W A A Flo
This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.
Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.
Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.
ROBERT J. BOEREMA, AIA
1970 has already proved that the 70's will be a
dynamic decade. Our country is experiencing
major changes in attitudes and priorities. The
construction industry is evolving from antiquated
techniques into techniques which reflect the
great potential of human ingenuity. The nation
looks to its architects to exhibit leadership. Sev-
eral are . .including several in Florida. In order
to do this, architects need help. They need help
from all people . .the users of space (school
kids, office workers... everybody), those who
are responsible for retaining architects on behalf
of their corporations or the government, con-
struction industry representatives, allied profes-
sions, and other architects.
The talent of an architect affects the lives of
many for long periods of time. Users of poor
quality space rarely realize how much more
enjoyable life could have been in an environment
that was well designed. Good architecture pays.
Good architects produce (within a budget!).
There are some exceptionally talented architects
in America, and Florida can boast its share. They
are helping their fellow practitioners and others.
The professional organization which has drawn
these architects together is the American Insti-
tute of Architects and the AIA influences life
across our land. The members of AIA operate
most effectively at "Grassroots" level ... in their
own community. Some of that effort needs
assistance at State and national level. Those in
positions of leadership at these levels had their
"Basic training" in their communities and they
continue to practice there on a day-to-day basis.
The FAAIA this year is composed of several
talented architects . .they are organized for
maximum team effort into "commissions," and
our committees function within those commis-
sions. The leadership team this year consists of
men you will recognize as leading architects in
their home areas.
Rudolph M. Arsenicos, AIA, Commissioner for
Professional Society. Arsenicos is a practi-
tioner in Palm Beach, who, on behalf of the
FAAIA, has the responsibility of coordinating
efforts with the student chapters, the conven-
tion committee, the programs which honor
fellow AIA practitioners as well as craftsmen
in construction, and coordination with the
AIA chapters within the state.
Nils Schweizer, AIA, is Commissioner for Public
Affairs. Schweizer heads his own firm in
Orlando, and on behalf of the FAAIA has the
responsibility of coordinating our public rela-
tions activities. We have a very active program
this year to advise the members of AIA of the
importance of being effective in public rela-
tions, and, under Schweizer's leadership we
are carrying this through to an active public
relations program at state level.
James Garland, AIA, is Commissioner for Educa-
tion and Research. Garland is a member of an
architectural-engineering firm in Miami, and
on behalf of FAAIA has been the originator
and stimulator of the architectural guilds
functioning at the University of Florida and
at the University of Miami. His position is
that of liaison between the architects in
practice and the professional schools in the
state. Garland is also the President of the
State Board of Architecture, and, as a board
member of the FAAIA, he's our liaison with
Howarth L. ("Hap") Lewis, Jr., AIA, is Commis-
sioner on Environment. This was formerly
known as the Design Commission and still
concentrates on that comprehensive facet of
architectural practice. Lewis is a practitioner
in Palm Beach, and his activities with FAAIA
this year will concentrate on the professional
development programs ... which are seminars
specifically geared to improving the practice
of architecture within the State of Florida.
Thomas H. Daniels, AIA, is Commissioner on
Professional Practice. Daniels heads his own
office in Panama City. He has had much
experience with the activities of the AIA, and
on behalf of FAAIA this year will be con-
cerned primarily with liaison to the Florida
State Board of Architecture. His Commission
is also conducting an in-depth study of insur-
ance programs which might be developed
exclusively for members of the Florida
Association of the AIA. He also will head
liaison efforts with professional consultants
and with the production of an updated fee
There are also standing committees . the Publi-
cations Committee and the Committee on
Finance and Budget, both of whom are doing an
outstanding job in evaluating our needs and
reporting through the Executive Committee to
the Board. The Executive Committee, composed
of the officers of the FAAIA together with past
president Harry Burns and Regional Director
Hillard Smith are acting as the government
liaison committee on legislative matters.
The FAAIA concentrates on three main areas of
effort ... legislative, educational (statewide as
well as continuing education for the architect
himself) and public affairs. The Executive Com-
mittee, the commissioners, and the committee
chairmen as well as the board members are all
dedicated to help the architect members of the
AIA in the state of Florida to be more effective
For some proof... look at the full page ad on
Page 81 in the February issue of Time magazine
(it's appearing in other leading magazines also).
Help us prove it day-to-day ... if you are a
member of AIA, be active. If you are an architect
who is not a member, join us. If you are a client,
is your architect a member of the AIA where he
can be part of all this action on your behalf? If
not, ask him why not... we don't think you'll
be satisfied with his answer!
LULLt EtL UNIVERSIl Y BUSINESS
JANUARY 1971 A McGRAW-HILL MAGAZINE
*!-r~ :, ~n
Mailman Center for Child Development, University
of Miami, Miami, Fla. Ferendino/Grafton/Pancoast,
architects. With its rising fins, bronze glass, and
egg-crate-like exterior, the Center looks more like a
dramatic hotel than an institutional building. But
within its rough-textured concrete exterior walls are
facilities to train personnel and to treat chronic
handicapped conditions in children. Serving the
local community and the state of Florida, the $5.7
million Center consists of three major elements: an
eight-story tower, two-story building, and plaza.
Within the two-story structure, which is designed to
relate to the lower tower floors, is a school and
in-patient living areas for the children and their
parents. The tower houses administrative offices,
medical examination and treatment rooms, a 120
seat teaching auditorium, and a learning resources
area equipped with a closed-circuit television system
which handles up to 80 programs simultaneously. At
present, the system can be monitored in any room in
the two buildings; eventually, all parts of the
university's medical campus will be connected via
an underground cable, which is already constructed.
To noninstitutionalize the architectural expression,
the Center is designed as an open, sun-filled
structure with carpeting used throughout the clinic,
classrooms, in-patient and office areas.
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
OF ARCHITECTS ^
FAAIA OFFICERS FOR 1971
Robert J. Boerema, AIA, President
550 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33131
Richard E. Pryor, AIA, Vice President/
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
John Edgar Stefany, AIA, Secretary
Exchange National Bank Bldg., Suite 1020
610 No. Florida Avenue
Tampa, Florida 33602 r%1
Jack West, AIA, Treasurer
P.O. Box 1539
Sarasota, Florida 33578
1971 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Rudolph M. Arsenicos
Carl N. Atkinson, Jr.
Josh C. Bennett, Jr.
Thomas H. Daniels
John Wesley Dyal
Lyle P. Fugleberg
Robert G. Graf
Leonard A. Griffin
Martin G. Gundersen
Donald R. Hampton
Oscar A. Handle, Jr.
Walter S. Klements
C. Frasuer Knight o
David A. Leete
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Ronald Joseph Masters
Richard E. Mauney
James D. McGinley, Jr.
