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Nit vx a I
Who Needs It?
By John Rieben, Manager of
Design for Container Corporation
of America. Reprinted from a
Publication of Corry Jamestown Corporation
A designer, by profession, formulates expression. He views
each problem, regardless of its structure, in Gestalt terms.
The configuration of the whole forms the parameter of
his efforts, as all possible conditions, circumstances and
influences that surround and affect the problem are care-
fully analyzed. This environmental approach to design is
the only meaningful way of achieving effective solutions.
Any significant solution, be it a toaster, poster or an ocean
liner, is an accumulation of what the designer knows and
feels. Because it is essentially a projection of the designer,
it has a distinct personality, identity and individuality.
These characteristics, as with people, go far beyond sur-
face appearances. A well-designed object will exhibit the
same traits we find admirable in superior human beings
-honesty, integrity, intelligence and a capability to effect
Objects that make these statements are always the product
of a single-willed individual: a designer who understands
the problem completely, who has taken an environmental
approach to the solution, who has put a part of himself
into that solution. Such designers and their products are
not rare-Chicago's John Hancock Building, the Mies
chair, the Canadian National Railway's corporate identity
program and the Braun appliance line ae merely a few
examples. Unfortunately, they are far out-numbered by
those products which were formulated by group decision
and collective action-and which consequently demon-
strate no unity, an absence of expression and a total lack
This committee attitude is, in my view, a major problem
facing design today. There appears to be a great deal of
reluctance to place the full burden of a problem on an
individual and rely entirely on his training-and talent-
for a solution. Perhaps there is a sense of risk involved-
a feeling that the committee average is safer than a single
form. Perhaps it is simply easier to increase the number of
equal-level contributors and decision-makers than delegate
total responsibility to one individual.
The result of this operational philosophy is a mish-mash
of ideas-the good ones serving to cancel out each other
while competing with suggestions from persons who, on
the basis of talent, would otherwise be relegated to the
shipping department. The hodge podge of minds and
hands that donate to the solution is all too-evident in the
mediocrity of the end product. The only possible result is
complete lack of expression and solutions that convey no
character as they have no basic point of view. They are as
faceless as an army of commuters.
Sheer bulk of work necessitates some type of team effort,
but this cannot be equated to the "design by committee"
school. In the optimum working situation, there is, in-
stead, one talented design "dictator" directing a small
staff. The purpose of the group is to express in final form
exactly what the dictator intends. Execution, not modifi-
cation, is their sole function. Like team effort of any vari-
ety, the longer and better they work together, the more
like a single entity they in fact become.
In day-to-day operation, this ideal situation is extremely
difficult to achieve. First, there is the ever-present com-
munications problem of relaying what exists in the dicta-
tor's head through the cranium of another, and fina ly
realizing on paper what was originally proposed. Secondly,
there is the ego problem. Designers feel impelled to con-
tribute something of themselves-a very understandable
trait common to all creative talents-to the final solution.
Generally, this only serves to detract from basic purpose
and intention of the solution, while again establishing an
essentially committee-type effort with the subsequent re-
duction of honesty and forthrightness.
Some argue that the committee format is fostered by the
ever-increasing amount of new technical knowledge which
forces designers to unitize and specialize-each individual
contributing his molecule of expertise to the total effort.
However, we are rapidly discovering that these specialties
become obsolete within the time it takes to specialize in
Instead of being so eager to pigeonhole people and ability,
we must shift the emphasis in design, education and in-
dustry away from the specific. It is the school's responsi-
bility to train designers as professionals,and industry's
responsibility to utilize them on this basis. Designers today
must be equipped with pure problem-solving abilities. The
kind of training that produces textile designers, exhibit
designers, typographers and product designers might better
be put to use developing thinkers-rational problem-
solvers. Armed with this ability and its techniques, the
designer could function both quantitatively and qualita-
tively in a more effective effort.
I am firmly convinced that a designer with true problem-
solving ability, design proficiency and strength of purpose
is capable of solving the megapolis mess-from transporta-
tion systems, information dissemination, dwellings and
educational facilities to fire hydrants and manhole covers
-and it would be well done. E
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
Harry E. Bums, Jr., President
415 Monroe Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
RobertJ. Boerema, Vice President/
550 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33131
Thomas H. Daniels, Secretary
425 Oak Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
Richard E. Pryor, Treasurer
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Rudolph M. Arsenicos
George H. Bail
Josh C. Bennett, Jr.
Howard B. Bochiardy
Thomas H. Daniels
Robert G. Graf
Mays Leroy Gray
Martin G. Gunderson
Donald R. Hampton
Charles F. Harrington
Walter S. Klements
C. Frasuer Knight
Charles McAlpine, Jr.
James D. McGinley
Frank R. Mudano
James C. Padgett
Archie G. Parish
Charles E. Pattillo III
George F. Reed
Roy L. Ricks
Robert E. Roll
Edward J. Seibert
Albert L. Smith
John Edgar Stefany
Charles E. Toth
Francis R. Walton
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables
L. Grant Peeples
Peeples, Smith & Moore
St. Peter's Church, Episcopal, Jacksonville.
Fisher, Broward, Shepard, Architects
Photo by Kurt Waldmann.
2 Who Needs It?
ARCHITECTURAL AWARD WINNERS, JACKSONVILLE CHAPTER
6 St. Peter's Church/Jacksonville
18 Jacksonville Children's Museum/Jacksonville
22 Danciger Residence Remodeling/Jacksonville
11 Industrialized Housing and the
LOYD D. STARK
21 Advertisers Index
24 The Building Management and
28 Urban Renewal in Miami
Ted P. Pappas
Richard J. Veenstra
Russell J. Minardi
James C. Padgett
Charles E. Pattillo III
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Howard Doehla / Advertising
Kurt Waldmann / Photography
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official
Journal of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association,
a Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published bi-monthly at the Executive
Office of the Association, 1000 Ponce de
Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida 33134.
