W A A Flo
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DEADLINE: AUG 1 1970
2 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
04. a ,.
THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
Harry E. Bums, Jr, President
415 Monroe Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Robert J. Boerema, Vice President/
550 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33131
Thomas H. Daniels, Secretary
425 Oak Avenue
Panama City, Florida 32401
Richard E. Pryor, Treasurer
1320 Coast Line Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Rudolph M. Arsenicos
Josh C. Bennett, Jr.
Howard B. Bochiardy
Thomas H. Daniels
Robert G. Graf
Mays Leroy Gray
Donald R. Hampton
Charles F. Harrington
Walter S. Klements
C. Frasuer Knight
Charles McAlpine, Jr.
James D. McGinley
Frank R. Mudano
James C. Padgett
Archie G. Parish
Charles E. Pattillo III
George F. Reed
Roy L. Ricks
Robert E. Roll
Edward J. Seibert
Wythe D. Sims II
Albert L. Smith
John Edgar Stefany
Charles E. Toth
Francis R. Walton
American Institute of Architects
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
1123 Crestwood Boulevard, Lake Worth
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
1000 Ponce de Leon Boulevard, Coral Gables
New Passenger Terminal Building at the
Port of Miami. Architect John Andrews.
Photo by Kurt Waldmann.
2 FAAIA Slide Show Competition
6 Passenger Terminal/Port of Miami
11 Titusville City Hall
14 Architect-Engineer Selection Bill
15 Deferred Compensation, The "Insured" Plan
A. HARMAN JONES, JR.
15 Recently Revised AIA Documents
19 New Tax Decisions and Rulings
20 Oklawaha The Fight Is On Again
WILLIAM M. PARTINGTON
21 FAAIA Resolution: Cross Florida Barge Canal
23 Don't Taint Environment
27 University of Miami Dept. of Architecture & Architectural
ROBERT G. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ted P. Pappas
Richard J. Veenstra
Russell J. Minardi
James C. Padgett
Charles E. Pattillo III
Wythe D. Sims II
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Howard Doehla / Advertising
Kurt Waldmann / Photography
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official
Journal of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association,
a Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published bi-monthly at the Executive
Office of the Association, 1000 Ponce de
Leon Blvd., Coral Gables, Florida 33134.
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305).
Editorial contributions, including plans
and photographs of architects' work, are
welcomed but publication cannot be
guaranteed. Opinions expressed by con-
tributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the
AIA. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted (unless specifically restricted)
by other news media, provided full credit
is given to the author and to THE FLOR-
IDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to
publisher's office . Individuals or firms
may not reproduce any part without writ-
ten permission from the publisher . .
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 75 cents,
subscription, members $2.00 per year,
industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. October Handbook & Directory of
Architectural Building Products & Serv-
ices, single copy $3.00 or $1.50 for
Directory only . McMurray Printers.
VOLUME 20/NUMBER 2
Johnny's spelling may be wrong ... but he should
get an A+ for the idea. There are no "If's or And's"
about BTU's. You simply get more of these
British Thermal Units of energy for your dollar
from Oil than from any other fuel.
So why not save dollars yours or your clients -
by specifying Oil-powered equipment
for heat, hot water, industrial power?
OIL IS YOUR BEST BUY!
For Domestic, Institutional, Commercial
and Industrial users.
ECONOMICAL- CLEAN -SAFER
"FLORIDIANS SERVING FLORIDA SINCE 1915"
3 BELCHER OIL COMPANY
Oil and Oil-powered equipment for all uses
MIAMI PORT EVERGLADES WEST PALM BEACH PORT CANAVERAL TAMPA SARASOTA/BRADENTON FORT MYERS NAPLES
4 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
Man-Made Environment Will Be Stressed
By Int'l Design Conference in Aspen
William Houseman, president of Environment League,
Incorporated and editor of The Environment Monthly,
has been selected as program chairman for the 1970 Inter-
national Design Conference in Aspen, it was announced
today by Eliot Noyes, president of the conference board of
The theme of the 1970 conference will be Environment
By Design. The conference will be held June 14-19 in
Aspen, Colorado. Conferees will include designers, archi-
tects, educators and business executives.
"Selection of the environmental theme is an attempt to
encourage development of a perspective broader than the
air and water pollution that has suddenly become a matter
of great public concern," Mr. Houseman said. "We expect
to see some sparks ignited by people who regard the whole
man-made environment as an exciting challenge for the
entire community. We are thinking not only of design
professionals but also of the banker, the businessman, the
behavioral scientist, and the educator. All of them and all
of us have an important stake in how well or how badly
the basic elements of the environment are assembled and
The roster of speakers at the Aspen conference will
represent an unusually broad range of professions and
disciplines, in recognition of a fast-growing and worldwide
concern for the quality of our environment.
The keynote speaker will be STEWART L. UDALL, former
U. S. Secretary of the Interior and currently president of
Overview, an environmental planning and development
organization. Other distinguished speakers at the confer-
IAN McHARG, landscape architect, author and educator
PETER HALL, British geographer-planner and educator.
CARL KOCH, architect and designer of structural systems.
M. PAUL FRIEDBERG, landscape architect-planner.
CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH, F.A.I.A., architect and
RICHARD FARSON, Dean, School of Design, California
Institute of Arts.
RoY LICHTENSTEIN, artist.
SIM VAN DER RYN, architect and member of the University
of California faculty.
ALAN LEVY and RICHARD SAUL WURMAN, architects and
founders of Group for Environmental Education, Inc.
An IDCA Film Competition, developed by filmmaker
Saul Bass under Design Conference auspices and sponsored
by ATT, will be judged this spring by a distinguished
jury. The winning productions will be screened during
this year's conference. Entrants have been guided by a
competition stipulation that subject matter will treat the
interrelationship of people and their environment.
A group of young French designers and architects selected
by Roger Tallon, one of Europe's leading industrial de-
signers, will attend the conference as guests and benefi-
ciaries of a special Aspen Fellowship grant.
Additional information about the conference may be
obtained from The International Design Conference in
Aspen, P. O. Box 644, Aspen, Colorado 81611.. N
CONGRATULATIONSI You really did it this time on
your January-February FLORIDA ARCHITECT issue.
Here in Jacksonville I have heard more good comments
about this issue. You should be receiving complimentary
letters from others.
Keep up the good work!
Established Architect in Coral Gables desires to share his
office space with young progressive Architect. Call
The United States
Expo '70 Pavilion
The American Pavilion, designed by Davis, Brody, Cher-
mayeff, Geismar and deHarak Associates under the direc-
tion of the U. S. Information Agency, rises on a 21,000-
square-meter tract near the southwestern comer of the
Its elliptical roof measures about 140 meters by 82 meters,
enclosing more than 9,920 square meters of exhibition
space below. This is more than twice the exhibition area of
the U. S. geodesic dome at Montreal's Expo '67.
