Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00175
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: January 1969
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00175
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text


The Florida Architec



Photos: Alexandre Georges

The basic conceptual considera-
tions which play a dominant role
in airport design today are three-
fold: passenger convenience; op-
erational capability; and expan-
sion for the future, at a market-
able first cost to the client. The
requirement at Jacksonville was
to design an on-line, medium hub
airport at a new site in northwest
Duval County, Florida, for a pro-
jected 800,000 enplaned passen-
gers in 1975.

The design of an airport is a
most demanding undertaking due
to the many fixed and variable
facets of functional operations
that must be identified and solved
simultaneously in order to achieve
a flexible solution which will pro-
vide passenger convenience, op-
erational capability and expansion
for the future at a marketable
first cost to the airport operator.

The solution is further compli-
cated by the rapidly changing
criteria in the air transport indus-
try as passenger growth continues
to outstrip projected growth and
make it appear too conservative.
In order to achieve maximum
passenger convenience, design
studies revealed that (1) walking
distance from car to plane should
be held under 1000', (2) pas-
sengers should only change levels
once, (3) aircraft should nose in
close to the concourse and utilize
enclosed jet loaders as the flexi-
ble A/C passage connection be-
tween aircraft and concourse at
the second level only.
Aircraft and parking is located as
close to the terminal as possible
and yet allows for future expan-
sion of all major functional ele-
ments: In addition, separate en-








planing and deplaning roadways
were designed at the first level
to minimize congestion around
the terminal and locate parking
between major roads so that ped-
estrians need not cross primary
roads to reach their cars. Also
provided is close-in short term
parking adjacent to ticketing and
bag claim lobbies, for additional
public convenience.
Interior of the terminal at second
level is so arranged that conces-
sionaires and other public facili-
ties provide maximum exposure
to the public. A first for newly
designed airport terminals is the
carpeting of all public spaces,
concourses, offices and conces-
sion areas. U

Reynolds, Smith & Hills
The Auchter Company
W. G. Suttles, Inc.
Tompkins & Beckwith, Inc.
Paxson Electric Co.

Ticket Lobt


January 1969 / Volume 19 / Number 1

Cover Feature












Broward County Chapter
Donald I. Singer Joseph T. Romano
Daytona Beach Chapter
David A. Leete-Carl Gerken
Florida Central Chapter
Jack McCandless James R. Dry
I. Blount Wagner
Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
Edward J. Seibert Frank Folsom Smith
Florida North Chapter
Charles F. Harrington-James D. McGinley, Jr.
Florida North Central Chapter
Mays Leroy Gray Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Chapter
Thomas H. Daniels Richard L. MacNeil
Florida South Chapter
Robert J. Boerema -George F. Reed
Walter S. Klements
Jacksonville Chapter
Albert L. Smith Herschel E. Shepard
Charles E. Patillo, III
Mid-Florida Chapter
Wythe David Sims, II Donald R. Hampton
Palm Beach Chapter
Howarth L. Lewis-Rudolph M. Arsenicos
John B. Marion
Director, Florida Region, American
Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA,
1600 N.W. LeJeune Rd., Miami

Executive Director, Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos,
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
H. Leslie Walker, President
706 Franklin St., Suite 1218
Tampa, Florida 33602
Harry E. Bums, Jr., Vice President/President
1113 Prudential Bldg.
Jacksonville, Florida 32207
James J. Jennewein, Secretary
Exchange National Bank Bldg., Suite 1020
Tampa, Florida 33602
Myrl J. Hanes, Treasurer
P. 0. Box 609
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Charles E. Patillo, III
Russell J. Minardi
Wythe D. Sims, II
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Helen Bronson / Circulation
Howard Doehla / Advertising

Journal of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association, a
Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published monthly at the Executive Office of
the Association, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.,
Coral Gables, Florida 33134. Telephone: 444-
5761 (area code 305). Circulation: distrib-
uted without charge of 4,669 registered archi-
tects, builders, contractors, designers, engineers
and members of allied fields throughout the
state of Florida-and to leading financial in-
stitutions, national architectural firms and

Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are wel-
comed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA
publications, provided full credit is given to
the author and to The FLORIDA ARCHI-
TECT for prior use . Controlled circula-
tion postage paid at Miami, Florida. Single
copies, 75 cents, subscription, members $2.00
per year, industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. February Roster Issue, $3.00 . Mc-
Murray Printers.

Jacksonville International Airport

FAAIA Organization Chart

Advertisers Index

In Memoriam

We Apologize

The Conservation of Human Resources
Robert L. Durham, FAIA


Toward Beautiful Bridges for Florida
A report


Paul Buisson

FAAIA Members


Director Florida Region
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA

Executive Committee
H. Leslie Walker .------. President
Harry E. Bums, Jr.
Pres. Designate-V.P.
James J. Jennewein --_- Secretary
Myrl J. Hanes -- ----Treasurer
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA
Dir. Fla. Reg.
Herbert R. Savage --- Past President

Joint Cooperative Council
A-E Joint Committee
Florida Professional Council
Past Presidents Advisory Council
Evaluation Committee
Publications Committee
FAA Foundation
Finance & Budget

Board of Directors

H. Leslie Walker

James J. Jennewein

Executive Director
Fotis N. Karousatos


Myri J. Hanes

President Designate
Vice President
Harry E. Bums, Jr.

