W A A Flo
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Florida Chapter Officers at the AIA Grassroots Meeting
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
FAAIA OFFICERS FOR 1972
Richard E. Pryor, AIA, President
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Thomas H. Daniels, AIA, Vice President/
425 Oak Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
James E. Ferguson, Jr., AIA, Secretary
4221 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Florida 33146
S Frank R. Mudano, AIA, Treasurer
1189 N. E. Cleveland Street
Clearwater, Florida 33515
1972 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Ellis W. Bullock
Arnold F. Butt
John W. Dyal
John T. Dye
Rudolph J. Fletcher
Robert G. Graf
Robert B. Greenbaum
Donald R. Hampton
Oscar A. Handle
A. Reese Harvey
James B. Holliday
C. Frasuer Knight
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Howarth L. Lewis, Jr.
James D. McGinley, Jr.
Wiley M. Parker
Roy L. Ricks
William K. Rinaman
Nils M. Schweizer
Frank D. Shumer
Kenardon M. Spina
William R. Upthegrove
Francis R. Walton, FAIA
Robert L. Woodward
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., FAIA
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables
Smith & Moore
P. O. Box 1169
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Ted P. Pappas
Charles E. Pattillo III
Richard J. Veenstra
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Kurt Waldmann / Photography
COVER: POSTERIZATION, a new photographic process,
produced a graphic representation of the Eastern Air Lines
Air Training Center, Miami. Herbert H. Johnson Associates,
Architects. Photo by Mark Hampton, FAIA.
4 Guild for Religious Architecture Design Exhibit
9 University of Florida News
12 The Use of Interior Designers by Florida Architects
16 How to Get Architectural Commissions /
H. SAMUEL KRUSE', FAIA
18 Portrait/Of An Active Chapter
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal
of the Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Corpora-
tion not for profit. It is published bi-monthly at
the Executive Office of the Association, 1000
Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida
33134. Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material may
be reprinted provided full credit is given to the
author and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
and copy is sent to publisher's office. Con-
trolled circulation postage paid at Miami,
Florida. Single copies, 75 cents, subscription,
$6.50 per year. 1971 Member Roster available
at $10.00 per copy. 1971 Directory of Archi-
tectural Building Products & Services available
at $1.50 per copy.
A competition and exhibit of religious architecture is planned
for the 33rd Annual Conference of the Guild for Religious
Architecture to be held at the Regency Hyatt House in Atlanta,
Georgia, April 26 through 28, 1972.
The purpose of the competition is to recognize outstanding
works in the field of religious architecture constructed after
1967 and those projects now in the final planning stages. Those
projects receiving awards will become a part of the Guild's
Traveling exhibit and honor award recipients will be published
in Faith & Form, the Journal of the Guild for Religious Archi-
The Conference theme, "New Spaces for the Gathering Com-
munity", will be discussed in its several aspects at a new kind
of coming together.
The "convocation", which will be an exciting happening in the
23 story space of the Regency Hyatt, calls the community to
the work of the conference.
The "participation" will consist of two plenary and three con-
frontation sessions dealing with real issues of the moment in
which the people go through a three step process of identifying
resources, working with creative alternatives in a multi-media
fashion and posing an innovative summation for the total group.
The final coming together is in terms of a magnificent "celebra-
tion" of a new day and time.
The Conference invites participants which will include archi-
tects, artists, craftsmen, clergy and administrators from both
the national and local level.
In addition to the architectural exhibit, there will also be a
competition and exhibit of religious arts and crafts and a dis-
play of the products used in many religious buildings.
Architects involved with the design of religious buildings are
invited to exhibit and participate in the Conference For com-
petition rules and information write to: Henry H. Smith, A.I.A.,
Chairman of Architectural Exhibit Committee, Suite 621, 615
Peachtree Street, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30308. Deadline for
submitting entry information is March 30, 1972.
For Conference program information and pre-registration forms
write to: Guild for Religious Architecture, 1346 Connecticut
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Plaza Terrace, Salt Lake City, Utah Architect: Holland, McGill & Pasker Owner-Builder: Bettilion Constr. Co
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Proposed Schedule Professional Development Programs
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PDP III April 20
PDP IV April 21
PDP V June 1-2-3
PDP VI August 18-19
PDP VII September 22-23
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The student AIA chapter at the University of Florida is one
means of getting involved. The chapter attempts to offer to
students and professionals a way to get together a means
of working together on projects which they feel are im-
portant that they may benefit the university, the city,
or the state.