The air-supported cable roof consists of a translucent
fiberglass fabric skin tensioned on a rectangular grid of
high-strength steel cables which are anchored to a con-
crete rim which follows the curve of the ellipse. A total of
four air compressors is required to keep the roof inflated.
The roof rises about six meters above the concrete rim,
forming a clear-span dome that, by day, permits sunlight
to pass through into the park-like environment below and,
by night, glows from interior light. Inside the low-arched
dome, excavations below grade provide for a height of
almost five stories from the lowest level to the zenith of
The FAAIA is sponsoring a tour to Expo '70. A copy of
the descriptive brochure of the Official FAAIA Expo '70
Tour has been mailed to every member. For additional
information, call or write to FAAIA or write to Lorraine
Travel Bureau, Inc., 179 Giralda Avenue, Coral Gables,
Florida 33134. N
Passenger Terminal / New Port of Miami, Miami, Florida
David Volkert & Associates
International Builders of Florida, Inc.
Gart Urban Assoc., Inc.
Hugging the shores of Biscayne Bay
on Dodge Island, the new Port of
Miami, lies the concrete monolith of
perhaps the most modern passenger
terminal of any seaport, anywhere.
The new building was born from pro-
tests of citizens and architects over a
terminal design which resembled the
typical time worn buildings usually
built for such functions. The gain is
not only Miami's but all of Florida's.
Architect Andrews has applied his
usual method of functional analysis to
building design and produced a'struc-
ture similar to air terminals yet
unique to the site and purpose. The
terminal consists of five "nodes" pun-
ctured by cylindrical towers through
which passengers travel from car to
ship. Four vaulted custom sheds con-
nect the nodes.
The building is a multi level street
with all functions clearly separated
yet related as necessary. It becomes a
machine in a formal expression of
concrete massing while relating suc-
cessfully to scales of human, autos,
Below: examples of graphics specially
designed for the Terminal.
6 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
Passenger Terminal/New Port of Miami
a variety of forms
OWNER: Marion Country Board of Public Instruction. ARCHITECT: J. C. (Berry)
Walker, Ocala, Fla. GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Drake Construction Co., Ocala,
Fla. PRECAST & PRESTRESSED STRUCTURAL UNITS: Dura-Stress Inc.,
Leesburg, Fla. PRECAST LINTELS AND SILLS: Wekiwa Concrete Products,
Zellwood, Fla. READY MIX CONCRETE: Thomas Concrete Co., Ocala, Fla.
CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS: Cummer Inc., Kendrick, Fla.
This new high school in Ocala, Florida is another
example of how prestressed and precast concrete can
serve both functionally and aesthetically. The unusual
circular classroom building and adjacent gymnasium
show the excellent adaptability of this material.
Dura-Stress, Inc. used Lehigh Early Strength Cement
in the manufacture of the precast and prestressed
structural units in this school. Here, as in almost any
precast work, this cement benefits precaster, erector,
and architect alike. Quicker re-use of forms. Earlier de-
livery of units. Orderly on-time construction scheduling.
Be sure to check the advantages of precast and pre-
stressed concrete before you start plans for your next
structure. Lehigh Portland Cement Company, Jackson-
ville, Fla. 32216.
Students began attending classes in this new Ocala High School
in January of this year. It is designed to accommodate 1200
The circular structure is 232' in diameter and 27' high. In addi-
tion to the huge single T's in the gym, the project has 113,464 sq.
ft. of double T's; 4594 sq. ft. of 8" flat slabs; and 3673 lineal ft. of
Eight Lin T prestressed beams compose the roof structure of the
center portion of the gym. Beams are 106'8" long, 8' wide.
10 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
Lemon and Megginson
Mechanical and Electrical
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Titusville City Administration Building The Titusville City Administration Building houses all the
service and administrative functions of municipal govern-
ment typical of a city hall building in a city of 50,000
The original concept for the building included the follow-
1) Provide a public services lobby on the ground floor
from which all heavy-traffic city services are readily
available including: tax assessor, tax collections, utili-
ties collections, licenses, building permits, city plan-
ning and zoning applications, public works, city clerk
and information functions.
2) Provide a public lobby with waiting room, display,
12 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
information and switchboard facilities common to the
3) Provide on the second floor of the building the city's
management and administrative functions including
the offices of the City Manager and his staff, budget-
ing and finance, accounting, purchasing, personnel,
and public information, all adjacent and related to a
Council Chamber seating 100, and council members
The final design of the building reflects the philosophy
that city manager form of government needs to remain
close to the people it serves and be as equally convenient
and readily accessible to the public as any of the functions
and services of government. Hence, the City Manager's
offices and immediate administrative staff members share
the prominent ground floor location with collections,
utilities, and finance, while building, public works, lan-
ning and engineering are located on the second floor level
with the Council Chamber.
A lofty two story entrance and waiting lobby solution was
devised to provide as near equal prominence and prestige
to second floor office locations qs are enjoyed by those on
the ground floor.
Fronting on the busy, downtown traffic of highway U.S.
#1 suggested a modest monumentality in scale would be
appropriate to both the building mass and the landscape
design which are oriented towards~he seven story county
court house two blocks to the west, across the city's main
Ponding causes a whole
deluge of problems.
Zonolite roof deck systems
turn them off.
Zonolite has roof decks for everything. For
the slope-to-drains. For hurricanes. For pro-
tection against fire. And for insulation.
Roof deck systems certified by Grace-
Zonolite. Available everywhere in the U.S.
and Canada. Installed by approved applica-
tors each and every month of the year.
Just talk to your local Zonolite representa-
tive. He'll be pleased to consult with you and
come up with a recommendation that will
satisfy all your design requirements.
Want to correct a roof deck problem. Or
better yet, prevent one in the first place?
Say the word!
DECK BA E
W. R. GRACE & CO.
62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge, Mass. 02140
Bill Introduced by
"Federal buildings and other structures must be of the
highest quality and most efficient design," Congressman
Jack Brooks (D-Texas) declared when he introduced legis-
lation providing for the broadest competitive selection of
architect-engineers on the basis of proven capability.
"Design costs are only a minor percentage of the overall
cost of construction (not more than 6 percent of estimated
construction cost under present statutory limitations, "
Brooks explained. "Yet, if design is poor, construction and
maintenance costs can be unnecessarily high and the
structure may be inefficient to use over a period of many
"In the years to come," the Congressman emphasized,
"billions of dollars in construction will be undertaken by
the Federal Government. Thousands of architect-engineers
will be required to develop the plans and specifications to
bring these structures into reality. We must do whatever
we can to obtain the highest quality, the most efficient
and effective architect-engineer services at the lowest reas-
"The commitment to design a complex building is differ-
ent from purchasing pencils and paper clips," Brooks
noted. "Architects and engineers design buildings and
structures after they get a contract for the work, and not
before. This means that getting the best possible design
and specifications depends upon the selection of the archi-
tect-engineers of proven capability with the highest qualifi-
cations who are also willing to undertake contracts at fair,
reasonable, and justifiable prices to the Government."
