Shivers
Frank F. Smith
Kenardon M. Spina
Francis R. Walton
Robert L. Woodward
American Institute of Architects
H. Leslie Walker
Citizens Building, Suite 1218
706 Franklin Street
Tampa, Florida 33602
(813) 223-2686
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
7100 N. Kendall Drive
Miami, Florida 33156
(305) 661-8947
Smith, Moore & Huey
P.O. Box 1169
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
(904) 222-5510
Ted P. Pappas
Charles E. Pattillo III
Richard J. Veenstra
Fotis N. Karousatos/Editor
John W. Totty/Assistant Editor
Kurt Waldmann/Photography

Cover: Signpost for Crown Oaks Condominums at the
Springs, Seminole County, Florida by Schweizer Associates
Architects, Inc. Photo by Robert Duncan Braun


5 In Memorium: Russell T. Pancoast, FAIA

6 Crown Oaks Condominiums

9 Convention Camera

11 Convention Awards

16 1973 FAAIA Organization Chart

Charles Luckman at the Convention

John Portman at the Convention

Cost Estimating the Architects' Way

Limited Enrollment at the
University of Florida





Volume 22

Number 6

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida Associa-
tion of the American Institute of Architects. Inc., is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for profit. It Is
published bi-monthly at the Executive Office of the Association, 7100
N. Kendall Drive, Miami, Florida 33156. Telephone: 661-8947
(area code 305). Opinions expressed by contributors are not neces-
sarily those of the Editor or the Florida Association of the AIA.
Editorial material may be reprinted provided full credit is given to the
author and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to pub-
lisher's office. Controlled circulation postage paid at Miami, Florida.
Single Copies, 75 cents, subscription, $6.50 per year. 1971 Member
Roster available at $10.00 per copy. 1971 Directory of Architectural
Building Products & Services available at $1.50 per copy.


Architect: J. Stewart Stein, Phoenix Contractor: Ramada Development Company, Phoenix
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h Memorium

Russell T. Pancoast, FAIA

The dean of Miami's architects, Russell T.
Pancoast, FAIA, who came to the area in
1913 as a school boy to join his pioneer
resident family when Miami was still the
primitive place of birds, fish and croco-
diles, died after a short illness.

Pancoast attended Cornell University in
1922 to study architecture. Although
there was no family precedent for that
field of study, he felt this profession
would be inevitable to the emergence of
Miami as a large city.

Long active in architectural professional
organizations, he was a Fellow of the
American Institute of Architects, past

secretary of the Florida South Chapter; a
member of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects and was
a past President of the Florida State
Board of Architecture, on which he
served a total of thirteen years.

His own firm grew over the years to be-
come one of the largest design oriented
firms in the state. Although the firm has
been responsible for a great number of
projects, those in which Pancoast himself
was closely involved were the Miami
Beach Auditorium, the Museum of
Science, the planning of Snapper Creek
Lakes subdivision, and the recently con-
structed Miami Beach First National


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Winner of the 1972 Architect's Award from the Florida Section of the Society
of American Foresters

Crown Oaks Condominium

ARCHITECT: Schweizer Associates Architects Inc
DESIGN ARCHITECT: Lowell L. Lotspeich, A.I.A.
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It consists of 36 dwelling units where siting of
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European village concept, has been ac-
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while insuring against monotany through the
use of repetitive forms.
Wood products have been used extensively
throughout the project. Special features include
signage and exterior lighting.
Wood materials included in the construction are
primarily cedar, selected because of its low
maintenance character and because the use of
this natural material established the rich char-
acter of the development.


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When your business is making room

for others-flexibility is important!

That's why the Barnett Bank Office Building is all-electric.

The Barnett Bank Office Building management of
Allen & O'Hara Inc. wanted a building that stood
out in a crowd...so they built big...and right-off
the Interstate. They also wanted a building that
would please a crowd ... tenants, clients, and cus-
tomers...so they designed it all-electric.
"We had 187,650 square feet of building to heat
and cool." Jack Skemp, Building Manager, said.,
"So Allen & O'Hara chose a 722 KW electric
heating system and a 746 ton cooling system.
"We felt electricity offered us the best chance of
pleasing all of the people all of the time.
"Also the slight difference between operating an
electric heating system as opposed to competitive

systems," Skemp said, "is far over-shadowed by
the low initial cost of installing an electric system
and the diversity of use.
"As it is, we have five zones on each floor, so
that each can be operated separately without having
to depend on a continuously operating central sys-
"And, of course, the beauty of our electric heating
system is the lack of major maintenance worries."

Tampa Electric Company

John Pendarikis was cited for "Craftsman of
the Year" for the outstanding execution to in-
terior woodwork, overall excellence of work-
manship of very detailed woodwork performed
on the Old Port Cove Yacht Club, North Palm
Beach. The design was performed by the firm
of Ficker, Schwab & Twitty, AIA of Palm
Beach. Mr. Pendarikis is employed by Artisan
Wood Crafters.

E. L. Thompson & Son, Inc. was cited for
"Craftsmanship of the Year" for work executed
on the Seventeeth Century Gallery Addition,
Cummer Gallery of Art in Jacksonville, design-
ed by Drake/Pattillo and Associates. The cita-
tion reads: "Lath and plaster arches, vaults and
ceilings. The plastering work exhibits outstand-
ing craftsmanship in the skillful execution of
the complex geometric ceiling patterns. Careful
planning was required to construct a suspended
metal framework used as supporting members
for the plastering work that was to follow.
Accuracy of line and plane was critical, as the
slightest deviation would be magnified because
of the inter-relationship of the various surfaces.
The lines and surfaces of the plastering work
are clean and artfully finished, and contribute a
high degree of refinement to the atmosphere of
the spaces. The work exhibits the sincere ef-
forts of the two mechanics, Roscoe Gootee and
J. T. Henry, who performed the work and it is
truly representative of the outstanding quality
of work consistently performed by the E. L.
Thompson & Son, Inc., company."


