The activity of the architectural profession is an important
economic indicator. Architects, businessmen, and analysts
realize this. In visiting the chapters of the State this year and in
the numerous meetings which I have had on Association
affairs, I have been acutely aware of some positive economic
indicators... and, although I am certainly no analyst, I thought
you might find these observations to be of interest, encourage-
ment, and some of you may even see opportunity and challenge
The economy is now at midyear. In the first six months of this
year it has performed below optimistic, but well above
pessimistic forecasts. Consumers are cautious, business spending
is sluggish, but corporate profits show improvement over last
year and a further rise is expected. There has not been
acceleration in plans for new plants and equipment... and not
much inventory accumulation. The single bright spot in the
economy has been house building... gains of 30% and more.
Increased mortgage funds have been a big factor, with relatively
more apartments and townhouses being constructed.
These are the important factors as viewed by our friends in
fields which are related economically to architecture...
financing and loan development. Now, consider our input as
Most architects with whom I have spoken have been busy during
the first half of this year. The established firms who are well
known for their emphasis on a design oriented comprehensive
practice have been very busy. Some small offices (one to 4 men)
and those offices who have had all their "eggs" in one building
type, have been slow. Offices with principals active in civic
activity... those whose interest sweep through the community,
are busy . and that goes for architects in the large urban areas
as well as in the small towns.
Actually, the architects with whom I have spoken are the busy
ones. I only hear about the ones who are slow, because the
"doers" in the AIA are already busy people who simply realize
the importance of constantly moving forward in improving
themselves and the profession. My contacts have been with the
"doers" so maybe that is a reason for my optimism. But I
would not be writing about this if it were not for the fact that
these busy architects have made the outlook bright for a lot of
people in Florida. If the architects are busy, that means a lot of
contractors are going to be building projects, and a lot of
financial people are going to be placing loans, and a lot of
furniture people are going to be manufacturing and supplying
goods. A great sequence.. predictable because farsighted
clients and their architects have seen a need and have taken the
initiative to meet that need..
And speaking of need . the 1970 population figures and
resultant trends are now becoming available. Even though our
statewide "Chamber of Commerce" emphasis may not continue
to be geared to luring everyone to Florida from other parts of
the country .the people are coming to Florida and will
continue to come. This is healthy. we welcome the people
who have analyzed the qualities of Florida and who have the
initiative to come here and help us build the State's economy. A
few industries are not waiting for the census figures. One is the
trailer, or mobile home, industry. This is a sizeable activity in
Florida. They are meeting a need in housing, but in so doing
they are often creating visual pollution (remember the song
about the tickyy tacky boxes"? Did we say that housing is a
bright spot in the economy? Yes, and fortunately there are
some who see a great challenge in this need for housing...
including some architects. Streamlined mechanization of con-
struction techniques is inevitable. There are several systema-
tized approaches to construction of housing now being evolved
by creative architects in Florida to meet the need more
effectively. Sensitively designed, substantial construction
systems are being evolved which embody more factory con-
trolled manufactured components .this will create new jobs
and make field labor more meaningful. And as the housing
needs are met, industry typically sees the need for goods and
services, and new challenges arise. The architects are ready to
assist in meeting these challenges also.
In summary, the architects of Florida have been busy in the first
part of this year and it looks like we will be busy for a couple of
years to come. This should make everyone happy. .. because
the entire economy is directly affected.
... Just a couple of current items in which the busy architects
are involved. . most architects have become rather compre-
hensive in their scope of practice and in their grasp of the total
construction process. Hundreds of busy architects will convene
in Detroit in June for the AIA National Convention. They will
be studying "the Hard Choices" confronting all of us. Of course
Florida's architects will be there and will return to their
practices stimulated to be of greater service in their own
community. Also, on July 16 in Orlando, a sizeable group of
busy Florida architects will be involved in another Professional
Development Program (a seminar), in which some outstanding
financial leaders will cover the role of the architect in assisting
his client in project financing and loan development. At this
writing in mid-June, the preregistration for this seminar indi-
cates a big turnout. Attendance at this seminar will be another
important reason that these busy architects stay busy. And the
fact that the seminar will be full, is another good economic
indicator for the future.
ROBERT J. BOEREMA, AIA
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION --
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
FAAIA OFFICERS FOR 1971
Robert J. Boerema, AIA, President
550 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33131
Richard E. Pryor, AIA, Vice President/
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
John Edgar Stefany, AIA, Secretary
Exchange National Bank Bldg., Suite 1020
610 No. Florida Avenue
Tampa, Florida 33602
Jack West, AIA, Treasurer
P.O. Box 1539
Sarasota, Florida 33578
1971 BOARD OF DIRECTORS E
Rudolph M. Arsenicos
Carl N. Atkinson, Jr.
Josh C. Bennett, Jr.
Thomas H. Daniels
John Wesley Dyal
Lyle P. Fugleberg
Robert G. Graf
Leonard A. Griffin
Martin G. Gundersen
Donald R. Hampton
Oscar A. Handle, Jr.
Walter S. Klements
C. Frasuer Knight
David A. Leete
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Ronald Joseph Masters
Richard E. Mauney
James D. McGinley, Jr.
