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Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00178
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: April 1969
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00178
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text
























































Fhe Florida Architect
April
1969
i 5"/5-3







April 1969 / Volume 19 / Number 4


Wonders of the

Yucatan
by Sebastian Trujillo


Technology Tackles Trash
by Eugene J. Sobel



School Construction Costs

Studied



Advertisers' Index




AIA News Service


17


COVER:
Last year Architect Sebastian Tru-
jillo and his wife of Miami trav-
elled to the Mexican lands of the
Mayas, an area familiar to and
much loved by many Florida
architects. This month, as a de-
parture from a regular architec-
tural feature, is presented the
story of their trip in words and
pictures. The cover photo, a cor-
nice detail of the House of the
Turtles at Uxmal, and all others,
were taken by the author.


20



22



23


THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Broward County Chapter
Donald I. Singer Joseph T. Romano
Daytona Beach Chapter
David A. Leete-Carl Gerken
Florida Central Chapter
Jack McCandless James R. Dry
I. Blount Wagner
Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
Edward J. Seibert Frank Folsom Smith
Florida North Chapter
Charles F. Harrington-James D. McGinley, Jr.
Florida North Central Chapter
Mays Leroy Gray Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Chapter
Thomas H. Daniels- Richard L. MacNeil
Florida South Chapter
Robert J. Boerema- George F. Reed
Walter S. Klements
Jacksonville Chapter
Albert L. Smith Herschel E. Shepard
Charles E. Patillo, III
Mid-Florida Chapter
Wythe David Sims, II- Donald R. Hampton
Palm Beach Chapter
Howarth L. Lewis-Rudolph M. Arsenicos
John B. Marion
Director, Florida Region, American
Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA,
1600 N.W. Leleune Rd., Miami


Executive Director, Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos,
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Cables
OFFICERS
H. Leslie Walker, President
706 Franklin St., Suite 1218
Tampa, Florida 33602
Harry E. Bums, Jr., Vice President/President
Designate
1113 Prudential Bldg.
Jacksonville, Florida 32207
James J. Jennewein, Secretary
Exchange National Bank Bldg., Suite 1020
Tampa, Florida 33602
MyrI J. Hanes, Treasurer
P. 0. Box 609
Gainesville, Florida 32601

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
Charles E. Patillo, III
Russell J. Minardi
Wythe D. Sims, II
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Helen Bronson / Circulation
Howard Doehla / Advertising


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official
Journal of the Florida Aoociation of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association, a
Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published monthly at the Executire Office of
the Association. 1000 Ponce de Leon Bvird.,
Coral Gables, Florida 33134. Telephone: 444-
5761 (area code 305). Circulation: distrib-
uted without charge of 4,669 registered archi-
tects, builders, contractors, designers, engineers
and members of allied fields throughout the
state of Florida-and to leading financial in-
stitutions, national architectural firms and
journals.

Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are wel-
comed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA
publications, provided full credit is giren to
the author and to The FLORIDA ARCHI-
TECT for prior use . Controlled circula-
tion postage paid at Miami, Florida. Single
copies, 75 cents, subscription, members $2.00
per year. industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. February Roster Issue, $10.00 . Mc-
Murray Printers.