Council of
Chairmen of Commissions

Commission on the
Professional Society
Thomas H. Daniels _-_Chairman
Howarth L. Lewis, Jr.
Vice Chairman

Commission on
Education and
James E. Garland ..-- Chairman
John E. Sweet Vice Chairman

Commission on
Professional Practice
Francis R. Walton --Chairman
Jack Moore-......--Vice Chairman

Commission on
Architectural Design
Louis F. Schneider Chairman
Charles Benda._-Vice Chairman

Commission on
Public Affairs
Jefferson N. Powell Chairman
Richard E.Pryor-Vice Chairman

Joseph T. Romano _Chairman
a. Chapter Affairs
b. Student Affairs
c. 'Membership

Rules and Regulations
Jack West_ Chairman
a. Credentials Committee
b. Resolutions Committee
c. Nominating Committee

Honors and Awards
John B. Marion .........-- Chairman
a. Craftsman Awards
b. Student Awards
c. Honor Awards

Regional Judiciary
J. Arthur Wohlberg. Chairman

Robert I. Boerema. Chairman

Practice Standards
Jack Moore ____ Chairman

Practice Aids
Ivan H. Smith, FAIA-Chairman

Construction Industry
Roy M. Pooley, Jr..-Chairman

Robert H. Levison, FAIA

John E. Sweet ..... Chairman

Professional Education
George F. Reed--- Chairman

Research and
Tollyn Twitchell -- Chairman

Government Affairs
Roy L. Ricks ......----- Chairman

Public Relations
John R. Howey .........Chairman

International Relations
Hilario F. Candela-......Chairman





In Memoriam

Mr. Hammond was President of the
American Institute of Architects dur-
ing the years 1928-1930. He was a fel-
low in the Institute and a honorary
member of the Royal Institute of Brit-
ish Architects. He practiced in Chi-
cago from 1907 and in Delray Beach
from 1952-1960. Mr. Hammond died
on January 6th, 1969. He was an
emeritus member of the Palm Beach

Edgar Wortman was a Charter mem-
ber and past President (1954) of the
Palm Beach Chapter and Past Presi-
dent of FAAIA. He was also a former
Lake Worth City Commissioner. Mr.
Wortman practiced Architecture in
Lake Worth for many years and was
Architect for the Palm Beach County
Board of Public Instruction from 1946
to 1962.

8 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

We apologize. Inadvertently the
credits for this project featured in
the December issue were omitted.
It will always be the policy of The
Florida Architect, whenever pos-
sible, to give proper credits to
persons whose work is presented
within its pages.

Thurston Hatcher & Associates, AIA



William Ziegler
Burton Goldberg

- I ~


The Conservation Of Human Resources

Robert L. Durham, FAIA
American Institute of Architects

Reprinted from the report of the
17th Annual Gulf States Regional
Convention, AIA. This speech
was directed at the convention

I can't help looking out at the window
to say what a wonderful place this
would have been to talk about the
river. Almost every chapter in every
state has a river and architects must
be concerned about the way we are
treating our resources. We will come
back to that subject, both you and I,
in the future as we attempt to talk to
other civic leaders in our society.

Now I want to make it very clear that
I'm not coming to you as a northerner
and telling you what to do about your
problems. I come from a pretty far
northwest fishing village with its own
problems and the remarks that I make
I would want to make to the 22,000
architects who are related to the
American Institute of Architects.

A recent issue of the Wall Street
Journal had a page one story of rele-
vance to this convention program.
The article-talked about problems of
social unrest and it quoted officials as
blaming these tensions on "a small
percentage of agitators found within
any criminal group." This was contra-
dicted by a leading sociologist who
said "the tensions and pressures aren't
the result of agitators but of real griev-
ances, boredom, the tough inhuman
attitude of administrators and the fact
that men are thrown together in a
small place that is delapidated and
unfit." Another expert said that
people so confined create a fantasy
world. They tend to build a social
structure of their own largely con-
cerned with power. This article was
entitled "Inside San Quentin." It
dealt with the problems of maintain-
ing order in prison.

The parallel is striking and perhaps it
is time that we realize that the ghetto
and prison are interchangeable terms.
Now I don't pretend to be an expert
on the gretto. I live in a middle class
neighborhood and I pass through an
aiea which is predominately ghetto
but I am much like the rest of our
membership in that we live only on
the fringes of it and are only im-
personally related to it.

We are beginning to realize that we're
going through a period of domestic
turmoil that has only two precedents
in American history. Our American
revolution in which we violently
overthrew our own government, and
the Civil War in which our ancestors
fought and died over the issue of
slavery and the concept of a single
united nation. The universal condi-
tion of America today is bewildering.
We are in a mess at home and abroad.

Architects may be able to do some-
thing as citizens but not as design
professionals. As both, however, we
have an immediate duty to do some-
thing about the mess at home. Before
we can do much, we must be able to
understand it.

What is the black city? Is it the result
of a runaway negro birthrate? Was it
caused by the destructive effect of the
automobile on city planning? Is it the
environmental fruit of foreign ideolo-
gies? The product of agitators? You
and I can discard these concepts one
by one. The negro birth rate is higher
but not much higher. There are
simply more people in sheer numbers
and negro citizens have been jammed
into the center of the old city through
condemnations, relocations and real
estate pressures.

It's always tempting to lay some
blame on the automobile. The people
who built it and those who planned
roads for it have much to answer for
in our country. But this has not
created segregation.

It is time for all of us, I believe, to rid
ourselves of convenient fantacies
about agitators who are foreign
boogey men. It is time we faced the

As Americans we have much of which
to be proud. We also have much of
which to be ashamed. The white com-
munity built the ghetto. We own it,
we maintain it-after fashion-and
wc condone it by lack of action and
lack of leadership and by all sorts of

deceptions, deliberate and unconsci-
ous, we have kept it and its occupants
where they are today.

It is pertinent to recall the words of
the south's great writer, William
Faulkner, who said that the white
man has committed the sin of slavery
and that God has put a curse on him.
The curse he said was that the white
man thereafter could only rise to an
extent that he helps the negro to rise
with him.