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Editorial contributions, including plans
and photographs of architects' work, are
welcomed but publication cannot be
guaranteed. Opinions expressed by con-
tributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the
AIA. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted (unless specifically restricted)
by other news media, provided full credit
is given to the author and to THE FLOR-
IDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to
publisher's office . Individuals or firms
may not reproduce any part without writ-
ten permission from the publisher . .
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 75 cents,
subscription, members $2.00 per year,
industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. October Handbook & Directory of
Architectural Building Products & Serv-
ices, single copy $3.00 or $1.50 for
Directory only . McMurray Printers.
VOLUME 20/NUMBER 4
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4 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Elected to Fellowship
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., an architect in Lake Worth for the
past 22 years, was elected to the College of Fellows of
The American Institute of Architects, a lifetime honor
bestowed for outstanding contribution. He was formally
invested during special ceremonies at the recent annual
convention of the AIA in Boston.
Although AIA is the 23,300 member national professional
society of architects, only 957 members have been ad-
vanced to Fellowship. As a Fellow, Mr. Smith will have
the right to use the initials FAIA following his name to
symbolize the esteem in which he is held by his peers.
Other than the Gold Medal, which may be presented to
a single architect from any part of the world, Fellowship
is the highest honor which the Institute can bestow on its
Mr. Smith was born in Savannah, Georgia, but came to
the Palm Beaches early in life, and graduated from Palm
Beach High School in 1938. He also attended Georgia
Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Having received his
registration from the Florida State Board of Architecture
in 1948, he served as president of the Palm Beach Chap-
ter of the American Institute of Architects in 1957. He
was elected president of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects in 1967 and now serves
as the Director of the Florida Region of the AIA.
In 1968, Mr. Smith was named Chairman of the Archi-
tectural Advisory Council to the Capitol Center Planning
Committee for the Florida State Capitol. He is now
Chairman of the AIA Task Force on New Membership
Categories and Vice Chairman of the AIA Government
Affairs Steering Committee. He also has been active in
civic affairs. He organized the first Planning Board and
Contractor Examining Board in Lake Worth in 1950 and
still serves the Contractor Examining Board as chairman.
He is a member of the Community Appearance Board.
He has served for many years on the Salvation Army
Advisory Board and is chairman of the Palm Beach Coun-
ty Chapter of the March of Dimes.
Among his awards, Hilliard T. Smith, Jr. has received the
Certificate of Appreciation for Service to the Florida Asso-
ciation of the AIA in 1964, Florida Magazine Award for
Best Individual Article in 1967, and the Anthony L.
Pullara Memorial State Member Award in 1968. He is
the only architect ever to be nominated to Fellowship by
the Palm Beach Chapter of the American Institute of
U.F. Student Awards
The South Florida Chapter of Producers Council, Inc.
presented its third annual Scholarship Award to Mr. Alex-
ander Plisko, Jr., fourth year student, for his meritorious
scholastic work in architecture at the University of Florida.
Mr. Plisko, a resident of St. Petersburg, maintained an
Upper Division Grade Point Average of 3.58 and has been
on both the President's and Dean's honor roll, is married
and has one child.
The annual Bronze Medal of the FAAIA awarded to a
student for achievement in leadership and scholastic was
presented to Vaughn B. Bomberger, by President Harry
AIA/CSI Joint Statement
Representatives of The American Institute of Architects
and The Construction Specifications Institute reviewed
the current status of their respective programs pointed
toward automated specifications, data retrieval systems
and other construction industry communications tech-
niques. The following procedures were developed for the
achievement of these objectives:
Goals and Procedures
1-MASTERSPEC, Master Specifications Sections de-
veloped by Production Systems for Architects and
Engineers, Inc. (PSAE), will be submitted to CSI for
distribution to appropriate existing committees work-
ing on the subject, for their information, evaluation,
and comment. These comments will be transmitted to
PSAE for their use in improving and updating the
2-COMSPEC, the Automated Open End Specifica-
tions System (when developed by data processing
services agencies in response to the performance speci-
fication prepared by the Stanford Research Institute
(SRI) for the CSI Research Foundation (CSIRF),
will be made available for PSAE review with CSI staff,
to permit development of PSAE outputs (master spe-
cifications, cost estimating, etc.) in a manner com-
patible with use in the COMSPEC system.
3-When its program is firmly established, PSAE will
consider a composite directorate representing AIA,
CSI, CEC and other organizations interested in the
improvement of the quality and nationwide uniform
character of construction specifications.
4-The Boards of Directors of each Institute have adopted
resolutions affirming the foregoing.
Wythe Davis Sims, II
The profession in Florida will mourn the loss of its colleague, Wythe Davis
Sims, II, AIA, who drowned on Sunday, August 16, 1970 while probing
the depths of a sinkhole for the body of another diver. Wythe was a
member of the Orlando Otters Scuba Club.
Wythe Davis Sims, II for many years faithfully served his profession on a
local and state basis. He served as President of the Mid-Florida AIA
Chapter and was currently serving on the Board of Directors of the
FAAIA. He was the current President of the Construction Specifications
Institute (CSI) Orlando Chapter.
His memory will be with us. Our deepest sympathy to his family.
In essence, St. Peter's Church con-
sists of a particular group of people
united by baptism or a common life.