The SAIA chapter members conducted a very successful
membership drive at the beginning of Winter Quarter, 1972,
where we gained almost seventy-five new members. We have
worked extensively on putting together a schedule of activ-
ities from which we hope to channel some of our energies
into creative efforts. Perhaps the most exciting event in the
near future is EXPERIENCE '72,a program planned for
both students and professionals. We also have an active job-
placement information service in addition to slide shows we
would like to make available to AIA chapters throughout the
state. If you or your chapter would like to visit our campus
and become involved in our activities and programs, please
contact me. Have a nice day!
LYN POLLOCK, PRESIDENT
STUDENT CHAPTER AIA
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601
On March 3rd and 4th, the architecture students of the Uni-
versity of Florida and the Architectural Guild will sponsor, in
conjunction with the Southern Regional A.I.D. convention,
an EXPERIENCE. The promotion of professional and student
relations on a common ground will be our goal for a two-day
experience on the Gainesville campus.
The program will include:
1) Design competitions between joint teams of professionals
and students. Through this program, we hope to achieve
the tools for creative communication.
2) Exhibitions of work done by each professional attending,
for student viewing and discussion.
3) Exhibitions of student projects in the division of Archi-
tecture, Interior Design, and Landscape Architecture.
The world of academic architecture almost becomes non-
existant without the influence of professional realities. The
only way EXPERIENCE '72 can be a success is with your help;
we hope each architect will participate to make EXPERIENCE
'72 a lasting experience.
news and activities
This year's Grassroots East Convention, held in Washington,
D.C., was attended by more than one hundred seventy eastern
region A.I.A. directors, officers, and student (ASC/AIA) rep-
resentatives. The University of Florida's SAIA was fortunate
to have three students present at the two-day conference held
on January 7th and 8th at the Statler Hilton. Funds for this
worthwhile trip were assisted by the FAAIA and the Archi-
tectural Guild, whose interest and support has made it possible
for students to participate in many such programs. Also pres-
ent at the meetings were twenty-nine Florida AIA officers,
providing the students with much encouragement for future
student field trips to their respective cities and advice on pro-
grams and activities available to the SAIA's. General informa-
tion about their chapter's activities and the state of the arch-
itectural profession were also reviewed.
Discussion periods held during the two-day program included
such important aspects of the profession as: professional
practice, employer-employee relations, institute operations,
NCARB, public and government relations, and the National
Policy Task Force report. These discussion groups were led
by AIA officers, AIA staff members, and specialists in the
varied fields. Between sessions, students were able to confer
with these members about specific topics in efforts of learning
more about the programs and counciling services available
through the AIA. Reports on these discussions are then in-
cluded in the University of Florida's student publication
"FEEDBACK", and at the regular SAIA meetings, to inform
other students of this student/professional liaison.
How do you put twelve men into eleven tubes for six months
in outer space? That was the problem tackled by seven fourth-
year architecture students during the Fall Quarter, 1971.
Under the guidance of visiting Assistant Professor James R.
Boyce, a special studies design course was offered to students
who wished to enter the nation-wide NASA-AIA sponsored
competition for the design of the configuration and interior
spaces of the U.S.A.'s first orbiting space lab. Guidelines and
constraints were issued to the participants by NASA which
dictated their present conception of the technology involved
in the projected 1980 project. Such information included
the use of eleven tubes 58 feet in length and 14 feet in dia-
meter. These tubes would be assembled on the ground and
transported, one at a time, into space by a shuttle craft
presently being developed by NASA. Students were expec-
ted to work with the eleven tubes in the configuration for
the overall plan for the space station. All habitable interior
spaces were to be designed for maximum safety, flexibility,
The students first encountered a problem in locating neces-
sary background information. Ideas for all the elements
from oven to water-closet had to be researched and designed.
Another massive problem encountered was the attempt to
design for a non-gravity situation when you have never ex-
perienced it yourself. Other design considerations included:
the psychological impact on twelve people alone in space,
their relationship to each other, and their daily lives within
a machine for a six-month period of time.
The competition proved itself to be a difficult undertaking.
Some students chose to discontinue work on the project
after this first quarter. The remaining students are now
pursuing their design work during this winter quarter, 1972,
in an effort to meet the May 10, 1972, deadline for entering
On February 4th and 5th, a group of students from our de-
partment will be visiting the Jacksonville area. Plans for the
activities there include: spending the afternoon in the offices
of local architects, and an evening dinner and rap session get
together for students and architects sponsored by the Jack-
sonville Chapter AIA. Tours of Jacksonville's notable archi-
tecture and civic developments are also included in the plans.