Now we are dealing with blunt words
today because the times seem to de-
mand them. How are we to rise again
as a nation? How are we to help our
cities and the people within them to
rise? What can architects do? Now
we can't cure poverty? Architecture
does not make occupants wise or
better educated.

We know, however, by personal ob-
servation and experience that the way
in which spaces are designed can
evoke surprise, delight or even awe.
We also know that the way our rooms
and streets fit around us can create
despair, loneliness and frustration.
We're convinced of this and we are
told by a study of the Watts riot in
Los Angeles that one of the causes
was found to be the isolation from
places of employment. Ghetto resi-
dents without cars resentfully watched
the affluent ziping by on the freeway.
They, however, had to travel for hours
on buses to get to and from their jobs.

This sounds like planning to me or
lack of it. Architects know that we
can heighten learning by manipulat-
ing and controlling atmosphere, light,
sound and flexibility of space. But we
also know that the finest building is
no substitute for a sound curriculum,
good books and an expert teacher. We
also know that while America is the
most affluent nation in the world it
has the highest infant mortality rate
of any civilized country. And it is one
of the few civilized nations of the
western world to have wide spread

10 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / lanuarv 1969

city slums. Now this sounds like our
area of leadership.

What can architects do?

First, we must exercise our rights and
privileges as citizens to give leader-
ship in a democratic society. Our de-
sign talents will mean nothing if they
are not applied to social goals arrived
at through political action and con-
scnsus. And this, of course, is the key
to community action. As architects,
we can be of special help to our com-
munities in telling them how planning
and design and building skills can be
brought to bear upon social problems.
We can argue for use of model city
projects demonstration grants, trans-
portation studies and other helpful
programs that we now pay for through
our taxes. We can argue for better
building codes and for better zoning
ordinances and we can attempt to
reduce building costs that will permit
construction of new towns and vil-
lages not only outside our cities but
within the cities. We can point out
that effective land use planning, more
enlightened tax laws, new zoning ordi-
nances can be used for social as well
as for economic purposes.

Used as levers, taxes can make it eco-
nomically impossible for owners to let
slum properties run down. They can
reshape ghetto areas for those who
wish to stay in the ghetto, let others
get out and lure some of the affluent
back to the city. For in truth, we can
demonstrate that highways need not
slash through out cities and tear them
apart. Some architects have actually
stopped the progress of freeways cold
in their tracks until the city had time
to reassess the impact of highways on
city growth.

The inner disciplinary design team
concept conceived by Archibald
Rogers of the Baltimore chapter was
recently endorsed by Transportation
Secretary Boyd who has been telling
engineers that they better get up to it
and start understanding the new con-
cept. This concept placed highway

design in the hands of a team con-
sisting of architects, engineers, social
scientists, housing experts and other
specialists who pool their knowledge
for the good of the city. As Archibald
Rogers demonstrated, the city also
can set up a decision making team
capable of receiving the multi-disci-
plinary design scheme. It can be a
review committee or a local develop-
ment corporation. The important
thing is that it can bring together the
representatives of agencies concerned
with roads, housing, schools, parks and
urban renewal programs. It also in-
cludes private interests, political, eco-
nomic and social. This makes it pos-
sible for the first time for programs
long held in isolation from one an-
other to be blended together so that
neighborhoods can be redeveloped in-

The result of such a procedure may be
a unique linear development project
in a blighted area. Housing, offices,
schools and parks built over and
wrapped around freeways, where ap-
propriate, might be the result. Roads
may wind through tunnels under or
soar over other facilities. The elements
that make up city life can be fitted
together into a single unified and
socially oriented design.

And, by the way, the architect's fee
foi one of the first of these is some-
thing near 88 million dollars. It is a
curious thing that the 20th century
has given us wonderful new inventions
to improve communication and at the
same time make meaningful com-
munication less likely. This applies to
the bureaucrats who in isolation from
one another now hand down money
for large single purpose public works
projects and apparently spend most of
their time competing against each
other from a bureauocratic standpoint.

It also applies to the professionals and
specialists who plan, design and build.
At the present time, I happen to be
on a highway advisory team trying to
select the route of a freeway through
Seattle. And it has been very.fasci-

nating to discover how much there is
to learn from each other.

The sociologist member of our team
brought the hair of the highway engi-
neers standing straight on end when
he suddenly said, after they were talk-
ing about the cost benefit per mile,
"Well, let's see, how many divorces
per mile do you think is a reasonable
cost for this freeway?" After they
recovered a little bit, he said, "You
know you can't run a freeway right
through a community without affect-
ing family life and out of this there
are going to be some casualties. Now
you fellows are pretty smart. You are
spending millions of dollars, how
many divorces per mile do you think
is a reasonable cost?"

This sort of relationship between the
economist, the sociologist, the exolo-
gist and many others in the beginning
of a new quality of team leadership
that will become a standard part of
architecture in our future years. Be-
cause this implies that the frontiers of
our new architecture lie not only in
new building systems, but in the suc-
cessful application of design to social
and economic needs.

It is possible that the great innovators
of architecture in our time will not be
form givers at all, as much as we ad-
mire them. But rather, those who in-
vent political and procedural tech-
niques for making effective design pos-
sible at all. As architects we can and
we must be of great help to our com-
munities. By creating new towns in
the decrepit sections of our cities; by
planning new housing; businesses, fac-
tories, schools, parks and transporta-
tion systems as single design projects,
we can take manageable bites at the
environmental problem.