Elraitsinumnl Avals



Architect William K. Jackson, AIA of Jackson-
ville was one of two recipients of the 1972
"Architect Community Service" Award. Jack-
son's activities in Community Affairs have
In early 1960 Mr. Jackson was the "prime
force" in getting a study committee established
through the Chamber of Commerce for review-
ing the needs of long range planning in the
Jacksonville area. Mr. Jackson was appointed
Chairman of this committee and it was largely
through the efforts of this committee that legis-
lation was developed and passed in the 1962
legislature which formed the Jacksonville Duval
Area Planning Board. Mr. Jackson was elected
the first Chairman of the Board and has been
reappointed to the Board (2 times) and re-
elected chairman since.
Some of the more significant accomplishments
of the Planning Board to date are:
1. Assembling, organizing and establishing a
technical staff along the lines of good business
2. Work and project studies preparatory to
completing the Comprehensive Land Use Plan.
This has been a 5 year project and will be
completed in 1973.
3. Coordination and assistance in the Jack-
sonville Urban Area Transportation Plan.
4. Completing and adopting a Comprehensive
Downtown Plan using the services of a nation-
ally recognized consultant.
5. Initiating and accomplishing an establish-
ment of a Downtown Authority charged with
the responsibility of implementing the Down-
town Plan.
6. Preparing and adoption by the city of a
Comprehensive Zoning Plan and Ordinance.
7. Establishing a Capital Improvements Plan
of projected needs in each city department over
a 5 year period, to be re-evaluated each year.
8. Establishing a Subdivision Code with final
review authority by the Board.
9. Community Appearance Studies.
10. Establishment of a Zoning Board.
11. Providing technical staff and assistance to
adjacent county governments on federal assis-
ted planning projects.
For a period of more than 12 years Mr. Jackson
has provided leadership, initiative and profes-
sional guidance to the planning process for the
community. It has been largely through his
initiative and continued work that planning
now enjoys respect and acceptance by the

Architect Community Service Award

Architect Thurston Hatcher, AIA of Miami, was
one of two recipients of the 1972 "Architect
Community Service" Award. Hatcher's activi-
ties in Community Affairs have included:
1. Founder and currently first President of
Florida's (and possibly the nation's) first Tree
Bank, a non-profit corporation whose purpose
is to collect unwanted trees and replant them
for public use on rights of way, streets, parks,
schools and other such areas.
2. Urged and seen both the City of Miami and
Dade County adopt Tree Preservation Ordin-
ances, based on provisions drafted basically by
Hatcher, which are designed to set up stiff fines
for developers or others who wantonly destroy
3. Led the fight seeking adoption by both the
City of Miami and Dade County of "incentive
zoning" which would permit developers to gain
additional square footage in certain areas in
return for them providing more setback, better
landscaping and other amenities above the re-
quirements of the Law. Urged and was instru-
mental in the establishment of City and County
Urban Development Review Boards.
4. Appeared as an expert witness for the City
without pay and furnished the Court with AIA
films on billboards when the City of Miami
went to Court to force a billboard firm to stop
violating city ordinances and to remove ele-
vated billboards from Biscayne Boulevard and
other areas.
5. Worked for almost a year with City of
Miami Planning Department officials in devising
a Planned Unit Development ordinance for the
City of Miami which would serve as a model for
the City and other governmental units in Dade
6. It was announced that a new Government
Center was to be built in downtown Miami,
providing office space for the State of Florida,
Dade County and the City of Miami, he and
other AIA leaders demanded that it be master
planned properly to avoid a hodge-podge of
buildings and that the greatest architects in the
nation be permitted to enter competitions to
select the architects.
7. Was named to an Auditorium Site Selection
Committee by Miami Mayor David T. Kennedy
to decide on the best possible location for a
City Auditorium, and organized an esquisse on
the auditorium site selection and organized four
AIA teams to make reports on four possible
sites for the auditorium.
8. Has spearheaded the move to change city
and county zoning laws to provide for profes-
sionals on zoning Boards.

Architect Community Service Award

Carl E. B. McKenry, Vice President of Aca-
demic Affairs for the University of Miami was
selected to receive the 1972 "Award of Merit."
Selection was based on the following:
1. As Director of the Center for Urban Studies
of the University of Miami from December,
1968 to January, 1972, Carl McKenry organ-
ized three programs involving architects -
A. Community Development Program
(Under Joe Middlebrooks, AIA)
B. Division of Applied Ecology (Under
Albert Veri, Landscape Architect and Associate
member of AIA)
C. Urban and Regional Planning Program
(Within Department of Architecture, University
of Miami)
2. As Director of the Center for Urban Studies
of the University of Miami, Carl McKenry has
become involved with architects at every oppor-
tunity, attended most meetings of the Florida
South Chapter and helped that Chapter to
organize and acted personally as moderator for,
three urban workshop cruises in 1969, 1970
and 1971.
3. As Director for the Urban Studies of the
University of Miami, Carl McKenry has been
instrumental in reorganization of the Center for
Urban Studies, the School of Engineering, and
the Architecture Department by assisting in the
selection of his architect successor, by inserting
environmental design into a newly organized
engineering department, and by assisting in the
removal of the Department of Architecture as
subordinate to Engineering, making possible at
the University of Miami a multi-discipline
approach to design.

Award of Merit


1973 FAAIA Officers

Left to right: Leslie Walker, Regional Director;
Frank R. Mudano, Vice-President President Desig-
nate; Thomas H. Daniels, President; James E.
Ferguson, Jr., Treasurer; Rudolph M. Arsenicos,

Anthony L. Pullara Memorial
State Member Award
Architect, Robert Boerema, AIA of Miami was
the recipient of the 1972 Anthony L. Pullara
Memorial-State Member Award. Boerema is
past president of the FAAIA. During the pres-
ent year, Boerema has represented the FAAIA
on two Committees at Tallahassee:
1. Professional advisor to the Joint Legislative
Management Committee regarding the Con-
struction of capital center project, specifically
legislative office buildings currently under con-
2. Appointee to fixed capital outlay advisory
committee for the Florida House of Represen-
The Joint Legislative Management Committee
recognized the need for a consulting architect
to advise them on the many facets of the Capi-
tal Center Project. Boerema's report to the
Committee after thorough investigation re-
vealed important items not previously included
in,the total construction program. At the re-
quest of the House of Representatives, Boerema
was appointed to represent the FAAIA on the
five man advisory committee to the sub-
committee on fixed capital outlay.

