W A A Flo
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Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
Uni versity- System* of F lorida.
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i i ;.
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11111 ll) 1(ll
Coming -The Florida Architect- Sept. / Oct. 1970
In 1969 the Association, through its
publication "The Florida Architect," pub-
lished its first Directory of Architectural
Building Products and Services. This Di-
rectory contained names and addresses of
manufacturers, distributors and represen-
tatives of building products and services
within the 16 Product Classifications of
the Construction Specifications Institute,
The initial distribution of this sixteen
page Directory was 5,000 copies, and
since than additional requests for 1,450
copies have been received.
The Directory was established in 1969 as
a service to the architectural profession,
the construction industry in Florida and to
manufacturers, distributors and represen-
tatives. The Directory enables the archi-
tect, contractor, builder, etc. to have at
his fingertip a manufacturer's address and
phone number, and of equal importance,
the same data for distributors and repre-
sentatives. Communications are thereby
improved. The architect needs product
information now, not next week, and a
phone call brings him this information
(knowing the phone number is most
The 1970 Directory will also include a
cross reference index such as:
(a) Alphabetical list by name of com-
pany identified with CSI Product
(b) Listing of name of company under
each CSI Product Classification.
DEADLINE FOR LISTING
IS SEPTEMBER 1, 1970
A handy all-in-one
FAAIA Membership Roster
1970 Convention Program and
National Council of Architectural
Public Relations for the
State Agencies and their
Legislative list of legislators
and how to communicate
1970 Architectural Awards
Office Practice Procedures
AIA Standards of Professional
Film List about Architecture and
CLOSING DATE FOR RECEIVING ADVERTISEMENTS;I!
August 17, 197C
CLOSING DATE FOR RECEIVING ADVERTISING MATERIAL I!
September 1, 197C
Manufacturers/Representatives May Contact the FAAIA Office to Receive Forms
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
Harry E. Burns, Jr., President
415 Monroe Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Robert J. Boerema, Vice President/
550 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33131
Thomas H. Daniels, Secretary
425 Oak Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
Richard E. Pryor, Treasurer
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Rudolph M. Arsenicos
George H. Bail
Josh C. Bennett, Jr.
Howard B. Bochiardy
Thomas H. Daniels
Robert G. Graf
Mays Leroy Gray
Martin G. Gunderson
Donald R. Hampton
Charles F. Harrington
Walter S. Klements
C. Frasuer Knight
Charles McAlpine, Jr.
James D. McGinley
Frank R. Mudano
James C. Padgett
Archie G. Parish
Charles E. Pattillo III
George F. Reed
Roy L. Ricks
Robert E. Roll
Edward J. Seibert
Wythe D. Sims II
Albert L. Smith
John Edgar Stefany
Charles E. Toth
Francis R. Walton
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard. Coral Gables
St. Luke's Church, Episcopal, Ft. Myers,
McBryde & Parker, Architects. Photo by
2 Second Edition / Handbook and Directory of Architectural
Building Products & Services
5 AIA-AGC Blue Book
FRANK D. SHUMER, AIA
6 St. Luke's Church Episcopal / Ft. Myers
10 Regulations and Other Factors Affecting Use of
Floor Systems in Single-Family Houses in Florida
18 Industrialization of Building?
FRANCIS R. WALTON, AIA
22 Church of The Cross / Sarasota
25 Office for Arvida Corporation / Sarasota
27 Advertisers Index
28 From the University of Florida
ARNOLD F. BUTT, AIA, Chairman
Ted P. Pappas
Richard J. Veenstra
Russell J. Minardi
James C. Padgett
Charles E. Pattillo III
Wythe D. Sims II
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Howard Doehla / Advertising
Kurt Waldmann / Photography
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official
Journal of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association,
a Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published bi-monthly at the Executive
Office of the Association, 1000 Ponce de
Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida 33134.
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Editorial contribtuions, including plans
and photographs of architects' work, are
welcomed but publication cannot be
guaranteed. Opinions expressed by con-
tributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the
AIA. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted (unless specifically restricted)
by other news media, provided full credit
is given to the author and to THE FLOR-
IDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to
publisher's office . Individuals or firms
may not reproduce any part without writ-
ten permission from the publisher . ..
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 75 cents,
subscription, members $2.00 per year,
industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. October Handbook & Directory of
Architectural Building Products & Serv-
ices, single copy $3.00 or $1.50 for
Directory only . McMurray Printers.
VOLUME 20/NUMBER 3
A LOT MORE.
It's the way we build our capability. We've been putting up drywall
for a long time. Probably more than anyone else in the United States.
And we're good at it. Because we grow deliberately, increasing our services.
And by gathering more sophisticated, better experienced personnel. We grow
by diversifying our capability as fully as every new technological advance
permits. Now we assist in planning, design acoustics, place studs,install
ceilings, hang doors and windows (including all the hardware). We do all the
finishing utilizing the latest innovations in drywall installation. That's why we
can't call ourselves just a "drywall company" anymore.
Call us CATHER INDUSTRIES. We'll make a new name for ourselves
in greater service to our customers. Write for our new brochure. See for yourself.
FATHER INDUSTRIES P. O. BOX 36 FERN PARK, FLORIDA 32730
FATHER & SON DRYWALL ORLANDO DRYWALL TOOL & SUPPLY ORLANDO & FT. LAUDERDALE I
FATHER DRYWALL FT. LAUDERDALE FLORIDA ROLLING MILLS MIAMI
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4 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
Introducing The Blue Book
To All Florida Architects
Frank D. Shumer, AIA
Committee on the Construction Industry
Early in 1966, the Jacksonville Chapter of the American Institute of Architects
and the Northeastern Florida Chapter of the Associated General Contractors of
America joined forces in an effort to solve some of the problems in our industry.
Each organization selected nine of its members to form the AIA-AGC
COUNCIL. The decision was made to create a manual which could be used by
all in the construction industry as a guide for practices and procedures in bidding
and performing our work. The result of these efforts is the "BLUE BOOK,"
whose purpose is to summarize the discussions and conclusions in a manner that
will permit ready reference as the same problems arise again and again in our
daily business relationships.
In reaching its recommendations, the Council is not attempting to dictate a
mandatory procedure to each Architect or Contractor. However, a wide variation
in the way of doing the same thing has gradually arisen, and the Council is
convinced that there is much time to be saved on the part of both the Architect
and the Contractor if the routine part of our relationship could be more or less
standardized. The recommendations are specific as to their area of applicability.