We cannot afford to wait for new
technology to come along and solve
our problems, as Engineering News
Record said recently, "It's time we
ended the prevalent myth that some
technological magic can cut the cost
Continued Page 12 -

Continued from Page 11
of housing to a rent that the poor can
afford." Edgar F. Kaiser, chairman of
the President's committee on Urban
Housing says, "If we could cut the
construction cost of a housing unit in
half." and we can't, "we would be
reducing the rent by merely 12 to 15
per cent because of all the other costs,
including land, operation and main-

How, then, can we solve these prob-
lems? The answer, I think, is clear.
Political consensus; the establishment
of clear social goals; the creation of
community review committees or cor-
porations to commission and pay for
large multi-purpose civic projects; the
full employment of design talents to
redesign our cities on a comprehensive
basis with short range and long range
project goals; and the guts and deter-
mination to see it all through.

What will it cost? Well, no doubt,
billions. But, then, we spend billions
on cosmetics, chewing gum, beer, cars
and the money for those things is
generated and earned in the same
troubled cities. Can we afford the
cost if we can spend 30 billion dollars
a year to make the streets safe in Souh
Vietnam? Is it a lesser important in-
vestment to make the streets safe in
south Chicago or the streets of

As the president of the Institute with
about 52 days yet to go, I tend these
days to think of our profession very
much as I do about our country. We
are proud of it and yet there is so
much to change. I'm impressed by its
vision but impatient at its blindness,
and yet I feel that, like my country,
my profession is coming to grips with
real problems, losing its vanity and
gaining judgment.

If architects ever lived in ivory towers
they do not now. Our national Insti-
tute fights valiantly in congress for sen-
sible legislation affecting man-made
environments. Our chapters labor and
sweat in their towns and cities to help
community leaders plan and redevelop
their run-down physical plants. Some
chapters, and a growing number of
individual architects, work in the
ghetto supplying a service unique to
our profession, ready to do a design
study for a neighborhood.

This is not "Lady Bountiful" arriving
with a basket of gifts for the poor but
a sincere effort to participate in neigh-
borhood improvement. Such work,
patterned frankly after the neighbor-
hood legal service concept, is being

conducted by the architects renewal
committee for Harlem; by Urban
Planning Aid, Inc. of Boston; by the
Newark Community Union project;
by the AIA and University of Cali-
fornia extension program in San Fran-
cisco and also Oakland and by the
Hampton Foundation in Virginia,
and by Saul Klibanow, AIA of the
Southwest Chicago C o mm u n it y
Council, to name a few.

We are also evolving an ambitious
design assistance program in which
professional teams are going into com-
munities at their request to stimulate
them to seek design services as a vital
part of the solution.

Now, personally, I think it's no longer
adequate to let the public run their
finger down the lists of architectural
firms in the yellow pages trying to
seek an architect who will accept a
residence for design. It would be in-
teresting for me to ask right now
among you assembled here how many
of you will accept the design of a
$12,000 residence when you get a
telephone call. Even fewer of us-
including me-will accept a remodel-
ing project on a residence anywhere,
ghetto or suburb. It is our ambition
and purpose ultimately to offer pro-
fessional design service to everyone in
need in the same way as our country
is dedicated to making medical service
available to the sick. Can we not
charge according to a capacity to pay
or offer our services on some basis-
perhaps yet undiscovered without
charge to those who cannot pay?

The real answer has to do with the
quality of environment in which you
and I have to live. The question I
must answer personally, "Am I doing
all I can as an architect?" Are we do-
ing all we can as a profession? We can
go further and bring under-educated,
under-privileged persons into our pro-
fession and strengthen society and our
profession in one action.

For example, we are putting Institute
money into a technicians' training
program and have established curricu-
lums for junior colleges saying that
the profession must have more office
help and we must have a balance be-
tween six year architects and office
technicians in industrial age. We need
a large force of architectural techni-
cians very badly and we'll need them
with growing urgency as time goes on.
We're going to need many more
architects as well if we have to re-
build an entirely new America. But at
the present time, 40 per cent of our
graduates are moving into industry

Resources / continued

instead of into the profession. We
must broaden technician training.
This cannot be done only in Wash-
ington, D. C. It has to be done at a
community level and in AIA chapters
like those represented in the Gulf
States Region. We must create the
courses and recruit the people to take
them. We've got to get personal about
it. That's the key to many of our
problems. It's absurd for a nation to
be lavishly rich and grindingly poor at
the same time, to be short of workers
in our profession (and we all admit
that we are) and yet neglect a vast
reservoir of manpower, to talk of jus-
tice abroad and then fail to provide
it at home. Right now we are doing a
negro church. The church board said
in a recent meeting, "Now, Bob, the
next time we build a church, we want
you to have more negro labor on this
jcb than we had the last time." Well,
I said, "Do you want it to cost more
money?" They almost threw me out,
but they were patient and asked,
"Why should it cost more money?"
And my answer was, "If I write into
the specifications that a certain per-
centage of the labor on this job has to
be colored, the contractor who bids
that job will have to charge you more
money because there aren't that many
building technicians in the city of
Seattle. There's one electrician and
two pasterers," and so forth.

Now, the point is though I have never
done anything about this and yet I
know the president of the carpenter's
union and the pasterer's union.

In closing, I would add just this one
thought: our nation was born out of
oppression and bought in blood. For
what reason? To realize a dream; to
reconcile two somewhat contradictory
ideals-liberty and union. They are
observe sides of the American coin
and if you'll examine the coin you'll
find the final distillation of our
dream. It is expressed in three words
"E Pluribus Unum"-out of many
one. If we accept our heritage this
ideal that our forefathers died for,
we'll know what to do and we'll know
we must do it quickly. M

12 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

Water heating methods
have come a long way.
Modern gas water heat-
ing now provides more
hot water at a lower cost.
Significant savings -
no matter how large or
small the installation.
And the recovery rate is I
twice as fast as electric!
Do you have the latest s
facts on today's gas



water heating systems?
They're available from
your local gas utility.
Check the Yellow Pages.
For a free 11 x14 print
of the 1894 water heater/
stove, send your name
and address to: Patent,
Advertising Department,
Florida Gas Co., Post
Office Box 44, Winter
Park, Florida 32789.