Frank Robert Mudano
James C. Padgett
Wiley Moore Parker
Roy L. Ricks
Craig Homer Salley
Frank D. Shumer"
Charles E. Toth
William R. Upthegrove
Francis R. Walton
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., FAIA
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables
L. Grant Peeples
Peeples, Smith & Moore
P.O. Box 1169
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Ted P. Pappas
Charles E. Pattillo III
Richard J. Veenstra
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Howard Doehla / Advertising
Kurt Waldmann / Photography
Cover: Hemisphere fountain at the new
Tampa International Airport terminal
complex provides a visual buffer between
the rental car storage area (left) and the
baggage claim lobby (right) at the Land-
side Building. Reynolds, Smith and Hills
of Tampa and Jacksonville was the archi-
tect. Photography was by Kurt Wald-
5 TAMPA INTERNATIONAL AIR-
18 WOOD HOMES HELP IMPROVE
THE QUALITY OF LIFE
Harold F. Zornig
19 FLORIDA ARCHITECTS ELEC-
23 PRACTICE PROFILE:
ALFRED BROWNING PARKER,
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal
of the Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Corpora-
tion not for profit. It is published bi-monthly at
the Executive Office of the Association, 1000
Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida
33134. Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material may
be reprinted provided full credit is given to the
author and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
and copy is sent to publisher's office. Con-
trolled circulation postage paid at Miami,
Florida. Single copies, 75 cents, subscription,
$6.50 per year. 1971 Member Roster available
at $10.00 per copy. 1970 Directory of Archi-
tectural Building Products & Services available
at $1.50 per copy.
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"The new Tampa International Airport terminal
complex can best be thought of as a huge trans-
fer station," explains James A. Meehan Jr., AIA,
airport planner-consultant for the architectural,
engineering, planning firm of Reynolds, Smith
"Despite what the word means literally, the
terminal is neither the beginning nor the ending
of a journey. Its whole purpose is that of a trans-
fer station a machine, if you will used by the
passenger to transfer from one type of trans-
portation to another."
The Hillsborough County Aviation Authority,
which owns and operates the $80 million facility,
agrees. In the press kit used for the dedication
and opening in mid-April appeared the slogan,
"Welcome to the airport that's making the word
The Landside/Airside terminal complex derives
its name from the functional separation of the
five separate buildings in the complex. A six-
level, 1,000,000 square foot Landside building
serves the needs of the passenger. Four satellite
buildings or Airside terminals averaging about
200,000 square feet serve the aircraft and are
used for loading and unloading.
Connecting the Landside and the Airside build-
ings and the key to the entire complex is an
automated shuttle system.
With that system providing horizontal trans-
portation, and elevators and escalators used for
vertical transportation, no passenger need walk
more than 700 feet within the terminal complex.
"Architecturally and in every other regard, that O
700-foot walking distance factor dictated every-
thing that was done," Mr. Meehan said. "Ease of
expansion, economy of operation, low mainten-
ance these were all considerations. But nothing
was more important than holding the walking
distance to 700 feet. This terminal complex is
designed for the passenger."
It also is several other things. I
It is, for instance, one of only two new airport
terminal complexes to be opened in the United
States this year. (The other is Shreveport a $7
Tampa is also, of course, the only terminal
complex to employ the Landside/Airside concept co
with an automated "must ride" transfer system.
(Dulles International has a "must ride" transfer
system but it uses mobile lounges with drivers
to transfer passengers between landside and
And Tampa is the first airport terminal specific-
ally designed from the ground up to cope with
the challenges and problems of the Jumbo jet
The new terminal complex will accommodate six
million passengers a year. Ultimate expansion -
including two more Airside buildings will
increase that capacity to 12 to 15 million persons E
a year. co
Tampa now handles about 3.1 million passengers
a year and projections indicate that the new
Lasp: AI Vi~i at Mhe new Tampa
'Iitui~pJAbj1t'04, t =rm~*,a wow/ere and a
port/ ef the C wimInsWv roaduwy system we
dwin m thk raWhrlng. -AtO pictured to rhi* t of
cvpmanS the two-ev.I reanel car faciity.
I- complex should be sufficient until 1975 to 1980.
C The ultimate capacity is estimated to be capable
O of serving the needs of a seven-county air trade
Market until about the year 2000.
5 Tampa's quest for a new terminal began in 1961
when airline passenger traffic reached one million
< a year and it became impractical to try to expand
Z the old single-level terminal.
The Aviation Authority gave its planning con-
Ssultants, Leigh Fisher Associates of San Fran-
Z cisco, an unusual order: Do nothing for six
CC months but analyze existing major airport facili-
WL ties and come up with something better.
SThe survey showed that air terminals had pro-
< duced walking distances which in many cases
a. were intolerable. In conventional terminals of
2 that time, aircraft parking occupied as much as
three sides of the terminal. What remained was
supposed to be sufficient for all types of ground
As airplanes grew larger and as the number of
flights per day increased, terminals were
stretched out in the form of "fingers" or con-
courses to supply more parking frontage for air-
Airplanes and ground transportation grew farther
apart and it was left to the passenger to span the
ever-growing distances on his own.