2 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969






Wonders of the Uucatan by
Sebastian
hand of the Magas Trujillo


The Mayan were a paradoxical
people. Their writing and hiero-
glyphic inscriptions were so com-
plex that even today they have
not been fully deciphered. They
used a mathematical notation sys-
tem more sophisticated than that
of their European contemporaries
and also discovered the principle
of the zero. It is important to
know that all of these intellect-
ual accomplishments were arrived Queen of L
at independently. Yet, they work-
ed with primitive stone, flint, and
obsidian tools since they did not
know of nor have any working
metal tools. They were esthetic-
ally highly sophisticated; they
made charming sculpture, pot-
tery, and paintings. In the middle
of the jungle they built, out of
limestone, magnificent cities
whose buildings were richly
painted and decorated.
Ihe areas which they developed
were the northern and central
%Aayan areas, also called lowland
areas (since the land was flat).
ro the north lie the Mexican
statess of Yucatan, Campeche, and
Juintana Roo. In the central
Aaya area lie parts of the Mexi-
an states of Chiapas, Tabasco,
nd Camphe and Peten in Gua-
emala. The southern Maya areas,
'Iso called highlands, consist of
he mountainous region of Gua-
emala, parts of El Salvador, and
arts of Honduras. We will be
concerned with the northern
4aya area and the state of Yuca-
an in particular.
'ucatan is a portion of Mexican
arritory that projects into the
mlf of Mexico. The land is flat
ith no rivers, lakes, ponds,
*reams, or swamps. Rain seeps
trough the porous limestone to
irm underground rivenrs. Once in
while this limestone surface will
we in and form an open well
which is called a Cenote. Water,
which was not readily available,
as a vital element in Mayan reli-
on. This element accounts for
-e repetition of the rain god
tac masks bas relief which be-
ime a main design element in
e development of their building
cades.
Continued

































Governors Palace


The meaning of the word "Ux-
mal" supposedly comes from the
Mayan word "Oxmal," which
means "three times built." Some
archeologists and Mayan writers
believe that the real name of the
place is unknown and they claim
that "Uxmal" was the name of a
nearby Mexican hacienda. Uxmal
belongs to a classic Mayan or
pure Mayan period and the most
important buildings were erected
between the seventh and eleventh
century, A. D. in Puuc style.

Puuc style is defined by the wall
treatment. The wall is left bare
of any decoration at the lower
portion where the openings are.
A Baroque wall treatment of dec-
oration is, however, used in the
upper portion, creating a very or-
namented area above the medial
moulding showing a great ten-
dency to overcrowd the spaces.

A good example of Puuc style is
the "Casa del Governador" or
"Governor's Palace" (320' long x
40' wide x 26' high) which is set
on the top level of specially con-
structed terraces. The lowest ter-
race measures 600' by 500' in
area and 40' in height. As we ap-
proached the upper platform we
could see and hear birds coming
out of the doorways. They were


Governors
Palace
Superimposed
Chac
Masks
on
Corner


4 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969





House of the Turtles
Detail, Corbel Vault

flying in all directions creating a
charming feeling of repose com-
bined with awe at seeing how the
jungle so quietly embraced the
buildings on a hot July morning.
The main design motif of the
upper portion of the facade is the
chac masks placed in a diagonal
line combined with scrolls and
latticework. Every piece is per-
fectly executed. By itself a piece
would seem to have no meaning,
but together with the others, they
form a whole. In the corners the
chac masks are superimposed. It
has been estimated that about
20,000 individually cut stones
form this fabulous facade. A type
of cementing mortar was used to
put each piece in place. The ag-
gregate used for mortar was
known as "sazhcab" (a soft marl)
which is often found beneath the
surface crust of the limestone.
A typical type of roof construc-
tion in the Classic Mayan Period
is the Corbel-vaulted roof. It was
used in every building in Uxmal.
The walls at a certain height
were sloped inward and capped
with flat stones that could span
the distance between the two
walls. The Classic Mayan archi-
tect was more concerned with the
exterior looks of his buildings
than the interior spaces obtained
by the use of Corbel-vaults.
Continued --+
House of the Turtles






The
Nunnery













Uxmal


The Nunnery













































Nunnery, Entrance Gateway


On a lower level of the same huge
platform, a short distance north-
west of the Palace is the "Casa de
las Tortugas" or "House of Tur-
tles." It is reminiscent of the
beauty of a small Greek temple.
The name was apparently derived
from the turtles placed in the
upper freise above the doorways.
Being an amphibian, perhaps the
turtle was considered to be a
deity by the Mayans, who were
obsessed with water cults. This
building stands nearly in the cen-
ter of the ruins and from it to
the north, on a lower plane, you
see the "Casa de las Monjas" or
"The Nunnery" and "The ball
court" in between.