Frank Robert Mudano \
James C. Padgett
Wiley Moore Parker
Roy L. Ricks L
Craig Homer Salley
Frank D. Shumer
Charles E. Toth
William R. Upthegrove
Francis R. Walton
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., FAIA C
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables
L. Grant Peeples f
Peeples, Smith & Moore
P.O. Box 1169
Tallahassee, Florida 32302 mm
PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE 0
Ted P. Pappas
Charles E. Pattillo III U
Richard J. Veenstra
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT Q
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty /Assistant Editor
Howard Doehla / Advertising /
Kurt Waldmann / Photography I
COVER: MAILMAN CENTER FOR
CHILD DEVELOPMENT, JACKSON ME-
MORIAL HOSPITAL COMPLEX, MIAMI
ARCHITECTS: FERENDINO / GRAF-
TON / PANCOAST & WATSON,
4 FAAIA TOUR
5 FEATURE: MAILMAN CENTER
FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT
12 NEW MEMBERS -
GROWTH OF FAAIA
EARL STARNES, AIA
21 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
27 SYSTEMS: NOT A PANACEA
Dr. D. A. Polychrone
32 VICTOR LUNDY AT THE
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal
of the Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Corpora-
tion not for profit. It is published bi-monthly at
the Executive Office of the Association, 1000
Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida
33134. Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material may
be reprinted provided full credit Is given to the
author and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
and copy is sent to publisher's office. Con-
trolled circulation postage paid at Miami,
Florida. Single copies, 75 cents, subscription,
$6.50 per year. 1971 Member Roster available
at $10.00 per copy. 1970 Directory of Archi-
tectural Building Products & Services available
at $1.50 per copy.
The FAAIA Board of Directors has
approved the 1971 tour for its members.
The 18 day tour EUROPEAN HIGH-
LIGHTS will include Paris, Pisa, Florence,
Rome and London. Arrangements are
being made by the FAAIA to set up short
seminars with the local architects' associa-
tion in Paris, London and possibly Flor-
A European Highlights Tour
The tour dates are August 9 26, 1971
and point of departure and return is
Miami International Airport. The cost of
$895 per person is based on a minimum
group of fifteen people and includes, air
fare, transfers, twin-bedded room with
private bath, breakfasts, dinners, all gratu-
ities, local taxis and English speaking
Descriptive brochures may be obtained
from FAAIA or the Lorraine Travel
Bureau, 179 Giralda Avenue, Coral
Gables, Florida 33134, (305) 445-8853.
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
AUGUST 9/26, 1971
-- $895.00 PER PERSON
SPACE IS LIMITED. FOR DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE, WRITE OR PHONE:
LORRAINE TRAVEL BUREAU, INC.
179 GIRALDA AVENUE, CORAL GABLES, FLA. 33134
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Type of Building
City_ State -
v. 1 li
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*ib '* : (
l'if it i'
" I ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ . . .."" I " d . . ..I ~ "
nl-- mr L I ilorls
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN ... .,..-
FIRST FLOOR PLAN -- .-. ,-.
The purpose of the center is to train personnel and provide
research, diagnostic and treatment facilities in the diversified yet
specialized fields within chronic handicapped conditions in
children. The center, when working at full capacity, is able to
house 1250 staff members, patients and visitors. It is part of the
University of Miami Medical Center Campus and is adjacent to
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. The facility will primarily
serve the local community and the State of Florida at large, but
being a pioneer in the field and due to its strategic geographical
location, it will also serve as a center for training, aid and knowl-
edge at the national and international level.
The center consists of three major elements, an eight story
tower, a two story building and a plaza.
The curving, rising fins arose from clearly functional require-
ments: a large out-patient clinic had to be easily accessible, the
administrative floor required one floor of 13,000 sq. ft., floors
of approximately 10,000 sq. ft. met requirements of flexible
space, study and laboratory spaces. Stacking these requirements
to allow for a plaza and play areas gave form to the tower.
The two story building is designed to relate to the lower tower
floors. This building houses a school and in-patient living areas
for the children and their parents. Each classroom of the school
is designed as a multi-use activity area and taking advantage of
the Florida climate, opens out into enclosed play areas. The
clinic and the school building, being closely related in function
and use, are connected by an enclosed air-conditioned walkway
on the second level.
The plaza presently
section of two busy
medical campus, it
within the campus.
will provide a place of repose at the inter-
streets. With future expansion of the entire
will become a central congregation point
Most of the teaching is to be practical training. Due to the
nature of the patients, these could not be brought to the class-
room or directly exposed to a student group. Much is to be
learned about the subject by observing him act while on his
own. To overcome these difficulties, the design had to be devel-
oped around an arrangement of spaces for direct observation.
These rooms have one-way mirrors into the patient rooms and
classrooms. The mirrors are veiled on the patient room to mini-
mize distraction. The observation rooms vary in size from the
individual room to the small group, which may double up for
other functions, to the large observation room which can hold a
whole class and usually doubles up as a conference room.
Remote observation is achieved by a television network
designed into the building. Any room has the capability of
becoming a television studio by means of portable cameras. The
learning resources area of the building has a closed-circuit televi-
sion facility system which can handle up to 80 programs simul-
taneously. These programs can be monitored in any room in the
two buildings, including the 120 seat teaching auditorium on
the 8th floor. Eventually, they will also reach all parts of the
medical campus via an already built underground communica-
The teaching auditorium housed in the upper floors of the
tower is an impressive space built as an amphitheater raising4l6"
at each row. The auditorium is designed with a sliding chalk
board at the bottom level which may be opened into a prepara-
tion room into which patients may be brought and also has a
demonstration laboratory counter. Above the chalk board is a
screening arrangement for single or multi-image front or rear
projection. Next to the front projection booth, there is a booth
for simultaneous translation wired to earphones at each seat.
The exterior of the building is exposed concrete and bronze
glass. The concrete egg crate acts as sun protection to the glass
openings as well as structural support. The exposed concrete is
treated with a clear water sealer thus obtaining a maintenance
free exterior finish.
The plaza and play yards are pleasantly landscaped, scattered
with concrete benching, and courts are created with concrete
walls and steel gratings. A sculptural element for the plaza was
created out of the enclosure of the air-conditioning cooling
tower which sits on the northeast corner of the site.
In contrast to the roughness of the outside, the interior spaces,
those in contact with the children, are soft. Carpeting was used
throughout the clinic, classrooms, in-patient and office areas. In
some areas, such as stairs and railings, carpet folds up and covers
vertical surfaces as well.
PHOTOS: WRAY STUDIO
Ferendino/Grafton/Pancoast Architects & Engineers
Partner in Charge Hilario Candela, AIA
Project Manager Jorge Delgado, AIA
Engineering Art Martinez, P. E.
Electrical Alberto Otero
Watson, Deutschman & Kruse Architects & Engineers
Joint Venture Consultants
Charles J. Cotterman, AIA
University of Miami Coordinating Architect
Dr. Frederick Richardson Director
University of Miami Mailman Center for Child Development
Frank J. Rooney Inc.
Poole & Kent Company
FMmITUm mm I m WII!
FlT1L-1TAPRE f PiT!
For instance. (Fact One) Gather has helped house 32 thousand
Floridians in 1970. (Fact Two) In over 10 thousand apartment
units. And in the process (Fact Three) applied 40 million
square feet of gypsum board in high-rise garden apartments,
condominiums and industrial developments. Gather has a
steel rolling mill you know. (Fact Four) 13 million lineal feet
of steel studs were manufactured and installed in the past
year. What does it all prove? Where's the point? Fact is,
Cather capability proves to be most versatile. Most exacting.
Most complete in the interior finishing field. Interior
finishing, from the walls in. That's our business. And we do
it better because we are equipped, computerized and trained
the Cather way. The better way to help you finish.