We are most interested in arranging similar visits to other AIA
chapter areas throughout the state. We welcome your inquiry
Fall Quarter, 1971, brought six newly appointed faculty
members to the Department of Architecture. These new
additions to the teaching staff will be an asset in the depart-
ment's continuing efforts to meet the demands of an ex-
panded student enrollment, recently vacated positions, and
new approaches to course teaching.
HARRY COMPTON, is a visiting professor from California
Polytechnic Institute. He has worked and taught in Kansas.
He received his Bachelor of Science in Architecture and
Master of Fine Arts from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
and is currently teaching design and graphic communication
CARL FEISS, is a planning and urban design consultant most
recently from Washington, D.C. He received his Bachelor of
Architecture from the University of Pennsylvania and his
Master of City Planning from MIT. He is currently teaching a
special studies course in urban design.
MAE.LEE FOSTER, came to the University of Florida from
a teaching position at the University of Bridgeport, where she
received her Bachelor of Science. She attended Tyler School
of Art and Temple University in Philadelphia where she re-
ceived her Master of Fine Arts. She is currently teaching de-
sign and graphic communication courses.
OSCAR LARRAURI, is a graduate from our own school of
architecture. He received his Master of Architecture at the
University of Florida specializing in structural systems. He
is currently teaching structures and environmental technology
KENT MIKALSEN, received his Bachlor of Arts at the Uni-
versity of South Florida, and his Master of Fine Arts in
sculpture at the University of Florida. He is currently
teaching graphic communication.
GORDON YAGER, left his private practice in Ohio after
fifteen years of working in that state. He received his
Bachelor of Architecture from Ohio State University; and
is completing his thesis for a Master of Architecture from
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, where he also taught. He is
currently a visiting assistant professor teaching specifications
Arnold Butt and Brock Hamacher are continuing to gather
information for the study of training programs for architec-
tural students and graduates. Their early findings were pre-
sented to the Southern Conference of NCARB at the Depart-
ment of Architecture in Gainesville on November 11 and 12,
1971, with 55 representatives of architectural schools and
state registration boards in the ten Southern states present.
They were requested to continue their study for a second
presentation at the regional convention of the Southern Con-
ference of NCARB to be held in April, 1972. To get addi-
tional information, questionnaires were submitted to each
person taking the state registration examination in the
Southern states; and each examinee was given a question-
naire to carry back to his employer. The returns of this sur-
vey are probably going to number over 1,000. Publication
of the results of this work will be done this spring prior to
the scheduled NCARB national convention.
As a result of the work of the Southern Conference of
NCARB, the national organization has become interested
in the information gathering techniques and Arnold Butt
was appointed to a national committee, chaired by Bill
Muchow, FAIA, to study ways in which the information
can be funnelled directly to the National Planning Com-
Stimulating students' learning with exposure to current
projects and works by the professionals is a valuable part
of the educational spirit at the University of Florida. Asking
visiting architects to participate in design and technologies
projects has brought active response, with the result that
architects often bring proposed or current jobs for student
participation as class projects.
In addition, professionals in architecture, landscape archi-
tecture, and interior design regularly are asked to visit the
department to present and discuss their work, their opinions,
and offer their advice to students and faculty in the "visiting
lecture series." During the Fall Quarter, 1971, slide shows
and talks were presented by: Donald Singer, architect, of
Ft. Lauderdale; Warren Smith, structural engineer, from
Miami; and William Morgan, architect, from Jacksonville.
On January 12, 1972, Richard Hedman, the principal plan-
ner for urban design with the city of San Francisco, presented
a slide show and discussion on the San Francisco Urban De-
sign Plan. On January 30th, Dirk Bornhorst, from Caracas,
Venezuela, will be on campus. He is Design Professor at the
Central University of Venezuela in Caracas, and maintains
his own practice in that city. He is the principal architect
for Volkswagon Works in Venezuela. He has done much
work on industrialized building systems in Venezuela, and
was the architect for Helecoid, a commercial development
also in Venezuela.
We welcome your suggestions for future lecturers and visit-
ing critics. Perhaps someone in your area would be inter-
ested. Please write:
C/O DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601
The challenge to professional and student alike is the
awareness of society to its environment.