Conceivably the group could be
served by minimum physical require-
ments. Symbolic relationships are of
prime importance; history teaches us
that these relationships can and have
been established in the meagerest of
physical surroundings. The physical
"church" can be considered a portion
of the offertory of the congregation,
built according to the means of the
congregation to the glory of God, and
as an enhancement of the symbolic
actions performed within its walls.
The architectural solution of St.
Peter's began with a careful appraisal
of the requirements of the Book of
Common Prayer expressed in historic
and current buildings, and an analysis
of the changing spatial and symbolic
relations of the congregation to the
altar, font, and pulpit during discreet
periods of time. The relationship of
choir and organ were of slightly less
importance but were vital to the de-
sign of a proper worship space. A
suitable background was to be created
to enhance liturgical catholic worship
involving the corporate action and
movement of all present.
At the outset of the design it was
decided to achieve richness and ele-
gance through the creation of a power-
ful space and form and not through
the use of expensive materials. Rough,
exposed construction was to contrast
with the purity and color of vestments
and frontals and the pageantry of the
liturgy as it proceeded in time. Thus
rough-sawn unfinished southern yel-
low pine decking, exposed steel bents,
and exposed concrete floors have been
St. Peter's Church,
Fisher, Broward & Shepard, AIA
Evans & Hammond, Inc.
William E. Celler Co.
3' SOLID ASPHALT
PINE DEC SHINGLES
CNC `I SC AI AS N S[E N
*!NT I I IT S FC ASZ S E,
ri -1r[ r
n n rn n FONT
SACRISTY SE TII 5
F I0 F. 5 C
PLAN (AS CONSTRUCTED) 0 12 24
Our Best Wishes To
St. Peter's Episcopal Church
Crosby-Knighton Lumber Company
We were proud to have furnished the building materials
for this outstanding Sanctuary, featuring Rough Sawn
Southern Yellow Pine Roof Decking and Timberline
7770 West Beaver Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205
Telephone (904) 786-0443
8 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
WILLIAM E. CELLAR
St. Peter's Episcopal Church
Electrical Contractor for Jacksonville Children's Museum
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S. C.
.inking college and community, the new bronze- ..
nd-white 18-story Capstone House is a towering i"i'
astern terminus along the main axis for the Uni- .i..
'ersity of South Carolina's master campus plan. ,.,
Its revolving restaurant, first in the two Caro- 'i f
nas, is one of several facilities serving both "town il:
nd gown." Others: meeting rooms used for civic
fairs and for continuing education programs, a
central kitchen which serves banquets at the near-
ly City Coliseum.
Primarily a student dormitory, Capstone House
contains a handsome faculty lounge, guest rooms,
student cafeteria, canteen, laundry, student lounges
nd study rooms.
Lightweight advantages of Solite aggregates
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University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C., Owner;
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Industrialized Housing and The
Loyd D. Stark, Associate
Schweizer Associates, Architects-
Engineers-Planners, Winter Park.
During the last few years, the air has been charged with
activity centered around building systems for housing. For
the most part, these systems represent a search for ways
to take advantage of mass production techniques and with
the capacity to be constructed in high volume. Operation
Breakthrough, sponsored by the Department of Housing
and Urban Development, has produced many innovative
building systems. Several are quite exciting, on paper any-
way. The task of working out a new system and its inher-
ent problem is monumental, both in terms of cost and
time. The number of profitably produced systems today
are few indeed. One source indicates that approximately
8,000 so-called "modular" living units were produced
nationally this past year. In light of a projected 2.6 million
living units per year for the next 10 years, this is simply
a drop in the bucket. This article will review a new entry
into the manufactured housing field and some standards
of community excellence it will strive to maintain.
The word "systems," describing a series of components
designed so as to be compatible with one another, is a
term which has been in the architect's vocabulary for
many years. It would be impossible, in such a short space,
to explore even some of the problems associated with
modular systems and factory produced systems in general.
In an attempt to identify some of the more significant
problems facing the profession in housing today, this
article will limit itself to a rather one-sided point of view.
That point of view is not related to the actual building
system itself, but instead the building system's relation to
many larger systems comprising our total environment.
For the last year, Schweizer Associates has been working
very closely with Florida Gas Company and one of its
subsidiary corporations, Contemporary Building Systems,
Inc., on the development of a factory produced housing
system. The system is basically an assembly of sandwich
panels locked into an integral steel frame. These panels
are manufactured utilizing a kraft-paper honeycomb core
glued between skins of plywood or other suitable ma-
terials. The steel fram is made of specially rolled light
gage members forming perimeter surrounds and splines,
all welded together to form a singular unit. These com-
ponents are assembled off-line, aside from the main assem-
bly line, into sub-systems, generally in a pre-finished state,
then moved on-line in the manufacturing process where
they are installed as part of the finished product.
The basic system is capable of building a structural mod-
ule 12'-0" wide, 8'-0" high and up to 60' long. As a
system, it encompasses technologies which have existed
since the mid-forties; the only new twist possibly being
the nature of the integral steel frame. One thing, however,
that appears to separate it from its earlier predecessors is
that it can be built and sold for a profit on a competitive
basis; not for less cost but quite competitively. As with
any new system, extensive testing and documentation is
required and all is in process for submittals to the appro-
priate local and governmental agencies.
The problems encountered here are, as might be expected,
bound up in non-uniformity of building codes and local
building inspection practices. In order to manufacture
housing to be sold in the State of Florida, the authorities
of the Southern Standard Building Code, the South Flor-
ida Building Code and the Federal Housing Administra-
tion must all be satisfied. To establish a reasonable testing
program the various requirements of each of these agencies
must be extracted and analyzed so that pertinent tests may
be performed in accordance with the most severe standards
of the three.