Winter Park. Florida

-hi ka-
OWNER MORGAN THOMAS of the deluxe ge
52-unit total-electric Aegean Sands Motel on
Clearwater Beach says: "I chose year-round
electric air conditioning because it is so well suited
to our Florida climate. Clean, quiet, efficient
air conditioning is a must for our type of operation.
We even use the reverse-cycle principle to heat
our swimming pool to a comfortable 80 degrees
during the winter months."

Flameless Electric Reve

the key to a better-busi

Is there really a close relationship between comfort
and profit? Ask the Florida businessmen who've seen
the good results of electric reverse-cycle air con-
ditioning. They'll tell you that there's more involved
than comfort . because the efficiency of air con-
ditioning the flameless electric reverse-cycle way
shows up in the balance sheets, too.
Electric reverse-cycle air conditioning is easy to
install, economical to maintain and operate. One
compact system does both the heating and the cool-


City invites customers to shop in comfort.
Jimmie Hintz, Store Manager, finds electric year-
round air conditioning the perfect answer for
cooling in summer and warming in winter. "Since
the same unit handles both heating and cooling
functions, it saves valuable space," says Mr. Hintz.

14 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

"'1 FOUND THAT ELECTRIC reverse-cycle
air conditioning and heating offered advantages
not matched by competitive systems," says Albert
Miles, of the new 100-unit Holiday Inn in Plant
City. "The electric system offers guests individual
temperature control. Guests don't complain of
being too hot or too cool. From the Inn Keeper's
point of view, electric air conditioning and heating is
economical and requires no seasonal maintenance.
In addition, our restaurant and lounge is heated
and cooled electrically. And we have a Total-Electric
kitchen, including electric water heating which,
by the way, has definitely proved to cost less to
operate than another system we had considered."

-Cycle Air Conditioning:

s climate all year round!

ing jobs, saves valuable space. Clean, and safe... it
provides year-round comfort. Requires no flues. Saves
on cleaning and redecorating.
Now that electric reverse-cycle air conditioning is
growing fast in popularity, mass production is bring-
ing lower prices. Many models, sizes and styles are
available. Get the full story from your electric utility
company. No obligation. We just want every Florida
businessman to know the facts.

Florida's Electric Companies... Taxpaying, Investor-Owned


J R HANDBAGS of Florida, Inc., earned
the Award of Merit for Electrical Excellence for its
well-designed facilities in Hialeah, which apply
j *the Total-Electric concept throughout factory and
1%! *offices including electric reverse-cycle
air conditioning. Says Founder Julius Resnick,
"Air conditioning in our factory has not only
increased our production and profit, but has
decreased absenteeism among our employees."
Gene Dennis, the firm's Secretary, concludes,
"In Florida. electric air conditioning is a
MUST for any manufacturing plant"

* 1.

Commercial & Residential Interiors



245 Riverside Ave., Jacksonville, Fla.

Telephone 904/354-5189

Interior Design Consultants for the New Jacksonville

International Airport

Project Designer: Charles N. Suttles, NSID

2160 McCoys Boulevard
Jacksonville,- Florida
* Phone 904 / 353-7401





for the

Electrical Contractor
for the

TELEPHONE 904/398-1101




Construction of the Jacksonville
International Airport by


Auchter Company

P. O. Box 1193
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
(904) 355-3536



Terrazzo Floors


m Ahomehmidthg L

The use of terrazzo gives distinction to any
.. home.
RfiNIT Like the use of herbs in cookery, there
R ITT follows a dramatic improvement with ter-
Srazzo floors. They enhance the value of a
Terrazzo is a custom floor with you as
the designer. Through the variation of size
W HITV and proportion of the many different col-
W HIT ored marble chips and with Trinity White
PounTA CEMT in its original state or tinted, any design can
be effected. The upkeep is minimum.
Terrazzo was used in the family room.
And in the kitchen as shown above.
18 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

Write for color booklet showing 24
popular terrazzo samples.


P.O. Box 324, Dallas, Texas 75221
Offices: Houston Tampa Miami Chattanooga Chicago
Fort Wayne. Kansas City, Kan. Fredonia, Kan.. Los Angeles

-5, ^ s

V < ~ -
". '0 q ^ V^



That old gasser about fuel oil causing air pollution has been laughed right
out of Miami Beach.
Somebody tried three years ago to prohibit use of economical fuel oil in
Miami Beach. Tests showed no pollution-so the "somebody" warned of
pollution "in the future." Recently, they tried to prohibit it again. A series
of tests by the Pollution Control Board again established no pollution from
fuel oil. In fact, the air is just about the cleanest in America. Only two cities
measure lower-and that is because they have no salt solubles.
So don't listen to that old bull that you'd better lay off oil or face even-
tual forced conversion.
Oil has been, is, and will be the most efficient, safe, dependable, clean,
and by far the most economical fuel.