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J & L Paint Co/Ft. Lauderdale (305) 584-2452 Florida Rolling Mills/Miami (305) 377-0722
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New Members-Growth of FAAIA
Ashley, James, AIA 321 Northlake Blvd., North Palm Beach, Florida 33403
Baldwin, Edgar Lee, AIA 12425 SW 91 Avenue, Miami, Florida 33156
Balk, Bruce, AIA 25 N. School Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 33577
Buff, Glenn Allen, AIA Severud, Knight, Boerema, 550 Brickell Avenue, Miami, Florida 33131
Curts, Gerald G., AIA 3232 South MacDill, Apt. 210, Tampa, Florida 33609
Danon, Jose, AIA 1415 SW 93 Place, Miami, Florida 33144
Dragash, John Michael, AIA 1357 Richmond Road, Winter Park, Florida 32789
Epperson, David R., AIA 1951 Meridian Rd., N., Apt. 88, Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Etter, J. Henry, AIA Rader & Assoc. First National Bank Bldg., Miami, Florida 33131
Fraga, Pelayo G., AIA 1515 NW 7th Street, Miami, Florida 33125
Fontan, Jose, AIA 955 SW First Street, Miami, Florida 33130
Geisler, Charles P., AIA Yacht Perspective, P. O. Box 871, Sarasota, Florida 33578
Giddens, Irbye G., AIA 1600 SW 12 Street, Miami, Florida 33135
Gonzalez, Miguel A., AIA 830- 9th Street, Miami Beach, Florida 33139
Harris, W. Thomas, Jr., AIA 1020 Exchange Bank Bldg., Tampa, Florida 33602
Hidalgo, J. N. Garcia, AIA 100 NW 67 Avenue, Miami, Florida 33126
Kimbrough, Richard A., AIA Suite 405, 300 Building West, St. Petersburg, Florida 33713
Koger, Robert Athos, AIA 8410 Bird Road, Miami, Florida 33155
Kreidt, William C., AIA 1111 South Bayshore Drive, Miami, Florida 33131
Leff, Samuel Jay, AIA 8225 SW 106 Street, Miami, Florida 33156
Liddy, William Robert, AIA 9394 SW 77 Avenue, Miami, Florida 33156
McCormick, John R., AIA 1020 Exchange Bank Building, Tampa, Florida 33602
Mead, Arthur, AIA 4765 Riverwood Circle, Sarasota, Florida 33581
Mudgett, William A., AIA 2120 McGregor Blvd., Fort Myers, Florida 33901
Nelson, Peter B., AIA 10500 Roosevelt Blvd., N., St. Petersburg, Florida 33702
Niblock, William Paton, AIA 800 Douglas Road, Coral Gables, Florida 33134
Offerle, Frank Edwin, AIA 4520 SW 94 Court, Miami, FQlrida 33165
Pettigrew, Robert N., AIA 510 E. Harrison, Tampa, Florida 33601
Polujan, R. K., AIA 2719 NE 28 Street, Pompano Beach, Florida 33064
Portuondo, Rafael J., AIA 8751 SW 41 Street, Miami, Florida 33165
Reeves, Isaac S. K., V, AIA 90 E. Livingston, Suite 101, Orlando, Florida 32801
Seilder, Donald J., AIA 19410 NW 21 Avenue, Opa Locka, Florida 33054
Shuey, Donald Wayne, AIA 15831 SW 97 Avenue, Miami, Florida 33157
Wise, Robert C., AIA 204 Washington Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Baxter, Dale 25 N. School Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 33577
Fulcher, James E. 309 W. Merritt Island CauseWay, Suite 2, Merritt Island, Florida 32952
Hull, Homer, Jr. P. 0. Box 4850, Jacksonville, Florida 32201
Schorr, Harvey C. 70 Claymoss Road, Boston, Mass. 02135
Toner, Charles M., Jr. 227 Puritan Road, W. Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Willingham, Roscoe A., Jr. 7117 Sunshine Drive, So., St. Petersburg, Florida 33705
Andrews, William Frederick 262 Gulfstream Blvd., Delray Beach, Florida 33444
Annis, Ronald 2051 Main Street, Sarasota, Florida 33577
Buckley, Thomas W. W. Kenyon Drake & Assoc., 408 Greenleaf Bldg., Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Fowler, Stephen R. 519 Mariva Avenue, Clearwater, Florida 33515
Holguin, George E. 2354 South Ocean Blvd., Delray Beach, Florida 33444
Johnson, Ivan E., Ill P. 0. Box 1698, Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Judy, Joe Lee 3429 SW 7 Street, Miami, Florida 33135
Kelly, John McNeill, III 3816 N. Dixie Hwy., West Palm Beach, Florida 33407
Larrauri, Oscar Andres 999 74 SW 18 Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32601
McCormick, Eugene Phillip, Jr. 3914 San Miguel Street, Tampa, Florida 33609
Oliver, Anthony E., III 1411 20th Avenue, N., Lake Worth, Florida 33460
O'Mana, Juan Alberto 4110 Spruce Avenue, WestePalm Beach, Florida 33407
Parker, Irving H., Jr. 2901 58 Street, N., St. Petersburg, Florida 33710
Pate, George 2323 Lynn Street, Sarasota, Florida 33581
Poole, Paige Leslie 216 SW Third Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32601
Purdy, Kenneth F., Jr. 3511 Price Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33611
Ramaeker, Mark Henry P. 0. Box 1698, Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Rogers, Francis Xavier 8673 Quail Road, Largo, Florida 33542
Slider, Michael E. 10301 North Dale Mabry, Tampa, Florida 33607
Young, Robert B. 554 Vossler Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida 33406
What is the exact title of your new position?
The exact title is Director, Division of Public
Transportation, Department of Transportation,
State of Florida.
Where does this fit in the hierachy of state
In the second echelon. The Secretary of the
Department of Transportation is a co-ordinator
of the four divisions in the department so it is
one step removed from the Governor. The other
divisions making up the department are: Division
of Administration, Division of Transportation
Planning and Division of Road Operations.
Interview: Earl Starnes, AIA
EARL STARNES, ARCHI-
TECT, OF MIAMI RE-
CENTLY FURTHERED A
SERVICE CAREER BY
BECOMING THE FIRST
ARCHITECT EVER AP-
POINTED TO A HIGH
IN FLORIDA'S GOVERN-
MENT. STARNES WAS
FIRST ELECTED TO
DADE'S BOARD OF
ERS IN 1964, WAS RE-
ELECTED IN 1968, AND
HAS SERVED ON VARI-
OUS ADVISORY COM-
MITTEES RELATED TO
PUBLIC SERVICE. HE IS
A NATIVE FLORIDIAN,
A GRADUATE OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLOR-
IDA AND HAS MAIN-
TAINED A PRIVATE
SHIP SINCE 1957 IN
What would be your "job description"?
Basically, the director will be planning, develop-
ing and operating systems for mass transporta-
tion in Florida. The operation may be direct or
though subsidy to local agencies. He also serves
as a filing office for federal aid coming to the
state for all systems of transit: water, surface and
air. The function of the department is to
determine transportation needs as they relate to
non-highway needs, and develop systems and
ways and means of meeting those needs. It is a
very broad commitment. The department is
young and at this time is operating on a very
small budget. This year the budget should be
larger and will include a great deal of study
money as well as actual program implementation
money and direct subsidies to transit systems in
need of such subsidy.