Without the combined efforts of FAAIA and Student AIA
Chapters this task will never be accomplished. If we are
the present and future professionals, we must begin to take
the lead in this field. It has come time when professional
stops confronting professional, and the student becomes a
vital part of the organization, instead of living in the academ-
The professionals of this state carry the vehicle to set forth
the beginnings; they are the ones who have to everyday
answer the question, "Just how does this effect the environ-
ment and society we live in?" The student now possess the
ability to analyze the questions by the multi-discipline ser-
vices available at a common resource base: the University.
The time has come that we join together to answer the need
or else the opportunity will pass us by.
I would like to encourage each professional to review the
projects he has undertaken. Do they measure up to this
leadership attitude? Have you considered the problems of
the environment? Have you created the awareness which we
are responsible for as professionals? Then ask yourself what
is going to happen to the future professional; Have you pro-
vided the example he can look at and be proud of his chosen
Let us begin to work together, to take a good look at the
university which educates the Architect of the future. Do
we have the same goals? Can we carry on the leadership of
this awareness to society? And can we do it without your
PERRY J. READER
SOUTH ATLANTIC ASC/AIA REGION
Our goal is to provide varied publications which will give
you an opportunity to read about some of the activities which
occur within our Department. Our aim is to maintain meaning-
ful communication with practicing architects and engineers and
civic leaders. For further information or to write your com-
ments, please contact:
CHARLES CHASE, PUBLISHER
KATHERINE DURHAM, EDITOR
ARCHITECTURAL STUDENT PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
C/O DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601
In the fall of 1969, a study was undertaken at the Florida State
University by Mrs. Lavinia Englert, a master's degree candidate
in Housing and Interior Design, and Dr. Mary Jo Weale to deter-
mine the use of Interior Designers by Florida Architects. The
purpose of the study was to ascertain the following:
1. The awareness of the need for a unity in the complete de-
sign process between interior designers and architects;
2. The extent of the need for cooperation between interior
designers and architects;
3. The frequency of employment of interior designers by
4. The person who performs the duties of the interior de-
signer when one is not consulted by an architect;
5. The architects' definition of interior design;
6. The advantages and disadvantages of architects using the
services of interior designers;
7. The factors which influence the employment of interior
designers by architects, including education, years of
architectural experience, number of projects completed
exceeding $50,000,000, position in the firm, and the type
of project most often completed; and
8. The extent to which architects desire the future services
of interior designers.
The population for this study consisted of the total corporate
membership (708) of the Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects in 1969. A questionnaire was construc-
ted and pretested by a group of interior designers, business men,
and architects. It was submitted to a panel for evaluation, and
items were modified, altered, and reconstructed.
The instrument was mailed to the 708 members of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects in Florida explaining the research
project and from this group 377 (or 53%) replies were received.
This high rate of return indicated that this subject is of great
interest to architects in Florida. Many of them were enthusi-
astic about the study and wrote letters expressing their approval
and offering further information.
The services of the Florida State University Computing Center
were utilized to process the data. The chi-square test was
used to evaluate the significant differences. Frequency dis-
tributions were also obtained.
Within the limitations of the study, the following conclusions
may be drawn:
1. Most architects do not employ the services of interior
designers to a great extent.
The Use Of Interior Designers
By Florida Architects
BY MRS. LAVINIA ENGLERT AND
DR. MARY JO WEALE, AID/ACC/NSID
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, HOUSING
AND INTERIOR DESIGN
THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
2. The employment of interior designers is not usually re-
lated to the following: (a) education of architect, (b)
experience of architect, and (c) architect's desire to
utilize the services of interior designers in the future.
3. Architects who are either proprietors or partners in their
firms utilize the services of interior designers more often
than other architects within the firm.
4. Most architects who usually work with interior designers
are members of large firms.
5. The more projects completed by an architect, the more
often he employs the services of interior designers.
6. Architects who primarily design office buildings collabor-
ate with interior designers more often than architects
who generally deal with other types of projects; however,
architects collectively consult interior designers most
often in designing residential projects.
7. Architects are most satisfied with interior designers when
the interior designer is employed to develop detailed plans
and supervise total installation.
8. Architects are most often satisfied with interior designers
when architects and interior designers originally collabor-
ate during the planning period of a project.
9. Most architects would choose to initially work with
interior designers during program discussions with the
client or during the working-drawing period.
10. Most architects work with interior designers who have
been employed by the client.
11. If an interior designer is not consulted for selection of
interior finishing materials, the architect usually makes
the majority of the decisions.