"The Nunnery" is formed by a
group of four buildings around a
central courtyard, 200 by 250
feet. The principal entrance is
through a Corbel vaulted arch-
way. Once again, the mastery of
design and expert workmanship
can be observed in the delicacy
of the cuts, latticework, scrolls,
stone chac masks, etc. The inner
facade is more elaborate than the
outside with doors opening into
the rooms in the four buildings.
When the Spaniards discovered
Uxmal thitgroup of buildings re-
minded them of a monastery in
their homeland. 'The Nunnery,"
with all the cells around an open
patio, does resemble an old world
convent.

A short distance to the East of
"The Nunnery" is "The Piramide
del Adivino" or "Temple of the
Magician" also called "Temple of
the Dwarf." It has an almost
elliptic floor plan and houses five
temples built in different stages
and styles. Although Uxmal has
more ruins scattered around the
same site, only the ones described
are in good state of preservation.
Continued -


Temple of the Magician








Chichen-Itza

A U-:


The Castillo


'.4


p:


Temple
of the
Warriors


The other notable Mayan site we
visited in Yucatan is "Chichen-
Itsa." The city was settled 800
years before Columbus discovered
America by the "ltza" tribe of
Mayans. Chichen, meaning
"Mouth of Wells," was derived
from "chi" meaning mouth and
"chen" meaning well.
In Chichen there is a mixture of
Mayan and Toltec architecture.
During the thirteenth century
A. D. the leader of Mayapan,
Hunnan Ceel, brought in the Tol-
tecs, from Central Mexico, as
allies to defeat the "Itza" and
their leader "Chac Xih Chac." In
gratitude, Hunnan Ceel gave
them Chichen-Itza. Since then,
until the middle of the fifteenth
century, Chichen became un-
Mayan.
8 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


The first object you see in Chi-
chen, on the left hand side of the
road, is a terraced pyramid with
stairways on four sides topped by
a white limestone temple. This is
the "Castillo Pyramid" of Kukul-
can. Kukulcan (which has the
meaning as Quetzalcoatl in Cen-
tral Mexico) is considered as God,
in Yucatan, and is represented by
a feathered serpent. "The Cas-
tillo" has 91 steps in each stair-
way and is 75 feet tall. It has a
square base, 180' x 180', with
rounded corners. The main en-
trance is on the north side facing
the Cenote, which is known as
the well of sacrifice. The temple
was carved in low relief and was
originally painted.
To the northeast stands the
/ April 1969


.- :. ~;. :~















































"Templo de los guerreros" or
"Temple of the Warriors," em-
braced on west and south by a
group aot thousands of columns.
At the end of the stairway there
is a "Chac-Mool," a Toltec figure
brought from Tula, Central Mex-
ico. The Chac-Mool figures are
reclining human figures with
heads turned to the right or left,
holding a stone plate in two hands
resting on the abdomen. This po-
sition suggests that their function
may have been to receive offer-
ings.

Behind the Chac-Mool is the
main entrance to the temple, de-
fined by two columns whose bases
are heads representing rattle-
snakes; with the column itself
being the body of the serpent.


The "Ball court" is to the west
side of the "Castillo" and it has
three temples, the southern, the
northern ("Temple of the Beard-
ed Man"), and "The Temple of
the Jaguar," on the eastern wall.
To the east of the Ball court you
find the platforms of the skulls,
of Venus, of the Eagle and the
Tigers.

To the other side of the highway
lies the Old Chichen. It is pure
Mayan. There are rain gods but
neither feathered serpents nor
Chac-Mools. The Caracol or ob-
servatory is most interesting; it
has a spiral staircase inside. From
the observatory you can see the
Nunnery and a small building
next to the Nunnery, named the
Church. U
9


Column Detail
r11









Cocrt isOS godfo o


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Call your PCA man today.