The basic concept for Tampa was developed by
an Aviation Authority design team which
included Leigh Fisher Associates and General
Engineering Consultant J. E. Greiner Company
of Tampa and Baltimore. The concept assigned
to airplanes and their growth problems an oper-
ational area separated from the passenger's wants
and needs, and then connected the two areas
with a mechanical people-mover system.
Once the parameters of the concept had been
established, Greiner engaged Reynolds, Smith
and Hills of Tampa and Jacksonville to develop
conceptual building designs and to provide com-
plete basic architect-engineering services. The
over-all management team charged with "getting
the job done" was headed by R.G. Crouch,
project manager for the Greiner Company. The
team included architects, engineers, contractors,
designers, consultants, concessionaires and airline
facilities representatives headed by Jack Staley of
National Air Lines.
Ivan H. Smith, FAIA, chairman of the Reynolds,
Smith and Hills board of directors, was RS&H
officer in charge of the architectural portion of
the work. Assigned as project design architects
were Robert E. Boardman, AIA, for the Landside
building, and Walter Stanton, AIA, for the
Airside buildings. Homer Hull Jr. was project
architect and James A. Meehan was RS&H air-
port planner-consultant throughout the design
As designed and built, the Landside building has
six levels, with the lower three devoted to
baggage handling; ticketing; and the shuttle
system transfer and amenities. The three upper
levels provide structural parking for approxi-
mately 1,800 cars. Sixteen passenger elevators
and 10 escalators link the six levels.
Besides the structural parking, ground level park-
Photo: Kurt Waldmann
ing is provided for an additional 1,000 cars. The
structural parking on top of the Landside build-
ing allows for a three-level vertical expansion
while keeping the walking distance within the
"Parking configurations along with height limita-
tions established a structural grid for the Land-
side building," Mr. Boardman said. "The com-
plex and varied functional levels below this grid
then had to be adapted, where possible, to fit
within these constraints.
"Airside coordinates established by aircraft con-
figuration and runway clearance restrictions
dictated where the shuttle system tracks would
penetrate the Landside building. These factors
plus the sheer size (570 by 450 feet), requiring
expansion frames on both axes, introduced
unusual structural problems, dictated the form
and established the architectural character of the
building," Mr. Boardman said.
"Exposed concrete, brick and glass are the prime
materials used and were selected because of their
appropriateness as structural and functional
materials and also because of their durability and
A grade-separated terminal parkway system,
more than three miles long, provides direct curb-
side access by automobile to the arrival (baggage
claim) level and the departure (ticketing) level.
Bridges and ramps connect the terminal and
rental car levels with the roadway system.
Since no planes are parked adjacent to the
Landside terminal, all four sides are accessible to
ground traffic. This resulted in a double-fronted
building with four-lane driveways on both sides
at two levels. For peak periods expected with
Jumbo jet arrivals, passenger car frontage at
Landside measures nearly a half mile.
The auto access and egress ramps to the struc-
tural parking decks were kept to a minimum
slope consistent with good engineering practice.
The helix ramps are extra large in diameter and
are designed as skip-level ramps so that in the
ultimate parking level configuration, a maximum
of only two full revolutions will be required to
reach the top deck or to descend to grade level.
Because of the double-fronted Landside design, a
color-coded directional sign system was devised.
Airlines grouped in the north half of the Land-
side are in the "Red" sector. Those in the south
-are in the "Blue" sector. Throughout the
terminal parkway system and the terminal itself,
passengers are guided by the color code as well as
printed signs. (Exterior and interior graphics
consultant was the firm of Architectural Graph-
ics Associates, Inc., of New Canaan, Connecti-
"In designing the airport we tried for a feeling of
calmness and tranquility," explained Mr. Board-
"Even in the space age, there are people who are
still apprehensive about flying. It's not like it was
10 years ago, but there are still 'white knuckle'
passengers. We wanted the terminal to calm
them, not have a circus effect."
At the same time, the terminal has a subtle
Florida theme throughout so that people from
other parts of the country will know they are in
Among those working with Boardman on the
interior phase of the design was the' firm of
Joseph A. Maxwell & Associates of Fort Lauder-
To keep the calm atmosphere desired, a neutral
color scheme was established.
The carpeting, used throughout the Landside
Building, is a brown, wearable antron with areas
of orange, yellow and red shag for accent. The
walls are white and the chairs are black, arranged
in a conversational circular fashion.
Planters are spread around the terminal and
copper, bronze and silver alloy Florida bird
sculptures are arranged in six Landside locations.
The birds, in different stages of flight, were
designed by Sculptor Roy Butler of Plantation,
"In our art we wanted something the public
could relate to," Mr. Boardman said. "If we had
a Picasso or an abstract, a lot of people might not
Designing the four Airside buildings, which was
the responsibility of Walter J. Stanton, was
complicated by the varying requirements of the
Ten major carriers serve Tampa International Air-
port and they share four distinctly different
Airside buildings. One Airside is occupied by
Eastern and Braniff, with Eastern the host air-
line. A second, the international arrivals Airside,
BAG CLAIM LEVEL Deplaning baggage is TICKETING LEVEL "Double fronted" Land-
unloaded onto trains of tugs and carts and taken side Building offers four-lane roadway and direct
to the ground level of Landside Building. The curbside access to airline baggage processing and
baggage is fed onto one of 14 endless belt ticketing activities on both the north and south
dispensers for reclaim by passengers. Baggage sides of building. Departing roadway on east and
descending on conveyor belts from upper tick- west sides allows full-circle traffic when neces-
eting level is made up in center area for dispatch sary.
to departing planes.