12. Architects usually prefer to work with interior designers
who represent no manufacturer.
13. Most architects prefer to employ interior designers on
a fixed-fee basis.
14. The majority of architects desire to utilize the services
of interior designers in the future.
It is obvious from these findings that a lack of understanding
exists, on the part of both architects and interior designers,
of their roles in the creation of a space for man's social activ-
ities and functions. This lack of communication can perhaps
be lessened or maybe even eliminated by discussions between
architects and interior designers. For example, when archi-
tects were asked to define the primary function of an interior
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INTERIOR DESIGN SURVEY, continued
designer, there was general agreement that their most im-
portant function was to work with the architect from the
planning stage to the completion or to act as consultant to
the architect during the construction. Few architects charac-
terized interior design as a nonprofessional occupation of
decorating interiors, but from data received, it is apparent
that they still continue to rely upon them primarily for the
selection of furniture, fabrics, and accessories. The architect,
his wife, or secretary usually makes all the decisions for wall
and floor coverings, finishes, hardware, and lighting fixtures,
making the job of the interior designer extremely difficult.
The survey indicated that although architects are cognizant
of the contributions that the interior designer can make to
the finished project, too often the designer is called upon too
late. At this point, the architect has introduced constraints
that limit the options that are available to the designer to
create a viable, functional, aesthetically pleasing interior.
These important choices should be made by the architect
and the interior designer in the planning stages.
When architects were asked their greatest problem in collabor-
ating with interior designers, they asserted that the latter has
an insufficient knowledge of architecture, and they suggested
the following solutions: (1) architecturally trained interior
designers; (2) more architectural courses offered in interior
design; (3) joint symposiums of AID, NSID, and AIA; and
(4) combine schools of architecture and interior design. All
these suggestions have merit; however, very few architects
suggested a reverse in educational emphasis that courses
in interior design should be offered to architectural students.
The majority of architects believe themselves to be equally
qualified to perform the functions of an interior designer
regardless of their training.
Professionals in interior design and architecture must learn to
communicate so that the interior and exterior can be harmon-
iously united. Their theoretical aims are synonymous, and
even though they often function separately, both seek the
same goals. Many architects seem to believe that interior de-
signers are oblivious to the integrity of materials and that
designers will necessarily minimize profits by suggesting alter-
nate materials and/or fixtures. On the contrary, it is highly
probable that better allocation of the same amount of money
can result in a more totally pleasing package for the client.
Architects must also realize that the complaint that too much
money is spent on the interior is often unrealistic, since to
build a beautiful empty shell devoid of complementary furn-
ishings is similar to buying a winter coat but neglecting to
properly outfit the body underneath. The total satisfaction
as expressed by the client on the completion of the job often
hinges on the sum total of the salient effects that the designers
and the architect can create together. Interior designers who,
are properly educated understand specifications, contracts,
fire ratings, and accoustical characteristics, and they can be
just as knowledgeable about these important matters as arch-
itects. In fact, they must be knowledgeable if they are to
work with the architect harmoniously, resulting in a well con-
ceived and executed project. However, care should be used
in selecting properly trained designers.
Architects' interest in better cooperation between the two
professions is apparent from some of the comments received.
One Tampa architect listed the major advantages and disad-
vantages of the two professions collaborating. Advantages
are: (1) interior designers contribute to the success of a de-
sign; (2) they add imagination and completeness; (3) they
know merchandise; and (4) they are persuasive. The disad-
vantages are that (1) some interior designers are oblivious to
the integrity of materials; and (2) few understand contract
documents, fire ratings, or accoustical characteristics.
Basic problems according to a West Palm Beach architect
are (1) the type of individual too often in interior design;
(2) the fear by architects that interior designers will change
the design concept; (3) the actual lack of knowledge of ad-
vantages of the architect and interior designer working to-
gether to produce a better result; (4) too many times the
cost of furnishings exceeds the cost of the building, partic-
ularly residential; and (5) the high cost of interior design
Another Tampa architect pointed out that architects today
are becoming more totally involved in projects and the need
for complete services is increasing, so that in the future, in-
terior designers will be employed as an "in shop" consultant
of the larger architectural firms.
According to a Winter Park architect, buildings of today are
so complex that the only means of obtaining a well con-
ceived and executed project is the team design specialists,
each contributing to the total concept in his own field, and
the interior designer is becoming a necessary part of this
There is a better understanding of architecture on the part
of contract interior design professionals, a Pompano Beach
architect stated, than single practioners that select and then
design with what they have in their shops.