The problems of building inspection seem to have been
resolved, in Central Florida anyway, due to the efforts of
the Central Florida Building Officials. This group is in
the process of developing a system for reciprocity of in-
spection on modular structures. This simply means, that
under the agreement, homes manufactured in one county
Illustration A (y.
may be transported to another county recognizing the
agreement and accepted as having been fully inspected
during construction, provided proper certification accom-
panies the unit. The county in which the unit has been
manufactured provides all of the inspection services asso-
ciated with normal building practice on a fee basis. The
unit is certified as having complied with the requirements
set forth in the reciprocity agreement. The recipient coun-
ty requires the developer to take out a building permit and
provide normal on-site inspection for utilities, foundations,
To date, several different configurations have gone through
basis analysis and appear to be feasible. The most basic,
a two-modular structure, is used to form a living unit not
unlike the one many of us were raised in or are living in
now. It is a modest unit, designed to contain all of the
amenities currently available in housing. This unit (Illus-
tration A) was built as a proto-type unit and is currently
being used to demonstrate, first hand, what is possible
with the most basic components of the system.
Later development, demonstrating the system's potential,
indicates that units can be manufactured which offer
much more in the way of increased livability for a com-
parable cost to the prototype. (Illustration B). Although
the two module unit is the most basic and simplified
configuration ,three module and four module units have
been developed and will provide far greater flexibility. In
addition to the traditional single family detached house,
many different variations of life style can be provided
encompassing the concepts of patio houses, one and two
story town houses, as well as apartment flats. A high rise
building system designed to utilize the basic modular
component is now under study. (Illustration C).
One certain factor recognized early in this study was that
regardless of the quality of the housing produced by this
venture, the house is not an end in itself. A house is a
component of a larger system; the system of community.
Much time has been spent in research identifying certain
goals which will influence the way in which this system is
manufactured and placed in the community. With manu-
factured housing, planners will have the opportunity to
design communities with full knowledge of the architec-
tural character of the units to be used.
Conventional building practice as implemented through-
out the years has encouraged many processes which are
detrimental to our environment as a whole. With the de-
mand for housing going ever upward and the devices
which man brings to bear becoming more numerous, large
scale housing demands the utmost in coordination and
attention to detail to succeed in terms of quality. The
mass organization of on-site work for a development con-
taining 600 homes would stagger the imagination. The
staging of raw materials to be included in the project
requires large areas of land aside from the actual building
Too often, the requirements of these activities seem to
take precedence over such amenities as trees and areas of
natural growth and underbrush, which could be of great
value to the community as a whole. Consequently they
are trampled and destroyed; some times intentionally,
sometimes through the complacency of an uninformed
The price range within which builders can effectively
produce housing at a profit has been further burdened by
the rising cost of labor. A major problem becoming ap-
parent in large population centers is a lack of the labor
normally required to perform the basic work phases in the
construction process. Conventional building practices in
the housing industry today, because of the tight margins
allowed for profit, enjoys very little involvement of quali-
fied professionals in the planning and design process.
Most operations eventually evolve to totally profit cen-
tered developments with short range economic goals. This
is one of the first steps on the road to slum and the
ghetto in effect, the systematic destruction of our environ-
Manufactured housing provides an opportunity to relieve
certain pressures normally placed upon the builder-devel-
oper. It places the greatest portion of responsibility for
profitable home building upon the manufacturer and
BR -; -
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allows the builder-developer more time to concern himself
with the nature of his community and time for detailed
interpretation of where the market for his community
Most communities of today suffer from a form of decay
stimulated by over development of the side by side single
family house. They are arranged in endless, monotonous
rows, facing one another with fences blocking circulation
between. Circulation and communication within the com-
munity is virtually paralyzed. People are forced to walk
the streets dodging automobiles in order to experience any
leisure opportunities outside their own "little acre."
There is no apparent sense of order or purpose. The ever
rising cost of the living unit itself, land, land improve-
ment and money are causing the above described pattern
to be extended well beyond its healthy limit. Housing
developments today are subject to rigid regulations, which
often establish their pattern, and most can barely achieve
any sense of character or identity due to the extreme high
cost and lack of imagination in development. It is apparent
that current low density trends are becoming economically
unbalanced and prices currently exceed the reach of the
average wage earner. Most developers, obeying the pres-
sure of economics, are even today striving for higher
densities in single family communities. The concept of the
detached house is a poor answer to higher density, lower
There are, however, many time proven devices available to
planners to break this trend. Planned Unit Development,
for one, is a zoning instrument which will allow mixed
zoning within a single large development. Under this con-
cept, land may be used according to its most economically
viable purpose, allowing developments, depending on their
size, to contain commercial properties, apartments, high
density condominium units, and single family detached
housing. The basic requirement in a Planned Unit De-
velopment District is simply that the entire project must
be guided by a logical master plan. We must begin to
develop higher densities in clusters, (Illustration D) con-
solidating utilities and physical amenities thereby making
them more economical to provide. These clusters most
efficiently take the form of one or two story town houses
or patio houses, which provide a maximum of outdoor
privacy and recreational opportunity with minimum land
It is imperative that we begin to use better designed
apartments, recognizing the existence of the human ele-
ment in these living spaces. We must become aware of
better land use practices and what we are doing to the
land as we develop it, continuing to strive for more
natural pockets, strips of open space and parks. We must
create communities which achieve an identity and serve
their residents as a living network and not simply an
isolated plot of land where one lives cut off from the rest
of the neighborhood.