Although the Blue Book developed out of the needs of the Jacksonville Chapter
of the AIA and the Northeastern Florida Chapter of the AGC, its application
relates generally to the problems of the construction industry throughout the
A copy of the Blue Book has been sent to each Chapter President. We hope the
Blue Book will help you as it has us to solve some of the problems in our
Winter Park Architect Elected President
of Guild for Religious Architecture
Nils M. Schweizer, partner in the Architectural-Engineer-
ing-Planning firm of Schweizer Associates, Winter Park,
has been elected president for 1970-71 of the Guild for
Religious Architecture at the annual meeting of the organi-
zation in Washington, D. C.
In becoming head of the most wide-ranging and influential
segment of the religious architectural field, Schweizer said
mankind is losing contact with the natural world, and
therefore the visual and spatial factors of man's con-
structed world are the most important elements for
He discussed the dichotomy of goals and objectives in
present religious institutions. "This dichotomy does much
to confuse both the religious community and its architects
by promulgating a past which is becoming increasingly
irrelevant both in forms of worship and structures," he
The Guild for Religious Architecture, an affiliate of the
American Institute of Architects, represents the combined
efforts of architects, clergy, craftsmen and artists to im-
prove the design and function of religious buildings.
Founded in 1940, the Guild is the professional arm of the
AIA in the field of religious design. A non-profit organiza-
tion, it has four basic aims: to promote excellence of
design in religious architecture and its allied arts; to
develop greater appreciation of the essentials of good
design for religious buildings; to assist architects without
experience in the design of buildings for worship; and to
encourage the study of religious architecture and art.
Schweizer, a member of the Guild for many years and
once an understudy of Frank Lloyd Wright, is a corporate
member of the American Institute of Architects; vice
president of the Mid-Florida Chapter of the AIA; and a
member of the Architectural Commission of the Episcopal
Diocese of South Florida.
Active in civic affairs, he is vice president of the Florida
Symphony, a member of the board and a past president
of the Loch Haven Art Center, and a member of the
Mayor's Action Committee of Winter Park.
New AIA Components in Florida
The Board of Directors of the AIA recently approved the
Charter for the Florida Southwest Chapter of the AIA.
This brings to twelve the number of AIA Chapters in
Florida. The following counties are included in the
Chapter area: Charlotte, Glades, Lee, Hendry and Collier.
The current officers are:
Martin G. Gunderson, AIA, President
Wiley M. Parker, AIA, Vice President
William L. Rivers, AIA, Secretary-Treasurer
The AIA Board also approved the Charter for the Indian
River Section of Palm Beach Chapter covering Ft. Pierce,
Vero Beach and Stuart area. Previously the Palm Beach
Chapter was granted a South Section Charter for the Boca
Raton, Delray Beach area.
Youngest Corporate Member
Jay Farcus at age 25 is the youngest Corporate member of
the AIA. He is employed by the architectural firm Morris
Lapidus & Associates. Farcus is a member of the Florida
South Chapter, AIA.
St. Luke's Church Episcopal/IFt. Myers
A complete new facility for an estab-
lished downtown church that had out-
grown its present building, the site,
135' x 600' deep, fronts on a major
business street in an area experiencing
considerable urban growth. The site
dictated the lineal arrangement of
Church, offices-classrooms, parish hall
and parking. The Church was set
back from the heavy trafficed street,
creating an entrance plaza, walls were
used to develop courts to provide re-
lief from the street, but kept low
enough not to appear foreboding or
The 400 seat worship space was plan-
ned with the sanctuary in the crossing
of the cruciform shaped building and
the pipe organ and choir at the head.
PR I EST
McBryde and Parker
George F. Causey ASLA
Bertram Y. Kinzey, Jr.
Peacock Construction Co., Inc.
Christ Figure &f Fountain
II'/ 3 I
ATI A NTIC l MI LA/W'I< -RK
We are proud to have furnished all architectural
woodwork for St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Ft. Myers
8 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
St. Luke's Episcopal Church
"SPECIALIZING IN COMMERCIAL
AND RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPING"
1601 Winkler Avenue at Princeton St.
Ft. Myers, Florida 33901
COURTESY QUALITY SERVICE
5330 Palm Beach Blvd.
Ft. Myers, Florida 33905
St. Luke's Episcopal Church
oJ0o N. c. rUUKIri LtUUKI, IA/MI, r-L
Best Wishes To
St. Luke's Episcopal Church
Ft. Myers, Florida
Peacock Construction Company
Is Proud to Have Shared
In the Work of Producing
This Magnificent Tribute
God and Man
2305 Colonial Blvd., Ft. Myers, Florida 33901
Regulations and Other Factors
Affecting Use of Floor Systems
in Single-Family Houses in Florida
By Milton Applefield*
Building code regulations of 10 major Florida city and
county jurisdictions were evaluated relative to specific
wood uses for floor systems of single-family houses. The
author discusses requirements among communities for the
use of wood members in crawl-space and concrete slab-on-
ground construction. He shows the extent of acceptance
of pole-frame and ductless underfloor-plenum construction
systems by building inspection departments.
Wood is a familiar construction material which has many
advantages for architects, builders, and consumers. Like
other materials, it has limitations and requires certain
safeguards and maintenance. Some building code regula-
tions, however, unjustifiably restrict or prohibit its use.
Building codes, and their interpretation and enforcement,
provide the regulations which control the use of building
materials and methods of construction. Such controls
differ greatly among communities. Wood-related con-
struction requirements were studied from information
obtained from building officials of 10 major Florida cities
and their counties (Figure 1). This study was intended
to provide the following:
a. Determination of regulations affecting se-
lected wood uses and the variation existing
b. Evaluation of protection requirements for
structural wood members used close to the
c. Identification and analysis of misconceptions
that influence regulations which impede or
preclude the use of wood.
d. Determination of building officials' accept-
ance of two new, wood floor-foundation
Building Code Use
This study of 10 Florida city and county jurisdictions,
where there is heavy demand for house construction,
determined which building codes are enforced and their
Figure 1. The ten city-county study areas in Florida.
10 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
regulations applicable to wood use. Leon and Escambia
counties in western Florida have no building codes. The
City of Miami and Dade County use a regional code, the
South Florida Building Code. The consolidated City of
Jacksonville-Duval County uses the National Building
Code. The 14 remaining cities and counties use the
Southern Standard Building Code.
All subsequent data will pertain to the 17 city and county
jurisdictions which enforce a building code. Although most
of these use the same code, building regulations were
found to differ considerably. Fourteen jurisdictions had
revised certain technical portions of their model codes to
handle supposedly unique local circumstances. Varied
regulations also resulted from different interpretations of
identical code provisions.
General Wood Use Requirements
Moisture Content. The moisture content (M.C.) of
wood exerts an important influence over all its physical
properties. Most strength properties of wood vary inversely
with the M.C. when it is below approximately 25 percent,
the fiber saturation point. Consequently, satisfactory
service requires the use of a suitable lumber M.C. for a
specific use condition. Nineteen percent is generally
accepted as an adequate maximum lumber M.C. for
housing construction requirements. This is the maximum
M.C. permitted by all of the sampled cities and counties
except Pensacola, which enforces no maximum limitation.