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10 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


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12 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


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"The air pollution man will get you if you don't watch out," they warn. Supposedly,
he will rule that your fuel oil operation is polluting the air, and you'll face the
expense of converting to the other fuel... new equipment, installation, etc.
In case you haven't already heard, this contention that our hotels, motels, apartments,
hospitals and other businesses using fuel oil are causing air pollution has been
completely dispelled.
Exhaustive tests by the Metro Pollution Board found no measurable pollution from
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14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


































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the "lifeblood" power


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ing blood. Dade Reagents must keep speci-
mens under refrigeration at temperatures between
35 and 41 degrees. The specimens are kept in 27
walk-in refrigerators. To assure Dade Reagents of
constant temperature control in the 5000 square feet


of refrigerated area, they have a Caterpillar D 343
diesel electric standby unit which will supply power
for refrigeration and lights when outside power
fails. 0 Electric power is the "lifeblood" for many
other companies. Caterpillar total or standby power
can be engineered to almost any need. Your Florida
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your power needs. Call them and see.


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16 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969

















Technology

Tackles

Trash
How to Brighten the Dark Side of Dwelling
By EUGENE J. SOBEL
President, UInden Cqorporation
Linden Hill, a beautiful resort-like apartment hotel just
25 minutes from the Nation's Capitol, has discovered a
new and simple method of solving one of management's
ugliest problems "how to handle refuse."
On a 16-acre estate setting in Bethesda, Md., Linden Hill
Hotel guests enjoy the services provided by an affluent
society golf, tennis, swimming, fine restaurants, and
shops-and they consume their share of goods. In-
evitably, they also generate the normal amount of trash,
about 6 pounds per person per day on the average. In a
year, according to government estimates, each of us dis-
poses of about half a ton of paper, 280 cans, 160 bottles,
400 caps. -
It adds up to a heap of rubbish and a heap of headaches;
but not for tenants, nor for health inspectors, fire mar-
shals, or air pollution clontro officials. Trash is manage-
ment's worry.
In recent years, John Boyd, an expert in once-favored
incinerator disposal, set his inventive mind to creating
new ideas in the processing of rubbish. For the past two
years his results have been tested in dozens of )bigh-rise
apartments, garden units, hospitals, banks and even private
homes.
At Linden Hill we installed Compackager Corp. packaged
trash machine Model PTIC30. This one piece of equip-
ment made a big difference. A before-and-after comparison
will point us just how big a difference.
efore
Three years ago, Linden Hill installed compaction equip-
ment to handle trash. This system pushes trash into large
steel container carts. With one cart in our trash room,
there was little space for anything else. Two maintenance
men spent much of their day shifting carts in and out of
the trash room and then wheeling the heavy loads to the
pick-up area. Unavoidably, the carts scarred walls, dented
doorways and trailed sour garbage odors and dripping
through the building.
Continued on Page 19


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ARCHITECTURE

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18 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


From tile roof to stucco interior, concrete offers a wide
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-T__





At the pick-up area, four to five carts daily awaited the
trash hauler. They were not a pretty sight. They remained
there dependent on the hauler's schedule, mechanical
breakdowns, snow, or strikes. When the huge truck pulled
up, the vehicle's special loading machinery lifted each cart
and upended it into the hopper. Then, with a whine of
the hydraulic conveyer, the orchestration began popping
bottles, rattling metal, exploding aerosol cans, crunching
cartons. The truck drove off finally leaving a trail of papers,
cans, and assorted debris. The result of our trash removal
operation, as one tenant vigorously put it, was the daily
creation of a small-scale slum complete with sights,
sounds, and smells all offensive.


Needless to say, this system was inefficient,
undependable, and expensive. Costs ran us
a year for the trash collection alone!


inconvenient,
about $3,600


After


With the Compackager PTIC30 installed, our trash room
is clean, odor-free, and practically without fire hazard.
There is enough room left over for storing more than a
week's accumulation of trash, if need be. Thus, Linden
Hill would have been unruffled by anything like New
York City's recent garbage strike.

There is a new style of rubbish at Linden Hill these days.
It is packaged trash. Neat plastic wrapped cubes about the
size of a two-drawer file cabinet each contain the daily
trash of 50 units. Our daily quota, five to six packages,
can easily be handled by one part-time maintenance man
using a hand cart. Our newly replastered and repainted
corridors are a delight.