You said the department is young. What has been
it's brief history?
It came out of governmental reorganization
about 18 months ago as a new division under the
Department of Transportation. In this time it has
been barely staffed, but in the next few weeks
the staff will increase to 24 people and over the
coming months and years will approach a
hundred or more persons.
What kind of staff development will this be?
The staff development follows along two lines,
research and development, which include plann-
ing analysis, analysis of programs, analysis of
modes of transit and project implementation.
Actually, project implementation comes under
the Department of Operations which will be the
field thrust arm for the DOT.
Are the terms "mass transit" and "rapid transit"
Generally people do use mass transit and rapid
transit to mean the same thing but I think there
is quite a significant difference. Mass transit
refers to a complete total comprehensive inter-
motive public transit system whereas rapid
transit simply implies high speed movement, not
a complete system.
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FA / 14
What systems are now in operation in the state
which might be called mass transit?
There are several bus systems, both privately and
publicly owned which are probably the closest
thing to mass transit. Also, the commuter air
service is considered mass transit. But there is no
really strong commuter system in Florida and
this is one of the things we want to address
In what ways do you plan on approaching this
job and what priorities, if any, will you set?
I think the priorities will have to run to where
the people are and the problems are, so we'll be
directing ourselves to the urban areas: the
impounded southeast coast, northeast Florida,
Tampa Bay area and the far west. I think we'll
find these are the areas where we'll spend most
of our time and money in the next few years.
Will most of this effort be in research and plann-
ing and will any be in the operational phase?
Some of it will be operational in terms of experi-
mental systems or pragmatic field applications.
Most of it will necessarily be in research and
development although we're going to have field
applications. For instance, we're going to try a
water transit system in Biscayne Bay and try
mini-bus systems in cities all over the state to
really see what sort of public reactions we get to
these small 20 seat buses. We'll be testing these
reactions as well as the efficiency of the systems.
Do you have any specifics you hope to
Of course, one of our real problems in Florida as
well as anywhere else in this country is to ac-
complish the division of traditional sources of
money for transportation, that is, taking the gas
tax monies and converting them into mass transit
operational systems, instead of just devoting
them to highway construction. There will be a
political problem, but the Governor's office is
committed to doing just exactly this, and
emphasizing the need and planning for the devel-
opment of mass transit rather than the promulga-
tion of additional road systems that encourage
the multiplication of ownership of private
Do you think the creation of your department,
and other factors in government reorganization,
are a beginning in Florida to develop coordinated
Yes, I think that in almost every area of state
government Florida is beginning to plan on a
statewide basis. Not only transportation systems,
but health care, housing and others are all being
looked at by planners in a broad way rather than
in a haphazard manner as in the past.
How would you co-ordinate statewide planning
with local authorities?
We would anticipate in every instance attempting
to establish, if they are not established already,
local government agencies that would be most
responsive to the need. By that I mean local
agencies which have more than just local respon-
sibilities. For instance, if we have a transporta-
tion system within a city we would look to the
county as the agency to develop the mass transit
system for the entire area rather than restricting
ourselves to the geo-political boundaries of
municipal corporations. In south Florida we will
begin to look very seriously at regionalizing
transportation, including all three southern
counties and perhaps ultimately without regard
to the county boundaries. I think our efforts in
every instance will be to regionalize the func-
tional systems rather than letting the existing
system of small or limited scope exist.
Turning to another tact, how do you think your
background as an architect has prepared you for
this new job?
I think that the architect is uniquely trained as a
problem solver and accordingly he fits well as a
professional in almost any kind of governmental
applications, and I think most particularly where
there are actual feasible problems being solved,
the architect has almost a natural background for
this kind of service. The administration of
government is pretty much of a learned process
through experience. So I think architects have a
unique role here and should be more involved at
administrative levels than they have been in the
What led you into the public service arena, first
on the Dade Metro Commission and now in this
I think just a basic interest in the environmental
problems of the community, the planning prob-
lems of the community and the esthetic quality
of our environment which was deteriorating
through bad zoning practices, improper planning
on both long and short range basis and the lack
of emphasis on architectural design in public
buildings. There were several circumstances of
these natures which first-got me involved in
running for public office.
How could there be increased interest and par-
ticipation in public service by architects?
I think architects, if they don't want to involve
themselves politically, should involve themselves
with men and women who are involved politi-
cally in order to be part of a legislative process or
an administrative process so that their ideas as
architects will have channels through which they
can be expressed. I think too often we withdraw
from being directly involved with politics and I
think that architects should be involved, not only
because it puts them in a position for patronage
architectural work, but because it puts them in a
position of reviewing legislative and administra-
tive decisions which affect their range of inter-
ests. And it builds for them an advisory position
so they can assist in these decisions. In this new
position I will be involved in architecture in what
I consider its broadest sense at this point, that is,
in administering at a level of government which
concerns itself with environmental problems.
Do you anticipate getting architects involved
during the course of developing your
I do anticipate it and in reviewing the budget
there may be some program studies that might be
appropriately handled by an architectural firm.
Also, I think we will tend to involve architectural
firms as consultants where their disciplines are
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The President of the Florida Board of Architecture, James E.
Garland, AIA, and the President of the Florida Board of Engi-
neering Examiners, Louis P. Browning, jointly announce the
culmination of more than a year of study of the professional
interrelationships by the engineers and architects and their
responsibilities for the public health, safety and welfare in the
exercise of their professions.
A Joint Resolution approved by both Boards was passed. The
BE IT RESOLVED, by the Florida State Board of Engineer
Examiners and the Florida State Board of Architecture, that
these two boards consider the following to be a proper and
correct outline of professional practice applicable to the profes-
sions of architecture and engineering, and that these boards will
exert their influence among the members of the respective
professions to the end that these statements of principles be
followed throughout the professions:
1. Architecture and Engineering are learned professions
legally recognized in this State to promote the public
welfare and safeguard life, health and property.
It is a matter of public interest that these professions
discharge their professional duties with such fidelity to
their clients and the public as to warrant the utmost
This statement is adopted therefore by the Florida
State Board of Engineer Examiners and the Florida
State Board of Architecture as rules of conduct which
form an ethical guide for all licensed architects and
engineers in their dealings with the public and their
relationship with the members of both professions. All
persons registered to practice in these professions in
this State have the obligation to observe it as such.
2. That a registered Engineer should not have the privi-
lege of calling himself or setting himself forward as an
architect, or practicing architecture, unless he is also a
registered architect, meeting the requirements for such
registration for the State of Florida and that if he so
designates himself as an architect without being regis-
tered, he is in violation of the law.
That a registered Architect should not have the privi-
lege of calling himself or setting himself forward as an
engineer, or practicing engineering, unless he is also a
registered engineer, meeting the requirements for such
registration for the State of Florida, and that if he so
designates himself as an engineer without being regis-
tered, he is in violation of the law.
3. Each Engineer and Architect shall familiarize himself
with the registration laws of both professions and shall
not violate such laws.
Each Engineer and Architect shall undertake to partici-
pate only in those phases of a project in which he is
competent by education and experience, and shall
retain registered professional associates for those
phases in which he lacks such competency.