It should be noted that, for certain uses, conditions, and
areas, lumber M.C. less than 19 percent is necessary for
Grade Marked Wood Materials. Product grade marking
provides a stamp of quality approval backed by recognized
and reliable trade associations. It applies to shingles and
shakes, lumber, plywood, preservative treatments, and
fire-retardant-impregnated materials, as well as to nonwood
products. With few exceptions, all the cities and counties
required grade marked lumber for floor joists, sills, and
sub-flooring. Jacksonville-Duval County had no lumber
grade mark requirement. Palm Beach County did not
require grade marked lumber for sills or sub-floor, and
St. Petersburg had no grade requirement for sub-floor
The predominant construction system for new single-
family houses in these Florida jurisdictions is the concrete
slab-on-ground. Based on building officials' estimates,
more than 90 percent of new houses are built on concrete
slabs in 12 of the cities and counties studied. Slab con-
struction in Orlando and in Brevard County amounted
to 85 percent and West Palm Beach had 80 percent, but
Jacksonville-Duval County claimed 40 percent and Talla-
hassee had only 35 percent of its houses built on a slab.
The remaining houses are either crawl-space or split-level
construction. With the exception of Brevard County and
Jacksonville-Duval County where crawl-space construction
increased, the use of slab construction increased or
remained constant over the past 5 years. The high inci-
dence of slab construction in Florida largely explains the
heavy use of terrazzo, carpeting, and resilient tile instead
of wood for finish flooring.
New Construction Systems
Two new alternatives to concrete slab-on-ground construc-
tion for single-family houses are the underfloor-plenum
and pole-frame construction systems, both highly favorable
for wood use.
IThe term "floor systems" used throughout this paper refers to
the floor framing, finish flooring, and, where applicable, the
foundation of slab-on-ground, crawl-space, plenum, or pole-
frame types of construction.
-ODIFFUSER WOOD JOISTS ?
SUPPLY AIR PLENUM 17
SAND COVERED I 3"TO24"
VAPOR BARRIER CONCRETE PAN GROUND LINE PLENUM DEPTH
Figure 2. Sketch of a wood floor system with ductless,
underfloor-plenum air distribution for heating
and cooling single-family houses.
Plenum Construction.--A ductless, underfloor-plenum
system for distributing warm and cool air (Figure 2) is
permitted in all the jurisdictions except Dade County and
Miami. Dade County regulations will not permit the use
of wood or other combustible materials in the supply air
circulation system. Miami building officials objected to
the plenum because of the lack of insulation and because
of anticipated problems with insects. They also contended
that "dead air in the plenum might promote rot of wood
members when the mechanical system is not in use.
Actually, with proper drainage, the plenum space under
the house tends to be drier than the living area in the
house, thus creating an unfavorable environment for
insects, vermin, and decay (1). By 'means of chemical
soil poisoning and adequate preservative treatment of the
wood members in the floor system, protection against
insects and decay can be obtained. The amount and kind
of insulation, as in any building, is generally a function of
initial cost versus operating costs and can be installed as
More than 2,000 homes throughout the United States
have been built with ductless, underfloor-plenum air
distribution systems in recent years. Various studies prove
the system is structurally and mechanically efficient (2)
(4) (5). It has been shown to provide various advantages
from aesthetic, comfort, and economic standpoints:
1. The plenum permits "low-profile" construc-
tion which is desirable with current indoor-
outdoor home activities.
2. Greater freedom of overhead design is per-
mitted because ducts are not needed for heat-
ing or cooling.
3. It is conducive to the use of wood floors
utilizing the resilience of wood for underfoot
4. The system provides uniform comfortable
heating and cooling temperatures from floor
to ceiling throughout the house (1).
5. In Florida, the plenum system is less costly
than either slab-on-ground or crawl-space con-
struction when carpet or wood finish flooring
is used. However, slab construction costs less
when terrazzo flooring is used (Figure 3). In
11 other states across the southern half of the
nation, cost estimates revealed that plenum
construction is least costly regardless of
whether wood, carpet, or terrazzo is used.2
2Dickerhoof, H. E., and T. D. Lawrence. 1970. Floor foundation
costs. USDA Forest Serv., Southeast. Forest Exp. Sta. Unpub-
Cucrete Dciles CI rele DOctless Cu ncle Oclss
Slah Plenum Sla Pletum Sli Pleun
MIAMI TAMPA JACKSONVILLE
Figure 3. Cost comparisons of several kinds of finish
flooring, over concrete slab and ductless under-
floor-plenum construction, for single-family
houses in three Florida cities.
Concrete slab-on-ground construction costs include a
trowel finish of the slab and soil treatment under the slab
with an insecticide, and also include ducts for distributing
warm or cool air. Carpeting, laminated oak block flooring,
and terrazzo are installed directly on the slab. Oak strip
flooring is laid on treated wood sleepers over the slab.
Plenum costs include pressure treatment of wood beams
and floor joists, but no ductwork. Carpeting is on %-inch
Cost estimates for plenum and slab construction floored
with carpeting, wood block, and wood strip flooring each
are based on 1,300 square feet of coverage. In addition,
220 square feet of sheet vinyl are used in the kitchen,
and the bath is floored with 160 square feet of ceramic
tile. Terrazzo flooring occupies the entire 1,680 square
Pole-Frame Construction. Pole-frame construction (Fig-
ure 4) has displayed its structural superiority under hur-
ricane forces through the years. It provides great latitude
of design, minimum of site disturbance, and cost savings,
but is little used for housing except for beach-front prop-
erties. Objections to the use of pole-frame construction
for single-family houses were voiced by building officials
of four jurisdictions.
Figure 4. Sketch of pole-frame construction for single-
continued on page 12
The cost estimates from which Figure 3 was derived are
based on construction labor and materials from site
preparation and grading to the finish flooring of a one-
story, single-family house with central heating and cooling,
and with 1,680 square feet of floor space. (Plumbing is
M OAK STRIP
4 M CARPET >
I OAK ROCK
-_ I TERRAZZO
Regulations and Other Factors, cont'd
It was claimed that pole framing was not practical in the
cities of Tallahassee and West Palm Beach, and therefore
would not be permitted. Brevard County does not permit
pole framing because of the frequency of hurricanes which
they feel would result in roof damage by wind uplift.
Pole-frame construction is no more susceptible to wind
damage than other construction if properly designed and
built. Volusia County reported no experience with pole
framing for housing, but will not allow such construction
without specific approval of each set of complete plans.