The pick-up area is kept neat and clean, since trash
hauling has been simplified. Our trucker makes biweekly
visits using an ordinary flat bed truck. He loads the cubes
without special machinery. There is no spillage, no noise,
no odors, and no complaining tenants.

The secret of our success is the Compackager which com-
presses trash quietly under hydraulic pressure. Cans,
bottles, cartons and paper are crushed into a solid mass
one-tenth the size of loose trash. The Compackager has
made it possible for us to reduce a mountain of trash into
a manageable molehill.

Significantly, reducing the size of our trash has also
reduced our dollars and cents cost. This saving is a sub-
stantial dividend on top of the new system's obvious
superiority over the old method. For example, we lease the
Compackager for $130 a month. Trash hauling costs less
than $100 a month. Thus, the entire operation runs almost
$1,000 less a year than we formerly had been spending for
trash hauling alone. 0


New double-insulated

Dyzone roof deck

is self-venting


O On top, a layer of seamless, permanent
Zonolite lightweight insulating concrete
that can be sloped to drain easily and economi-
cally, so leak-making puddles and ponds don't
stay on the deck.

SBelow, Dyfoam Ventboard. It's composed of
Dyfoam expanded polystyrene boards sand-
wiched between laminating material. The insu-
lating concrete combined with Dyfoam Ventboard
gives you economical U values down to .03.

SVents are built right into the Dyfoam Vent-
board. Water vapor passes through the lami-
nating material into the vents, and is channeled
out to the edges of the roof.

No joints, no tape, no adhesives, no vapor
barrier are needed with the new Dyzone roof
deck. A thin slurry of Zonolite insulating con-
crete serves as the bonding agent between deck
and structure.
Zonolite roof decks can only be applied by
applicators we have trained and approved. Upon
completion, the decks are certified to meet spe-
cifications.


- ----------------------1
MAIL THIS
j CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS DIVISION
I sMAeU W. R. Grace & Co. Dept. FA-04
r Cambridge, Mass. 02140
Gentlemen: Economical Insulation down to U .031 Certifiedl Ver-
satllel No messing around with joints, tape, glue or
vapor barriers Please send me complete Information
and specifications on DYZONE roof decks right away.
NAME
TITLE
FIRM
ADDRESS
CITY TATE--------ZIP
L----------------------------------------_





In the fall of 1968, Pancoast/Ferendino/
Grafton/Architects of Miami (now Feren-
dino/Grafton/Pancoast), Consulting Ar-
chitects to the Dade County School
Board, published a brochure on School
Costs. This is a reprint from an article
in the February 1969 issue of Electrical
Consultant based on that brochure. The
subject remains timely in view of recent
strikes and subsequent construction cost
rises throughout Florida.


The Marshall Valuation Service Cost
Estimator lists the costs of schools in
the Dade County area at $12.00 to
$17.00 per square foot. The same
source indicates that the national
average for school costs, exclusive of
building equipment and kitchen
equipment is $19.00 per square foot.
These figures reveal that compared
to the cost of school No. 3 at $15.53
per square foot, Dade County, in
20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


An examination of the rising costs of
school construction is the subject of
an attractive brochure from Pancoast/
Ferendino/Grafton/Architects, of
Miami, Florida. An elementary school
design constructed three times in two
years tells a graphic story of the rising
school costs. The first school, with
construction completed in April,
1966, cost a total of $621,473. The
second school, constructed in January,
1967, cost $661,200, and the third
school constructed in June, 1968 cost
$710,000.

One reason for some price variation
was that the site costs varied in part
due to differences in site size. How-
ever, the first school included rough-
in plumbing for a future dental clinic
not planned in the second and third
schools. The second and third schools
include less kitchen equipment than
the first school, and the third school
was built with different construction
carpet costing less than that in schools
one and two.