SI I _
~-DPANN ODWY- EPAIG ODA
-- DEPLANING ROADWAY
- ENPLANING ROADWAY
houses Delta (the host), TWA, Pan American and
Air Canada. In the third are Northwest (the
host), Northeast and United. National occupies
the fourth, sharing with commuter lines as does
Although the four Airsides are similar in their use
of precast concrete and gray, heat absorbing glass
as basic construction materials, they differ
considerably in configuration and size.
Technical representatives of the airlines worked
with Reynolds, Smith and Hills in developing
concepts for handling passengers in each of the
In all four, the first concern was in providing the
passenger with a direct and easy way to get to
the shuttle system cars that carry him to the
Landside terminal. Passenger convenience plus
the need for efficient use of the aircraft parking
apron determined the configuration of the
The concept for National Airlines is novel in that
aircraft nose under the passenger lounge, re-
sulting in what the airline considers an unusually
efficient use of apron space and ease of servicing
Large glass areas in the Airside buildings permit
waiting passengers to see the aircraft as they
arrive and depart.
When Tampa chose the Landside/Airside concept
employing a passenger shuttle system, no one
knew for sure if such a system existed. After a
year's search, one system was found to meet all
of the operating criteria established by the Hills-
borough Aviation Authority. That system was
already under development by Westinghouse
Electric Corporation at its research and design
center outside Pittsburgh.
Originally designed for rapid transit in medium-
density urban areas, the system showed that with
modest modification it would be suitable for the
Tampa airport. The systems package was
purchased for $5.3 million and included eight
shuttle cars (two for each Airside Building);
electronic and computerized controls, and a five-
year maintenance program.
The rubber-tired cars, capable of carrying more
than 100 passengers each, run on elevated road-
ways and cover the 1,000-foot run in 40 seconds.
T~IMJtu..aWrarIma of he airlines iuuhdA
amH ath nMed r indwah g wanCoepo a fr ORe Ak&adf &ulgM used r Altional Airlinke per
tour Airmon hsules es h ahe wraph on mini irerat to nor unchr th puamaW aIinp,
Daeyiu conumei and Lahiwefi am w ~mating in &ewt h siine conWsidrs on unus
Picked here is AkPie C, dth intmrnwito uwily efficion ue of apron space ard as of
rrles AMidi used by Dstra, utns Wor ld,. Pn rvicing the olta
Amnren and aAlr canb. V
Upper three levels of Landside Building provide
structural parking for some 1,800 cars. Three
more levels may be added in the future with no
increase in the walking distance for passengers
TO: AIRSIDE C
. . . '
The new airport construction has spawned other
developments at Tampa International including
the first main city post office built on a U.S.
airport (operational); a 300-room hotel (under
construction); one of the highest (204 feet) air
traffic control towers in this country (under
construction), and the first rental car facilities
integrated into basic terminal circulation plan-
The two-level rental car facilities, now oper-
ational, have ready areas conveniently adjacent
to the terminal baggage claim level providing 120
ready car spaces with each access to the airport
exit road. A landscaped fountain plaza provides a
visual buffer between the baggage claim lobbies
and the ready car storage area. Covered pedes-
trian bridges over the fountain plaza connect the
upper car return level with the terminal ticketing
Also in the terminal complex and designed by
Reynolds, Smith and Hills are the service
building and the toll plaza. The service building,
an integral part of the terminal building, houses
mechanical equipment, security offices, mainten-
ance offices, shops, an employees' cafeteria and
The toll plaza at the airport exit road accom-
modates toll equipment and personnel for the
collection of parking fees for both long-term and
Financing of the entire $80 million project was
through the sale of revenue bonds.
OWNER: Hillsborough County Aviation
GENERAL ENGINEERING CONSULT-
ANT: J.E. Greiner Company, Inc., Tampa and
AVIATION ADVISOR: Peat, Marwick, Mitchell
& Co. (Leigh Fisher Associates), San Fran-
ARCHITECT: Reynolds, Smith and Hills,
Tampa and Jacksonville
INTERIOR DESIGN: Joseph A. Maxwell &
Associates, Inc., Fort Lauderdale
SCULPTOR: Roy Butler, Plantation, Florida
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT: Stresau, Smith and
Steward, Fort Lauderdale
GRAPHICS CONSULTANT: Architectural
Graphics Associates, Inc., New Canaan, Con-
ACOUSTICAL CONSULTANT: R.C. Coffeen &
Associates, Shawnee Mission, Kansas
ECONOMIC MAINTAINABILITY CONSULT-
ANT: Service Engineering Associates, Inc.,
PASSENGER SHUTTLE SYSTEM: Westing-
house Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh
GENERAL CONTRACTOR, LANDSIDE
BUILDING AND AIRSIDE BUILDING NO.