Each Engineer and Architect is directed to refrain from
signing or affixing his seal as Engineer or Architect to
any plan, specification, drawing or other related
document which was not prepared by him or under his
4. It is recognized by these boards and the law that there
are certain areas of overlap in the practice of engineer-
ing and architecture. However, each Engineer and
Architect has the responsibility of giving the term
"incidental to his practice" the strictest interpretation.
This privilege shall not be abused.
5. Each Engineer and Architect shall assume the responsi-
bility for compliance with all state, Federal and local
laws, rules or ordinances relating to the projects with
which each is engaged.
6. That these boards will make a continuing study of the
existing laws of the two professions in order to coordi-
nate more closely the qualifications and practice under
the laws. Any legislative changes will be recommended
jointly by these boards.
7. The respective boards have the ultimate responsibility
for the implementation of the above Policy. a
to the need.
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FA / 20
professional development program
The three seminars described in this brochure have been selected
by the Florida Association of the American Institute of Archi-
tects for presentation in 1971 because of their timely applica-
tion to the architectural profession. They are diverse in nature
and you are sure to find that one, if not all, will have direct
application in your professional practice. All three seminars
have been tried and proven by the Institute on a national basis
and by other component state organizations.
I FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR
Orlando / March 27, 1971
PERSONNEL COST & OVERHEAD/
-P CONSTRUCTION COST
The morning session of the seminar will consist
of a slide presentation to give an overview of the
entire financial management system. The after-
noon will consist of a workshop session exploring
in detail the ways in which a principal architect
can install and use the financial management
system in his firm. Numerous illustrations of
forms and reports showing the new procedures
and systems in actual use will be made available.
Informal discussion periods will prevail for as
long as any of the architects would like to ask
detailed questions regarding the system or its
application in his firm.
Throughout the nation, many small as well as
substantial architectural firms are finding that it
is becoming increasingly difficult to function
within a reasonable profit structure. The demand
for increased services places an additional burden
upon the practitioner. The rising cost of con-
struction no longer offsets the parallel cost of
personnel and overhead.
The architect does not find himself in a position
which enables him to neglect consideration of
the financial management of his practice. He has
the responsibility not only to his staff, but to his
community as well, to control his financial posi-
tion. Management becomes the key to future
success. This seminar is designed to inform the
practicing architect of methods and techniques
presented in the AIA Publication, "Financial
Management of Architectural Firms."
Presented by John Konvalinka, CPA, Patrick D.
Murphy, CPA, and Charles E. Hemphill, CPA, all
representatives of Arthur Andersen & Company,
nationally known accounting firm, who authored
the manual under the direction of the Institute,
the seminar speakers will discuss:
Overall firm management.
-An improved method for calculating
-How to estimate project retail value before
contract negotiations. 4
How to exercise more efficient project and
Newly developed accounting producures
for handling billing.
Payroll and outside payments.
The reporting of time and expense.
The preparation of financial reports.
II DESIGN PROFESSIONAL AND THE LAW
Gainesville/ April 30, 1971
Ft. Lauderdale / May 1, 1971
What do you have to lose? A lot: Money,
Practice, Professional Reputation
Considering the increasing amounts of litigation
now piling up in the courts against architects and
engineers engaged in the construction industry,
architects, their attorneys and consulting
engineers, will not want to miss this timely and
highly informative seminar. The most vital
answer to litigation problems lies in the educa-
tion of professionals before-the-fact rather than
legal action after-the-fact.
Conducted by the eminently qualified George M.
White, Vice President of the AIA, the seminar is
an outstanding event of the seminar series for
1971. Architect, lawyer, engineer, Mr. White
holds both B.S. and M.S. degrees from M.I.T.,
M.B.A. from the Graduate School of Business of
Harvard University and L.L.B. from Western
Reserve University. Mr. White has practiced as a
registered consulting engineer and registered
architect in Cleveland since 1948 and is also
active in association work, licensing, insurance,
education and writing in all of his fields.
The course outline includes such subjects as:
Introduction to Law
Law in its proper perspective
Common law and statutory civil law
Law and equality
CONTINUED PAGE 22
Legal wrong vs. moral wrong
Negligence as primary professional
Libel and slander
Comparison with civil law
Express vs. implied-in-fact contract
Offer and acceptance
Unilateral vs. bilateral contracts
Silence as assent
Assignment of right and delegation
Comparison of Tort and Contract Problems
Tort arising out of contract
AIA Standard Documents
Contract significance of drawings and
To illustrate legal principles
III PROJECT FINANCE AND
Orlando/July 16, 1971
Financing techniques are changing more rapidly
and more dramatically than any other aspect of
land development. The many problems associ-
ated with lender participation in equities, stand-
by commitments, gap financing, and real estate
syndications will be discussed at this seminar.
Requirements imposed by lenders and the role of
the developer also will be considered.
Highlights of the program include:
1. The Land Development Decision Process
2. Tax Advantages of Real Estate Investments
3. Market Research Studies
4. Project Feasibility Analysis:
a. Income & Expense Date
b. Debt Service Computation
c. Cash Flow vs. Taxable Income
d. Sample Project Studies
5. Land Acquisition Techniques
6. Project Ownership & Organization for Profit
7. Financing Debt & Equity
8. The Costs of Inadequate Project
9. Sales and Rentals Management
10. Tax Consequences of Investment Liquida-
Each of these key areas of interest will be
reviewed in language familiar to the architect.
The program will be conducted by Dr. Carl J.
Tschappat, Chairman, Department of Real Estate
and Urban Affairs, Georgia State University and
Paul B. Farrell, Jr., an attorney, urban planner
and graduate architect, who is currently at
Cornell University doing research on land acquisi-
tion strategies for New York State's Urban Devel-
& Registration Fee
I FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR ARCHITECTURAL
March 27, 1971
Gold Key Inn, Orlando
7100 South Orange Blossom Trail
AIA Member Firm Registration Fee
Additional AIA Firm Participants
Non-Member Registration Fee
II DESIGN PROFESSIONAL AND THE LAW
April 30, 1971
Student Senate Room
J. Wayne Reitz Student Union
University of Florida, Gainesville
May 1, 1971
303 N. Atlantic Boulevard
AIA Member Firm Registration Fee
Additional AIA Firm Participants
Non-Member Registration Fee
III PROJECT FINANCE AND LOAN DEVELOPMENT
July 16, 1971
Gold Key Inn, Orlando
7100 South Orange Blossom Trail
AIA Member Firm Registration Fee
Additional AIA Firm Participants
Non-Member Registration Fee
FA / 22
AIA member firms may participate in all three
PDP seminars at a reduced pre-registration fee of
$120. Individual participants from each firm may
vary depending upon the area of interest covered.
This package plan does not preclude individual
In order to encourage greater participation from
within the firm, a nominal registration fee of $10
for each additional attending member from a
participating firm has been established.
Seminars will begin promptly at 10:00 a.m. and
conclude about 5:00 p.m. depending on audience
participation with regard to questions. The noon
meal, coffee breaks and distributed literature is
included in the registration fee. Travel and lodg-
ing shall be the responsibility of the registrant.
Advise your accountant, attorney, engineers,
mortgage lenders and bankers of these seminars.
They may wish to take advantage of one or more
of these PDP seminars.
FAAIA will have available at the PDP seminar on
Financial Management copies of the AIA publica-
tion "Financial Management For Architectural
Firms" for purchase by participants who have
not already obtained a copy. The price to AIA
member firms is $9.60 and to non-members
$12.00. Please indicate on the registration form
your desire to have a copy reserved for you.