Crawl-Space Versus Concrete Slab-on-Ground Construction
Crawl-space construction utilizes about one-fourth more
lumber than slab construction for houses of comparable
size and design. A major proportion of this difference is in
the floor system. There are also considerable differences
in the installation of finish flooring over crawl-space com-
pared with concrete slab construction.
Floor Framing and Finish Flooring. -Most city and
county building officials require a wood sub-floor, alone
or in combination with an underlayment, for most types
of finish flooring over crawl-space construction. Several
communities have no underfloor installation requirements,
thereby permitting a latitude of assembly methods. By
contrast, with slab-on-ground construction, there are few
communities which require the use of sub-floor, under-
layment, or other wood materials regardless of the kind
of finish flooring used. However, when wood-strip finish
flooring is used, about one-third of the officials do require
the use of wood sleepers over concrete slabs as protection
against condensation and to provide underfoot resiliency.
Protection of Wood Members.-When wood materials
are used close to the ground, they should be protected
against damage by termites and decay. This may be ac-
complished by various methods applied separately or in
combination: use of naturally resistant wood, application
of poisons to the soil, proper structural design and fabri-
cation, and treatment o wood with chemical preservatives.
The treatment methods accepted by the building officials
for protecting wood floor systems against termites and
Table 1. Wood preserving methods accepted by the 17
Florida jurisdictions studied which enforce
Members Brush Spray I Dip Pressure Required
Number of Communities' -
Wood Beams 4 4 4 17 0
Wood Sills 4 4 4 17 0
Wood Joists 5 4 5 15 1
Wood Sub-floor 4 2 3 9 7
Wood Underlayment 2 1 2 7 10
'Some communities accept various methods of treatment, so the
sums of all responses exceed 17.
Table 2. Nonwood treatments required to protect wood
floor system members from damage by termites
and decay in single-family houses built with
crawl-space and concrete slab construction.
Protective Required NotRequired No Reply
Measures Crawl Slab Crawll Slab Crawl| Slab
-- Number of Communities-
Soil Vapor Barrier 4 10 10 6 3 1
Chem. Soil Treat. 3 3 13 13 1 1
Termite Shields' 14 0 2 0 1 0
'With crawl-space construction, Orange County permits the sub-
stitution of insecticides in the soil for termite shields; Tallahas-
see requires both termite shields and soil treatment; Jacksonville-
Duval County permits the use of termite shields in lieu of
12 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
decay are shown in Table 1. As height above ground of
wood members increased, wood treatment requirements
decreased. Pressure treatment with preservatives approved
by the American Wood Preservers' Institute is the most
widely required safeguard, and is generally acknowledged
as the most reliable method of protection. The pressure
treatment of wood is relatively low in cost for the security
it affords. Local retail cost of pressure treatment averages
about $44 per thousand board feet of lumber. Based on
the use of 2,250 board feet of lumber for the structural
floor system, the treatment cost per house would be about
$100. At a sale price of $21,000 for a new single-family
house, such protection would cost less than one-half of
one percent of the total cost of the house.
Requirements for protecting wood floor system members
by means other than wood treatment are shown in Table
2. The use of termite shields as protection is widely en-
forced. Although their effectiveness is highly questionable,
termite shields for crawl-space construction are required
by most communities. On the other hand, treatment of
soil with insecticides, which provides more positive pro-
tection against termite infestations (3), is required in
only three communities for both crawl-space and concrete
slab construction. Soil treatment is simple to apply during
construction and is relatively inexpensive (about 3 cents
per square foot). It should be noted, however, that such
treatment will not provide protection against decay.
Ground Vapor Barrier. The use of ground vapor bar-
riers to prevent the absorption of moisture by floor systems
has expanded greatly in recent years. In recognition of this
need with slab foundations, ten jurisdictions required
vapor barriers in concrete slab-on-ground construction
whereas four required them for crawl-space construction.
There are few requirements for ground vapor barrier ma-
terials or their use for housing. Polyethylene film was the
principal material used in the majority of communities.
Though 6-mil thickness was required by some officials, 4
mils is acceptable in Daytona Beach and by Pinellas
County. Building aper or felt is also acceptable by 11
communities, in which 15-pound stock was most widely
used. Miami specifies the use of 30-pound material, and
Tallahassee requires hot-mopped felt.
Though the need for protecting wood against damage by
termites and decay is generally dictated by height of the
wood members above ground, height specifications are
quite varied in the communities studied. The minimum
height for wood beams, sills, and joists ranged from 6 to
24 inches above the ground; the most widely specified was
Wood Sills. Wood sills are required on the perimeter
walls of both concrete slab and crawl-space, single-family
houses in about 85 percent of the jurisdictions. The
minimum sill width requirements, however, varied among
the communities and between the two construction sys-
tems. Sill width requirements are 4, 6, or 8 inches for
crawl-space construction. For slab construction, 2 x 4
inches is the minimum sill size accepted by all jurisdic-
tions except Dade County, which requires 4 x 8-inch
sills for both the slab and crawl-space. From the stand-
points of safety and cost, it seems unnecessary to require
sills larger than 2 x 4 inches for either crawl-space or
The "model" building codes do not favor one floor system
over another. It is the inclusion of community revisions
to the "model" codes that tends to restrict or encourage
certain types of construction. Consequently, requirements
for wood floor system members vary considerably regard-
less of the building code used.
Wood, used in, on, or close to the ground and susceptible
to termite and decay damage, should be protected by
pressure treatment with approved preservatives. Lesser
treatments such as brush, spray, or dip are inadequate
for groundline applications. Another inexpensive safeguard
against termites is the treatment of the soil under the
house with effective insecticides. Soil treatment would be
a logical substitute for termite shields, which are still
required throughout Florida in spite of the questionable
Because of local requirements, acceptance of new con-
struction concepts, such as the underfloor-plenum and
pole-frame systems, must be determined on an individual
community basis. Local code interpretations and lack of
familiarity with new systems often result in either prohibi-
tion of use or insistence on more stringent requirements
than are enforced for conventional types of construction.
(1) Miller, J. T., and Wagner, W. G. 1969. Underfloor
plenum air distribution. A study of a residential
heating and cooling system. Univ. Fla., Coll. Archi-
tect. and Fine Arts, Bur. Res., 33 p.
(2) Newman, J. 0. 1967. An economical and efficient
heating system for homes. USDA Agr. Res. Serv.,
Prod. Res. Rep. 99, 26 p.
(3) St. George, R. A., Johnston, H. R., and Kowal, R. J.
1963. Subterranean termites their prevention and
control in buildings. USDA Forest Serv., Div. Forest
Insect Res., Home and Gard. Bull. 64, 30 p.
(4) Stout G. J. 1960. Plenum floor systems for basement-
less houses. Penn. State Univ., Coll. Eng. and
Architect., Better Building Rep. 4, 22 p.