There is really nothing complex about a modest living
unit. Life styles, in this country anyway, seem fairly well
defined, and there have been few significant changes in
50 years. For the great majority of people, only the most
basic kind of living unit seems to be capable of seeking
an economic level which can remain in balance. Simple
and inexpensive units are the only means of housing for
the great majority of people.
Once one accepts the reality of these facts, it becomes
apparent that if greater variety cannot be economically
created in each individual living unit, then the solution
must lie in what we do with these units and how they
relate to each other. There are certain economies to be
derived from the proper land use and site planning. Vari-
ety of spacing and orientation can go a long way toward
creating a sense of individuality in living units. Given
five basic plans which are so designed as to be approached
from three different directions by foot or automobile and
given three basic roof styles or elevation variations along
with three materials from which the unit is finished, it
should be possible to create 135 visually different living
units. Variation in orientation is the key to this approach.
Past practices involving houses which utilize only the
facade for visual variety are extremely limited.
Industrialized Housing, cont.
Based upon this concept, a good housing tool would be
simple, provide well studied opportunities for living, inside
and out, and should be capable of many site orientations;
an order which can be easily filled by manufactured hous-
ing. Manufactured housing appaers to be a device to
implement better design control; in short, a better com-
munity building block. It allows a designer to exercise a
higher degree of discipline and provides far greater con-
trols in a fast growing community housing great number
of people; today, a very frustrating problem. Because a
planner knows the nature of the unit to be utilized, he
can spend more time concerning himself with the total
environment. It insures an opportunity anyway, to gener-
ate a greater sense of community identity.
Much like the bodies it will house, a community is also
an organism which has arteries and veins, systems which
are vital to its existence. It has a surface which breathes,
and it must allow for many simultaneous activities all the
while providing for its general health and maintenance.
It is an organism which is sensitive to social and physical
change and should be capable of accepting change grace-
fully; another problem which manufactured housing might
help solve. Instead of being razed, the manufactured
house might be moved more easily as urban centers ex-
pand and land values outstrip existing use. We now know
that the most painful problems involved in the community
system today are all products of insensitive planning, or
more appropriately, the lack of it.
Once a basic program is established for the type of living
units required, little time is wasted in the refining of
buildings and their various architectural elements. More
time should be spent studying and understanding the most
appropriate interrelationship between buildings and build-
ing types. In this case the emphasis is on overall planning;
planning which should shape the fabric of the community
and set the goals of the project. From this point, it is up
to the architect to interpret this life style according to the
parameters and goals established by the planning process.
A well designed manufactured house should offer design
flexibility on the interior as well as the exterior and must
be basic and simplified. It allows the opportunity to con-
sistently create good visual neighbors, neither depressing
nor overly stimulating.
It should be recognized at this point, that manufactured
housing is not a panacea. Sensitively designed commun-
ities should exist regardless of their means of materializa-
The manufactured housing industry is still very young and
many problems will have to be overcome before it can
take its place in society as a viable producer of shelter. It
reflects, nonetheless, an idea which has come of age and
will eventually represent a substantial portion of the
housing industry. Such problems as the uniformity of
codes, the resistance of labor unions and public accept-
ability, as well as acceptability in the construction indus-
try, are all shaping the future of manufactured housing.
These problems, strangely enough, are probably more of
a help than a hindrance inasmuch as this young and ener-
getic industry has yet to recognize its immediate potential
in housing people. For the most part, the difference be-
tween superior and inferior housing lies in the considera-
tion of the nature of community and balanced economics.
We should encourage any effort to improve the atmos-
phere in which manufactured housing must exist while
seeking to educate those individuals who make large scale
housing possible as to what quality housing really consists
of. It is up to the professional to concern himself with
quality. The understanding of quality, what really consti-
tutes quality, and then the communication of these ideals
on the basis of the sicence of economics is the real key to
successful environmental design; THEY ARE INSEP-
14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
16 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
of things to
Electricity is the power with a promise. Its time has only begun. Color TV,
self-cleaning ovens and no-frost refrigerator freezers will be followed by marvels
just unimaginable today as these were a few brief years ago. But imagination will
create them. And electricity will power them. Which is one reason why ample electric
service must be a constant concern to you. A lot of people count on you to make
their needs for tomorrow a part of your plan today.
Florida Power & Light Company / Tampa Electric Company / Florida Power Corporation / Gulf Power Company
The new museum is located in the
southwest corner of an existing public
park on the St. John's River in down-
Four towers containing the Planetari-
um, Art, Sciences and Service sup-
port the central exhibition loft, clear-
ly expressing the museum's functions
and its specific character in contrast
to neighboring commercial structures.
Four foot berms raise the museum
above flood level. School buses off
load visitors at the southwest corner
from which one enters the lobby giv-
ing direct access to all activity areas.
Ascending to the exhibition areas one
moves through a series of environ-
mental chambers which envelope the
viewer. The upper exhibition loft con-
tains changing exhibits. Small animal
runs, an aviary, picnic pavilion and
terrace surmount the roof.
Jacksonville Children's Museum/Jacksonville
William Morgan, AIA
Structural: Haley W. Keister
Mechanical: Evans & Hammond, Inc.
Daniel Construction Company
GROUND FLOOR PLAN (below) shows future expansion in
dashed lines. 1 exhibition space, 2 offices, 3 planatarium (120
seats), 4 receiving and storage, 5 classrooms, 6 workshops,
7 theater (150 seats), 8 animal cages, 9 aviary, 10 mechanical
room, 11 roof garden.
UPPER EXHIBITION LEVEL.
/ -J I
LOWER EHBUNION LEVEL
ru' L i'.~
C: I i
c ~ i di ..~rr
B w' rrr~
Ca ?v~t .
fu i.~~t .~
Painting Contractor for Jacksonville Children's Museum
5277 Lenox Avenue
20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
WILLIAM E. CELLAR CO.