Anthony L. Pullara Memorial
State Chapter Award
The Florida Central Chapter, AIA (Hillsbo-
rough/Clearwater/St. Petersburg/Polk County)
was the recipient of the 1972 Anthony L. Pul-
lara Memorial-State Chapter Award. The Flor-
ida Central Chapter was selected to receive the
Award on the basis of its Chapter's activities.
1. Clearwater The members of the Clear-
water Section, long active in the downtown
redevelopment of Clearwater, donated over
$1,000 to bring the Urban Design Assistance
Team of the AIA to Clearwater for a Charrette
Study of their city. This visitation resulted in a
report and recommendations which will act as a
catalyst for planning action.
2. St. Petersburg/Clearwater The two Sec-
tions in Pinellas County cooperated with local
industry to present the annual Architects An-
nual Building Award Association Banquet to
recognize local architecture. The awards ban-
quet, attended by over 300 people, was high-
lighted by an address by Max O. Urbahn, FAIA,
President of the Institute and was attended by
visiting dignitaries of the Bulgarian Institute of
3. Tampa Initiation of Tampa Downtown
Development Committee which has been
appointed by the Mayor to serve as a standing
"Metropolitan Development Authority." The
Section is represented by two members on the
governing body. Coordinated with the City
Parking Authority and the City Engineering
Department to lead the way in providing aes-
thetically designed and functional bus shelters
and provided design services for the prototype
shelter. Presentation of a display in a local
department store show window in downtown
Tampa to depict, in sequence, the creative
design process employed by a typical Architec-
tural Office.
4. Student Chapter The Chapter sponsored
the formation of a Student Chapter at St.
Petersburg Junior College.
5. Tampa Downtown Mall As a result of a
"Why-Why Not" program sponsored by the
Chapter two years ago, the City of Tampa is
presently starting work on a 3 block mall in the
center of the downtown area, with design work
furnished by chapter members.


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City, State, Zip


- --,



You mentioned that under your con-
struction management division you
assumed responsibility for costs. Just how
much responsibility do you assume?
It varies. If a project is far enough
along in plans to where we can go to a
general contractor and get from him a
guaranteed maximum that is satisfactory
to us obviously that general contractor
has responsibility to deliver. But in that
case it is still our responsibility to super-
vise on a day to day basis, to be sure that
the construction is on schedule, and to be
sure that the contractor is doing every-
thing that he is responsible for doing.

Charles Luckmn

at the Convention

What advice would you have to give to
the young people here, the students who
are studying architecture who might wish
to go as architects into the development
I think I would start the answer by
saying that the architectural schools to-
day, like the American Institute of Archi-
tects, have faced reality. I think they are
tremendously improved. My first concern
is that whatever an architectural student
can do, whatever courses he can take,
whatever electives that will better fit him
for several areas, one of which should
have a recognition that costs to many
clients is important. Any courses that he
can take that will give him a greater feel
for people will be to his advantage. I feel
that if it is possible to work in a few
courses relating to business, it would be
most judicial. For young men and women
in architecture, you should know what
young practicing architects learn quickly
and rudely, and that is, it is one thing to
create an idea and it is another thing to
sell it, and if you can become somewhat
concerned, I know that to some of you
this sounds abhorrent, but if you want
your stuff built, you better think about
the guy that is going to buy it, otherwise
that beautiful idea will gather dust in the
vaults either at your own office or at
your own school, and if you stay with
that, you won't be in the practice of
architecture. And, lastly, that if you start
out knowing you want to do a project
within a budget, but that you want qual-
ity, you want it to have aesthetics, you
can do it.

Among the group are many young
men and many older practitioners who
would like to get into this developer/ar-
chitect phase of life. Could you give them
some advice as to how they might from a
small firm work into this method of busi-
ness relationship?
I don't think that it's difficult for a
small practicing architectural firm to get
into the development business if it really
wants to. If the sole objective is to make
money, I really would advise against it. If
it is to try to do something worthwhile
and also make money, I would recom-
mend for it. But start very modestly. It's
not difficult really if you have developed
a good name as an architect, a reputation
for character and integrity. It's not diffi-
cult to conceive a four unit apartment, to
talk to a bank, to work with a bank, and I
am really speaking from experience. We
did some of this is CLA before we be-
came part of Ogden. We got our hand wet
in this ocean of development. We did it
very carefully, very slowly, very modest-
ly. Don't, under any circumstances do it
without the advice of an accountant and
attorney. Build a reputation in the new
field as you have built in your present
field, and if you haven't built one in your
present field, you'll fail in the new field.


What could the future of the architect Few of us will have the ability to go
be, whether partnership or corporate, and into projects with the economic back-
if corporate, to keep the business man ground that you have, and will be com-
out of it at the head, the man who wants pulled to get capital from other investors
to make his money? in the project. I wonder what is a fair

I like everything about your question
except that last part about keeping the
business man out, I really wouldn't. I
don't think I could subscribe to keeping
him out. I could subscribe to the busi-
nessman in the firm, not necessarily being
the president but I would be awfully sure
that I had a very experienced man as vice
president in charge of money, meaning
your own money, as an architect. The
one thing that most of us learned the
hard way when we started practicing
architecture was that we had some abili-
ties in every direction except how to keep
track of the costs of our own jobs, our
own work, our own effort in relationship
to the fees we were getting. In other
words, how to make a little money as
well as how to have a tremendous enjoy-
ment of achievement of having something
come up out of the ground in which you
have had a hand. I believe myself that ten
years from now there will be only two
kinds of architectural firms: small firms, a
principal and three or four men, and very
large firms. I don't believe ten years from
now there will be medium size firms. The
reason is that there is now such a tremen-
dous demand for services not normally
within the province of architecture as it
has been known in the past. There are so
many of these demands made by all kinds
of clients, that I think it takes a rather
large firm with a rather large volume to
afford them all. I think you will see more
and more mergers of architectural firms
in the next ten years, which to some ex-
tent will be for the good. The reason that
there will always be the small firms is
because there will always be clients who
will succumb to the pitch "Look, I have a
small organization, you get me this job,
and I'm going to handstitch every bit of it
myself, I'm going to supervise every part
of it, I'll personally design it, watch
everything in the working drawings, and
when it is in construction. I'm going to
do everything myself." Forgive me for
calling it that, but unless you are a small
firm and you take on only one client at a
time it is a pitch, because if you have two
clients simultaneously, you are exagger-
ating. You cannot yourself, do it all. If
you have three, simultaneously, you are
misrepresenting, and if you have four,
you are lying.

amount TOr me architeci, as a developer,
to ask for his part in putting a project
together, apart from his architectural
services. What part of the project does he
have a right to demand?