(5) Talbot, J. W. 1963. Low-profile wood floor systems.
Wash. State Univ., Inst. Tech., Div. Ind. Res. Bull.
277, 77 p.
*The author is an Associate Economist, Southeastern
Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, For-
estry Sciences Laboratory, Athens, Georgia. N
1905 Northwest 115th Street, Miami, Florida 33167 Tel. (305) 685-2898
P.O. BOX 1429
BRADENTON, FLA. 33505
Air Conditioning and
Heating Contractor for
Church of The Cros
WHEN SERVICE IS YOUR BUSINESS
CATERPILLAR TOTAL ENERGY
IS AT YOUR SERVICE
Walter Smith, Jr., knows the value of a Caterpillar
total energy system. His Pure City Truck Plaza has
operated on Cat Power, without a major failure, for
more than two and one-half years.
This year-after-year reliability wasn't an accident.
For every on-site Caterpillar generation system has
been engineered to fit the needs of the future ...
as well as the present.
The particular power needs of Pure City are typi-
cal of many large complexes. A Florida Caterpillar
Dealer recommended two natural gas, Cat G353's
to do the job. One engine was engineered to handle
the load in cases of emergency, while the other
generator was designed to supply day-to-day elec-
tricity. To this day, both engines are still doing their
job with efficiency and dependability.
This total energy system has proved to be a money
saver because of lower operating cost (as much as
20 percent compared to outside power) and less
required maintenance. It is also a money saver be-
cause of its capability to recover from the engines
heat that is used for steam cleaning and truck
If your business requires reliable service, whether
total energy or standby, your Florida Caterpillar
Dealer can engineer power to fit your needs. It's
just good business to go with CATERPILLAR
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
Caterpillar, Cat and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.
14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
Another major corporation
Trinity White cement.
Major corporations like
National Cash Register Co.
reach the top in only one way.
By making correct decisions.
That's why the new NCR
Building in Tampa utilizes
Marblecrete... durable and
lustrous, made with Trinity
White for true uniformity in
matrix color and texture.
Architects and contractors
recognize the flexibility of
design and simplicity of
construction with Marblecrete.
Adaptable to buildings of
almost any size or shape,
Marblecrete lends itself to
almost infinite variation of
aggregates and matrix colors.
And because it is practically
scores honors for economy.
Marblecrete bedding coat,
factory prepared with Trinity
White is being used in an
increasing number of
distinctive and exciting
buildings across the country.
Specify Trinity White with
Ti Portland Cement
u WA Masonry Cement
ae General Portland Cement Company
16 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
of things to
Electricity is the power with a promise. Its time has only begun. Color TV,
self-cleaning ovens and no-frost refrigerator freezers will be followed by marvels
just unimaginable today as these were a few brief years ago. But imagination will
create them. And electricity will power them. Which is one reason why ample electric
service must be a constant concern to you. A lot of people count on you to make
their needs for tomorrow a part of your plan today.
Florida Power & Light Company / Tampa Electric Company / Florida Power Corporation / Gulf Power Company
Industrialization of Building?
By Francis R. Walton, AIA
Chairman, FAAIA Committee,
Building Industry Coordination
The most obvious characteristic of the existing construc-
tion business (industry?) is its decentralized flexibility.
Plans are produced by architects and engineers. Contracts
are taken by general contractors with simple subcontract
relations with a multitude of available subcontractors and
suppliers utilizing available skills and manpower, all
distributed throughout the population. Financing is by
practiced pattern with numerous sources and agencies
using habitual methods. None of these elements has any
czar or bureaucratic character and all are quite large in the
aggregate but distributed as to activity throughout the
country. The varied flow of need or distribution of con-
tracts geographically produces a flow of services and
personnel in response to the need or opportunity. Dislo-
cation caused by this flow is absorbed into the fibers and
elements of the team. Laws and code regulations affecting
this apparatus are highly localized and are encountered
and adjusted to by the organism as needed. There is a
smooth working amoebalike or jellyfish character to the
whole. It seems to have no central nervous system but
responds in particular at each stimulus. This is really not
an organization; it is a set of ingrained habits.
This organization has not been without development and
progress. The product industries have developed new
methods of manufacture and in some cases new products.
Glass and brick manufacture has been revolutionized over
the last 25 years. Glue-laminated wood, pre-stressed con-
crete and plastics have made their appearance. The air
conditioning industry has developed and found a product
uniformity through rating systems which expanded the
market and held price lines. Conglomerate companies have
brought efficient distribution and management systems to
widely scattered lines. The lighting industry has continued
to exploit the development of luminous vapor contained
in glass with great variations.
During this time, with the demand for higher grade items,
quantity has been increased. The demand for ray and heat
shielding, higher standards of finish, more sophisticated
designs and methods have all been absorbed and with
them an ever higher unit cost of construction. The
concepts of acoustics have expanded and with the closing
in of buildings has come the idea of controlled sound
levels in devices of all sorts. We are not building the same
buildings we did 30 years ago.
The criticism of obsolescence in the industry methods
seem hardly apt. Clinging to old habits, a reluctance to
form vertical management groups is evident. Big opera-
tions have in some cases backfired. Millions have been
dumped into the prefab schemes with little return. The
basically horizontal organization of the construction team
persists. Industrial methods have come in spots and more
are promised. Jim Walter, Levitt, (ITT), and now the
rash of modular builders spawned by operation Break-
through are very evident. (A bibliography of recent story
material on the subject appears at the end).
In summary these writers discuss Modular and Site by site
organizations. The Module Expo, Systems Ehren-
kranz, and Element Prefab -Mouton, are still the major
developments to date. The new cities and the model cities
are really "site" industrialization. The only writer who
really visualized an industrial system is R. Bender in the
P.A. story, "General Contractor as General Motors."
However, I get a different message from the tempting
General Motors example.
In researching writings on the subject of the impending
industrialization of building construction frequent refer-
18 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
ences to the auto industry are encountered. There has
been a preoccupation with this comparison. At one time
this frightened me. I had visions of a monster factory
somewhere with trainloads of buildings flowing steadily
out, ready to be plopped into place by crapes at the
destination. At the urging of a fend in the design level
of the auto industry l reviewed and reconsidered these
attitudes. A whole new vista is opening as I search.
Although the auto industry has reached a fantastic stage
of development it is to be hoped that building can proceed
with less faltering to a development similar to auto in-
dustry practice. If so the dislocation of work force and
material supply will be much less affected than previously
Information received from GM Assistant Secretary, Wil-
liam M. Collins, indicates that their products are pro-
duced by triple process of components, assembly and sales,
operating through diversified elements. Components are
produced in company-owned and supplier-owned plants
with 37,000 separate non-company subcontractors dis-
tributed over the country. Assembly is carried on in
company-owned plants also well distributed, about 20
from coast to coast. The component plants also have
diversified suppliers. The sales and service dealerships
with their company-operated supply and parts centers
are also distributed and diversified into brand name
The auto industry has had a growth period to arrive at
this stage consisting roughly of the past 60 years.