Oil-powered equipment and fuel oil for all uses


Preservation Workshop

It was my privilege to participate re-
rentlv in _wnr rQpnn no nrpeemnf,.-,n
at the University of-Florida in which
your organization shared the sponsor-
The purpose of this letter is not only
to commend your interest in the sub-
ject and program but to suggest that
it be used as a basis for further ex-
ploration of the subject in later work-
shops. Among the many groups and
audiences to whom I have been ex-
posed on numerous speaking engage-
ments, few have measured up to the
receptiveness demonstrated by this
group of participants. I refer primarily
to the students who attended. It is
obvious that the faculty of the College
of Architecture at the University of
Florida have been successful in indoc-
trinating a group of potential young
~f6YVitnii'Wfis if (e 'fype O iconcernii
for the total environment which is far
more total in concept than usually
found at the other schools of archi-
tecture where I have lectured. It was
indeed a pleasure to find students who
accept preservation problems as equal-
ly important among other concerns
for the environment instead of the
afterthought or expedient category to
which it is usually relegated in profes-
sional training. In my considered
opinion, this is a forward looking atti-
* tude which should not go unnoted
and one which should be encouraged.

Williai F. T Tirtagh
Keeper of the National Register

Public Service

The quotation on the back cover of
A1ne Avumflpf o&, e ipaMlv,. Of
would commend elected public service
to all architects. The responsibilities
are awesome and the effort time con-
suming, however the rewards of pro-
fessional and personal satisfaction are
Very truly yours,
Cotms-sury Cutfrsa .... a
Commissioner, City of Clearwater

Professional Practice

This office is in the middle of a situ-
ation which has an increasing number
of parallels and perils for our profes-
Involved is a considerable area of roof
insulation, roofing and related water
damage, resulting from delamination
H?";'ev! "u1.o! 11.11iuuCt; rAiJAl i cdmf
insulation board, over a near flat roof,
at an apparent uplift force of less than
At the time of specification, and for
several years thereafter, the manufac-
turer positively claimed an uplift value
of 60# per sq. ft. (until recently,
when they dropped any catalog uplift
claim). They further reiterated this
claim and accepted responsibility for
it on direct query before acceptance of
the roofing system specification, but
refused to make any definite state-
ment about the installation or accept
any responsibility when failure occur-
Our opinion and that of other knowl-
ed ThnbliP npennl i- definitfp n matpriil
failure as opposed to installation de-
The owner's insurance company has
joined us into a suit directed first at
the roofing contractor, the roofing
manufacturer, and the insulation man-
ufacturer, in an apparent attempt to
spread the load as wide as possible.
Manufacturer's conclusions as to up-
lift values, apparently resulted, at least
in part, from tests conducted by Fac-
tory Mutuals Insurance testing labora-
tory, on 5' x 9' panels clamped on all
four sides and apparently without a
LU 1 .iiij 1iyLappare.ICttIwly tioutj2a
oratories test procedure (Bulletin # 52)
is similar, on 10' x 10' clamped panels.
These procedures have been accepted
as valid for some years, and it is easy
for all to miss the fact that if all roof
areas were battened down at 5' x 9' or
10' x 10' intervals, skin tension values
taim integrity of most roofing systems
over insulation at a much higher up-
lift force than normal job conditions.
The manufacturer of the product in
question here is a big one, and I must
presume that many millions of dollars
ride on the question of whether the
nrnAirf o ;.1C Ap^ /ilnF Ale-, n,,ac
_..-A.. _. "^ ".. 3.-J -1^'^'-- 71 V.. .
tione again fire is whlhehr ({1) the
designer must test each and every
product he uses, personally (an impos-
sible position) or (2) be able to rely
on the positively stated claims of es-
tablished manufacturers and suppliers,
or reputable testing, laboratories.
This may become one of the "classic"
cases. There is a similar one in the
Miami area involving an engineer,
enough differences to require separate

I am as adverse as anyone to unfavor-
able exposure, but feel that these mat-
ters need an open forum: (1) The
industry wide and supported research
and development program that has
been so difficult to get going, (not
just "Underwriter's," of BU. Stand-
ards), (2) More and better reporting
in professional journals such as AIA
Journal and The Florida Architect, of
well as major design and construction
achievements and (3) more task force
gathering an dissemination of infor-
mation on current procedures, sys-
tems, prices, and the like, (4) Com-
pilation (and dissemination where use-
ful), of legal case data, on state and
national levels.
It is my opinion that national & re-
gional legal counsel might usefully
participate in certain critical suits of
this nature as an observer, and in
some cases as a "friend of the court"
ot guard against an increasing number
of decisions which are invidiously un-
favorable to the design professions.
I will appreciate (1) information
which AIA, or individuals may have
'aiuF simfilarF experiences, T) sucii6
observation or participation that FA &
AIA deem advisable, (3) definition of
better programs in FA & AIA for such
matters, particularly industry wide re-
search, than now exist.
Robert E. Hansen, F.A.I.A.
P.S. Our case is set for trial February
15, 1969. We may be dismissed,
but the problem remains so cri-
tical, profession wide, that a def-
initive hearing may be preferable
from that point of view.
It also seems important to air the
point of an insurance company
damning professionals for accept-
ing test procedures initiated in
their own family. Some years ago,
when I tried to interest the Un-
derwriters in joining an industry
wide bui cine research Droaram.
stated, "The Underwriter's wrote
the building code, and will
change it when they think it

Code Resolution
Cad& Rsanlutinn
As a member of a local contractor's
examining board whose duties are
duplicated numerous times in this
area, and as one who has encountered
numerous local variations on the
"South Florida building code," I am
certain the recent regional convention
was in grave error when it passed a
resolution which, without better al-
ternative proposal, dilutes any serious
building code requirements for Flor-