There are no hard and fast rules. If I
take the premise of your question to be
that the architect is in fact the developer,
he is assuming the responsibility of the
role of developer, he is entitled first to a
normal architectural fee and he is entitled
to a normal developer's fee. A developer's
fee various much more than the archi-
tect's fee, based on the size of the pro-
ject. We have some projects in which our
developer fee is 2% of the total project
costs, which is not just the costs of bricks
and mortar, but the total cost of the in-
vestment, and we go up to about 5% in
our developer's fees. Now, the architect
to whom you have eluded, can take sever-
al positions if he wishes to and is able to.
First of all, it is not an uncommon prac-
tice to put your fees in as part of your
equity investment. If the project is not
going to actually pay the architect for the
cost of the services or pay him a develop-
er's fee, then an equal amount of what
those two fees would have totaled will be
his equity investment. If other people
have to be brought in to put capital in
and they have to put in an equal amount,
then it is obvious that the architect-deve-
loper is entitled to half of the project at
least. Now I say at least, because if you
are in fact the entrepreneur that has gone
out and put this whole thing together,
you can properly negotiate for more than
half. Let's go back now to the assumption
that you don't put your fees in, because
you have to live in this interim period,
and you need the money. In that case,
there are different ways of doing it, but
the percentages vary tremendously. For
example, I know of some architects who
have gotten into the development field,
who get their full fees, but get, let's say
for example, a, 10% ownership position
for having put the deal together as a
developer. They do not put in any money
for that but they own the 10% of the
project. Whenever you put money in,
which you can do separate from fees, you
then for that money get a proportionate
share. Now the 10%, hypothetical, what

do you get for putting the whole action
together, really varies, depending on how
far you put it together. If it is an embryo-
nic idea, you better take 3 to 5% and run
like a thief in the night. On the other
hand, if you take it to the point that you
really have a letter of intent from an
important tenant, and you have a letter
from the bank based on that they will
help you, and you have a letter of intent
from a lender, you are then in a position
to say, O.K. fellows, come in with some
money and for having done all this I am
entitled to 30 to 40% of the deal, and
you get 60% of the deal. There are in-
numerable permutations and combina-
tions here. This is why I stress two things
so carefully. Take it easy at the begin-
ning, and get damn good legal and ac-
counting advice.

What I would like to conclude with is
that I think we should have some place to
put our heart other than in our profes-
sion, and I think it should be in our coun-
try. We have a wonderful country, it is
still the land of opportunity. I think that
anyone who says that there are dead
alleys, does so only because they have
lazy minds. I think anyone who says we
are past the point of new horizons,
simply has no feel for the true substance
that has been built up here over nearly
200 years. It is my great conviction, from
my heart, that the only limitation on the
horizon of tomorrow is the vigor and vi-
tality of our imagination today. M


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"The driving force behind what I am
trying to do is make a contribution. Each
time and each era has its problems and we
can work in all kinds of different areas,
but there are certain areas that really re-
spond to the time and the age in which
we exist. The problem that we are faced
with today is our urban environment, our
cities, which have grown up from the
horse and buggy days, which have an
inter structure that we inherited and
which no longer functions. We can't go
off and leave them, there is no way. The
critical need that we have, not only in
this country but in every country, is
trying to take our existing urban areas
and re-structuring them in a way where
they become vital and viable in light of a
new social condition. That's where we
are, that's where I am, and that is why I
am doing the things that I am trying to
do. I feel that the contribution facing the
architectural profession is to recognize
that we have a physical or environmental
crisis in this country, and that decisions
are being made in all areas by people,
honestly but unknowingly, doing the
wrong things for the wrong reasons in the
wrong place. I think the architects offer
the hope of maybe creating some kind of
order out of this chaos but they can't do
it unless they broaden their base, unless
they become respected; respected by the
businessman, by the administrator, by the
financial institutions, as being someone
who is not only creative but also a prag-
matist. I like to coin the phrase, "Prac-
tical Idealist". I think the architect, cul-
turally, educationally, and every other
way is more qualified to be the leader of
physical development in this country
than anyone else.

"There is a thing called "building birth
cycle" and that means in the beginning
that something happens in somebody's
mind as to when they are going to build
something somewhere, until it goes
through the whole process of being com-
pleted, in operation and functioning. The
architect, as an architect, is only con-
cerned with one piece of this as it exists
today. I don't see anything different from
being able to work with finance people,
real estate people, feasibility study
people, management people, all of the
things that go to make this complete
cycle of the building birth cycle, than
working with a sound consultant, a light-

ing consultant or others. But somehow in
our profession, these things have been
sort of relegated as something we
shouldn't do. The same logic, the same
intellect that goes to put together a great
building, and all of the things that are
involved in doing that, is no different
than analyzing the other aspects related
to the creation from a feasibility or fi-
nancial point of view. There are no great
mysteries to it, it is simple only if you
open your mind and accept it as some-
thing that is within your possibility.
There has been a tendency in architecture
to look down with disdain unless you are
the design architect who lives in an ivory
castle and does these things that are
aesthetically pure and great monuments.

John Portman

at the Convention
"The day of the architectural monu-
ment and the jewel box is no longer
responsive to this time and this age. It
was responsive in the 50's when we were
coming out of World War II, and we were
trying to find ourselves, especially in
modern architecture. We were learning
new techniques, new technology, and we
were branching out into an era of great
building when there had been, during the
war, no building, so we needed some
isolated examples; but today, these iso-
lated examples are no longer responsive
to this world. What we are faced with
today is the total environment, not the
isolated buildings, even though the iso-
lated building is as important as it can be,
and hopefully we don't push that aside
and do it any less than we would have
done in any event. But we must broaden
our vision, we must broaden our base, we
must realize and understand the kind of
world we are living in and what are we
going to do as a profession to responsibly
face the issues, and the issues I am talking
about are the physical issues facing this
country. We have got to come back to the
human being and create a new kind of
environmental condition, one that is
worth living in, and this is what we are
attempting to do in the hearts of the
cities, to take the inherited interest struc-
ture, and see how we can adapt it and
take things and put them in their proper
order and proper place, recognizing and
trying to be responsive to the world as we
see it today.