THE COLSON CO.
CROSBY-KNIGHTON LUMBER CO.
DANIEL CONSTRUCTION CO.
DUNAN BRICK YARD
FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
FLORIDA GAS TRANSMISSION CO.
FLORIDA INVESTOR OWNED
FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT DIV.
W. W. GAY
PAXSON ELECTRIC CO.
PRESENTATIONS SOUTH, INC.
GEORGE H. SCROGINS PAINTING CO.
CAST STONE, INC.
ZONOLITE DIV.-W. R. GRACE & CO.
523 Estelle Lane
Phone (904) 388-2696
Phone (904) 372-3963
Phone (305) 838-4271
Daniel Construction Company
General Contractor for Jacksonville Children's Museum
MECHANICAL CONTRACTOR, INC.
The philosophy behind a remodeling
is a very difficult thing to put into
words. There is a pre-existing condi-
tion to deal with; the original house,
which defies all efforts at rationaliza-
tion. It is there and must be dealt
with. In this case it was a standard,
somewhat stuffy, typical 1930 2-storey
subdivision house, divided into a mul-
titude of small, dark rooms. The front
door faced the ocean to welcome in-
coming sea captains, or an occasional
mermaid, while residents and guests
entered through the kitchen, a side
porch, or a shower room. The sole
concession to its location, perched
high on a dune overlooking the At-
lantic was its weatherbeaten shingle
exterior and wood paneled interior.
The wood windows were all divided
into approximately 1000 small panes
to catch the maximum amount of
salt spray. The major work involved
the opening up and lightening of the
interior to take advantage of the sun,
the view, and the breezes, the addi-
tion of a large playroom, enlarging of
the Master Bedroom and Bath, re-
vising all existing plumbing, moderniz-
ing the kitchen and straightening out
the circulation, with the addition of
an unmistakable front door and en-
try. The large glass areas and porch
facing the ocean are all hooded by
fin walls, overhangs and balconies to
protect them from the weather and to
frame the views, and in the process
to provide second floor balconies off
the major rooms. It is these projec-
tions which are the major design ele-
ments of the house today. The glass
on the East is protected on the inside
by louvered folding doors to cut the
early morning sun and to provide
Boyer & Boyer
Structural: Haley W. Keister
Mechanical: Evans & Hammond
. I WIN,'jROnM SCEEhEJ
i PC" -CH
'.L A" PC,,: r1
C J E L
DININ 19 0
1 FT. n R. P A N
OF PILA `O0M
1i T *R V. T
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- f .._..,- ._ _ I. -' .' .. m "
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Photo: Kurt Waldmann
'0 "- 'll- I 'l'- .'- " ""- --V-- .-- .
,r.P.. 4 < .
'" ^ .- '"^# :' ,t;I ' "-\
.. : _-,, .,. ,.if
is7"'; .'-;;' ,'
rVan i -tp'
$-- :'4 -
a: s S
Before fire makes it too hot
for steel, talk to Zonolite
about the kind of fire
insurance you spray on.
It's Zonolite" Mono-Kote, the compound that
fireproofs steel and concrete. And does it so
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Mono-Kote comes ready to use. Just add
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as 50 stories Goes onr fast. Delivers a bond
strength of more than 500 pounds per square
Other features? Indeed! Like zero erosion,
after being tested in 100 m.p.h. winds for 87
hours Result: no "dusting" in air-condition-
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mits reduction in the thickness of concrete
floors. Cost? Very little.
Want all the facts and figures from the
Zonolite fireproofing experts? Say the word.
62 Whirremore Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 02140
24 :* l* ': I A E J y: A; s
24 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
The Building Management and
Reprinted from the January 1970 issue "Buildings-The
Construction and Building Management Journal"
There is no doubt but that the architect's "master build-
er" image has diminished in recent years and that the
influence of the building owner, developer and manager
is in the ascendency.
Whether the pendulum will continue to swing in this
direction, with the architect becoming more and more a
scriber of lines on paper and less involved in translating
those lines into a finished building remains to be seen in
the coming decade.
While the architect has had his troubles living up to his
image, building management has been fighting to live
down its image of the greedy landlord, the fast-buck real
estate speculator and the glorified janitor.
Evidence that building management is succeeding in its
image-building efforts is borne out by the comments of
industry leaders appearing on the panel at a recent Build-
ing Management/Construction Seminar conducted by
BUILDINGS (October 28, New York City).
The architect's role
Arthur E. O'Donnell, vice president in charge of real
estate for Chase Manhattan Bank, believes importance of
the architect hasn't diminished as such but "he has suf-
fered as a professional largely through his own faults
S during the post World War II period.
"The architect actually wasn't able to keep up with the
post-war building boom which evolved into an era of
sophisticated ownership involved in managing multiple
properties. These owners have risen to the point that they
know as much about many areas of design and construc-
tion as the architect does. We are on equal footing with
O'Donnell contends the architect is still necessary to the
picture. He has to evolve the concept, put it before local
bureaucracy, and be responsible for the design in a pro-
Pointing out the increased complexity of today's buildings
as compared to those of one or two decades ago, Anthony
Rendino, director of real estate management for IBM
Corp., added: "I don't think the architect can be all things
to all people at all times; and I think it's to our own
interests to be careful about the kinds of material and
systems that we specify for our buildings. If he's as human
as anyone else he can't possibly know everything that's
available or what's right for us and maybe not right for
somebody else. I just don't think it's wise to simply rely
on him and hope for the best."
Restrictive and unimaginative zoning laws in Washington,
and perhaps other cities, were suggested as another reason
for a reduction in the architect's sphere of influence.