E Firm Name
SI City & State Zip
O AIA MEMBER REGISTRATION
SEnclosed please find my remittance of $120 which covers my (firm's) registra-
C tion fee for the three seminars.
___ Enclosed please find my remittance of $ which covers my (firm's) regis-
(/O tration fee for the following seminars:
PDP I Financial Management for Architectural Firms
S___ PDP II Design Professional & the Law
Gainesville __ Ft. Lauderdale
SPDP III Project Finance & Loan Development
Enclosed please find my remittance of $__ which covers the cost of regis-
tration for additional firm members for the seminars as follows:
PDP I PDP II PDP III
S____ Please reserve a copy: "Financial Management for Architectural Firms"
SEnclosed please find my remittance of $ __ which covers my (firm's) regis-
tration fee for the following seminars (as listed above):
PDP I PDP II PDP III
SEnclosed please find my remittance of $___ which covers the cost of regis-
tration for additional firm members for the seminars as follows:
PDP I PDP II PDP III
SPlease reserve a copy: "Financial Management for Architectural Firms"
RETURN REGISTRATION FORMS TO: FAAIA
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
FA / 2R
Boise Cascade Building Products Cypress
Cather Industries 9
Dantzler Lumber & Export Company 16
Dunan Brick Yards Third Cover 33
Florida Gas CBS Panel Division 25
Florida Investor Owned Electric Utilities 18-19
Florida Portland Cement Division 26
Georgian Art Lighting Designs Inc. 30
The Richard Plumer Company 24
RVA Solar Controls Corp. 4
Solite Corporation 14
United States Steel Corp./Homes Division 20
Kurt Waldmann Architectural Photography 31
Walton Wholesale Corporation 24
FA / 24
155 Northeast 40th Street Miami
Broward Phone: 525-4531 Miami Phone: 751-9775
7110 N.E. 4th COURT MIAMI
Miami (305) 754-2519 / Ft. Lauderdale (305) 522-8151 / West Palm Beach (305) 832-9709
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The aura of mystery which some people have
recently attached to the word "systems" is
often misleading. It means nothing more
than prefabrication. The Florida concrete
industry has long been a pioneer and a leader
in this field.
The new Vanguard High School in Ocala is
a good example of the "systems" method
which has been used for years by Florida's
prestressed and precast concrete industries.
In this school building, prestressed concrete
served multiple purposes. It reduced time of
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construction, permitted space saving design,
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PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
Gentlemen, it would be most presumptuous to address your
group as an expert in all the facets involved in building school
facilities. I even question whether anyone could set himself as
the prophet that will lead out of the wilderness of such complex
and ever-changing domain.
Whatever statement and opinion I make, there will be many
among you who will know a heck of a lot more about it than I
do. So much of what I will say will be obvious and "old hat" to
one or another of the specialists that make up this gathering.
Please be patient and tolerate it, recognize that it is done for the
sake of clarity.
My role as a speaker is to help bridge and interrelate the judg-
ment that you as a group combine. And I hope that I can help
in this effort, almost as a jack of all trades with an experience
that at least has given me the opportunity to acquire a better
than average understanding of the problems that confront the
various specialists in the huge team that makes the construction
industry of our country.
This bridging, this recognition of the roles performed by the
various specialists, is vitally important because radical and even
rash decisions are being urged that may not fully take into
account the consequences of such decisions, and may be more
harmful than beneficial.
Design of schools based on sub-systems that are carefully
designed to interconnect efficiently is a logical trend, and one
that will be more and more developed and extensively used.
This, Systems Approach, cannot be considered a new concep-
tion. After all, one of the outstanding virtues of our Building
Industry especially as compared to the same industries in
other countries is the large degree of standardization and
modular coordination of building elements that is done in our
The difference, which the virtuous and noble sounding slogan
"Systems Design" infers, is in the intensity of efforts aimed at
coordinating the principal trades that can best be characterized
as the subsystems of the whole building project.
The objective of my talk, then, is not to denegate or derogate
such thing called "Systems Approach" but to review the pros
and cons in its present stage of implementations in Georgia.
Such evaluation will be based on its stated objective: to reduce
costs and time of construction.
And before proceeding, it may be of value to review some of the
concepts and some of the jargon used in the promotion of this
"Systems Approach" panacea.
Everyone involved and experienced with the building construc-
tion process is aware that all too frequently installing one item
is made unnecessarily laborious because something else doesn't
fit, or is in the way. It is only logical that if an effort were
spent, such problems could be simplified or at least minimized.
One of the cliches used in the jargon of this nascent trade is
"interfacing," a most apt word borrowed from the electronic
industry. The goal is that, for example, the ductwork of HVAC
and the lighting fixtures in the ceiling system should be so
modularly coordinated that there occur no special problems
fitting them together. Thus, that these three systems "Inter-
face," that they be designed to fit together.
In fact, in most of the so-called "Performance Specifications" of
systems approach is the requirement that any given sub-system
interface with at least 3 or 4 of each of the other prescribed
As a recent issue of ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD noted,
there have been so many proposed "Systems Approach," each
with its own initials: SCSD, GSSC, SSP, SEF, RAS, BOSTCO,
URBS, GHSP, that they form quite an alphabet soup. Further-
more, the results have been all too frequently disappointing.
CONTINUED PAGE 28
Dr. D. A. Polychrone
School of Architecture
Georgia Institute of Technology
Systems: Not a Panacea
Dr. D. A. Polychrone presented this paper to a
group of architects and educators in Georgia.
And such disappointment stems from a failure of such given
systems from delivering their sole objective: economy. They
have not brought school costs down at all. They have, more
generally, cost more than orthodox designs and this, without
taking into account possible higher maintenance costs. The only
attempt in our state brought out the simply astonishing fact
that a few such GSSC "Pods" built in Hall County cost 60%
more than similar facilities built by conventional systems and
what dismaying "Pods" they were.
Why have systems failed to deliver, when they are based on such
logical grounds: the standardization of components that are
The one obvious general answer is that quite probably they so
alter the complex and sophisticated way our building industry
operates that they cause greater mark-ups, in the unit prices
used to estimate the cost of a project. This very general and
abstract sounding idea deserves elaboration.
It is impressive and astonishing when the process of our Building
Industry is analyzed. A vast array of specialists design and erect
our buildings each optimizing their efficiency by their special-
ization. And all such work is coordinated by contractual agree-
ments that constantly attempt to clearly define the responsi-
bility of each member of such a large team of specialists.
One claimed virtue of the "Systems" approach is the benefit of
the slow and laborious process of experience and evolution,
honed to a fine degree, the quality of which is best indicated by
the fact that though our labor wages are the highest in the
world, our building costs in actual dollars are not drastically
different from those found in other countries. It is this speaker's
opinion that one of the chief weaknesses of the laudatorily
promoted "Systems Approach" may stem from an inadequate
regard for this carefully developed contractual system in our
These general statements can be better explained by one or two
One claimed virtue of the "Systems" approach is the benefit of
pre-purchase. A given building authority can pre-purchase
various building components which may expedite building
schedules and possibly accrue the economics of circumventing a
Such benefits are not that easily obtained.