Sixty-four per cent of the architects indicated an interest in
an interior design consultant service, and it is vital the re-
search be conducted to determine the architects' needs and
expectations from such a service and the qualifications of
such an agency's personnel. The interior designers' concepts
of their field and their attitudes toward architects should be
ascertained. It is no longer a one-way street, and cooperation
must be on both sides.
In seeking a solution toward better understanding and collab-
oration between the two groups, many architects suggested
increasing architectural courses in interior design curriculums.
A study to determine specifically what type of courses in
architecture (as well as interior design courses in architectural
curriculums) might benefit both professions. How much
material should be included in order for architects, interior
designers, and other design professionals, to work together as
a cooperative team must be determined. The various disci-
plines must work together if a total environment is to be
brought into reality. 0
S-. - -
The aura of mystery which some people have
recently attached to the word "systems" is
often misleading. It means nothing more
than prefabrication. The Florida concrete
industry has long been a pioneer and a leader
in this field.
The new Vanguard High School in Ocala is
a good example of the "systems" method
which has been used for years by Florida's
prestressed and precast concrete industries.
In this school building, prestressed concrete
served multiple purposes. It reduced time of
SPECIFY AND USE FLORIDA
CEMENTS, MANUFACTURED IN
FLORIDA FOR OVER 40 YEARS
Vanguard High School, Ocala. Architect -
Berry J. C. Walker, Ocala; general
contractor Drake Construction Company,
Ocala; prestressed concrete supplier -
Dura-Stress, Inc., Leesburg; concrete
masonry units Cummer, Inc., Kendrick.
construction, permitted space saving design,
cut the cost of air conditioning and provided
added fire and public shelter protection. Lo-
cal technique, knowledge and products were
utilized to the fullest. All at the low cost of
only $13.56 a square foot.
The use of prestressed, precast, prefabri-
cated concrete components provides fast,
simplified construction. No other method or
material can equal concrete for low insurance
premiums, low maintenance costs, durability
and flexibility of design.
General Portland Cement Company
PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
This is the first of a series of articles to be prepared
by the FAAIA Practice Aids Committee
H. SAMUEL KRUSE, FAIA
The Small Office Task Force of the FAAIA found that the
life and death struggle of the small office practitioner (SOP)
was contingent on the flow of projects through their offices
which, in turn was the key to cash flow and the time-money
combination needed for the development of greater skills and
capacities to produce relevant architecture. In spite of the im-
portance of the flow of projects, few SOP's have deliberate
courses of action to assure the continuous flow of commissions.
In the report of the Small Office Task Force, FAAIA suggested
action for the assurance of work was discussed under the title,
"6 Public Relations for SOP Architects". This title might
obfuscate thepurpose of PR and for this reason this paper uses
the title, "How to Get Architectural Commissions" to empha-
size the purpose for the suggestions of the SOP report and to
The SOP report says, "Don't sell what you can't deliver. Know
your product." This assumes, of course, that you have some-
thing to sell. No client ever gives a commission because the
architect needs a commission. Rather, the opposite is the case,
the client needs the architect's skills and capacity to do work.
It is necessary for this paper to assume that the SOP has some
professional skills, that he has a place and capacity to perform
service, and that he has the resources or capital to sustain his
firm for at least a year. It is also necessary to assume that the
geographic area served by the SOP will actually require his ser-
vices. With these assumptions of capability, means and hope,
the task of getting commissions for a new, non-established
SOP involves answering the question: How does an unknown
architect become known as deserving of trust and professional
aptitude in an alien community. For the established firm sim-
ilarly: How does a known architect remain known and de-
serving of trust and confidence by the community?
There is considerable difference between the effort required
by the established firm to acquire a reasonable flow of archi-
tectural commissions from that required of a new firm having
no prior experience to show and whose principals are strang-
ers to the community and to the people who commission
architects. Many old firms maintain a flow of work by just
serving a few old clients well, hoping that the clients remain
healthy and are not enticed away by some pink-cheeked glam-
our boy. But most SOP's, old and new, can benefit from an
active program of job getting.
Rarely does one receive something for nothing. To gain any-
thing of value, the pot in poker or a fine, young wife, one must
make an investment. The effort to attain commissions will also
take an investment, easily 1% to 3% of anticipated annual in-
come. The less the annual income the more the effort; a phe-
nomenon little-understood by practitioners. The old saw, suc-
cess breeds success, is applicable here. It's the busy firm that
attracts more work; the slow one remains slow, frequently not
by choice. The cost, of course, includes the man-hours spent by
the SOP as well as others and things. It's the efficient and in-
telligent use of time and things that determines the cost-effec-
tiveness of the program.