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"I opened my office in 1953. I was
very distressed to find that a young archi-
tect had such a hard time finding work
back in those days, and ethically charging
the same fee as a firm that had been in
business for ten or twenty years or thirty
years. It was very tough, and not being
content doing classroom additions and all
the little remodeling jobs that come along
and little houses, I came upon a simple
thought, that if I came up with the idea, I
selected the location, I designed the facili-
ty and I could seek and obtain financing,
there would be no question about who
would be the architect. That sounds hum-
orous, but it is true, that's exactly how it
happened. The first project that I
attempted was a co-op medical building. I
won a P/A Award that year, 1954. It was
an architectural success and a promo-
tional fiasco. It was a failure. With that
experience, I came to the conclusion that
I could no longer have my failure caused
by what someone else does, so I decided
that what we would do, we would do the
whole thing. I would no longer be relying
on someone I had no control over and
put my heart and soul into an architec-
tural creation of some kind and then sit
back and pray and hope that it is a suc-
cess because of what somebody else does
or does not do. So, then came an oppor-
tunity, the building that was to become
the Atlanta Merchandise Mart.

"This really was the beginning, and I
have found that approaching a financial
or business problem or developmental
problem is no different than approaching
the design of a structure. The compli-
cated problems that you have in trying to
work out a good design, and create good
architecture, is a hell of a lot more diffi-
cult than putting all the pieces together
to come up with a financial package.
When you see all the idiots running
around in the development field and they
are doing it, don't underrate yourself.

"What are the advantages or disadvan-
tages of being an architect/developer?
The advantages are very clear. The advan-
tages are that I work for myself. It is
pretty good to go into conference with
yourself and say "Hey, should we do this
or shall we do that, and you have an
amazing meeting of the minds", and it
also spoils you. But really in taking and
moving from one hat to another hat,
what really makes a realist out of you is
when you have to go down to the bank
and sign your name on the back of the
note. You know then, that even though
you can be very imaginative and very
creative, you have got to be very practical
and very pragmatic, and you have got to
not get so carried away that you create a
wonderful monument that fails.

"I feel that the profession, and very
strongly so, is much like cities of this
country, we are riding on an old, anti-
quated, out-dated interest structure. It's
got to be changed, to recognize the new
conditions that exist today. In order to
do that means that we have to broaden
our base, if we are going to have a voice
and a say in what this world is going to be
like. It is either going to be great, or it is
going to be lousy. The developers are
taking over more and more of the re-
building of this country. Even the corpor-
ate entities are turning to the developers,
because most of the corporations are not
set up to do a proficient job, and are
beginning to recognize it. So when you
analyze what is happening, you know,
what's left. The doctor who builds a little
medical building, a little residence here
and there, which means, it is almost
insignificant in the totality of what the
building industry and the architectural.
profession is all about.

"I know that there is a trend now for
architects to work with developers and
take a percentage of ownership as a
partial payment of fee or all payment of
fee, or something of that nature. We have
never done that. We take the standard
fee, and everything that is done, is done
in arm's length position. The architectural
firm operates in a traditional architectural
capacity. We never confuse the develop-
mental posture with the architectural and
professional firm, even though it is the
same ownership. The tax people will get
you if you do it anyway. It is not good
from a pragmatic point of view anyway,
because each entity should justify its own
existence and stand on its own feet, so
therefore we have a consistent relation-
ship, and it just so happens that our
ownership position in developmental
projects so far never involves fee. The
reason that is true is that we are known in
the developmental circles as being a legiti-
mate bona fide developer as well as an
architect, and we make joint ventures
with other developers and that joint
venture entity turns around and retains
the architectural firm as if it was retaining
the architectural firm of a stranger. I
think this is very important, because if
you start leaning things and making com-
promises into various financial postures,
you are bound to ultimately get into
fiscal trouble.

John Portman, continued

"Advice to young architects? Stu-
dents, my advice is to analyze what the
building birth cycle is, to understand
growth patterns, understand feasibility
study, and once you establish growth
patterns, understand potentials, under-
stand the economics, the very basics of
real estate, land values and what the influ-
ence of land values are on to ultimate
developmental costs. Understand the fin-
ancial picture, and know what a change
of interest rate from 1 point to another
means, and the overall cost and the possi-
bility of being able to do a project. The
schools have got to begin to reconstruct
their programs so that we can turn out
professionals who can approach the total-
ity of physical change and physical con-
struction in this country, and then we
may begin to approach some sensibility in
this wild uncontrolled growth that has
been going on in this country.
You have to structure it in such a way
so that it relates to the building birth
cycle. You have to have legal advice,
financial advice, real estate advice. You
have to have feasibility studies, which
really go back into the financial feasibi-
lity of something happening in a given
place, you have to have management in-
put, whatever it is, because ultimately
you end up operating it on a day to day
basis. So the team, which covers this
whole cycle, can operate on what I call a
"main thrust theory". I don't want the
biggest organization in the world, and I
don't want bodies. I want brains. So the
idea of the main thrust is to take each of
the main categories and get the finest
man, much like a coach would build a
football team. The same is true in build-
ing an architectural/developmental organ-
ization, but the architect controls, the
architect is the leader. There has to be a
vision, there has to be a concept, there
has to be a philosophy." U


ioneering architects all over the United
states are expanding architectural ser-

ond their traditional role as designers,
ey are entering the decision and de-
ivery stage of building-in some cases
is co-owners, in others as consultants
Offering new client services in the crucial

decision-making processes which affect
a project's ultimate success.
The complexities of land acquisition,
mortgage financing, ethical implications,
liability insurance-author C. W. Griffin
explores them all in clear language. More
than a score of illustrations show graphic-
ally how the team approach works.

Retail $15.00, AIA Members $12.00. M-135. Order
from Document Dept., Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, 7100 N. Kendall Dr.,
Miami, Florida 33156.