Let's look at General Motors' stated operating philosophy.
"Expressed in formal terms, the philosophy is 'Decentral-
ized Operations and Responsibilities with Coordinated
Control.' A simpler way of expressing it is 'give a man
a clearcut job to do and let him do it'.
"Under this philosophy, overall objectives and principles
are determined at the top management level, based on
information flowing up from all levels of the organization.
These are policies, the 'whys and wherefores'. But the
task of carrying them out, that is, 'the how', is up to the
men down the line.
"Decentralization of operations and responsibilities means
dividing up the job into as many pieces as is practical. It
means placing in charge of each piece an executive with
complete responsibility for its success or failure. De-
centralization recognizes the importance of people. It
makes the most effective use of their talents and gives
them maximum scope to exercise their initiative and
capitalize on their opportunities.
"Decentralization has been the means by which General
Motors has retained advantages inherent in well-managed
smaller businesses. It provides the flexibility which makes
possible changes in operations and the constant improve-
ment in its products in keeping with the needs and
desires of its customers.
"Coordinated control refers to the formulation of overall
policy, the framework or area within which the various
pieces operate. Under this philosophy, a two-way flow
exists at each level of management. On the one hand there
is the downward flow of authority derived from established
policy. On the other there is the upward flow of facts and
opinion derived from the exercise of individual initiative
down the line and which in turn enters into policy
considerations. A proper balance of these two flows -
the downward flow from authority and the upward flow
from initiative is constantly sought in General Motors."
It has been called to my attention that creative inventions
get into this system from somewhat isolated horizonal, task
continued on page 20
For A Building Industry
Board of Directors
President \ Chairman of Board
Single & Group, Mgr.
Hotels & Motels, Mgr.
Mobile Home, Mgr.
Small Offices, Mgr.
High Rise Offices, Mgr.
Public Schools, Mgr.
Public & Governmental
Heating & Air Conditioning
Structural Elements, Etc.
(Covered By Over 39
Divisions Of Sweet's
*Each with a "full charge" general
manager and compared to Buick or
Pontiac etc. as a G.M. division. Al-
though not indicated on the chart it
should be emphasized that each divi-
sion has responsibility to research and
be sensitive to consumer needs in ad-
dition to the efforts extended and re-
flected back from P.R. under vice
chairman, non construction support
groups under Executive V.P. and the
continuing research and control under
Codes and Standards Division V.P.
Codes & Standards Group, V.P.
Representing National Organizations
of Professional & Manufacturers, AIA, etc.
(Educational, Publishing & Training)
force groups working to feed new ideas into this vertically
organized monster. Without this device creativity seems to
be stifled by the organization.
If building learns from this and other industry lessons we
could proceed almost directly to this sophisticated level of
Another lesson worth noting is that new inventions have at
times inspired an attempt to particularize the product so
that, for instance, the purchase of a camera tied you for
life to the camera maker for all the film you would need.
The purchase of a safety razor predetermined the blade
you must purchase. This has not worked out. The greatest
growth in consumer products has been occasioned by
interchangeable consumable products from cassettes to
gasoline and tires. Enterprise and competition have seen
Industrialized building would resemble "auto". Some
segments of the industry must be devoted to producing
elements, units, parts, as it were while others must take
control of larger design so that parts will fit when pro-
duced. There is an important adjustment of models and
elements or stabilized model design to use redesigned
elements. We can't afford to have elements so unique
that they have a limited use, perhaps with the exception
of applied or decorative items.
Central control must seek contracts for elements geared
to existing production capabilities and investment in
plant. Sales vs. need adjustment in the market place is
important. One reason we have a housing problem is that
production capacity gravitated to the most profitable level
of sales leaving behind a vast need unmet.
We will see allocation of task force or design energies
well in advance of production to permit commitment and
contracts all down the line. Design must be intensely
specific and at times involve design of the production
facility itself. Transportation becomes a larger part of the
process as the elements become bulky and produced
remote from the site.
Where I would differ from Mr. Bender is at the organiza-
tion level. I don't see this industrial development as a
"Contractor" but as a design organization first (a problem
solver), and secondly as a specification writing and bid
taking organization to assure some real advantages of price
as small supply groups bid on elements produced by their
own capital, plant and initiative also an assured dis-
tribution and regeneration of supply organizations near to
the ultimate resting place of the end product. This would
indicate transition of many of our existing skills and
trained personnel into the process. The last, and perhaps
most critical, element in this imaginary industry is the
part played in "auto" by the dealer sales and service
companies. Here again we have the people and in most
cases the investment is made. Here the vast army of local
level participants from realtor, finance, contractors, build-
ers and subs can certainly staff this force and give it a
Let's return to General Motors' stated philosophy again.
"Decentralization of operations and responsibilities" and
"Coordinated Control." See the trial chart for the organi-
Looking at the chart I see a need for seasoned architects,
contractors and engineers in the upper ranks with the busi-
ness people, but largely at first as interpreters, later in
more substantial roles. However, in the operating divisions
I see a real need to give somewhat limited scope to some
product groups and to bring into each one the task force
type operations utilizing all known skills of design and
20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
production planning. Here architects, engineers and pro-
duction coordinators must be concentrated. The relation-
ship between the parts becomes more obvious as you study
it and the development of General Systems will give flexi-
bility and multiple use of elements just as "auto" has
done. A brake maker can make a good brake for the large
and the small. So with the component groups attempts to
create universal elements will make for economy and a
better product all down the line. I am no longer frightened
by industrialization but I am discouraged by the greatly
limited scope of the "Module" boxes and the attention
they are getting.
In 1947 when construction and subcontract organizations
expanded their output and grew in size we experienced the
elevation of formerly competent workers to supervisory or
management jobs with an intake of less skilled personnel
and attended by slower output and a jump in cost of pro-
duction. Prewar, depression produced, unit costs and time
required was never recovered. I would expect the same
mechanism to work in the development of industrial or-
ganizations out of our present system of construction.
Knowledgeable hands will be needed directing the less
skilled expanded force. The trick will be to develop systems
which permit a productive balance. Those who see this
development as a dodge to eliminate high paid labor are
really dreaming. Here again look at "auto.
By a process of natural selection most architects turn out
to work best in a horizontal organization and develop into
sometimes glorified "squad leaders". Industry needs some
of these but without some adjustment it would need
executives and hierarchal types.