Under the Brooks bill, the Government agencies requiring
architect or engineering services would invite all interested
architect-engineers to submit data as to their qualifications
and performance. The agency head would then rank those
architect-engineers submitting this data according to their
qualifications to undertake the particular design contract
then under consideration.
The agency head would then negotiate with the highest
qualified architect-engineer and, assuming a fair and reas-
onable price can be agreed upon, award a contract to him.
If such an agreement on price cannot be negotiated, the
next most qualified architect-engineer would then be
afforded the opportunity to negotiate a contract, and so on
until a contract was let.
This approach, which many Federal agencies have used
effectively for many years, discourages the award of design
contracts to lesser qualified individuals simply because
they might quote a slightly lower fee, as well as architect-
engineers who might quote a lower fee to obtain the con-
S tract, then cut corners in their design work to make up
Brooks emphasized, "This proposal that I have introduced
would provide the Government with the highest quality
architect-engineer services and also assure the broadest
possible competition amopg architects and engineers for
Government contracts. Members of these professions
would compete on the basis that reflects the best interests
of the Government their qualifications.
"Federal laws limiting the contract price to be paid archi-
tect-engineers to 6 percent if the estimated cost of the
construction would remain in force as an additional pro-
tection to the public," Brooks stated. N
14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
Deferred Compensation The "Insured" Plan
A. Harman Jones, Jr.
Equitable Life Insurance Co. of Iowa
One of the big problems a firm may face is to adequately
reward selected key employees who are making substantial
contributions to its good earnings record.
Qualified employee benefit and retirement plans, of course,
prohibit discrimination in their favor. For this reason,
selected key employees may not be covered adequately
under a firm's present employee benefit program.
Deferred Compensation . A contractural arrangement
between an employer and employee (this also pertains to
employer/employee members as well as full partners) to
pay benefits in the future . is a way to provide these
benefits for selected executive or selected employees with-
out regard to the non-discrimination requirements of
Where you as a partner, sole practitioner or an employee
can apply a deferred compensation plan, will depend one
one or more of the following:
1. In lieu of a formal pension plan.
Since no government approval is required, any em-
ployee can be selected to participate--the plan can
be discriminatory. It can be tailored to fit the funds
available: There is no tax penalty if the plan is dis-
continued; trust funds are not necessary; there is no
initial IRS qualification to meet and no annual reports
to prepare; and only simple bookkeeping is necessary.
2. To Aid in recruiting new key men.
Deferred compensation can give the new man a fringe
benefit program many times a greater program than
he left behind.
3. To Supplement a qualified pension plan.
Some pension plans limit the benefits that can be paid
the executive class of employees.
4. To retain valuable key personnel.
A deterrent to leaving present employment if leaving
means the loss of substantial deferred compensation
5. In lieu of an ownership interest.
Deferred compensation for key employees is preferred
over an interest in the firm.
The "Insured" deferred compensation plan in action--
George Able, age 36 is a key architect in the firm of
GOOD & ASSOCIATES, which currently has no qualified
GOOD & ASSOCIATES executes a deferred compensa-
tion agreement with George Able for the purpose of
deterring his going to another architectural/engineering
The agreement provides that Able remain with the firm
for a minimum number of years.
It also provides that upon Able's reaching age 65, the firm
promises to pay him a retirement income of $850 per
month ($10,200 per year) for 120 months. This sum
along with Able's Social Security benefits at age 65, will
assure him a monthly retirement income of around $1,050
per month. Should Able die after retirement, but before
reaching 75, the retirement benefits will be continued to
his wife or other members of his family for the remainder
of ten years.
Should Mr. Able die before retirement, GOOD & ASSO-
CIATES agrees to pay his widow $850 per month for the
number of months he was employed, to a maximum of
If Mr. Able becomes disabled, GOOD & ASSOCIATES
agree to pay him $850 per month for as long as he is
disabled or until age 65. He will also qualify for full Social
Security benefits as a disabled person. At age 65, Mr. Able
will then qualify for the $850 per month retirement
benefit, as above.
Tax consequences of such an "insured" deferred compen-
1. GOOD & ASSOCIATES can deduct the payments it
actually makes to the employee or his beneficiaries in
the year it actually makes them.
2. When Able dies, GOOD & ASSOCIATES receives the
insurance proceeds tax free.
3. The dividends received by GOOD & ASSOCIATES
are tax-free. They can be used to purchase additional
paid-up insurance or to reduce the premium.
4. Able is not taxed on the premium paid by GOOD &
Benefits of this plan:
To the Employee For no additional effort on his part,
he and his family have been assured of at least $850 per
month income should he live to retirement- die- or
To the Employer The cost of the plan would have been
considerably greater had GOOD & ASSOCIATES chosen
not to insure Mr. Able.
The firm gains a substantial key man insurance benefit in
the early years of the agreement those years when the
lack of a competent successor to Able would be most acute.
The firm retains complete control of cash value, divi-
dens, and other benefits.
Mr. Architect: Would you like to arrange a program of
attractive fringe benefits for you "Mr. Able" and possi-
bly even including yourself? Then a Deferred Compensa-
tion Plan may be the answer. U
Recently revised AIA Documents
Handbook Chapter 1, "The AIA Handbook"
-March 1970 (50 each)
Handbook Chapter 18, "Construction Con-
tract Administration" -Sept. 1969 (50O
A-310, "Bid Bond"- February 1970 (20V
A-311, "Performance Bond and Labor and
Material Payment Bond"-February 1970
A-501, "Recommended Guide for Bidding
Procedures and Contract Awards" No-
vember 1969 (50 each)
Mail or telephone orders for tPese and other AIA docu-
ments may be placed with: .'N
FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF
THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF:ARCHITECTS
SUITE 210, 1000 PONCE DE LEON BOULEVARD
CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA 33134
TELEPHONES (305) 444-5761
~C7F~P~F~i~z 1".. ~*
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1 o-- "CI+
*. *- -*
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16 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
of things to
Electricity is the power with a promise. Its time has only begun. Color TV,
self-cleaning ovens and no-frost refrigerator freezers will be followed by marvels
just unimaginable today as these were a few brief years ago. But imagination will
create them. And electricity will power them. Which is one reason why ample electric
service must be a constant concern to you. A lot of people count on you to make
their needs for tomorrow a part of your plan today.
Florida Power & Light Company / Tampa Electric Company / Florida Power Corporation / Gulf Power Company
18 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
PRECAST CONCRETE FOR
THE PASSENGER TERMINAL
PORT OF MIAMI
1000 N.W. 57 Avenue
5774 Precision Road
Phone (305) 855-8630
General Elevator Corp.
ELEVATOR FOR TITUSVILLE CITY HALL
347 N.W. 170 Street/Miami, Florida
FOR THE PASSENGER
PORT OF MIAMI.