Andrew J. Ferendino, FAIA, Archi-
tect to the Board of Public Instruc-
tion, Dade County, stated that, "al-
though all segments of the economy
are experiencing concern with rising
costs, we in the public school business
are concerned with costs as they relate
to requirements for better design, bet-
ter construction, and more mainten-
ance-free buildings. These are initial
investments which result in greater
eventual savings by reducing repairs
and expensive alterations and by in-
creasing the efficiency of people using
the buildings. But these eventualities
are somehow lost sight of in the strug-
gle for minimum budgets occasioned
by massive backlogs in construction
needs."
John Avant, chairman, School Build-
ing Committee, South Florida Chap-
ter, AGA, pointed out that in 1966
and 1967 new 3-year contracts calling
for wage increase; upwards of 30 per-
cent for skilled labor and as much as
60 percent for unskilled labor. This
reflects the overall picture of inflation
in the economy and is passed along in
terms of rising building costs.


spite of rising costs, is getting excep-
tional school buildings at a relatively
low price.
By building compact buildings, major
spaces have been drawn together in
new schools. Circulation spaces have
been reduced in length and gross
square footage, and widened for mul-
tiuse. The result has been shorter
utility runs, less demand for mechani-
cal space, and more efficient use of
the site.

Effective use of land is particularly
important as good sites become less
available- requiring the purchase of
smaller sites at ever-increasing prices.

Elements of good design
Through efficient utilization of
spaces, flexible space, which may be
expanded or reduced at will by the
employment of light or movable bar-
riers, makes possible an immense di-
versification of activity without the
requirement for increased space and
without the creation of spaces which
will lie unusued for large portions of
the day.

Careful control of design has made it
possible to create air-conditioned
buildings at a cost which is competi-
tive with similar buildings that are
not air-conditioned around the state
and the nation. This has made pos-
sible a reduction in maintenance costs
and an increase in morale and effici-
ency of students and teachers working
in the building.

Statistics from Pancoast/Ferendino/
Grafton concerning how the building
dollar is spent indicate that 41.5 per-
cent of the total amount is spent for
the basic building structure including
walls and partitions. Fifteen percent
is spent for air-conditioning, nine per-
cent for electrical installations, seven
percent for site work, seven percent
for floors, six and one-half percent for
plumbing, five percent for roof and
ceiling, three and one-half percent for
equipment, one and one-half percent
for painting, and four percent on
miscellaneous.
Dr. William B. Field, Supervisor of
Educational Facilities, Dade County
Schools, had the following comments
regarding the repeating of school
plans. "Questions regarding the ad-
visability of reusing plans are usually
motivated by the desire for a final
'Yes' or 'No.' As is usually the case in
these matters there is no "final" an-
swer; however there are guidelines for
decision-making.


School


Construction


Costs


Studied






"If thoroughly adequate planning
time and personnel have been avail-
able and the reuse of plans is for an
educational program similar to the
original school, and both are con-
structed in close time proximity, there
are advantages to be gained. The num-
ber of detail errors can be materially
reduced, the time lapse considerably
shortened between decision to build
and occupancy of the building, and
architectural fees may be reduced.
Basic design errors, of course, are re-
tained. If adequate planning cannot
be performed on the new building, it
is obvious that the reuse of an ade-
quately-planned building will have a
better statistical chance of fulfilling
its obligations."
"If there is a time lapse of as much as
a year between the completion of a
set of plans and the decision to reuse
the plans, advances in school program
requirements and advances in archi-
tectural research will have offset the
advantages listed above. Chances are
that beyond that time limit the deci-
sion to save architectural fees amount-
ing to approximately 1 percent of the
building cost must be weighed against
the loss of educational opportunity to
the entire student body over the life
of the building. Too often, the deci-
sion is made on the basis of expedi-
ency rather than upon the basis of
current educational requirements."
Commenting on the same topic, Mr.
Ferendino reported that "as an archi-
tect, highly concerned and involved
in the creative process, I tend natur-
ally to reject expedient solutions
which are often advanced in support
to reuse or duplication of plans.
When social needs, educational pro-
grams, and environmental require-
ments are similar for two proposed
buildings, and when there is no sig-
nificant time lapse between construc-
tion dates, the decision to reuse plans
is a matter of common sense rather
than an expediency.