20 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

The rapidly increasing complexity and
costliness of architectural practice and
building construction should not be
complicated by the backwardness of
the organization we look to for assist-
ance in reaching those important goals
which only united action can gain for
the construction industry.
It seems also pertinent to repeat that
until the AIA can interest the bankers,
builders, underwriters, manufacturers,
government and ourselves in a united
building research program, we will not
be able to keep abreast of new tech-
nology and old problems in and out
of the building codes.
Certainly one town, one region, one
architect cannot afford the research
needed to either write an up to date
building code or keep the profession
out of the fire dance imposed by un-
realistic court decisions.
Robert E. Hansen, F.A.I.A.
Challenge to Change
This is in reference to the editorial in
the September 1968 issue of the Flor-
ida Architect entitled "Challenge to
The initial reaction was that this ar-
ticle was just an imprudent and ill-
advised bit of writing based on such
lack of depth that by its very shallow-
ness it would be too innocuous to
cause further concern.
However, there appear to be certain
forces at work that may, because of
their dedication born of selfish desires,
, enlist the interest of politically moti-
vated and dissident minorities to such
an extent that serious divisive acts
may take place before group apathy
and/or unawareness can be overcome.
To avoid this, the Board of Directors
of the Florida Association should
promptly review all the facts devel-
oped to date and apprise their mem-
bership at large their findings and
As Jack Moore so aptly put in in his
response to the referenced editorial as
published in the November 1968 issue
of the Florida Architect, the Associa-
tion does need to evaluate the effec-
tiveness of our educational system as
it affects our profession in this age of
great change.
This evaluation, if done in depth, will
unquestionably put to rest this bit of
editorial shallowness and provide the
profession with a better insight to
ways in which the profession may bet-
ter assist the universities in our state
in the development of architects that
will be prepared to meet the "Chal-
lenge of Crange" in our fast moving

William D. Kemp
Kemp, Bunch and Jackson, Architects

As a recent graduate of the University
of Florida, (April '67) I feel com-
pelled to write this letter in response
to your September editorial "Chal-
lenge to Change", in the FLORIDA
Todays architect is a man of many
talents, his responsibilities are enor-
mous and his participation in life and
community is the reason for his being.
However, and unfortunately, he does
not acquire these traits over-night nor
does he acquire all of them from other
I seriously doubt if a fledgling archi-
tectural student can achieve the
"many additional sources of culture
in the fields of art, music and sci-
ence", in a metropolitan community.
The University of Florida by its very
existence provides all of these cultural
endeavors. But even more important
to the development of these students
in the arts, are their participation in
the fields of human development and
human contacts which large metro-
polia can not provide for lack of time
and interest.
I will be the first to agree that the
"practical aspects of architecture" is
one of the prime goals of architectural
education, but cramming all 300 or
so architectural students into a metro-
politan community is not the answer.
The complaint that Gainesville does
not offer the working opportunities
because of its size is not valid-even
Miami and Jacksonville couldn't
handle that number of novices.
Those students who seek employment
between terms are forced to leave the
University-but this is healthy, not
harmful. By leaving for awhile they
have the opportunity to see different
cities, work for different employers
and establish an architectural philos-
ophy of their own based on varied
experiences, all they have to do is
make the effort.
You hint in the editorial that better
qualified University personnel can be
obtained if the School was relocated
in a metropolitan area. I have to take
exception to this statement by its in-
nuendo. After graduation I spent
some time in the North, associated
with graduates from all of the major
institutions, located in and out of
metropolia, and I can honestly and
modestly say that my education was
as good or superior to any of them.
This I attribute to the personnel at
the University of Florida.
In closing, I would like to say I think
as members of the Florida Association
of the American Institute of Archi-
tects it is our responsibility and obli-
gation to support and contribute to
our state's architectural education. Of
course it can be improved, everything
can; but relocating it for the sake of
satisfying personal or political reasons
is both thoughtless and short-sighted.
Sincerely yours,
Jeffery A. Ornstein, A.I.A.


New Board Member

Miamian James E. Garland has been
appointed a member of the Florida
State Board of Architecture. Garland
is a partner in the firm of Connell,
Pierce, Garland and Friedman. He
studied architecture and later taught
the subject at the University of Flor-

Executive Director,
Miami Masonry Guild

Rodney R. Antonsen, former presi-
dent of the Masonry Contractors of
Minneapolis and former director of
the Masonry Contractors Association
of America, has been appointed Exec-
utive Director of the Miami Masonry
Antonsen, who has been associated
with the masonry industry for more
than 25 years, will have his offices at
46 N. E. 6th Street, Miami, head-
quarters of the Miami Masonry Guild,
The Guild was organized recently to
act as a clearing house for trade and
technical information of interest to
masonry contractors and suppliers.



Bridges for

Florida -

a report

The Bridge Beautification Committee
has prepared this report after holding
several meetings to exchange ideas on
making our Florida bridges more at-

The committee represents a cross-sec-
tion of Engineers and Architects, in
private practice, government service
and the contracting industry.
We all realize that aesthetic values
should have a high priority in our
highway structures. However, as indi-
vidual tastes can vary greatly, espe-
cially in aesthetics, it appears that
there cannot be a set criteria as far as
aesthetics are concerned. As we ex-
changed ideas we found that we all
agree on the following set of rules:

(a) The rule of good order-order of
systems and order of direction of
lines. For bridges, order of sys-
tems means to choose a beam,
truss or a frame but never mix
(b) The laws of good proportion be-
tween length and height, be-
tween span clearance and depth.