New Tax Decisions and Rulings
Professional service corporations formerly
under state professional association or
corporation statutes will henceforth be
generally treated as corporations for fed-
eral tax purposes.-.IRS; Rev. Rul. 70-
The Internal Revenue Service has been requested to state
its position with respect to the classification of professional
service orfianizations formed under state professional asso-
ciation or corporation statutes.
In the light of recent decisions of the Federal Courts, the
Service generally will treat organizations of doctors, law-
yers, and other professional people organized under state
professional association acts as corporations for tax pur-
A professional service organization that is organized and
operated under the Florida statute listed below will also
be treated as a corporation except in those instances in
which it is illegal, as a matter of state law, for the profes-
sional service organization claiming corporate status to
engage in the practice of the particular profession that it
is organized to engage in.
FLORIDA: Florida Statutes annotated, Title 34, Chapter
621, Sections 621.01 to 621.15 (Professional Service Cor-
poration Act) effective September 1, 1961, amended ef-
fective September 1, 1967; amended effective July 1, 1969.
Furthermore, if a corporation is organized and operated as
a professional service business under the general business
corporation statute of its state, it will generally be recog-
nized as a corporation.
In addition, a professional service that meets the require-
ments for corporate classification under section 301.7701-2
of the Procedure and Administration Regulations, exclu-
sive of the 1965 amendments (section 301.7701-2(h) of
the regulations) made thereto, in its organization and
operation will be classified as a corporation.
A professional service organization must be both organized
and operated as a corporation to be classified as such.
Notwithstanding that a professional service organization
is, in accordance with the revenue ruling, classified as a
corporation, if it reported income as a partnership in ac-
cordance with then existing regulations for taxable years
ending prior to the issuance of this revenue ruling, it will
not be required to report income as a corporation for such
prior years. Also, a professional service organization that
qualifies as a corporation under this revenue ruling and is
presently reporting income as a partnership will be per-
mitted to continue reporting such income as a partnership
for any taxable year ending on or before December 31,
The foregoing position relates solely to the issue of the tax
classification of professional service organizations. Profes-
sional service organization classifiable as corporations are
subject to audit to the same extent as other corporations,
and nothing contained herein is to be construed as waiving
the assertion of any issues against such organizations other
than that of classification.
Editor's Note: Professional Service Cor-
poration will be treated as corporations
for Federal tax purposes as reported in
the AIA Governmental Affairs Review in
August (issue 69-8).
Painting Contractor for
Titusville City Hall
,P.O. Box 1521
West+alm Beach, Florida
Phone '305) 833-6661
Oklawaha-The Fight Is On Again!
A Reprint from THE LIVING WILDERNESS, Autumn 1969
By William M. Partington
"Cross State Barge Canal Called Pollution Horror Tale,"
read the front page headlines of the Sunday, July 27
Orlando Sentinel. Earlier a lead editorial in the Ft. Myers
News Press on the subject of the barge canal proclaimed
"A Boondoggle Is Recognized." The St. Petersburg Times
on August 28 said "Canal Called 'Crime Against Na-
ture.' The August 24 front page of the Sunday Tampa
Tribune announced "Cross-State Canal Called 'Devastat-
ing' In Impact On State." With such a hue and cry, and
lawsuits to boot, the question of proceeding with the
Cross-Florida Barge Canal under present plans was re-
opened, to the great encouragement of conservationists and
environmental authorities throughout the State.
Already aboil over the proposed Everglades jetport, over
insecure water guarantees for the Everglades National
Park, over formation of a lobbying organization called
Conservation '70, and over the start of an environmental
information center called Florida Conservation Founda-
tion, the Florida conservation scene last summer received
another burst of action over the renewed fight to save the
wild Oklawaha River from the devastation that the Cross-
Florida Barge Canal would bring.
Why the renewed furor over the Cross-Florida Barge
Canal? Federal funds to the tune of $45 million had been
spent on the project over the past five years. A "public
hearing" on January 25, 1966, had been held at the State
capitol to "let the bird-watchers let off steam for the last
time so that orderly progress could be made." (Hadn't
the largest group of Florida conservationists to get to-
gether on a Florida issue given up, no match at all for the
well-heeled, pork-barrelling Political-Industrial-Military
Memories of the insulting treatment that intelligent,
concerned and increasingly effective conservationists had
received from their Secretary of State and other public
officials at that 1966 hearing were not forgotten. By 1969
the disastrous project, scheduled to take aim first at the
Oklawaha Valley wilderness, had gone far enough to prove
that what conservationists had predicted was coming true.
If anything, the predictions of damage had been based on
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the agency respon-
sible for the feasibility studies, design, and construction
of the barge canal, was receiving increasing criticism
nationally for flooding out environmental treasures, chan-
nelizing meandering streams, and hedging on water agree-
ments for the Everglades National Park. The barge canal
was another example of senseless destruction, an outdated
make-work project, who cost-benefit ratio details the Corps
could not reveal even to a United States Senator.
More persuasive ways to get action for the protection of
the environment were needed. The Environmental De-
fense Fund, Inc., had been established, to bring court
action against despoilers, on the grounds that the citizens
of the United States have a constitutional right to a
healthful environment. A new attack against the barge
canal was launched. A group of citizens from Gainesville
who had never ceased their opposition to the rape of the
Oklawaha began to work with the Environmental Defense
Fund. They were joined by scores of scientists, other dedi-
cated citizens, cooperative Congressmen, and State legis-
The Local Action
A local committee was organized to correlate the activities
of the group. Dr. David S. Anthony, a biochemist at the
University of Florida, was named chairman of the scien-
tific committee. Richard Hodge and Lee Ogden, an
20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
architect, took charge of accommodations and business
details. Dr. M. Jack Ohanian watched over the local treas-
ury and expenses, ,John H. Couse became fund-raising
chairman, and Harvey Klein agreed to offer legal advice.
Mrs. Archie F. Carr, who had held the whole effort to-
gether over the years and who had more contacts and
information than all put together, became assistant general
chairman. With the blessing of the Florida Audubon
Society, I took leave to become general chairman.
Dr. Anthony and about 20 other dedicated scientists
reviewed the available scientific reports, project plans,
studies, restudies, the design memoranda, Corps news
releases, the Congressional Record, and the comments of
Federal and State agencies charged with coordinating
activities for the project. They talked with State and
Federal researchers who were sympathetic enough to offer
valuable leads. On their own time, voluntarily, the sci-
entists conducted valuable studies in the Oklawaha area
-including studies that should have been made before
the unfortunate project was approved in the first place.
On September 16, Victor J. Yannacone, Jr., legal counsel
for the Environmental Defense Fund, filed suit in the
name of the people of the United States in the United
States District Court in Washington, D.C., against the
Secretary of the Army and the U.S. Corps of Engineers,
to restrain them from further construction on the barge
canal until all evidence had been heard. The issues raised
-Failure of the Corps to report to the Congress and to
the United States public objections of scientists and
others opposing the canal.
-Underestimation of maintenance and construction
costs, and overestimation of benefits.