3: McDevitt & Street Company, Charlotte,
GENERAL CONTRACTOR, AIRSIDE BUILD-
ING NO. 4 AND RENTAL CAR BUILD-
ING: J.A. Jones Construction Company,
GENERAL CONTRACTOR, AIRSIDE BUILD-
INGS NO. 2 AND NO. 5: C.A. Fielland, Inc.,
SITE PREPARATION, ROADWAYS, SHUTTLE
SYSTEM SUBSTRUCTURE: Cone Brothers
Contracting Company, Tampa
Rubber-tired cars operating on elevated roadways
link the Landside Building with the four Airside
buildings. The cars (two for each Airside) carry
more than 100 passengers each and cover their
1.000-foot run in 40 seconds. In background is
one of the helix ramps at the Landside building.
. S. jteutea male", Ym.
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DEPT. F.A. / P.O. BOX 325 / LAWRENCEVILLE, GEORGIA, 30245 / PHONE AREA 404 / 963-6221
Cather Industries 13
Dantzler Lumber & Export Company 12
Dunan Brick Yards (third cover) 31
Florida Gas-CBS Panel Division 22
Florida Investor Owned Electric Utilities 16-17
Florida Portland Cement Division 14
Gables Offset Inc. (back cover) 32
Georgian Art Lighting Designs, Inc. 15
J. E. Greiner Company, Inc. 11
Harris Paint Co. 11
The Richard Plumer Company 15
Solite Corporation 4
United States Steel Corp./Homes Division 20-21
Kurt Waldmann 11
155 Northeast 40th Street Miami
Miami Phone: 751-9775 Broward Phone: 525-4531
Curtis and Rasmussen. Fairlawn Village. Ohio Architects
Hale and Kullgien. Inc., Akron. Ohio Consulting Engineers
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The All-Electric Hilton:
built from the roof down.
Fifteen stories of all-electric living! That's the new St. Petersburg
Hilton in St. Petersburg, Florida. Through the use of a slip-form construc-
tion technique (formally called concrete extrusion), this modern building
was raised in a record-shattering eight days, two hours and 45 minutes.
The word "raised" might be misleading here. Because the floors were
installed from the roof down . lowered by 162 steel cables secured to
winches on the roof.
Inside, the entire hotel complex is electrically cooled and heated. The
309 guest rooms have individual units with individual controls.
"Our aim is to pro- swimming pool is electri-
vide the utmost in comfort U call heated."
and convenience for our Why not give your
guests," says Joseph K. clients the utmost in com-
Hennessy, General Man- fort and convenience? Go
ager. "Everything is oper- all-electric.Whether you're
ated by electricity here.. planning three bedrooms
Even the Olympic-sized -...or three hundred.
Florida Power & Light Company / Tampa Electric Company / Florida Power Corporation / Gulf Power Company
The author is Architectural Engineer, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences
Laboratory, Athens, Georgia.
Harold F. Zornig
Architects working in USDA Forest Service research labora-
tories are developing new house designs to more effectively use
one of our most important natural resources wood.
Throughout the ages wood has had immeasurable effect on the
quality of life. It has provided warmth, protection, and shelter
for thousands of years. In our society, greatly influenced by
many technological advancements, wood remains one of man's
most popular construction materials even though its form in use
has changed remarkably in recent years. Research has resulted in
many new products to supplement the lumber used in furniture,
house construction, heavy construction, and almost everything
that we have traditionally made of wood. Many new uses are
being developed for such products as hardboard, particleboard,
plywood, and special paper products. Composites of wood and
other materials are being produced to take advantage of the best
properties of each material. These products make possible much
more effective utilization of wood and will assure a continuing
supply of this important natural resource.
In the housing field, many innovations and processes are now
offered to increase productivity and reduce housing costs; but,
conventional wood-frame construction is unequaled for struc-
tural adequacy, versatility, and low cost.
Architects and scientists in research and development are find-
ing many new, ambitious, and inventive ways to use wood more
effectively. Wood utilization research projects are underway in
many Forest Service research laboratories. Particularly inter-
ested in wood construction are the Housing Research Unit at
the Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, and the
Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.
Help Improve the Quality of Life
Laminated rib construction and urethane foam roofing were
used in this interesting, low-cost home. Two of these homes
have been built in Hope Mills, N.C.
This practical and economical round home of wood, in Athens,
Ga., features a unique type of barrel construction. The curved
walls are built with two layers of solid wood paneling spaced
with horizontal plywood bands.
This work is directed towards finding ways to reduce the cost of
housing, to conserve wood, and to improve the quality and
durability of wood homes. Innovative, experimental house
designs have recently been developed from available research
knowledge related to wood use. Additional engineers and
scientists at these and other Forest Service laboratories are
making important scientific contributions in better finishes,
preservative treatments, adhesives, fire safety, new products,
and new structural and nonstructural applications of wood and
Engineers and architects involved in applied wood utilization
research are attempting to shorten the time gap that usually
exists between the development of new scientific technology
and its practical application. Their mission in housing research is
to show how new wood technology can be immediately applied
to improve the quality of life and to extend our current timber
One specific research study underway at the Laboratory in
Athens is the development of new experimental designs for
low-cost, quality rural homes of wood. Nine house designs have
been completed by architects assigned to this study. Each design
uses wood or wood products in components of the house in
inventive and innovative ways to reduce cost, yet improve liv-
ability and simplify maintenance. These experimental features
would also be adaptable to urban housing and to other types of
wood construction. The Forest Service researchers are not in the
building design business. These specific homes were designed
only to illustrate new and innovative ways to use modern wood
products more efficiently in construction, based on recent
research knowledge. It is hoped that private architects and
builders will take these ideas and incorporate them in various
other designs to meet different requirements of their clients.