If estimating costs from incomplete drawings is
so difficult, why are architects expected to be
as accurate, or more so, than contractors and
professional estimators?The answer: It is the
architect's responsibility to give his client accur-
ate professional advice. Estimating the cost of a
project is a very important part of that profes-
sional advice. That such service is difficult to
perform does not excuse the architect from
shoddy performance any more than a brain
surgeon who botches a difficult surgery.
Many large offices make a fetish of cost esti-
mating and cost control. On very large projects
requiring years to develop and years to con-
struct, there is good reason to evaluate the
work many times and exercise strict control
over design of details and specifications. Most
small office practitioners (SOP's) are not faced
with this requirement. However, the problems
relating to cost estimating is every architect's
chore, and the SOP must, usually, solve these
problems by himself. How can he do this with-
out a costly and elaborate system executed by a
staff of experts? For the answer to this ques-
tion this paper is written.
The following lists the characteristics of an
architect's estimate of probable cost of a
(1) The Estimate Must Be Based On Incom-
plete Information: during the schematic phase,
only the most fundamental decisions have been
made and these only tentatively; during the
design development phase, fundamental decis-
ions are firmly set, but there are still many
decisions on finishes and equipment tentatively
made or not made at all.
(2) The Variation Of Conditions To Be Pre-
dicted are wilder than selecting the place-horse
at the race track. A teahouse is not just another
teahouse. One teahouse is built on piling sitting
in the cattails on the edge of a silty lake, built
in the winter; in a resort town as still as death
during winter, and labor is cheap; another is
built on a suburban estate near a large city,
with much building activity, union workers in
H el K FAIA short supply and it's spring when the fishing is
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA fine. Although the design of each teahouse is
almost identical, the variations of conditions

Cost Estimating the Architects' Way

For many years architects have shouldered a
little-deserved reputation for being very bad
estimators of the cost of projects for their cli-
ents. That other groups could do better esti-
mating made no difference. Give general con-
tractors a set of schematic sketches and a
construction outline for an estimate and,
depending on the number of general contrac-
tors and how many of them had done identical
work for your office previously, their estimates
will vary 100%. Even bidding by contractors on
completed bidding documents show differences
of 10 to 15%, sometimes 20%, between low and
high bidder.


due to site, season, labor and material market
influences the cost considerably.
(3) Parameters Are Perhaps Unique To Archi-
tects; only appraisers have similar parameters,
but appraisers apply their parameters on things
that exist, architects on things in the mind of
the designer. Architects make good appraisers
(many architects have served as damage apprais-
ers for insurance companies during the after-
math of disasters), but appraisers are not good
estimators for architects. Neither are contrac-
tors' estimators. Their parameters are in terms
of quantities of materials and hours of labor.
(4) Most Of The Time, The Architect's Fee Is
Based On The Estimate.
(5) It Is The Vehicle Of Disillusionment For
Both Architect And Client. The cost estimate
brings reality to the euphoria in which most
architectural projects are born. An adequate
budget suddenly is tight; a happy client is told
to get more money or shave his requirements
which makes him unhappy; the unhappy client
looks, neither for more money or to fewer
requirements, but for a scapegoat (usually the
architect, but sometimes his wife or partner or
assistant, all with whom the architect must
relate his work); and the architect's manhood
and diplomacy are tested.
The task of meeting the requirements that these
characteristics of project cost forecasting re-
quire is the acquiring and using of parameters
that are current, applying to a wide variety of
building types, reflecting the variations of local
conditions, accounting for the architects' design
idiosyncrasies, and are adaptable for estimates
of projects in other regions. For the SOP the
parameters must also be easily developed and
its currency maintained without a staff of ex-
perts and an inordinate expenditure of time and
One method for developing reliable parameters
exploits the use of the schedule of values,
which nearly every architect requires from the
contractor, of parts of the work, totalling the
lump sum of the contract; and in which profit
and overhead are not separate items, but in-
cluded in the value items of the overall break-
down. The architect uses this as a basis for
determining the validity of the contractors'
requisitioned amounts for payment entitled
under the contract from time to time.
Since the architect describes the form and the
items of work to be listed in the schedule of
values, it is easy for him to list the work in a
breakdown which will give him the cost para-
meters he needs. It is desirable to break down
the work in units of assemblies that are general
arnd adaptable to many projects of many
building types. Unique finishes (such as "mar-
ble paving") should not be included in unit
assemblies, unless, of course, a large percentage


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Cost Estimating, continued

of the architect's projects includes acres of
marble paving. When the contractor submits his
value figures for each item of work, the archi-
tect needs to do two things to obtain real-live
cost figures for the kind of work he designs.
First, determine the area and volume (com-
puted according to AIA Document D 101) and
divide the numbers into the lump sum of the
contract less the value of the foundations and
site work. This provides the architect with valid
parameters for the square foot cost and cubic
foot cost of a building type of his design, in his
locale under certain conditions of season and
market. Dividing the area into the foundation
cost provides equally valid unit costs. The same
can be done for site work, but use such unit
cost with especial care. For estimating cost dur-
ing the schematic phase of the work a collec-
tion of such parameters for various building
types are very reliable and useful.

Secondly, the architect determines the in-place
units in which he desires parameters for each
item of work listed in the schedule of values;
calculates the number of each in the project,
divides these numbers into their corresponding
values. This results in a collection of in-place
unit costs particularly adaptable to estimates at
the design development phase. Note that these
parameters are for total cost of assemblies of
work a complete door assembly, or window
in-place, or square foot of block wall complete.
Thus the unit cost for a block wall includes the
cost of the block, mortar, furring, lath, stucco
and plaster, paint, skilled craftsmens' and help-
ers' wages, scaffolds, mixing machines, masonry
saws, and profit and overhead for contractor
and subcontractors involved. Such parameters
are great time savers for estimating any project,
regardless of type, having components represen-
ted by these unit costs.

An accumulation of such experience factors can
refine the parameters but the passing of time
changes the validity of any parameter. An SOP
must know when to borrow an "Engineering
News-Record Cost Index" from a friend or
local library to find the cost differential from
year to year of construction in his region and
adjust his parameters periodically. This will
keep them fresh and the architect out of

Please note that the task after the breakdown
for the list of work in the schedule of values
requires only a junior-high-school level of math-
ematical genius. An SOP might even entice his
wife into doing it for him as a sort of game
adults play. Once one has started to evaluate
each project and has kept a notebook on the
parameters developed, estimating becomes
routine and easy. Such experience factors be-
come good trading material also. Swap some of
your parameters for those of another architect
who has completed a project using construction
you might use and for which you have no cur-
rent parameters.

The final estimate at completion or near-
completion of bidding documents should be an
adjustment of the design development phase
estimate. Sometimes the client, for reasons best
known to himself, will want a detail forecast of
the bidding. Such an estimate should be done
by the quantity take-off/time estimate multi-
plied by current market costs, plus the job
mobilization, accessory construction and ser-
vice costs; shop drawings, insurance, employee
benefits and other overhead costs; contin-
gencies (at least 3 to 5%); and profit. An SOP
wastes precious time on such an estimate (it's
more like an unsubmitted bid than an esti-
mate). He should buy such an estimate from a
professional estimator. If the estimator is local
and can sell the quantity survey to bidders later
during the bidding period, then such an esti-
mate should not be expensive.