There are at least nine ways for promoting new work and these
are discussed below in sequence of probable success, taking into
account the limited resources of a new, non-established firm.
1. DEVELOP A FIRST RATE OFFICE BROCHURE. This
brochure should be professionally designed and written and
should be in a format that can be tailored to the potential
clients' interest and be kept current. Although many govern-
mental agencies require statistical reports on standard forms,
the brochure is still the ideal envelope for transmittal of such a
form and frequently is filed with the report form. This is
especially true for firms, such as new firms with no history to
report, in which case the brochure should demonstrate individ-
ual talents and projects-not-yet-executed. The brochure is sent
to those who request it or are long-term prospective clients, such
as school boards, oil companies, chain store firms and govern-
mental agencies. Brochures should emphasize the unique char-
acteristics and services of the firm; to be just like all other arch-
itects is to invite them all to be your competitor on every project.
For example, if you use computer services, say so; the prospec-
tive client will find this a distinctive characteristic apart from
those who don't. Some client will prefer an architect who uses
the computer to increase reliable capacity to do work, and he will
get the commission. The brochure must be factual, without
wordy expositions of design philosophy or personal aggradize-
2. ESTABLISH RAPPORT WITH COMMUNITY RESOURCES.
Start with mortgage bankers and real estate operators for be-
ginners. Start by paying visits for the purpose of trading infor-
mation about mutual interests. Learn the bankers' requirements
and forms for loan applications, determine what real estate oper-
ators have to sell and what kind of referrals they appreciate. The
SOP, of course, leaves his card at each visit and eventually his
brochure. Other design professionals, engineers, landscape arch-
itects, interior designers, and eventually other architects, should
be included and a rapport established. The SOP's office employees
are also a resource; he should establish a finder's fee for employees
who bring work to the firm.
3. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN.
It is best to do those things one can do best. If the family can
participate, then the chance of 24 hours a day, seven days a
week availability is a terrific advantage over the competitor who
has to reserve time for the family. Whatever is done must be
done exceptionally well or the desired impact will be lost. All
societies are hard pressed for programs. If the SOP has an in-
teresting, illustrated talk, twenty minutes long, he could have
a speaking engagement every week of the year. If it is a popu-
lar talk with colored slides, it could be reported in the news-
papers every time it is given, and people will spread the word
about the wonderful talk by so-and-so architects. If the talk
is also related to the activities of the firm's practice, then the
value is manifold. In all activities, boat racing, church work,
fund raising, whatever, he must be sure to be identified as a
practicing architect as well as a good boat racer, church worker,
etc. A few prepared talks with colored slides are as necessary
to the SOP as a drawing board, but they must be used (the talks
and drawing board) to be effective. The SOP must be an ad-
vocate for good architecture and speak out for values that he,
by virtue of being an architect, can see better than others. He
must avoid being trapped into giving solutions.
4. DEMONSTRATE ABILITY AND PUBLIC CONCERN BY
DEVELOPING A CIVIC IMPROVEMENT. If the community
needs low cost housing, the SOP should develop one and get it
built for others, if possible; if not, for himself. He can propose
new uses for old or vacant buildings, etc. showing individuals,
firms (the community) how its derelicts can be changed to
assets for all.
5. THE SOP CAN INTRODUCE HIMSELF BY MAIL TO
THOSE IN THE COMMUNITY WHO USE OR MIGHT NEED
ARCHITECTS. He must carefully develop his mailing list and
classify the names according to the types of appeal and pro-
ject associated with the name. Names can be found in a sys-
tematic search in newspapers, building journals, real estate
news letters, etc. The search and record keeping must be done
in a controlled and methodical manner and the letters sent
must be soft-sell, non-commerical to be effective. He shouldn't
send a brochure blindly. However, he must be prepared to reply
promptly, sending a brochure, if requested. The form letter ap-
proach must be avoided, using only the personalized approach
which can, of course, follow a previosuly prepared prototype.
6. HAVE A PREPARED PRESENTATION, VISUAL AND
VERBAL, TAILORED to the potential client's interest when
invited to appear before a potential client, whether an indi-
vidual, a committee or board.