Low-cost rural housing was originally selected as a target of this
research because the wood industry is basically rural and be-
cause there is a critical need for such housing. The problems
associated with inadequate urban housing are well known and
publicized; inadequacies in rural housing are less well known.
New housing in rural areas will also create jobs that are needed
to stop the exodus to cities. On the average, each new house
built locally will create at least two man-years of employ-
ment: one year on and one year off the job. If adequate hous-
ing and jobs can be provided in rural areas, the migration of
people from rural to urban areas will be lessened, thus creating a
better life for all.
A number of prototypes of these low-cost rural homes have
been constructed by private builders. Architects and scientists
are presently evaluating the homes with respect to durability,
serviceability, and acceptability. The two homes pictures here
were built with plans prepared by research architects at the
Laboratory in Athens. Information about this and other re-
search on wood utilization in housing is available from the
Housing Research Unit, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Carlton
Street, Athens, Georgia 30601.
Forest Service research architects and scientists are emphasizing
the versatility of wood as a construction material. When wood is
used in innovative ways and in combination with steel, plastics,
and other modern materials, many exciting new structural appli-
cations for wood are possible in building construction. New
architectural forms can also be achieved with imaginative use of
In this age of industrialization, wood remains the designer's
natural material. It gives unique beauty in furniture and exposed
finishes and structures, and it is compatible with many other
materials. But the greatest advantage is that wood products are
fabricated from a renewable natural resource with low energy
output and with minimum pollution. This means that designers
can help improve our environment and the quality of life by
wisely using wood; they can also help to conserve nonrenewable
construction materials by finding new ways to use wood in
combination with them.
W F Francis R. Walton, FAIA
FRANCIS R. WALTON, 60, a native of Florida, re-
ceived the FAAIA Pullara Award in 1963 and its
Gold Medal Award for service to the profession
and community in 1970. The Gold Medal has
been given by the FAAIA only three times since
Walton led the team which wrote the building
code for Daytona Beach, which separated build-
ing standards from zoning regulations and was
used as a model in other communities. He later
served on the code's Board of Appeals for 23
As a member of the board of directors of the
Daytona Beach Chamber of Commerce, Walton
for the past three years has spearheaded a drive
to establish a regional agency to deal with
Walton and others initially worked to form the
FAAIA from a number of smaller architectural
societies, ard he has been a director of its board
for six terms. Under his direction a paid execu-
tive director was hired and the association's
mimeographed newsletter became a magazine
Walton is the architect of the Jai Alai Fronton,
for Volusia County J.A. Inc., in Dayton Beach
and of the Public Library in Ormond Beach.
ARTHUR DEAM'S prime contribution to the
profession of architecture has been as a critic and
a teacher. For 11 years, from 1945 to 1956, he
was chairman of the University of Pennsylvania's
architecture department. The 15 years prior to
that he was a professor of architecture, in charge
of design, at the University of Illinois, Urbana.
He was a strong advocate and implementer of
architectural jury systems, visiting foreign fac-
ulty, real projects, and was heavily committed to
the concept that the plan and section of a
building was as important as the outside walls.
His students, many of them now well known
architects in their own right, were regular win-
ners of the major prizes offered by the Beaux
Arts Institute of Design and the American
Academy in Rome. They found he recognized
the importance of tradition in architecture as
well as demanding the discipline required for a
A testament to Deam's vision, one former stu-
dent commented, was his advocacy of the work
of architects Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd
Wright long before they were fashionable.
He, himself, won the coveted Prix de Rome in
1923, attesting to his exceptional design ability.
After graduating from Columbia University he
used the award to study for three years in the
American Academy in Rome.
Since retiring from the University of Pennsylvan-
ia, Deam, now 76, experimented with the design
of a geometric cluster school system of flexible
hexogonal classrooms. Four of them have been
built in Lake County, Illinois.
"The USS Homes system changed
me from a low-volume, high-quality
builder to a high-volume,
high-quality builder overnight."
Canterbury Construction Co.
. P- *-O A
"There's a big upturn in
housing coming, and I'm
going to be ready for it.'
"I was turning out five or six high-quality
units a year, and making a good reputation
for myself around Rockport and on Key
Allegro Island off the Texas coast. So I was
pretty skeptical about switching from stick-
building to any kind of building component
"Mainly, I guess, because I didn't want
to be locked in on design. I had ideas of my
own about how houses should be put
together, and so did my customers. Building
systems just struck me as being too rigid for
"I was wrong. USS Homes had a display
at a Houston show, and I liked what I saw.
The quality I like in a house was there. The
flexibility I wanted was there. And there's just
no denying that USS HOMADAY Building
Components have helped lower my closed-in
costs. Besides, they're manufactured right
here in Texas.