Melton D. Haney, vice president of Charles E. Smith
Management Companies, Washington, D.C., explained
the position in which his firm finds itself as major owner-
developers: "In Washington we can go up 110 or 230
feet, and the only thing you can do to a building, really,
' is determine what the skin's going to be, what the outside
is going to look like. You build a box with 12 stories. So
when it comes to designing a building, depending upon
the contours of the ground, you're limited as to what you
can do. In Washington we're hemmed in so by zoning
laws that the architect has no latitude for creative de-
Robert Schlageter, vice president in the real estate depart-
ment of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the
United States (See September, 1969, BUILDINGS), in-
sist the architect is still an extremely important part of
this team effort, and that the emergence of he sophisti-
cated ownership O'Donnell mentioned is convincing ar-
chitects that they've got to look at a building project
today from the owner-investor's point of view. "We con-
sider ourselves professional in the development of our
building projects and many things peculiar to an Equitable
Building might be a little foreign to some of the archi-
tectural offices. We like to feel that there's a healthy
participation and partnership between ourselves and our
architects and other consultants."
In defense of architects, Schlageter added: "We're, in
fact, enlarging the vision of the architectural concepts.
I don't think that this is running down their part of this
team effort. But they've got to look at a lot more today
than they did 15-20 years ago."
Selecting the architect
As the panelists established that the architect remains an
important member of the building team but somewhat
less than the king figure of the pre-war era, the subject
changed to guidelines for selection of an architect.
Since IBM not only owns and operates buildings but
leases space in others, Rendino explained that insofar as
new structures are concerned his firm has five general
criteria: "First, experience in the kind of building we're
considering; second, a staff large enough to handle the
projects we want to build; third, reputation among other
owner-developers; fourth, personal evaluation of several
architects based upon visits to their projects and to their
offices; and fifth, evry likely selection of an architect in
the particular geographic area of the project."
Schlageter agrees, adding that current workload is a very
fundamental consideration in terms of production capabil-
ity. Equitable uses different, well-known architects on its
projects as does Chase Manhattan and IBM.
In Washington, Haney employs two local architects for
most projects. However, for larger ones such as a 99-acre
project in Virginia (three million sq. ft. of office space,
4,000 apartments and shops, motel and underground
parking) "we felt the scope of the job was such that we
wanted the very best talent available. We went with an
outstanding national architectural firm."
Picking the team
Each of the panelists on BUILDINGS' seminar organizes
the building team in a similar way with variations. At
Chase, O'Donnell brings a mechanical engineer, a consult-
ing engineer and perhaps others into the picture "for our
own protection. This even goes for projects where we have
engineers checking on the engineers literally. We do a lot
of our work in-house, in which case we might put it before
a consulting engineer to check our own thinking."
At Equitable, Schlageter's procedure is to hire an architect
with the expectation that within his scope he would have
responsibility for development of engineering and me-
chanical/electrical construction. "He would hire consult-
ing engineers within his fee unless he had in-house
engineering which we are not particularly fond of. His
selection of engineers is usually subject to our approval.
In addition, we have our own engineers who review specs,
develop material lists and work with the architect."
Charles E. Smith Company does it just a little differently,
Haney explains. "We hire structural, mechanical and
architectural consultants separately. The architect doesn't
hire people for us. We do put the responsibility upon the
electrical/mechanical engineers to check out the systems.
cont. pg. 26
Outside heat raises inside
cooling costs. Zonolite can
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Look into Grace-Zonolite" Masonry Fill Insula-
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Other virtues? Yep.
Zonoliter' Masonry Fill Insulation reduces
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Mang. & Const. Team, cont.
In addition, we have our own mecha-
nical department, some very qualified
people, who survey the job to find out
what's being done and what is hap-
pening before something gets covered
up. We have on-site engineers and
property managers, and we throw the
burden of responsibility upon these
individuals to the limit of their knowl-
edge and experience. So, we really
have four or five people constantly
checking on our sub-contractors."
Schlageter interjected: "Normally, in
any specification or for any job we
put out for bid, we will prequalify all
sub-contractors and have a material
list of approved suppliers and manu-
Rendino notes that IBM's arrange-
ments are much like Equitable's. "We
rely on the architect to have a co-
ordinating crew which includes en-
gineering talent, usually hired from
outside. In addition, we have our own
consulting design staff to review de-
signs as submitted. We have project
managers who are responsible for see-
ing that designs are followed. If we
have a particularly complex project
we might also hire an outside con-
sultant; but that would be very
Who leads the team?
It's obvious from the extent the
panelists drop the names of the lead-
ing architects they employ that they
take pride in their association with
leaders in that profession and rank
the architect at least the best as
an influential partner on the build-
ing team. It seldom comes up in
discussion at least before an audi-
ence whether one or the other is
the leader of the team. On the other
hand, building owner-developers will
seldom admit to less than a coalition.
Some relevant factors do prevail: Mu-
tual respect often comes during or
after completion of one or more proj-
ects together. The economic risk is
too great on large projects not to take
advantage of numerous specialists in
Where the owner is sufficiently
knowledgable and experienced there is
no question that his contributions to-
gether with those of the architect
justify their partnership in the heir-
archy of the building team. Together
they are equipped to evaluate con-
tributions of other team members and
make valid decisions concerning de-
sign and construction. There's no
question of any other team members
usurping the throne.