7. OBTAIN PUBLIC EXPOSURE FOR WORK DONE OR
PROPOSED. If the SOP learns the form for submittal of
material to newspapers and other periodicals and submits
story and photographs of his projects accordingly, his mater-
ial will be used. Frequently adhering to the form decides the
inclusion of an article or photograph in the press rather than
the true newsworthiness or architectural value of the project.
The SOP should order "tear sheets" of his publications for
additional exposure through mailings and inclusion in brochures.
8. SATISFY THE CLIENT AS IF HE WERE THE SOP'S
ONLY CLIENT. Most architect's work comes from referrals
from satisfied clients and repeat service for previous clients.
The SOP must cherish his client and serve him in such a way
that once a client, always a client.
9. THE SOP MUST BE A LIVING IMAGE OF HIS FIRM'S
PHILOSOPHY. The firm must practice what it preaches if its
philosophy is to have validity in the client's eyes. If the firm
espouses beauty and functional efficiency, his personnel, his
office, perhaps his home, everything the client sees about the
firm should be the essence of beauty and functional efficiency.
The practice of architecture is a pragmatic art, for its product,
architecture, is not architecture until it is built. Attaining
commissions is no less a pragmatic art and essential to pro-
ducing architecture. It can be fun too! U
OF AN ACTIVE CHAPTER
"PERSEVERE, be happy with small victories but above all -
do not give up." So spoke Thurston Hatcher, AIA, immediate
past president of the Florida South Chapter of the American
Institute of Architects. He was summing up that chapters on-
going involvement in community affairs for which it received
the 1971 Anthony L. Pullara Memorial State Chapter Award
from the FAAIA. The flush of victory does not lie in short
term goals. Nor is it gained in pursuit of one goal to the neg-
lect of others. That the Florida South Chapter maintains a well
rounded pursuit of the many problems-and opportunities-fac-
ing its urban locale is evidenced by these activities. The chapter
SJoined with other interested parties in protesting recent plans
by a large development company to put high density develop-
jj r ment on 3000 acres of vast land bordering South Biscayne Bay.
Finally a more sound and valid development plan was presented
which the chapter felt warranted support.
Made a proposal for a county-wide design review board to pass
on development plans. The proposal as presented was turned
down but, with proper thought and preparation might again
SMaintained continued support for the concept of a Downtown
Miami Government Center Complex. The chapters original
proposal for an International Design Competition failed but it
supports a non-partisian effort to obtain the best design possible
for this important project.
For three years co-sponsored, with the Greater Miami Chamber
of Commerce and the University of Miami Center for Urban
Studies, a weekend cruise to Nassau which has become an open
forum at which community leaders listen to and are heard on
problems facing this urban area.
SBeen represented on the Site Selection Committee for a Down-
town Convention Center. Last fall four volunteer teams of
chapter members, in co-operation with the City Planning De-
partment, presented to the City Commission their studied
alternatives for a site, as well as other proposals for develop-
ment of the Downtown Bayfront.
Worked with the City Planning Department to develop new
concepts of incentive zoning to guide building in the Brickell
area near Downtown Miami.
Served as expert witness in support of City efforts to ban bill-
boards along Biscayne Boulevard.
Begun efforts to establish a tree bank to save trees from the
wanton destruction usually accompanying development. One
result has been a City of Miami ordinance requiring a permit
to move trees on any project larger than single family homes
and a ban on cutting trees on public right-of-way.
That good chapter repore exists with the City of Miami was
evidenced last year with public endorsement of the chapters
Public Affairs Program by the City Commission. The work
goes on, and even though it is one of the 10 largest AIA chap-
ters in the country with over 350 members, only a small number
are deeply involved in these projects and not all are architects.
The chapter retains an active public relations counsel who has
helped open doors not otherwise available.
This Is Zyrian Stone...
This is an angle photograph of an actual panel 17' wide.
It began over 500 million years ago... in a quarry outside Min-
eral Bluff, Georgia. Through the ages, it adapted to a multitude of
earth changes. Today, it is a fine-grained mica schist that has
remained remarkably adaptable. It breaks into slabs of any
desired thickness (stocked only in %" thickness)... or cut and
saw it to any shape. Variety is infinite. No two slabs show the
same color shades... they range from greens and bluish-greens
through yellows, browns and chocolate tones. Blend them to
produce striking, artistic effects. This unusual stone is ideal for
veneering... future uses are unlimited. It took over 500 million
years for Zyrian Stone to reach such perfection of beauty and
facility. It was worth the wait.
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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