The existing architects and contractors will continue to
serve the non-industrialized building needs and will
gradually be absorbed or not be replaced as they leave
active production. I see no mass destruction of the
architectural profession but I can see many seasoned
practitioners 'going back to school" for Masters in
Business Administration (MBA) degrees with many
majoring in Computer Programming. The construction
coordinator is sure to be needed. I avoid the word con-
tractor since like the architect, many of his long learned
skills will become things to unlearn. Of all the vulnerable
people in our profession it seems to me the most target
prone are the large firms and the most certain to be swept
into the machine are the competent small teams who
would take the place of the inventors and patent attorneys
in auto-related industry. This process of industrialization
is not really on safe ground if it tries to become a complete
package dealer. Its success depends on providing oppor-
tunity for maximum participation at all levels with good
controls and management.
Bibliography: Recommended reading:
1. HOUSE & HOME, Feb. 1970. An open letter to
the President, etc., Re: OPERATION BREAK-
2. BUSINESS WEEK, March 14- (a) What Comes
after Operation Breakthrough; and (b) "Detroit
Project Bogs Down".
3. A & E NEWS, Dec. '69 -Breakthrough, etc.
4. LOOK, Feb. 10, '70-Jim Rouse Story (Site).
5. FORUM, July '69. Re: Ehrenkranz, Mouton, San
Antonio, and many others.
6. P.A. April '70. Explains Operation Breakthrough.
Also a story by R. Bender--General Contractor as
General Motors. ,
Plumbing Contractor for St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Ft. Myers
2460 EVANS AVENUE
FORT MYERS, FLORIDA 33901
General Contractor for Church of The Cross, Sarasota
510 6th ST. W. / POST OFFICE BOX 1445, BRADENTON, FLA. 33505 / PHONE (813) 747-3071
Church of the Cross / Sarasota
James C. Padgett, AIA
Rason H. Dobbs, AIA
James E. Jones
Emil L. Tiona
This building was designed to satisfy
two main requirements of the build-
ing committee. One, to provide for an
easily expandable sanctuary area,
which will become the Fellowship
Hall in the future and, two, to locate
this area so as to provide overflow
seating space for the future main
sanctuary. These together with other
Requirements such as low maintenance
Fellowship Hall and a rapid construction technique
Sled to a plan using precast concrete
structural frames on a module with
|a masonry and glass non-bearing walls
SThe main beams in the building span
W~ 80 feet, are 3 feet deep and weigh 19
tons each, giving the interior and ex-
terior a feeling of great strength. Yet
I 1 f a human scale is maintained by the
masonry module, the furnishings, and
Kiich A.ssmbly Roa, the warm, soft colors of the interior.
The hugh Cor-Ten steel cross is the
work of sculptor Vernon Voeltz. It is
27 feet high and yet is within 4V2 feet
Study Ifrom the ground, "within the reach of
every man" as he describes it. N
24 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
WEST COAST INSULATION CO, Inc.
3218 MARION STREET
FORT MYERS, FLORIDA 33901
PHONE ED 4-2338
Acoustical and Insulation Contractor
St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Ft. Myers, Florida
Contractor for Arvida Corporation Office, Sarasota
Residential and Commercial Construction
innes builders, inc.
421A Harding Circle, Sarasota, Florida 33577
Phone (813) 388-3618
Church of The Cross,
Ward Electric Inc.
3108 9th St. West
Bradenton, Fla. 33505
This sales office was built on a golf
course. It is of very simple construc-
tion and has a strong spatial concept.
It is also a sort of prestige billboard
for the company that it represents.
The central pavilion is an area for dis-
play of maps and models, a sort of art
gallery, which leads into the sales area
containing working space for five
The wall in the front of the building
is made of pink concrete block laid
in an unusual bond to form a grillage.
This wall continues along the high-
way which the golf course borders and
the office becomes the exclamation
point of the wall. U
Edward J. Seibert, AIA
innes builders, inc.
. twl i
ATLANTIC MILLWORKS, INC.
B. I. CONTRACTORS, INC.
DUNAN BRICK YARD
FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
FLORIDA GAS TRANSMISSION
FLORIDA INVESTOR OWNED
GULF REFRIGERATION, INC.
innes builders, inc.
PEACOCK CONSTRUCTION CO., INC.
TRINITY WHITE, GENERAL
PORTLAND CEMENT CO.
W. R. GRACE & CO.
WARD ELECTRIC ,INC.
WEST COAST INSULATION CO., INC.
RICHARD PL MER
dB -- ..
At home, afloat, or in business, your requirements for quality
decorating can be met at RICHARD PLUMER.
155 N.E. 40th STREET MIAMI. FLORIDA 33137 751-9775
FAAIA Expo '70 and Orient Tour
August 7, 1970
Official FAAIA Tour Features:
San Francisco--Two Nights. Sheraton-Palace Hotel.
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dhist Capital, Kyoto The Heart of Classical Japan, Lovely Japanese Gardens and Shrines.
Osaka for the Exciting Expo '70. Nijo Castle, Famous for its Splendid Architectural Beauty.
Traditional Japanese Dancing and Singing Entertainment by Lovely "Geisha and Maiko"
Hong Kong- Four Nights. Miramar Hotel. Sightseeing of Hong Kong Island and the New
Honolulu Optional Two Nights. Kahala Hilton Hotel, the Most Luxurious Hotel in Hawaii
Famed for its Cuisine. Sightseeing on Island of Oahu.
(HONOLULU OPTION $60.00 ADDITIONAL)
Space is Limited. For Descriptive Brochure, Write or Phone:
LORRAINE TRAVEL BUREAU, INC.
179 Giralda Avenue, Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Outstanding roof deck.
Permadeck is both!
Look into Permadeck.
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2. Structural strength.
3. Water resistance.
4. Fire resistance.
5. Insulation, with a K value of 0.51.
6. Sound control, with an N. R. C. up to .80.
7. High light reflectivity.
8. Certified application.
Outstanding roof deck. Handsome ceiling. Perm-
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design data, installation information, etc. With-
out obligation. Call in your Zonolite or Perma-
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Post Office Box 130
Brunswick, Georgia 31520
28 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / May/June 1970
The FAAIA has made it possible for architectural educa-
tors in Florida to be involved in professional activities in a
\wy that was not possible before by appropriating travel
money to the Committee on Education and Research,
headed by Jim Garland. The heads of the schools of archi-
tecture at the University of Miami, University of Florida
and Miami-Dade Junior College and the school of plan-
ning at Florida State University have attended meetings of
the Board of Directors of the FAAIA, the State Board of
Architecture (where they assisted in grading registration
exams), and a recent meeting of the Southern Council of
Speaking for the representatives of the schools, the experi-
ence has been very worthwhile, and we hope it will be con-
tinued. The following report was written after the recent
NCARB meeting and may help explain why continued
communication is so important.