-The impact of equatic vegetation "largely of foreign
origin" now invading the barge canal, "for which there
is no permanent and satisfactory solution . in
-The need for providing an additional means of dis-
tributing water weeds that are becoming a nuisance
throughout southeastern United States.
-Crushing methods used to clear much of the original
forest in creating the resevoirs.
-The drowning of sections of forest supposedly being
-Permitting upstream developments to connect with
the barge canal, thus adding pollution damage to the
-Cutting off migratory pathways for fish by the con-
struction of locks and dams.
-Failure adequately to consider geological problems in
-Proposed use of hydraulic dredges for construction
and maintenance, increasing pollution.
-Failure to make an appropriate assessment of the
value of the original wilderness area involved.
The EDF action was complemented by other suits against
the Corps and the State Canal Authority over the barge
canal. A circuit court file showed that Silver Springs, Inc.,
a major commercial tourist attraction, was raising over 40
questions with the Canal Authority about the project's
effects on fish, wildlife habitat, water purity, and land
condemnation. Ocala Manufacturing Ice and Packing Co.
was recorded in court as asking for at least $2 million in
damages resulting from the flooding of some 2,900 acres
and the cutting off of access to another 6,000 acres con-
taining $2.5 million worth of timber. The owner of a
fishing camp on the nearby SB Johns River, to which the
barge connects, was preparing to sue the Corps over its
use of 2,4-D for the control of water hyacinths, on the
grounds that this was adversely affecting the fishing on the
entire length of the St. Johns River.
What can be hoped for at this late date? Obviously, the
controversial canal should be restudied by an objective and
highly qualified, broad-spectrum study team. It should be
determined whether the project is in fact in the best
public interest, or whether it is so poorly planned as to
need redesigning, or perhaps to be abandoned alogether.
The draining of the Everglades appeared to be a good idea
to some, around the turn of the century, and the Ever-
glades Drainage District was authorized by the State in
1903. But in 1968 it was found necessary to authorize a
new plan for keeping water in the 'Glades. This plan is
now estimated to cost us about $80 million!
The Cross-Florida navigational idea was conceived in the
1820's and the route laid out in the 1930's. The present
barge canal was authorized during the Second World War.
Has the public been railroaded into buying another make-
work dinosaur that will eventually cost even more than the
amount already misspent, so that the correction of another
environmental error will be necessary? This is the thought
that needs to be impressed upon the decision-makers.
The project must be reevaluated by the standards of the
1970's. Wilderness has become more precious, especially
in rapidly developing States such as Florida. New philopo-
phies regarding man's need for being able to explore the
unknown have developed. Many believe that this project,
long regarded as of shaky economic feasibility, would
collapse if examined today by impartial economists, sys-
tems analysts, and ecologists. If the proponents are hon-
estly concerned with doing for Florida what is best for
Florida, they should have nothing to fear from the restudy.
We hope that our actions will encourage changes in the
decision-making processes in the Corps of Engineers and
other agencies concerned with imposing "improvements"
on natural lands and waters. Numerous other environ-
mentally dangerous projects have been proposed or even
authorized for Florida alone that require more sophisti-
cated treatment than the planning or engineering person-
nel of the Army Corps are qualified to provide. The
"Missing Link" waterway, described as necessary now for
the Cross-Florida Barge Canal to operate efficiently, would
affect the estuaries of nine Florida counties.
Another Corps proposal for Florida is a study for the
deepening of the St. Lucie Canal. Still other proposals
would lace the State with artificial ditches from the Keys
through the Panhandle. All these are equally frightening
projects to conservationists, and should be to every Florida
The revived fight to save the Oklawaha has broad impli-
cations far beyond saving this unique wilderness. The
destruction of the Oklawaha ecosystem is a classic example
of mindless waste of a national treasure. By exposing the
project for what it really is, we hope to avoid having to
make future correctional efforts of this magnitude. The
lawsuit should set a precedent of national significance by
producing a landmark decision, showing that the people
of the United States do have a right to a healthful natural
It is hoped that competent environmental scientists will
become increasingly involved, although this may be par-
ticularly difficult for those employed by State or Federal
agencies or by State universities.
Saving the Oklawaha regional ecosystem from irreparable
and permanent damage by the Cross-Florida Barge Canal
may be a long and expensive effort. Interested persons will
be glad to know that tax-deductible contributions to for-
ward this effort are being received by Florida Defenders
of the Environment, addressed to Dr. M. Jack Ohanian,
P. O. Box 12063, Gainesville, Florida 32601. Checks
should be made payable to the Rachel Carson Fund-
National Audubon Society. U
~AAIA D^l..; CROSS FLORIDA
FAAIA Resolution BARGE CANAL
the Oklawaha River and Valley is a
primordial wilderness of inordinate
beauty which is a major contributor
to the ecological balance of central
the construction of the Cross Florida
Barge Canal is drastically altering
this magnificent river and hundreds
of thousands of acres of its surround-
this unalterable change of the envi-
ronment seriously threatens the eco-
logical balance of a substantial area
of the State and is already polluting
the water resources of the area;
the consequences of this alteration
to the ecological balance has never
been evaluated along with economic
considerations to determine the effi-
cacy of such a canal to provide pub-
lic benefits in excess of the loss to
Florida of irreplaceable natural as-
sets; now, therefore, be it
that the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
herewith requests the appropriate
Federal and State authorities to order
a restudy of the Cross Florida Barge
Canal by a highly qualified study
team consisting of members from a
broad spectrum of disciplines and
interests; and be it
Resolved that the appropriate Federal
and State authorities be requested to
withhold any further funding of this
project until the aforementioned
study team can report and all aspects
of the project can be thoroughly
examined and re-evaluated by the
standards of the 1970's.
Adopted by the Board of Directors of the Flor-
ida Association of the American Institute of
Architects on April 4, 197)0.
Don't Taint Environment
By PAT DODSON
Member, Board of Regents
It was November, 1962, and to see some property on
Escambia Bay I walked behind Dick Gonzalez beneath
the live oaks, robed in fern and moss. Farther on, our feet
crunched the leaves of red male and sweet gum. The cool
air was rich with fall.
This was the way it was, I thought, back when Maldonado
first saw these shores four centuries ago. Searching for
DeSoto, he probably anchored in the bay off Gaberonne
Point, and while his sailors fished over the oyster beds,
he'd wandered under the oaks and hickories above the
cliffs. For a moment, I was almost slipping back into time
with him, there breathing in the intoxication of this
unsoiled land, eager to tell friends about it.
After that day for some reason I began to take a new look
at the city of my birth. How we have scarred this land
since the early Spanish! How rampant our ugliness. Trash
and beer cans thrown from automobiles. Garbage every-
where, in gutters and alleys, on sidewalks and in yards,
even in the historic Seville Square area where we once
located our advertising office.
You've read many times of the litter problems that have
plagued Jack Cowley at Pensacola Beach. He is not alone.