The economy of mass purchases, of large volume discounts may
be possible for one thing only in the very special cases where
there exist a school building authority that can plan in such
large scale. This is not feasible everywhere. It is not applicable in
a large proportion of our school systems wherein the financing
responsibility is more localized.
However, in evaluating the assumed economy it is wise to ask
the question, "Who can buy at a cheaper price and manage it at
a lower cost, specialists in the field of purchasing and installing
building materials, or school organizations that have among its
many responsibilities the additional one of pre-purchasing build-
ing products?" When specialists or professionals manage the pre-
purchasing they may be able to buy more cheaply if the cost for
managing such chore is lower than that charged by the
It takes time to administer such functions, and it would be most
fallaceous for a school organization to neglect evaluating their
own cost of doing such function, and not deducting it from the
first appearing savings.
And to that cost must be added the contractor's cost of
administering the same. Anyone who knows anything about
construction management knows that a certain sum of money
must be added to the bid estimate for the time it must take to
coordinate the use of WHATEVER ANYONE may have pre-
In brief, then, excepting the discount accrued when mass pur-
chasing is possible, to this economy must be deducted many
costs easily overlooked, and one can well question if any actual
But, the shortcoming of such procedure is that other unneces-
sary problems may arise.
For example, if the material is faulty in any way, ordinarily the
owners will look to the architect for correction, who in turn, as
the owner's agent, will demand compliance with specifications
from the contractor. The owner-architect could care less who
made the mistake, whether supplier, or sub-contractor. That is
the contractor's problem, who is asked to live up to the
But in pre-purchasing, this relationship is confused. Although
the owner, the school organization transferred the supplier's
obligation to the contractor, certainly it would not be reason-
able nor fair to make the contractor responsible for the sup-
plier's fault. The supplier, at least, was not the contractor's
And other complex problems can also arise. It is a fortunate
building project wherein the low bid comes in below cost
estimates. Too often they do not, particularly in a market in
which it is evident that prices fluctuate and increasing construc-
tion costs are a way of life.
If low bids come in markedly above estimated costs, it may even
be necessary to reduce the size of building facilities. If this
happens, the project will be stuck with the excess amount of
pre-purchased components, not to neglect the important fact
that the project is wedded to such purchase which will obviate
the possibility of substituting lower cost alternates.
Last but not least is the coordination of delivery schedules. It is
just as bad for a contractor to have materials delivered too early
as it is for them to be delivered too late.
On the one hand there is the problem of damage of items that
are stored at the site, that can interfere with efficient work
progress, and on the other there is the loss in labor time if
material delivery is not properly scheduled.
Scheduling a building project is one of the most important and
basic chores of a contractor. Any action by the owner that
intrudes or affects such operations is undesirable. It can be
done, and it is done in large high-rise projects and the like,
usually with owners that retain highly qualified specialists to do
such pre-purchasing functions. But most school authorities
cannot afford to have an organization to do it for them.
This long-winded example is not given to suggest that pre-
purchasing is bad, per se. But to indicate that it is no easy prob-
lem. To point out that very carefully prepared contract
documents are required which, in this writer's opinion, are not
FA / 28
adequately being done in the current GSSC documents.
When a general contractor states that pre-purchase gives rise to a
"loss of control," it is faulty and superficial to assume he made
it because he fears he has lost profits. His claim is legitimate. It
voices a sound concern.
This speaker would also like to elaborate on the statement made
to the effect that as presently implemented there is a reduction
The margins of profit in supplying and installing building
components is kept low because of keen competition. Competi-
tion keeps everyone "honest." Any adoption of systems, of
whatever claimed virtues, that reduces competition, will inevi-
tably fatten overhead and profit margins.
Therefore, any preparation of Systems Contract documents that
will reduce instead of increase the number of competing
products, will inevitably have to pay the price of less sharply
Corollary with this is the serious concern this speaker has over
the selection of components in a building system that are tailor-
made for such systems.
A recent issue of ENR reported that one school organization
was faced with the need of replacing two or three light fixture
grills and found it could not buy that few a number. To replace
them, it had to buy one hundred!
The unit price of a building product goes down as the volume of
sales goes up this is a truism of mass production. But it is
relevant here when noting the advantages of using stock building
components in the construction of a building. Not only compe-
tition, but manufacturing volume will keep costs to their lowest
The tailor-made aspect of so many components of the "Building
Systems" design may be one of the chief reasons why the actual
costs of such systems have failed to live up to their promised
What about the architect's viewpoint? (And it is a foolhardy
architect who would claim he speaks for the whole profession.)
What could be some of the factors that may cause him deep
Not the restriction in design. Granted that some of the systems
approach schools lead to elephantine volumes that dismiss the
exploration of means to make a school environment more than
a machine for learning or that even the outward appearance is
limited to a counted few alternatives. The fact remains that an
architect is a professional who, given the problems and limita-
tions, will submit a solution that best solves the circumstance.
He will, however, be highly concerned over the following:
Pre-purchasing can cause great concern depending upon circum-
stances, for reasons previously discussed. But the hazards of bids
exceeding cost estimates can be very burdensome and costly to
an architect, since he has the need to have his designs come
within a given budget. It is costly because of the time required
to revise designs and contract documents.
The Architect may also be concerned over the restrictions a
system will impose that will limit his ability to reduce cost. This
may sound almost contradictory. But it should be recognized
that an experienced firm attempts to be abreast with fluctuating
costs, and will base his designs on such knowledge. This is the
reason why so many excellent schools are being built at aston-
ishingly lower costs than even the hoped-for costs of, say, the
GSSC Pods. The secret for the great efficiency of our building
industry stems from that constant inventiveness applied by the
whole industry to reduce costs, and an inventiveness experi-
enced architects adopt.
Then there are two other much more subtle factors. For one
thing, the open space school concept has not been accepted by
all educators, some of their misgivings having validity. Again,
such a remark must not be misconstrued to infer that this
speaker criticizes or questions the very valid nature of the open
plan. He merely must point out that it may not be suitable for
But a second factor may be considered only this speaker's
opinion offered for whatever value or reasonableness may be
found in it. There is a tendency in the adoption of, say, the
GSSC Pods to have Architect documents be much simpler, more
schematic. At first blush this may seem a good thing, since it is
bound to lower architect's cost.
But precisely because they are simpler and more schematic there
will be a strong tendency for the Architect to devote much less
time to a basic responsibility for good design: detailing. That
challenging, exasperating and time-consuming chore in which
the Architect visualizes minutely how each piece of a building
will fit, how well it will do its job and how orderly it will look.
It will be only too tempting to relegate that responsibility to a
mechanic who cannot have the same concern.
Finally, what have been the results of all this systems approach?
One must quote the bitter statement made recently by Mr.
Charles D. Gibson Chief of the Bureau of School Planning in
California's Department of Education.
"The fact that the press and certain project participants
claimed cost of 15% to 20% less than conventional construc-
tion was not only unfortunate and misleading, but it also was
a bare-faced lie."
The SEF (Study of Educational Facilities) in Toronto, Canada,
has also been a disappointment. After having built over 1.3
million square feet of buildings they look back and find that,
for one thing, since the interfacing did not anticipate all possi-
bilities, inadequate interfacing often occurred taking more, not
less time from the higher management level people of the archi-
tectural and engineering firms. There were delays in completion.