There has been enough written and said about the chang-
ing role of the architect and the profession of architecture
in the broad spectrum of urban problems and the environ-
ment, etc., etc., etc., that I feel it needs one further expla-
nation here. The changes are a reality-the predictions are
for more of the same. The subject of this article is what is
being done within the professional organizations and the
schools to adjust to the changes that have occurred and to
prepare as best we can for those changes yet to come.
During the 1960's, there was such pressure to make ad-
justments in the profession that it produced what seemed
to be a desperate scramble. The term "package dealer"
still produces a kind of paranoid reaction among many
architects indicating some kind of personal threat. There
are indications now, however, that architects will meet the
challenge and recognize the opportunities which lie in
It is difficult for any of us as individuals to get an overview
of the problems and the adjustments that are being made.
Yet the overview is necessary if we as individuals expect to
influence the direction the profession will go. We charge
our representatives in our professional organizations with
the task of studying problems, suggesting alternative solu-
tions and making recommendations for action and then
the fallout from their activity flows across our desks in a
FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOOR
flood of paper and we sometimes lose sight of our
objectives. Faced with voting on recommended courses of
action, we are often confused.
In Boston this summer, some of our representatives will be
considering a proposal to change the method of examining
and licensing architects. The Board of Directors of
NCARB will consider a recommendation of their Exami-
nation Committee. This proposal is so important to the
total effort to update our processes, particularly in archi-
tectural education, that I would like to attempt to put it in
perspective. At the recent meeting of the Southern Con-
fcrence of NCARB, we had the opportunity to hear the
proposal presented. E. G. Hamilton, Chairman of the
Examination Committee, and Dean Gustavson, President
of NCARB, discussed the proposal. In the June issue of
the AIA Journal Dean Gustavson discusses the proposal in
The AIA culminated its study of the needs of the pro-
fession with respect to education two years ago and pub-
lished it in what is known as the Princeton Report. The
guidelines for changing curricula were set down in that
document, and today more than half of the architectural
schools have changed or are changing to programs follow-
ing those guidelines. The changes broaden considerably
the courses of study for architectural students. In making
these changes, it was obvious that significant changes in
the amount of technical subject matter could produce
graduates who would not be prepared to pass the kind of
technical examination which is presently given for regis-
tration as an architect. At the schools we were promised
that NCARB was at work to adjust the examinations,
and we proceeded with curriculum revision. This June, the
NCARB Examination Committee will present its recom-
mendations and the hope of many of us is that the
recommendations will be adopted and implemented as
they suggent. Time is short. Many of our graduates of the
next few years will find their places outside the profession
of architecture unless we make the effort to keep them in.
In some areas it was found that only 40% of the gradu-
ates of architectural schools are entering the profession.
Briefly, the report of the Examination Committee states
that the present examination has gone as far as it can go.
The present exam is a machine graded, objective test in
Arnold F. Butt, Chairman,
Department of Architecture
five of its seven parts. The quality of the test has been
raised significantly in recent years. However, everyone who
has had experience in grading the site planning and design
tests agree that they need improvement.
The Committee recommends first that the prerequisites
for the exam include a degree from an accredited school.
The national organization feels that the time has come to
close the door to non-graduates in recognition of the
changing times. They feel it is no longer possible to cover
the same body of information outside the schools. A total
of six years of school or five years of school and one year
of apprenticeship would be required to take the exam.
Secondly, the present examination should be phased out
in favor of a problem-solving type of exam that deals with
significant environmental issues, placing the examinee in
the role of architect strategist. The examination would be
as short as feasible, possibly not more than one day. It
would be multiple choice, as objective as possible, and
machine graded. It is estimated that 30% of the present
examination questions could be included.
Finally, the time schedule for phasing in the new exam
calls for designing the exam in 1970-71; testing the new
exam in 71-72; phasing in the exam in 1972-73; and by
1974, it would be in general use. In the interim, the
present exam would be modified to include only two parts:
the first would combine the present design, site planning
and theory exams into one; the second would be the
present exam on professional administration. Examinations
on structural design, mechanical equipment, building
construction and history would be eliminated. For further
details regarding this proposal, I refer you to Dean
Gustavson's article in the Journal this month.
I believe that the proposal will find good support from
the architectural schools which are trying to broaden their
areas of study. It certainly will be favorably received by
those young graduates who want to stay in the profession
although their interests lie in planning or some other
aiea. I hope it will be favorably received by the Board of
Directors of NCARB and that the Registration Boards of
the states will find it acceptable. I hope that all architects
will give the recommendation serious study and participate
in the decision making. N
Fifth year architecture students, Philip Crannell (left) and
Lawrence Alan Mackson (right) review the model con-
structed in Dr. Leonardo Ricci's urban design class at the
University of Florida. The model is a structural system
which would permit three dimensional urban growth. The
upper grid of beams is supported by cables from clusters of
four vertical columns spaced about 90 feet apart. Vertical
cables from the upper beams support floor slabs which are
flexible by creating any size room and wall height for
offices, schools, apartments and shopping centers.
Thank you for sending me a copy of
the March/April issue of The Florida
Architect containing my article on
I hope your members get something
worthwhile out of my comments. I
appreciate your willingness to give the
article some wide exposure.
By-the-way, I always look forward to
reading The Florida Architect and
especially enjoy articles on historical
and folk architecture. I am Executive
Chairman of the Governor's Bicenten-
nial Standing Committee. We have a
bill in the Legislature providing for a
State Bicentennial Commission.
When formed, it would develop a
historical trail for visitors to the state
to coincide with our celebration of
America's 200th birthday. Your his-
torical trail material in your previous
issue fits into this beautifully.
Director of Administration
State of Florida
Dept. of Transportation
We have 32 schools in Alachua
County and would like very much to
have a copy of "HERITAGE
TRAIL," a windshied survey of Flor-
ida's historic architecture, for each of
them. Could you possibly provide us
with enough copies to enable us to
place one in each of our schools?
If you do not have a sufficient quan-
tity to provide one for each of our
schools perhaps you would send what
you have and we could place them in
our secondary schools.
We would be most appreciative of
your efforts in our behalf.
(Mrs.) Helen Hoskins, Coordinator
(Editor's Note: Above request was
In building, one firm rule I've
First, build the roof; work in
To me this makes a lot of sense
In spite of overhead expense.
Thomas K. MacDonell
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ARCHITECTURE: 21ST CENTURY
The Florida Association
of the American
Institute of Architects
56th Annual Convention
and Building Products
October 22-25, 1970
Sarasota Motor Hotel
Manufacturers Interested in Applying For
Exhibit Space May Contact FAAIA Office