However, if the SOP insists on doing such a
detailed survey of his project in his office, he
should subscribe to one or more of the com-
mercial cost data systems. These systems give
national, or regional average costs for materials
and various classes of labor, estimates of time
spent to do units of work, and other costs need-
ed to estimate project cost. Some have indices
showing the variation from the average costs for
various geopraphic areas. Some are beginning to
include in-place cost data where the major
elements or a structure (floors, walls, electrical
lighting, plumbing, air conditioning, partition-
ing, etc.) are given unit square foot or square
yard costs for each of the elements. These have
extra value to the architect for his collection of
parameters. Remember always that the figures
are averages over a wide assortment of projects,
many of which have now resemblance to the
class and type of work SOP's design. Test the
systems on local projects and adjust the figures
according to the findings.

Three such cost data systems have been widely
used in Florida; all three need astute modifi-
cations to reflect local markets and conditions;
all three require renewed subscriptions for
accuracy of current cost trends. These are:

Means Building Construction Cost Data
Robert S. Means Co., P. O. Box 36
Duxbury, Mass., 02332

ENR Construction Cost Index
Engineering News-Record
330 W. 46th St.
New York, N. Y. 10036; $10.00

Construction Pricing and Scheduling Manual
Dodge Building Cost Services
McGraw-Hill Information Systems Co.
330 W. 42nd St.
New York, N. Y. 10036; $11.95

For excellent advice on methods for control
and estimating building costs, read Chapter 5
by George E. Kassabaum, FAIA and Chapter 13
by Bernard J. Grad, FAIA in "Creative Control
of Building Costs," edited by William Dudley
Hunt, Jr. for American Institute of Architects,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1967. The
key to estimating and cost control is validity of
data. Adopt a simple system for continuous
input of valid data, be frank with clients as to
the sources and accuracy of that data, and
honestly apply sound professional judgment. In
cost estimating the architects' way, to be overly
conservative is as wicked as underestimating.
Projects that are overestimated do not give the
client all the project his budget dollar will buy.
The architect who makes such an estimate will
find no more comfort than one who under-
estimates his projects' costs. U

Means Building Construction Cost Data
Robert S. Means Co., P.O. Box 36
Duxbury, Mass., 02332

ENR Construction Cost Index
Engineering News-Record
330 W. 46th Street
New York, N.Y. 10036; $10.00

Construction Pricing and Scheduling Manual
Dodge Building Cost Services
McGraw-Hill Information Systems Co.
330 W. 42nd Street
New York, N.Y. 10036; $11.95

Building Stone Institute

-the national association of stone quarriers,
fabricators, dealers and contractors-

will meet for their

54th Annual Convention

February 12-15, 1973

Hilton Inn


* * *

The convention program includes a comprehensive
display of all types of natural stone for interior
and exterior design, structural and landscaping

Architects and members of their staffs are
cordially invited to join us for Cocktails and
see the exhibits on Monday, February 12th at 5 P.M.

R.S.V.P. I) Building Stone Institute
420 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York, 10017
(212) 532-9477


Building Stone Institute
Dantzler Lumber & Export Company
Dunan Brick Yards, Inc.
31 (Third Cover)
Florida Gas- CBS Panel Division
General Portland, Inc.
2 (Second. Cover)
Hymar Stone Corporation
International Merchandise Mart
Interstate Supply Corporation
Mail Order Mart
PPG Industries
Pavlow Office Furniture, Inc.
Splendid Graphics
Tampa Electric Company
Kurt Waldmann, Architectural Photographer
Walton Wholesale Corporation
Wolf Laurel


This is a continuation of enrollment status at
U.F.. The first appeared in the Nov.-Dec. '71
issue of the Florida Architect.
Richard H. Morse, AIA
Assistant Professor of Architecture

It has been a year since this journal
reported to you the selective admissions
policies of the University of Florida.
Since that time we have experienced a
full academic year of limited enrollment
and have embarked on a second year
under very nearly the same conditions
and limitations. Perhaps a recap and an
up-dating is in order.
The conditions of limited space and
faculty which brought about our need for
limited enrollment have been recognized
and alleviated somewhat. Additional grad-
uate assistant positions will free some
faculty positions and give us a net gain in
faculty. Additional classrooms have been
assigned to the Department and this will
help us keep course enrollment within a
manageable level. Most of these increased
facilities however are absorbed by the
growing graduate enrollment.
A maximum of 200 juniors has been
established as allowable for the Depart-
ment to serve and still maintain quality
educational levels. Within this total 130
are architecture students, 40 in Interior
Design and 30 in Landscape Architecture.
In the selection procedures an additional
5% to 10% is accepted to allow for ac-
cepted applicants who for a variety of
reasons do not come for the quarter in
which they are accepted. This is always a
guess based on past history and a bad
guess results in problems in balancing in-
dividual courses. The balancing of course
sections becomes quite delicate when
working with these numbers of students.
As a particular example, two structures
sections were recently planned to serve an
estimated 60-70 students with the as-
sumption each section would take 30-35
students. These sections ended up with
47 in one and 22 in the other because of
the combination of other courses these
students choose to take. Prior to 1970 a
situation like this might have been re-
solved by an adjustment in teaching loads
in order to make another structures
teacher available at the time of this class
and by finding an available classroom.
The large section would be split and this
last minute adjustment would go almost
unnoticed. For the past two years all sec-
tions are maximum levels and teaching
schedule adjustments are almost impos-