But most grating of all, communities that disregarded the SEF
system and used conventional construction built them for 10%
less money. As a result, there has been a change, and efforts are
now devoted by manufacturers to sell, in effect, packaged build-
ings which the Canadian companies call EBS (Education Build-
We have inadequate data for the proposed GSSC in our state.
Only one contract has been let, that at Hall County, and the
results have been hardly inspiring. The costs per square foot
turned out to be a shocking $25.19/SF to $26.16/SF (depen-
ding upon method of computation). In comparison, advisably
not aesthetic, a handsome school designed by the fine firm of
Bull and Kenney, also a long-span open space facility, but built
using prestressed concrete members, cost $16.10/SF an aston-
ishing difference, made more astonishing if the two buildings
were to be compared.
CONTINUED PAGE 30
FA / 29
This admirable architectural firm has a careful record of school
costs based on many years of practice an impressive record.
But particularly relevant is the fact that, using conventional con-
struction, they consistently show costs lower than even the
mythical $20.00/SF many of the Systems have promised.
In conclusion, then, it must be reiterated that this is not a brief
either against the development of improved and more extensive
interfacing of sub-systems, and certainly in no way should even
a criticism be inferred against the exciting and revolutionary
approach to the open space dynamic environment of the new
It is, instead, an appeal that the greatest of mistakes would be
made if the GSSC adopts contract documents that either freeze
on one or two chosen systems, and excludes others.
The noble sounding phrase "Building Systems Design" may
sound new, but it must be remembered that today our industry
is in fact constantly increasing the effective interfacing of com-
ponents sub-systems. But precisely because it is a complex
industry, such improvements will not occur because of a bril-
liant insight of one or more prophets. It will take place, as the
dramatic past improvements have taken place, by the combined
efforts of the army of specialists that are eagerly looking for
ways to reduce costs, to increase their competitiveness.
If lowering construction costs is the name of the game, the
efforts should be to promote competitiveness, and inventive-
ness, to try to use components easily available shelf items so
to speak; and to continue to define clearly the relative responsi-
bilities of the various members of this immense team. In short,
to continue the fine honing of cost reduction. U
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Don Conway, AIA
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1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
O "PATTERN LANGUAGE". Murra
E Center for Environmental Structu
+0 Through the development of a series
ing problems or patterns, the Cente
mental Structure hopes to improve
S language which architects have ava
sign the system of three-dimensi
ships which generate form within
. ment. By combining the relevant pa
sort of "spatial grammar", the
create a structure specifically suite
tions and its users. Only through e
Co research can the architect develop
) tern language, and it is only when t
an intrinsic part of design that it is
ful to society.
1905 Northwest 115th Street, Miami, Florida 33167 Tel. (305) 685-2898
FA / 31
is of 64 build-
r for Environ-
e the pattern
ilable for de-
itterns using a
d to its func-
his own pat-
his research is
alive and use-
"ARCHITECTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF UR-
BAN NOISE". Theodore J. Schultz, Bolt Bera-
nek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Massachu-
As urban centers grow, noise pollution increases.
Architects will increasingly find themselves faced
with the problem of limiting sound levels
through new construction materials and tech-
niques. Surveys have revealed that noise pollu-
tion is one of the most difficult to eliminate
because noise levels are often determined by fac-
tors the architect cannot control time of day,
traffic, etc. However, noise paths and receivers
can be modified by the architect through the
erection of barriers, more efficient land use pat-
terns, and the modification of buildings. While
often called upon to work with lighter materials,
the architect will have to reduce noise as well as
keep the cost down a problem which may call
for drastic changes in the building industry, in-
cluding a change from a "craft industry" to in-
creased prefabrication of buildings.
"I'm a person of the eye of the hand. I
consider myself an artisan, a doer. I do things
with my hands.
i"What is the miracle of life is the regeneration of
people, the way it works in cycles. I think every-
body now is being asked to know so much the
young people and especially architects to
divert their energies to such a degree that it must
be completely mind-boggling to a young man just
starting his profession. And so too for those of us
who are at an age where we should be producing
that work we were put .on earth to do and
instead for some reason find ourselves victimized
by what the world has become.
"What is the point of architecture? For me to say
that the point is to make perfect little stars, little
gems of things I can say very well because it is
all that has been given me to do. I know as a fact
that my big contribution to architecture is an
inborn sense of scale and humanity, love, what-
ever, that I can give any building of any size. And
I know that I would be better doing great and
"I'd like to say something about the young
people. I believe in young the whole concept
of young and youth and I participate in it in New
York City. I think an architect has to be an
involved person in the civilization of his times.
"I find a growing, creeping monster happening in
this country in the whole creative process. It is
almost an obstacle between the very simple,
naive straight forward things of creative people
who have something to say and between the
deed, the accomplishment.
"In some of these lean years to keep from going
out of my mind I've recaptured some of the
innocence and original things I had about paint-
ing and sculpture. Really, I live several complete
and different lives. First as an architect and then
two nights a week I paint and two nights I sculpt.
Through this means I've learned about young
people and I've learned a great deal about archi-
tecture. For instance, one of the centers of archi-
tecture certainly is that it is sculpture. In fact, it
is one of the biggest sculptures in the world.
Lundy at the FAAIA
"Vou know, architects in this country don't
really talk together. They can pretend it, but
they don't. When you look at the architecture of
this country, we're so conditioned to the concept
of equality, of making people "equal." We are
not equal! There has to be an award of
"I think a lot of what I'm saying boils down to is
that it isn't all that irrevocable. Life goes on.
There have been many times in my life of dispair
and just seeing some of the things man has built
made me realize how unimportant it is where the
plane takes you back to, or the stack of bills you
have to pay. It's a long life. I think we have to
hold on to the magic, the mystery, that great art
"I've worked 47 years to get to where I really
know certain things and I think the real tragedy
is that there are so many others too. We're alone
and aren't really used enough. I can design a
building an hour, or the concept for one. I'm
very quick. I spend 90% of my life fighting
battles no one else can really win for me. I think
it's that kind of loneliness that makes me really
look at the kinds of things young people are
"I've learned from the young people this whole
concept of irreverence. I really love it! It keeps
you honest! I learn most from people who don't
even respond to what I do because then I worry
and start to work harder.
"Maybe these kids. In the way they have of
growing, which I don't completely understand
but is obviously linked together, somehow
history has drawn them to be a moving force
together. I don't know that they do, but I hope
they really talk together and if they do, then out'
of all this can maybe come accomplishments of
much truer, greater degree than these little frag-
ments we seem to make in this country.
"It's marvelous, this hope of what's coming. But
if what's coming is a dehumanizing, working less
kind of thing, then people like me are out of it. I
sometimes think I'm a man of another age and
it's too bad I live now. I'm sort of wasted and
I've wasted fantastic time arguing points."
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Clouds of smog hover over our cities. Cities once crowned by canopies of stars. Grime on our
windowsills and soot in our eyes no longer surprise us. And we bring tiny babies out of sterile
hospitals into an atmosphere so polluted, plants choke on it in a matter of weeks.
America, the beautiful. Our America. The crisis isn't in our cities; the crisis is in our hearts. With
a change of heart, we can change the picture. AIA/American Institute of Architects
Send this page to your Congressman and ask him to support enforcement of our air pollution laws.