"I expect to build over 100 units this
year, and I still have all the design freedom
I've always had. You know, this is hurricane
country, and you have to build solid. This
system is completely adaptable-I can change
elevations and plans, build on piling, use
additional bolts or hurricane anchors and add
anything else my customers want.
"It's funny, but the first two homes I
built using this system not only went up a lot
faster, they sold faster, too. And they sure
sold me on USS Homes."
If you'd like more information on
USS Homes, write for our "Components
Catalog and Erection Guide." There's an
edition prepared for your specific geographic
area. Just mail the coupon.
USS and HOMADAY are trademarks.
Division of United States Steel
Mr. N. G. Day, Manager-Dealer Sales
United States Steel Homes Division
P.O. Box 86 (USS 7318), Pittsburgh, Pa. 15230
Dear Mr. Day: I'm interested in learning how I can erect buildings
faster and at lower cost. Please send me a free copy of your USS
Homes Components Catalog and Erection Guide prepared for the
O Southeastern (ADUSS 73-4984-01) O Southwestern (ADUSS 73-
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# WAW pwIIO
A quarter of a century ago Alfred Browning Parker,
Architect, began active practice in Miami, Florida.
Today there is a growing emphasis on multi-discipline
teams to solve architectural problems. This leads to
organizations of considerable size. There is also a trend
to incorporation which many believe hopefully limits
liability and increases the opportunities for profit. His
office, termed a workshop, has not followed either
procedure since it began as a small single proprietorship
and so has it remained. In fact the smallness is possibly a
source of achievement and certainly a wellspring of
Most employees selecting and being selected remain until
moving to their own offices. In recent years the number
of employees has remained around ten. There are usually
two or three registered architects (one of whom is a
registered landscape architect), two or three architec-
tural draftsmen, one secretary-accountant, one recep-
tionist, one maintenance man and two clerks-of the
work. Consulting engineers are retained for the various
projects in accord with the nature and size of the work.
The size has not prohibited the production of fairly large
projects within a reasonable time. The Architect enjoys
variety in his work. Among the design opportunities
welcomed have been: churches, banks, savings and loan
associations, office buildings, schools, theatres, bowling
alleys, golf clubhouse, memorial garden (including
mausoleum, columbarium, administration, etc.), ranch,
shopping center, restaurants, marinas, clinics, labora-
tories, motels, apartments, houses (small, large, custom-
built and merchant-built), and land use plans for limited
acreage as well as for areas in excess of 5,000 acres. The
visual material for this profile is current since it has been
selected from photographs taken last month by Ezra
Stnillr nf hiiilrinqg recrntlv rnmnlated
For over twenty years the office was located in a
building almost completely constructed by the Archi-
tect. Several years ago ecological bias prompted a move.
A heavily wooded site adjacent to the first office was
selected to obtain an office environment that would be
private, quiet and relatively free from dust. Existing
trees were augmented by a number of palms placed in
accord with an orderly plan of landscaping.
All roofs, floors and walls (except those of stone) were
reorganized and rebuilt for the spaces required. Because
of these special needs the original structure was
expanded in both horizontal and vertical directions.
Completely new installations were made for plumbing,
air conditioning, electric, telephone, etc. Many of the
old materials were re-used. For example, Dade County
Pine was re-milled and old brick floors ground to a
plane, clean surface.
The original structure on the site was a fruit-packing Requirement was to demonstrate a philosophy of
plant approximately sixty years old. First intent was to design: one that encompasses both the old and the new,
demolish the old building and to this end a new office proper use of simple but enduring materials, harmony
was designed (See sketch). When the time for demolition with the site, adequate technical comfort (light, air,
arrived, sentiment for the ancient stone walls and water) and useful spaces of changing delight. The goal of
columns was too great and a complete rebuilding began, a pleasant working place has been achieved.
The office does many of the delineations for the projects
but also utilizes the services of outside architectural
delineators and model builders. Often time limitations
require a team made up of visualizers, model builders
and photographers for rapid and effective presentations.
Incidentally, the "pretty picture" approach has been
largely abandoned in favor of a multi-visual presentation.
From a number of sketches, both exterior and interior,
and/or from a model a series of color slides are prepared.
These are assembled in a comprehensive manner with
slides of the actual site and with the plans. This "show"
becomes the presentation. Work can be photographed
one evening, processed the next morning and presented
to the client that afternoon.
This presentation of the preliminary studies becomes less
of a "selling" to the owner and more of a summation of
the continuing flow of the design development toward
contract documents and building construction. Exper-
ience proves this can be a valuable tool for the architect
in his creative evolution of the design as well as serving
an essential function to explain the concept to the
The contract documents are prepared with the intention
of furnishing complete instructions to the builder.
Ambiguities are avoided as much as knowledge and
experience permit. Clarity in the working drawings and
specifications has proven an important factor in both
bidding and realization of projects. An even more
important factor has been the selection and cultivation
of craftsmen in all trades involved in construction.