at the




Part of this particular situation is due
to the freedom of choice we try to allow
the students in their selection of courses.
The Architecture curriculum is not rigid.
There are certain numbers of courses the
student must take each year and the com-
bination each chooses is by individual
desire, restricted only by pre-requisite re-
quirements. Under our new four year
baccalaureate program three required
architecture courses are proposed each
quarter along with an elective. These
electives are a free choice of the student,
with some counseling, but are non-
architecture courses. The Department can
offer almost no electives as the total ef-
fort must be devoted toward the required
The selection process takes place at
the junior level and is based upon criteria
established in the winter 1971. The
source of junior students is from a two-
year college experience. During these-two
years certain pre-professional courses are
required, but within the state only three
institutions offer these courses; U.F., U.
of Miami, and Miami-Dade Junior Col-
lege. Applicants from these schools can
prepare themselves completely for junior
level professional courses and are con-
sidered in a slightly different manner than
are applicants without a background in
these specific courses. Applicants from all
other Florida institutions cannot have
this complete block of pre-professional
work and must be so considered. Appli-
cants from out of state non-architectural
programs and those wishing to change
from a different discipline do not have
this pre-professional background either
and must be so considered. These are the
sources with which the selection criteria
must deal and in as fair a manner as is
The basic requirement for acceptance
as an architecture student is a 2.0 grade
point average (C) in all previous college
work. A second requirement is com-
pletion of all the freshman and sopho-
more courses. This is tempered due to
course availability at the applicants
parent institution but no exceptions are
made for other than pre-professional
architecture work. In an effort to main-
tain some of the basic direction of archi-
tecture at U.F., a non-Florida resident or
an applicant who is already enrolled in an
architectural program are given a lower
priority. Applicants seeking a second
baccalaureate degree receive a second pri-
ority in deference to those who have not
yet had the opportunity to earn their first
degree, and those wishing to change from
a different major are considered in a low-
er priority. CONTINUED


Within these criteria are many more
applicants than can be accepted. The
judgement of a selection committee is
employed and review of performance and
potential is used to determine selection.
The texture of an applicants prior college
experience, while difficult to explain, can
be very significant in the selection pro-
cess. The following tables show the selec-
tion summary for the 1971-72 academic

1971-72 Number of Did not
(Architecture only) Applications Accepted Denied Show

U.F. Lower Division 76 50 26 1
Miami-Dade Jr. College 57 42 15 7
Other Junior Colleges 98 40 58 9
Totals 231 132 99 17

While not included in the maximum
number of juniors, those without the
total pre-professional requirements must
be programmed as to when they will be
making demands on the junior courses.
Most of these applicants are from Florida
junior colleges; a vitally important part of
the Florida educational process. These
students must make up three to five pre-
professional courses at U.F. and this can
be accomplished in two or three quarters.
This adds some time to their baccalaure-
ate career but can usually be made up
during one or two summer sessions.
Thus far, the selection criteria and pro-
cesses employed have been adequate to
contain the enrollment within the maxi-
mums allowed. Further restrictions are
not being considered at this time.
Selection of applicants is made as
quickly as possible but is a very time con-
suming process. Up to date count of en-
rollment predictions are available through
enrollment statistics each quarter and
pre-enrollment statistics in the middle of
each quarter. Applications for September
'72 arrived as early as December '71. All
review was held until February and March
for up to date enrollment statistics of cur-
rent students. Most selection was com-
pleted by May or June but applications
continued to come in through July. Selec-
tion is not made on a first come first
serve basis and some marginal applicants
were delayed due to the prospect of bet-
ter qualified applicants arriving at a later
date. As of August 1, 1972 the following
table indicates the result of the selection
process for the Fall '72 quarter.

Fall 1972 Number of Did not
(Architecture Only) AoDlications Accepted Denied Show

U.F. Lower Division 51 42 9 0
Miami-Dade Jr. College 51 40 11 3
Other Junior Colleges 113 40 73 6
Totals 215 122 93 9

Limited Enrollment, continued

During this past year the Department
of Architecture has lived with a number
of frustrations. It is frustrating to see well
qualified young people denied an op-
portunity to study architecture at U.F. It
is frustrating for the faculty to have
teaching loads such that their involve-
ment in special studies electives and
experimental teaching ideas must be
curtailed. It is frustrating to schedule 22
students into a lab space containing 20
student stations. By our own criteria we
have forfeited some of the "cosmo-
politan" atmosphere created by students
from various geographical backgrounds,
prior study in different areas, and perhaps
a span in age among students. We have
almost lost the opportunity to provide a
"second chance" to students who do not
do well in their first college experience or
choose to change their field of study. A
great amount of University effort is ex-
pended in evaluation, review, counseling,
and advisement due to curtailed enroll-
ment. And perhaps a major frustration
which we cannot yet measure, is the cur-
tailed growth in graduating architects,
landscape architects and interior
designers. U


We et #

Our Three Ingredients...

Concrete, Imagination, Know-How...


We also doe r .





*f we doe't hae "e e materat you wanat-- we'lt try to mwae or 9et it/



1818 North 7th Avenue
Lake Worth, Florida
(305) 582-5760

P. O. Box 5
Miami, Florida
(305) 887-1525


r ,! ; *. . .. .. ,
Arohlteeture and Allied Arts Library
taLvtreati of Florida
OimnowllVl. e a. b

7100 N. Kendall Drive
Miami, Florida 33156
Accepted As Controlled Circulation
Publication at Miami, Florida

Four myths



"Ib the
architect, time
is no object.
The truth is that
in the new science of
fast construction, it is
architects who are the
pioneers. Using new
techniques like"Fast
Track" and "Critical
Path," they are
meeting and even
beating some
murderous deadlines.
At the site for
Memorex's huge new
headquarters in
Santa Clara,
California, architects
had steelwork up in
weeks, the first
products rolling off
assembly lines within
9 months, and the
entire complex (4
buildings, which won
awards for their good
looks) finished inside
of years!

"He loves to
spend your
money because
his fee is a
The truth is that
architects today will
often negotiate a fixed
fee before they begin
work. But the
architect who did
Cities Service Oil's
headquarters in 'Ilsa
was working for the
traditional percentage.
He found a way to use
the outer walls as a
truss, thus reducing
the cost of the building
by $1,000,000
clipping a sizable sum
off his own fee!

"His estimate
is an under-
The truth is that
despite the dizzying
impact of inflation,
architects' estimates
have proved to be
surprisingly realistic.
A random sampling
of 25 architectural
projects in North
Carolina last year
showed that final
construction costs
were $3,195,843
under the architects'
original estimates.
And there's no reason
to believe that North
Carolina's architects
are any shrewder
than the rest.

"He cares more
about the way it
looks than the
way it works
Ten businessmen
who've dealt with
architects recently
have taken the
trouble to demolish
this myth. They
describe how their
architects gave them.
buildings that work
in ways they would
never have thought
of themselves, and
we've put their stories
into a booklet.We'll
send you a copy, free:
Just drop a card to
Florida Association of
the American Institute
of Architects, 7100 N.
Kendall Drive, Miami,
Fla. 33156.
(It happens to be a
good-looking booklet,
a< well )

I? -

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