Seminar panelist O'Donnell men-
tioned one newcomer to the construc-
tion scene in the past decade, the
construction consultant, who is mak-
ing substantial inroads into the archi-
tect's position. "These people make
a specialty of second-guessing the ar-
5169 Edgewood Court
St. Peter's Church (Episcopal)
Cast Architectural Concrete
for the Altar
26 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
Air Conditioning Contractors
St. Peter's Church (Episcopal)
chitect for companies not engaged in
construction all the time and not hav-
ing professional management organiza-
tions. Formerly these companies would
go to the architect who would dream
a dream (whether it was for the client
or himself was questionable). In the
era we are now in, we have the
construction consultant sitting down
with the client prior to the selection
of the architect. The outcome of this
situation will be interesting to watch
in coming years."
Exchange of value judgments
Seminar panelists agree that all mem-
bers of the building team general
contractors, sub-contractors along with
engineers and consultants in various
fields- are entitled and encouraged
to make suggestions that can affect
the design, construction and operation
of the completed building. But they
had better have solid reasons to back
up their suggestions if they expect
them to be accepted, the executives
From this free exchange, the owner
accumulates what Chase Manhattan's
O'Donnell calls "value judgments"
consisting of the total of the team
members' knowledge and experience.
These value judgments are used in
defense or perhaps in opposition to
a particular suggestion.
Every member of the team who makes
a suggestion or opposes another's
must justify his position, O'Donnell
believes. "Even so, sometimes you
have to make decisions based upon
minimum facts. This is where you
get into what you call a risk area; and,
of course, you try to minimize risks
with new products and untried con-
When you realize that it is the in-
vestor-owner who is putting up the
money for new buildings, you can see
why he is cautious about such risks.
However, O'Donnell believes archi-
tects are even more conservative.
"We have a very difficult time get-
ting our products. They are prone to
use the same thing over and over
again. When you ask why they want
a particular product, they can't give a
Schlageter sums up this prevalent
philosophy behind the building team:
"There's really a compelling urgency
on the part of the owners and in-
vestors to seek out new ways of do-
ing things better and quicker for less
money. This is really vital! As for
the architects, it's a lot easier for
them to use the same techniques
over the years. We try to convince
our architects and engineers that
they're really responsible for design
and should try something new. We
expect to be innovators, but not just
to be first with a new product or
technique. We expect to get premi-
ums out of new ideas." 0
For Florida Architects
-' .I* /
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PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
This project is the first Urban Re-
newal housing development in Miami
and was selected for construction
from a design competition sponsored
by the Dade County Department of
Housing and Urban Development for
private development under Section
221 (d) 3 and Rent Supplement Pro-
gram. Consisting of 47 townhouse
apartments, each unit has its living
areas on the ground floor. Entrance
is from central courtyards, with din-
ing areas opening to private noise
separation between the units, and as
air conditioning was prohibited in the
original program, through ventilation,
large protected openings and multiple
exposures were necessary. Special con-
sideration was given to avoiding long
unbroken buildings and parking lots,
and the retention of large existing
trees, as the major visual elements
of interlocking entrance courtyards
which lend spaciousness to the highly
developed site and provide pleasant
conversation areas. A central social
pavilion with play areas and laundry
facilities is Drovided.
Borroto & Lee
Apgar & Markham Const. Co.
Photos: Kurt Waldmann
There's a good reason for standardizing on Cat
machines, equipment and engines, and that's your
Florida Caterpillar Dealers.
Your Florida Caterpillar Dealer isn't in business just
to sell machines, equipment and engines. You'll find
that out if you try to buy the wrong unit for your needs.
He's trained to match your needs to the right
equipment. That's why he has so many models,
arrangements and configurations to choose from.
And after the sale, he never forgets you. He'll show
you how to use or to install your new unit. And how to
train your personnel. He'll also help your mechanics
set up an effective maintenance program.
There are still other ways your Florida Caterpillar
Dealers help you. They maintain and operate nine
service departments that are second to none,
equipped with trained personnel, time-saving special
tools and equipment, and conveniently located. Just
about 100% of the time your Florida Caterpillar Dealer
will have in his stock, for delivery over the counter,
the part you require and, if not, he can obtain it
from one of the nearby Caterpillar parts depots and
have it to you within a few hours.
Y U .Your Caterpillar Dealer is part of the worldwide
Caterpillar Dealer organization, so it is to your
CATERPILLAR. advantage to depend on your Florida Caterpillar
i DEALER Dealer for machines, equipment, engines,
:- parts and service.
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
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Caterpillar, Cat, B and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.
30 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / July/August 1970
This Is Zyrian Stone ...
This is an angle photograph of an actual panel 17' wide.
It began over 500 million years ago . in a quarry outside Min-
eral Bluff, Georgia. Through the ages, it adapted to a multitude
of earth changes. Today, It is a fine-grained mica schist that has
remained remarkably adaptable. It breaks into slabs of any desired
thickness (stocked only in 1/2" thickness) . or cut and saw it
to any shape. Variety is infinite. No two slabs show the same color
shades . they range from greens and bluish-greens through yel-
lows, browns and chocolate tones. Blend them to produce striking,
artistic effects. This unusual stone is ideal for veneering . future
uses are unlimited. It took over 500 million years for Zyrian Stone
to reach such perfection of beauty and facility. It was worth the wait.
DUNAN BRICK YARDS, INC.
1818 North 7th Avenue P. 0. Box 5
Lake Worth, Florida Miami, Florida
(305) 582-5760 (305) 887-1525
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulati
Publication at Miami, Fla.
University of Florida Libraries
The Florida Association
American Institute of Architects
56th Annual Convention
Building Products Exhibit
October 22-25, 1970
Sarasota Motor Hotel
Rex W. Allen
Host Chapter Party
Student Rap Session
AIA Public Relations Seminar
ARCHITECTURE: 21ST CENTURY