"However, where different areas of
the community call for different kinds
of educational planning and/or archi-
tectural solutions, there is little justi-
fication for reuse of school plans.
"Because construction methods, ma-
terials, and equipment improve and
change as rapidly as educational re-
quirements," he added, "you cannot
pull a 3-year plan off the shelf and
pretend to perform a service. Today's
enlightened school planning must
acknowledge this and recognize the
different alternatives available in
order to bring the finest educational
facilities to all people." U


Effect of labor and materials on construction costs


Trend in public school building costs index

170
S 1167-65 awrai 100


13D



40

70 -



147 '57 '67 o.n6 147 *57 '67 '68 Ut. '47 '57 '67 .08esW. '47 157 *'67 WaS.


%It lem MATERIALS
owr 147 31% 35% 36%


ON-SITE LABOR OFFSITE LABOR SCHOOL INLDING INDEX
42% 63% 64% 42% 61% 62% 3% 4n% s0%


The cost-of-building index is an analytical device developed for School
Management magazine as a measurement for rising school costs. The
years 1957-59 were taken as a base and assigned a value of 100.





SM41UL GcA.L-Z


IT,5 AUR~iG44- Fo- -(Ou YOUN&

FRP1HCT1C_10 OF 1C-41TheC1rUV_
5'r~ DO YOCU I4,-~VE.. -M PO~


Students

For the second straight year a Uni-
versity of Florida student has won a
$1,500 scholarship to spend the sum-
mer at Fontainebleau School of Fine
Arts in Paris, France.
Greg Uzdevenes, a fourth year archi-
tectural student from Gulf Breeze,
near Pensacola, won the scholarship
on the basis of a design for a hypo-
thetical educational center for Gaines-
ville.
The scholarship program is sponsored
annually by the Portland Cement As-
sociation for student architects in the
United States and Canada. Last year's
winner from the University was
Charles Zieger of North Miami
Beach.
Uzdevenes, one of eight winners in
the international contest, will leave
June 26 for a 10-week stay at the
Fontainebleau.


Advertisers'
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DIVISION W. R. GRACE CO.
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FLORIDA CATERPILLAR
DEALERS
15
FLORIDA GAS TRANSMISSION
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ELECTRIC UTILITIES
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ASSOCIATION
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FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT
DIVISION
18
PORTLAND CEMENT
ASSOCIATION
10
WALTON BUILDING
PRODUCTS, INC.
22
ZONOLITE DIVISION
W. R. GRACE CO.
19


22 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / April 1969


MR. ARCHITECT:

Our "Architectural Program"
was
DESIGNED FOR YOU


DADE Call today
443-4661 for assistance
in specification
BROWARD writing, product
525-7255 information, pricing,
availability, etc.


Ask for:
Nap Pinkston
Bob Corell
Charles Wiggins
in the Architectural
Department



W alton I building Products, I nc.
4237 Aurora Street
Coral Gables, Florida
P.O. Box 170-33134