Every Sunday, even now, some people with youngsters
feed the mallards in our duck pond at Gaberonne and
leave their yellow breadwrappers on the shore. They must
think their rubbish will dissolve. How can they be teaching
their small fry the beauty of the waterfowl and then
clutter their habitat?
It is even difficult to hold what one treasures. I grew up
in older sections of East Hill and later North Hill, both
with their own unique loveliness. It does not take clair-
voyance to realize that together with other areas they face
slow dispair unless they are able to protect and enhance
their beauty. Such efforts will be worth it. Such an accom-
lishment on every street and in every neighborhood could
be our claim to greatness as a city.
We ourselves constitute the basic problem.
We, as a people, largely of yeoman stock from Alabama,
Georgia and Tennessee, possess some priceless virtues. We
are God-fearing and hardworking, as honest as the next,
respect our wives and mothers, have colorful speech, and
are so patriotic we'd storm hell itself for our country.
But we have yet to develop in Pensacola a genuine and
widespread sense of beauty and good taste. Apparently, we
have not learned to observe, an obvious requirement of
perception and awareness. We'd note, for instance, that
nature does not make the squirrel with a large luminous
chartreuse head. It matches the rest of his body. Autumn
trees do not drop white sandwich wrappers on the ground.
Proud live oaks never grow aluminum voltage boxes in
While driving downtown one day, a girl with us threw a
wad of paper out the window. Someone called her a
litterbug and she countered that the "street cleaners
needed to earn their money." This kind of attitude does
not build great cities.
Pensacola can never be the beautiful city she deserves to
be and can be the city some people want her to be -
until we make dramatic changes in such attitudes, particu-
larly with our young people and new and temporary
To mention a sorrow of landscape pollution- outdoor
signs. Frankly, we in advertising know that the ethical
outdoor advertising companies have long been sensitive to
public criticism and have developed more harmony with
signs and environment. But the small sign business has
little regulation, and the callousness of a few operators
hurts the entire industry.
A few years ago Pat Born, creative director of our adver-
tising agency, remarked of a monstrous motel sign down
the road that if you picked an Oriental from the streets
of Hong Kong any Oriental he would be incapable
of designing a sign with such conflicting shapes and colors.
Maybe Pensacola's visual problems are a reflexion of our
pre-dominant Anglo-Saxon heritage. Yet, our forefathers
never built chicken houses as bad in form as we build
some of our mass housing today. Perhaps contemporary
materials don't have the basic charm of simple lumber and
brick, or we have not learned to use the many synthetics
But there is hope.
The fact that multitudes want to see a large part of Santa
Rosa Island left undisturbed, and will fight you about it,
is a barometer. The fact that the incredible Mary Turner
Rule and colleagues raised hell over cutting the giant oaks
to widen Cervantes Street, and received some support, is
significant. The fact that everybody and his brother is up
in arms over the pollution of our bays tells me that an
attack on visual pollution could be just over the ridge.
A war against this form of filth will hurt more false pride
and draw more bad blood than all the rest combined.
Perhaps this is why winning it can lead to greatness. Mere
mention of the sores and symptoms or our disease and the
News-Journal probably will be flooded with admonitions
for me to drip dead, mind my own business, and take
other actions my friend Carl Harper would be justified in
Pensacola can never be a truly beautiful city until we co-
operate with Billy Tennant and sweep dilapidated and
abandoned automobiles off every street and out of resi-
dential yards; until garbage cans are moved promptly from
the curbs (especially on Sundays), and industrial-type
fences zoned out of residential areas; until we lock up
people who throw beer cans in jails with those who drive
while drunk, reinforce garbage and trash agencies for
service beyond the call of their present duties, find
economical ways to put all utility lines underground, and
teach construction and utility crews to put their trash,
including lunch and drinking cups, into receptacles. We
will be short of greatness until the taxpayer realizes that
mediocre design sponsored by government cheats him, we
prohibit the mass of advertising signs that stare at us end-
lessly, develop a grass that will thrive in sand, bulldoze (or
dynamite) abandoned, unsightly buildings that pollute our
highways, and until the dogwood and azalea blooms on a
given March day equal the number of cigarette butts
discarded by the people.
There are those who will cry snobbery and who will claim
Pensacola is pretty enough. You need to get off your
backsides, my friends, if you believe that. You don't have
to travel far to realize that while we have the potential, we
have not touched her promise.
Most of the measures that will produce results don't
require funds. Money can hardly buy the practice of order
and cleanliness in one's own yard and while driving on the
open road. One of the quaintest homes in Pensacola -
the old Axelson place at Zaragossa and Floridablanca -
was never even painted (It's heart pine and wasn't sup-
posed to be).
Some things do cost, however, Pensacola business, es-
pecially, needs to develop a basic appreciation for and
spend more money on good architecture. A well-designed
store reaps a merchant more tlan it costs him: it pays to
be beautiful. And while we're .at it, commercialization
doesn't have to mean ugliness.'Think the Astrodome is
ugly? The Gulf Power or Florida Bank Buildings? We
often equate commerce with ugliness because too many
businesses have cut corners and haven't given a second
thought to the fundamentals of good architecture. The
Greeks and Romans 2,000 years ago were more progres-
sive. Continued on Page 24 *
Don't Taint Environment, cont.
Legislation Oak-Territorial Council met under it in 1822
,7( f 7 WEY "
It is ironical that those who scoff will probably benefit
most from a sustained program of landscape beautifica-
tion. The fear that a cleaner domicile will increase taxes
is a damnable excuse for laziness. I remember a few fearful
souls who fought the historical district's establishment.
They are the very ones benefiting now, bless them, be-
cause their property has become more beautiful and
Of course, when we engage the perpetrators of landscape
pollution, we must be careful not to violate personal
rights. A man's home is his castle, and tradition says he
can do anything he wants with it unless he annoys his
neighbors. Combating squalor should be an individual
responsibility, of course. However, a Louisiana court has
agreed to the premise that just as smoke violates one's
sense of smell and breathing, an ugly environment offends
one's sense of vision. Since sight is man's primary sense,
this could be more not less serious than other types of
24 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
Ugliness, including confusion of scale and form and fabric,
is inherently depressing. It breeds melancholy and futility.
It is a detriment to prosperity and the health and welfare
of us all.
Beauty inspires men. It breeds optimism and prosperity. It
attracts good people and good industry. It stimulates
dreams that great things are made of. It refreshes and
reassures when life looks bleak. It grows happiness with
every blossom kissed by the rain and the sun.
So a sloppy house on a naturally beautiful lot is more of a
crime to me than petty theft. The builder has cheated
himself and robbed our sensibilities for decades. The old
sofa on Scenic Highway at the curves on the left as you
first meet the bluffs driving north, repulses me (and I'd
move it myself were it not so interesting to see how long
officials will let it sit there). Ever look at the base of the
bluffs themselves and see the trash? And on and on. A
truly beautiful city has a minimum of such violations and,
most of all, strong men who will fight against them.