PH I LOSOPHY
From an early acquaintance with the writings of Whitman, Thoreau, Shakespeare
and Alger, the possibilities of life were sensed; from the works of Szekely,
Korzybski and Gifford an inkling absorbed of ecological destiny. Although I am a
true believer in change I find principles are less subject to change. Over four years
ago I was asked to write my philosophy which was published in the May 1967
issue of the Florida Architect.
It is my belief that man must constantly seek to live harmoniously in his
environment. He must be a conservationist of both human and material resources.
It sometimes appears that we are children playing with our planet rather than
maturing heirs to an incredibly beautiful balanced system. We must apply the
accumulated knowledge of many disciplines to our mutual problems. Educated
and experienced as an architect I feel an obligation to utilize whatever skill I
possess to this cause.
In our democracy we have the opportunity to aspire to nobility in our thoughts
and to demonstrate high purpose in our actions. While we may not be equal in our
capabilities we are the same in the freedom that we possess.
Some time ago I established these principles as guides:
BUILD AS DIRECTLY AS POSSIBLE WITH NO COMPLICATIONS.
USE THE MATERIALS AT HAND AND KEEP THESE AS FEW AS YOU CAN,
LET YOUR BUILDING LOVE ITS SITE AND GLORIFY ITS CLIMATE.
DESIGN FOR USE MAKE IT BEAUTIFUL.
While I have not always been successful in fulfilling these ideals I have not
changed my mind as to their validity. Paradoxically, change is a sure law of the
universe. To recognize this law is a sign of maturity in Architecture. To be aware
of the aging process in our designs and constructions is a necessity of architecture.
The maintenance and durability of a structure depend upon the selection of
materials and the manner in which they are assembled.
Communication is a problem of our age, greater for some than others, but
germane to any creative process. It is my desire to inspire both clients and
craftsmen to the best efforts of which we are capable. Since I dislike irritation and
controversy it becomes essential for me to prepare contract documents that are
clear and complete.
While my preference among the philosophers is for the humanists, in the sciences I
have always possessed an interest in ecology. I delight in man's search to attune
himself to the rhythms of the universe and in our efforts to regenerate our
As a beginner I needed clients. Now I must be careful not to undertake too much.
Opportunities may be so abundant as to prevent progress. It is rarely ever that
quantity prevails over quality. As I age my respect for material accomplishments
diminishes. To produce architecture demands the stamina, endurance, energy,
enthusiasm and optimistic outlook that springs from good health.
I hope for an architectural future that is a continuous attempt to harmonize
buildings with our environment. Our ego in creative work is not relinquished
easily or quickly but we need much less of "look at me" constructions.
This philosophy does not lead to individual buildings sensationally formed. It does
require a sensitive acknowledgment of the entire community. The individual
creativity of the designer will be challenged by a more difficult job and he will be
required to exercise greater discipline in his work. Buildings should not stand out
in the childish sense of blatant commercialism that we see around us today. We
must seek a much higher level of achievement.
We should judge architecture by how well it serves the growth of human spirit.
Architecture is for the use and delight of the family of man happily at home on
How satisfying to dwell in communities where unity of design prevails; where
buildings are so at one with the environment that they are actually
difficult to see; where trees, shrubs, flowers, and grass prevail (even weeds since
they are only plants out of place and, here, all would be in harmony); where no
signs, poles or wires intrude; where fresh air and fresh water seem the least
heritage we can pass to the next generation (at present we discuss the high cost of
ending pollution as though we had a choice. When your appendix has ruptured, do
you pause to bargain with the surgeon?); where mankind grows closer to his
infinite potential; where stagnation of the human soul is constantly being reduced
and replaced by wisdom, vision and courage.
These are laudable goals. I will be the first to admit my inability to completely
accomplish this dream, but then my ambitions have always been beyond my
capacities. Some of us must try, and I prefer to be counted among those who do.
APHORISMS FOR ARCHITECTS
* Choose clients.
* Design down to no one.
* If your work is worth anything get paid for it.
Once you have accepted an assignment don't
keep an eye on the office budget.
* Building codes, zoning, regulatory agencies,
financing institutions, etc. should contribute
to a design. If they hinder the proper realiza-
tion of a project, fight.
* Courage is when you do something you are
afraid to do. With liability insurance rates on
the increase such a quality is required in our
* A budget is an old friend and should be
cherished as such. This does not mean to
imply that one cannot, upon occasion, differ
with a friend.
* Architects should be more loving.
* Unfortunately many buildings appear as
though the owner's wife designed them. She
usually does the interiors.
* Seek in the problem for the answers, not in
your ego. The "i" in architecture is a small
* If you can't be a great artist at least be a good
carpenter ... or a good mason ... or a good
plumber . etc.
* Love humanity, it's what you belong to, but
don't ignore life. It is larger and wiser than we
* Do not make excuses; emphasize your
strengths for our environment needs all the
help it can get.
* Do not adapt too perfectly to your environ-
ment. You must be able to change.
* Live harmoniously but don't underrate the
* If you have large environmental responsibili-
ties move slowly and carefully for at best our
hands are far too heavy and nature's balance is
a fragile equilibrium.
* We should know enough of symbiosis to apply
in our daily work. Enough of heterozygosity
to bless the variant among us ... and to look
up words we don't understand.
Leave plenty of stones unturned. Earthworms
are still our salvation.
II I BRICK
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