AIA News Service

Trends

The Washington watch to determine Nixcn Administration stands and policies on housing, Model Cities, New Towns,
real estate taxes, and urban transit continues. Bureaucrats say they don't know vet the future of Kennedv-Johnson voli-
cies or what Nixon substitutes will be. HUD Secretary George Romney said the Johnson's Administration goal of six
million units for low and middle-income families in the next 10 years is "unrealistic." Later the former auto man altered
his tune somewhat and said he wants housing pushed by attracting the giants of American industry. Nixon budget in-
cludes $675 million for Model Cities and no money for new cities to enter program plus $1 billion for urban renewal,
$100 million for rent supplements.
Transportation Secretary John Volpe has cheered rapid transit fans by stating he supports a separate trust fund for transit
and realizes fares cannot support it. How much money Nixon can provide for transit is, however, questionable in view
of inflation and Vietnam.
AIA backed Model Cities, Urban Renewal, Rent Supplements, and a trust fund for transit.
Housing Outlook Cloudy: March housing starts showed a decline as did building permits, the Census Bureau reported.
Yearly adjusted rate is now running 1,539,000 units compared to January's rate of 1,878,000. And the decline will
continue, says the National Association of Home Builders, because of higher costs of mortgages.
Meanwhile, construction costs continue to climb faster than general price increases.
Associated General Contractors president Carl M. Halvorsen warns of "runaway inflation." Average wage increase of
13.4 per cent was noted in 50 settlements so far this year, he said.
AGC backs use of unskilled workers for some construction jobs, arbitration of wage disputes in government jobs.
AIA Board of Directors at April meeting endorsed bill by Florida Sen. Edward J. Gurney (R. Fla.) which would prohibit
product boycotts by unions. Introduction of new materials is vital to stabilizing house prices, says AIA.
HUD Undersecretary Floyd Hyde, former Fresno mayor, tells Georgia Tech students and architect Garland Reynolds,
AIA in Washington area for a look at Reston and Columbia he supports Model Cities. -
But Nixon economists warn cost could run to $27 billion just for first 150 cities that got planning money. Only nine
cities so far have received money to start building.

Man's Living Space

Protection of the ecology and a decent habitat for man continues to grow as bipartisan, multi-interest issue.
Conservative Daughters of The American Revolution strongly endorsed laws to obtain clean air and water, warned
Americans are "endangering the balance of nature" in heedless urban growth. DAR resolution came at national con-
vention in Washington, D.C., in April.
New Interior Secretary Walter 1. Hickel when asked about Democrats on his Advisory Board said, "I don't care if they're
asking for just blue sky; I'm ready to go after the money for them."
Nathaniel A. Owings, FAIA, and on the Hickel Advisory Board, said, "Politics don't matter when you're talking about
environment, what we'll see and breathe for years to come." AIA Committee on Urban Design suggests new national
policy on urbanization to halt haphazard growth.

Lumber Prices

Alarming lumber price increases are under scrutiny by Congress, lumber industry, home builders, AIA, and others. Prices
increased as much as 90 per cent in one year in some parts of the nation, witnesses told the Senate Banking Commit-
tee. Sen. John Sparkman (D. Ala.) has introduced National Timber Supply Act of 1968 which could give the National
Forest Service up to $300 million more a year to better manage the huge Federal timber holdings. Arthur W. Greeley,
associate Forest Service chief, estimated better roads alone could save half the 10 billion board feet lost each year because
of dying trees and lack of thinning.

Convention Peek

Watch for two unusual news breaks at the big 1969 AIA/RAIC Convention in Chicago, June 22-26. Students will
discuss what's bugging them about AIA, the design of cities and buildings and other relevant issues Sunday, June 22
at a special "dialogue." Meeting will place top AIA officials and student leaders in a rare public exchange of views.
An intriguing look at the links between environment -including buildings-and disease will be given by Montreal's
Dr. Hans Selye and Chicago's Dr. Bruno Betterheim. Both are world experts in this field. Dr. Selye will be the Purves
lecturer. Dr. Bettelheim will appear during Architect's Day at the Merchandize Mart Sunday, which draws many conven-
tioneers.




THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulatio
Publication at Miami, Fla.


n arst f F ri LibrarLo
a kn-. sv l Ie F a.
2 0


&YkLbANL


It's a what? Why, it's a "sound-
fountain" of course intended
to help ease one of man's envi-
ronmental problems.
This free-form arrangement of
water pipes, aluminum paddle-
wheels and musically-tuned vib-
rator fins shown in the artist's
conception above was designed
by Ohio State University archi-
tectural student Gerald D. Run-
kle. Designed to mask out with
splashing water and musical
chimes the undesirable back-
ground noises that plague so
many urban places, it won Mr.
Runkle this year's $5,000 Rey-
nolds Aluminum Prize for Archi-
tectural Students. The 2Z-year-
old collegian, who plans to do
architectural work abroad for the
Peace Corps after graduation this
June, says his design can be
made to any size and form, but
he believes it would be especially
suitable for small urban parks.




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