We need legions of leaders with sharp visual perception if
we are to enjoy a beautiful city. Maybe the Garden Clubs
can help Vick Odom with the city's planning and main-
tenance, but we need more manicured parks and attractive
boulevards like the city approach to the Bay Bridge. We
don't need officials on any level who believe that disposal
furnaces and beautification projects are always luxuries.
And while we're at it, let us make private developers
beautify their developments. Voters and taxpayers should
demand that all governmental bodies consider aesthetics
carefully whenever they change the public landscape,
which, after all, belongs to the people.
I'd like to see all Pensacola declare war on landscape pol-
gradually become crowded and corrupted? Will the city-
cherished by all and famed far and wide for her beauty -
or in simply another mediocre town with people who fail
to honor and enrich what God gave them.
Major battles affecting the look of our country loom
before us. Will Scenic Highway become an elongated
state park and retain her natural beauty, or will she
gradually become crowded and corrupted? Will the city-
county governmental complex have a superior design
selected through architectural competition or will the
"againers" force a cut-corners nothing like the Municipal
Auditorium? Will the city get developers (any developers)
to beautify the waterfront west of the Bay Bridge or will
this provocative idea die from frustration and inertia? Will
Santa Rosa Island be preserved, at least in part, and put
under an agency which will save it for generations yet
Help, thank God, may already be with us. Who doesn't
like what John Jarvis and Hilton Meadows have done with
the University of West Florida campus? Isn't 1-10 pleasing
as it sweeps under Scenic Highway and reaches out over
Escambia Bay? (Somewhere there breathes a competent,
smiling highway designer). And don't forget the "new"
Lee Square, a vast improvement over the "old" one. The
futuristic Westinghouse plant and its immaculate grounds
should thrill all. And now the city has just launched a
probe into the problem of dilapidated buildings. So you
see, there is aid-and-comfort for a decent landscape in
Pensacola. But it takes qualified professionals, horse sense
and good taste, human sweat, and an intense appreciation
and desire for beauty.
Some people are born wth good taste and a feel for form
and color. Others acquirelt through training. Some of us
never comprehend at all and even ridicule to cover our
ignorance. When we have more people who'd rather live
in one of America's truly beautiful cities than those who'd
rather not, we may realize pme of the greatness that lies
within us. 0
Reprinted from the Pensacola News
Will you be in total darkness like the last time, when much of the area was plunged into a blackout
for several hours?
Fortunately, some firms were equipped with standby power generation equipment.
If yours was one of the organizations that included standby power in your plans, you no doubt
enjoyed "business as usual," with no interruption of lighting, computers, air conditioning, elevators
and all the other vital services powered by electricity.
If you were not equipped with standby power, perhaps this most recent and dramatic reminder of our
dependence on electricity has prompted you to reevaluate your thinking about emergency power.
Your Florida Caterpillar Dealer can help you design Caterpillar diesel or natural gas powered
generator sets in a wide range of kilowatt outputs, to fit your specific needs.
If you want to avoid that powerless feeling, contact your local Caterpillar Dealer.
He'll be happy to talk with you about your emergency power requirements and make
recommendations for a dependable, economical Caterpillar-powered standby installation.
(He also sells constant, on-site power equipment).
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
Caterpillar, Cat. E[ and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.
This beautiful, 70,000-square-foot building is South Florida's
first all-precast and -prestressed concrete warehouse.
It was carefully pre-planned so that it could be erected
in two-thirds the time customarily required a
remarkable cut in construction time that resulted
in considerable savings.
All the components for the exterior construction,
including 30,000 square feet of wall panels, columns, beams
and roof, were fabricated at the Stresscon plant and Mangurian's Furniture Show-
erected at the site in only 45 days. On-site erection started case, Miami, was designed by
just 27 days after precasting began and the structure Engineer Bert Saul in cooper-
was completed two weeks later, ation with the owner-builder
More and more, builders are specifying prestressed and Stresscon International,
concrete with Florida Cements the swift, modern, a division of Maule Industries,
economical way to permanence. To learn how it can benefit Inc. The contractor was West-
you in the future, write Florida Portland Cement, brook Construction Co., Inc.,
P.O. Box 1528, Tampa, Florida 33601. Fort Lauderdale.
FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT
Specify and use Florida
Cements, manufactured in Florida General Portland Cement Company
for over 40 years
for over 4 years PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
26 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
University of Miami Department
of Architecture and Architectural
Robert G. Anderson,
We in the Department of Architecture and Architectural
Engineering at the University of Miami welcome the
opportunity to speak to the profession through The
From my standpoint I would like to speak to two things.
First, I will outline briefly the history of the Department
and describe some of the things we are presently doing
with respect to our plans for the future, and second I will
state our plans for our part in subsequent issues of the
The universities in this country face the challenge to
contribute to the solutions to the problems which confront
mankind today. The opportunities for an urban university
such as ours afford a very special set of challenges. The
development of a program for the education of the indi-
viduals who can contribute significantly to the solutions
to the problems of our physical environment in an urban
setting is truly unique.
In short, a really viable educational program for the edu-
cation of the architect and planner will search continually
for and develop new methods and techniques of solving
problems, it will develop means of communication with
other disciplines, it will be unafraid to experiment, it will
produce significant graduate and research programs, it will
develop action orientated programs in the community, it
will have a qualified and distinguished faculty, and it will
take full advantage of the resources of the university and
of the region. These then, are our responsibilities as edu-
cators of the people responsible for the organization of our
This year the Department of Architecture and Archi-
tectural Engineering will complete twenty years as an
official department in the University. Although the pro-
gram in Architectural Engineering was accredited for a
six year period in 1967 the program in Architecture is
unaccredited. The Department was visited in 1968 by the
National Architectural Accrediting Board and the report
cf the board was negative. The following is a statement
from the board to the President of the University:
"The University's commitment to adequate re-
sources and goals necessary for an accreditable
program is not yet evident. It strongly recognizes
the need for such a program and hopes that the
University might take the necessary positive
The University has taken the position of support for an
accredited, viable program for the education of the
Although the specific intentions of the University and the
Department are to develop an accredited program in
architecture, the demands of contemporary society do not
allow for the education of the architect in isolation. The
architect of today must work with other professionals who
Continued on Page 28 m-*
in consort are capable of solving problems of various
scales and complexity within the urban environment. The
education of the architect today is thus closely related to
that of the urban designers and the environmental and
regional planners. Without the development of a program
that can encompass these areas the education of the
architect is truncated and hollow indeed.
We are proposing then the development of undergraduate
and graduate programs which lead to significant courses of
study and research not only in architecture but in the
areas of physical planning as well.
Our attitudes, that the architect is primarily concerned
with the design of individual buildings has shifted in
recent years. A basis for this becomes more clear when we
consider what is necessary to undertake the design of the
single building. If our buildings are to have any signifi-
cance with respect to their environment then the concern,
by some degree, must shift from the individual building,
and with such a shift it becomes necessary to deal with the
environment of the building in some reasonable way.
Such an attitude, if taken as a fundamental approach,
represents a departure from the approach taken seriously
by concerned educators, business interests, and profession-
als until recently. It becomes necessary then, or rather
imperative for us to develop the ability to control the
environment of our buildings. The environment, which
we can not ignore is definable in terms of our ideas about
it. We as designers concerned with the control of our
physical environment are only able to make observations
and to take action within the framework of such an
"One (idea) that we have begun to find useful
today, because of the building problems con-
fronting us, is that nature is purposefully differ-
entiated. The thing about this differentiation
that strikes us as being purposeful is the way in
which change takes place, principally because we
look for problems in the context of change. In
fact, one of the things we seek today is the
general theory of change. One might go so far as
to say that the medium of the environmental
designer is change; that what he manipulates is
change. So we find it useful to look at nature
today in these terms. Thus we see it all around
us. What we see is what we want to see."1
'Ralph L. Knowles, Architect FORM AND STABILITY
The above quote is concerned primarily with the natural
environment, the areas I speak of here are the areas which
deal with the political, social, economic and technological
as well as the natural environment. The environment
encompasses all the areas inherient to the problem. The
statements however reflect a clear attitude toward an
approach in the development of methods whereby we can
significantly solve problems that are multi-disciplinary.
Quite frankly the education of the architect has not
changed significantly in the last thirty-five years. Our
educational programs have mutated slowly from the Beaux
Arts to Bauhaus since the early thirties, but they have
not changed significantly. In most educational programs
in the country we still have what is classified as the "case
study" approach. In other words a kind of project
UIere u- .EaU IrwI'I
a~ G 'd .. .
m 11EE mm 1
28 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / March/April 1970
orientated approach to design. What we must have today
is a process orientated approach. The process approach is
imperative because it allows us to fully access the knowl-
edge and skills required to solve problems which involve
Any of us who has been through architectural education
in the last twenty or thirty years is completely familiar
with the case study approach. We started in the early
years with a small project like a "gate house" or "service
station" and progressed sequentially with more complex
problems like a boatell", "high school", "office building"
et. al. There were some distinct advantages with this
approach, especially with respect to the Beaux Arts system,
however it does not fundamentally have the ability to solve
the complex problems which face us today. We must then
develop and search for problems which face us today. We
must then develop and search for approaches to solving
problems which are in context with the nature of our
society if we expect to contribute as professionals.
I would like to describe a new approach that we at the
University of Miami are dedicating our efforts toward.
Fundamentally the intention of education is to develop
knowledge and skill, and with respect to the education of
the architect and planner this must be with regard to the
fundamental conditions of the physical environment. The
development of knowledge is an analytical process to
distinguish component parts in relation to the whole by
setting strict limits. Such a process aims at adding to the
body of useful information in an organized way. It re-
quires the complete involvement of the student and
teacher working on the same process at different scales.
Since the basic aim is to develop knowledge there is little
value in repetition and the work should progress signifi-
cantly for both student and instructor.
The development of skill is a synthesizing process to
compose or combine parts so as to form a whole or
significant part of a whole. Such a process increases the
skill of combining the parts previously acquired through
analysis. It requires specific evaluation of the generalized
results of the previous analysis, and significantly controls
the number of parts for the purposes of the problem;
from one part to the unlimited number making up a real
Let me give some examples of how we might structure a
problem, and then state some ideas about a sequential
structuring for a five year program. First, lets accept the
notion that we must deal with the fundamental conditions
of our physical environment. Fundamental conditions are
simply stated relationships which have specific properties
only with the application of limits. Horizontal to Vertical,
Light to Dark, Inside to Outside, Fresh to Poluted, are a
few basic relationships. Limits are the components derived
from areas of general interest, Natural Environment, Man
(individual, group as collective behaviour), Technology,
History (the totality of another time relating to its
handling of fundamental conditions), Professional action
and so on. Lets suppose that we are concerned with;
Horizontal to Vertical and we limit the problem to Tech-
nology. Our concern could be the Horizontal to Vertical
relationship of force and moment of force, it might also
be the movement of man from the horizontal to the
vertical through the elevator, stair, escalator, ramp systems
and so on as we further limit the problem.
Continued on Page 30 M
U. of M. Continued from Page 29
For discussion lets limit the problem to the vertical and
horizontal inter-relationships of force and moment of
force. If this then is a fundamental problem, does it
matter if our project is an office building or a city hall?
Obviously not. This problem is then basic to both. It is a
I was personally educated in the case study, project
oriented curriculum, and the fundamental conditions of
this approach was a functional differention, the user
function of a wide variety of building types. I suspect also
that many of you reading this article have had much the
same experience. This approach could have dealt reason-
ably with the fundamental conditions of user function in
a reasonable period of time, and then gone on to other
kinds of conditions. What we had however, was repetitive
with respect to most of the basic conditions to physical
problems and unfortunately, from my own experience, a
program that did not allow us to significantly solve funda-
mental problems. If we did a high school for a problem
we worked hard on the function and essentially paid lip
service to the structural system. If the next problem was
a boatel, we again worked hard to solve the functional
problem and again paid lip service to the structural system
and so on.
This approach is used by most of our schools of archi-
tecture today. What we at the University of Miami are
doing is to deal with the fundamental conditions to prob-
lems insuch a way that the student will develop the ability
to apply this knowledge to the synthesis of complex prob-
lems. An educational program for the physical designer
must give him the ability to find the alternatives for
problem solutions, it must give him the ability to com-
municate with other disciplines, it must give him the
ability to deal clearly with the environment and it must
give him the ability to come to unique and reliable con-
Since the visit of the accrediting board two years ago the
Department has made some progress toward its goal of
accreditation and the training of competent professionals.
We have hired some qualified new faculty, we have added
some additional space, (giving each student for the first
time his own desk), we have developed an Urban Work-
shop in the community which has some seven projects
underway, we have for this summer an exchange program
for our students with three offices in England, we have
received for our library significantly increased funds from
the University and the profession, we have developed a
standard of admissions commensurate with a professional
program, we have created shop, darkroom and exhibition
facilities, we have within our resources developed an ex-
hibition and lecture program with the profession and the
development of an Architectural Guild of on-going sup-
port for our program. In addition we have under develop-
ment a five year plan for the implementation of new
undergraduate and graduate programs for architecture and
In the next issues of the Florida Architect to which we
contribute we plan to explain in some detail our program.
This is a unique opportunity for us and we look forward
to being in the position to describe clearly our attitudes
toward education to the profession in the state, with the
hope that it will catalyze some creative discussion and
In summary then, we at the University of Miami are
proposing the development of programs of study which
are significantly involved in education and research at the
undergraduate and graduate levels not only in architecture,
but in planning as well. In this way we will have what is
a richly rewarding experience in the education of com-
pently trained professionals and make a significant con-
tribution to the solutions to the problems facing our
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