(c) We should aspire to simplicity of
structure and restrict ourselves to
few and simple elements. We
should avoid the use of ginger-
bread or ornamental designs.
(d) The structure must be shaped in
a way to allow easy fabrication or
construction. This means that
the material to be used will have
an influence on the design.
(e) The design must also consider
economy as one of its main aims.
We feel that the greatest emphasis
should be placed on our Urban Ex-
pressway System. In our cities, the
highway structures are a dominant fea-
ture from many view points. How
they are designed will affect their
communities for many years.
The recommendations of the commit-
tee are as follows:

(1) Spans should be as long as is
commensurate with reasonable
economy. This will reduce the
number of piers and allow us to
design a more slender bridge;
i.e., seven spans at 100 feet arc
preferred to ten spans at 70

(2) Uniform depth girders are pre-
ferred, and the fascia girders
should always be the same

22 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

depth. This will offer clean

(3) The exterior girders should be
curved to fit curve of roadway in
particular for short radii. For
the longer radius the exterior
girder, may be straight and
should be set in far enough to
allow a minimum of one foot
between the outside face of
girder and bridge coping.

(5) Piers should be designed to
eliminate massiveness, and the
number and size of columns
should be kept to a minimum
with greater use of single shaft
piers and tee piers. Columns
should be designed with spiral
reinforcement to reduce their
size and to avoid a forest of

(6) Viaducts within cities crossing
shopping areas with its many
pedestrian activities should pro-
vide as much head-room as pos-
sible, to provide a more open
feeling. In areas of long, wide
viaduct, vertical clearances of
twenty to twenty-five feet pre-
sent a lighter, more open and
more attractive over-all effect on
adjacent and underneath areas;
such clearances do not substan-
tially increase the cost of struc-
tures, and should be considered
where appropriate.

(7) For the long multi-span bridges
for elevated highways the inter-
mediate piers present the main
aesthetic problem. Pier caps
should be buried in the super-
structure by moving the cap-
ping beam upward, so that its
depth partially disappears. The
number and distance between
support spacing increased.

(8) Bridge drainage systems are to
be buried and should not be
visible in profile.

(9) Steel fascia girders should be
freed of transverse and longi-
tudinal stiffeners.
(10) The rubbing of concrete should
be eliminated and greater con-
trol placed on the form work.
This method has been used in
the building industry by archit-
tects with much success. Our
present specification governing
the quality of the form work
would have to be revised if this
technique is adopted.

(11) The face of retaining walls
should receive special architec-
tural treatment. The top of the
walls should be a smooth line
and not a series of short tan-

(12) The bridge railing recommend-
ed is shown on drawing number

(13) The type of fence used at
bridge ends should be made
more attractive, and special de-
sign consideration given to the
slope protection at bridge ends.

(14) Old abandoned or replaced
highway structures should be re-
moved. If not removed prompt-
ly, such structures eventually
become eyesores due to im-
proper maintenance. Although
we use abandoned bridges for
fishing piers, they, too, even-
tually become eyesores due to
neglect. We should construct
attractive fishing piers where
required in lieu of utilizing old
bridges for fishing.

(15) It is our opinion that the archi-
tectural profession can contrib-
ute substantially in our objec-
tive of making highway struc-
tures attractive and harmonious
with their surroundings. A Reg-
istered Architect should be in-
volved in the conceptual de-
velopmfent of a project as well
as in the final plan preparation.
Contracts for consulting serv-
ices should provide for the par-
ticipation of an architect in the
project, work done within the
Florida State Road Department
should utilize the services of a
consulting architect on projects
where the impact of the aesthet-
thctics of structures warrants
particular consideration.

The basic construction material for
Florida bridges should remain as is
(precast, prestressed concrete mem-
bers). Most of our recommendations
can be achieved by utilizing prestres-
sed concrete, because economics must
always be a prime consideration as
modifications are considered.

If we consider the development of
bridge design from an aesthetical
point of view, we find a preference for
slender structures supported by slend-
er piers or columns, with long lines,
either straight or in smooth curves.
We avoid heavy, clumsy, structures
with large supporting columns. Bridge
designs must be governed by valid

rules for simple order and good pro,

At the present time, the State Road
Department is undertaking the design
of a large expressway project through
one of our large metropolitan areas
(1-4 in St. Petersburg). It is our hope
and desire that our recommendation
be implemented in this project. U

Editor's Note:
The Bridge Beautification Committee was
created at the request of the FAAIA and
represented by Harry E. Burns, Jr. AIA
and Earl M. Starnes, AIA, along with
other professional and trade organizations


AIA-CEC Conference
Set for Washington
Senators, Congressmen, Federal agen-
cy officials, and the presidents of the
Consulting Engineers Council/U.S,
and The American Institute of Archi-
tects will headline a national AIA-
CEC Public Affairs Conference sched-
uled for March 18-20, 1969, at the
Mayflower Hotel in Washington,
D.C. More than 500 architects and
engineers are expected to attend the
conference which, will also include
visits and appointments with Con-
gressmen on Capitol Hill on March
20. Architects and engineers from
throughout the U.S. are urged to at-
tend and participate in this second
annual CEC-AIA conference designed
to focus on legislative matters of in-
teerst to A-E's.
Registration will be from 3 to 8 p.m.,
March 18, at the Mayflower Hotel.
That evening from 7 to 9 p.m. there
will be a reception at the Smithsonian
Museum of Science and Technology.
Information concerning advance regis-
tration and details about the confer-
ence are available through: Larry
Spiller, Assistant Director, CEC, 1155
15th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20005, and Philip Hutchinson, Gov-
ernmental Affairs Director for AIA, at
1735 New York Avenue, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Key topics to be discussed following
remarks by AIA President George E.
Kassabaum, FAIA, and CEC Presi-
dent John G. Reuter are: union con-
trol of plans and specs, revamping
Federal procurement procedures, new
towns and other key legislative issues
of interest to the profession, A-E's and
equal opportunity regulations, the
Federal Government as a client, the
budget and its impact on construc-
tion, grant-in-aid discussions and in-
fluencing legislation.

FAAIA Challenges Clay County
The Florida Association of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects has filed
suit against the Clay County Commis-
sion because the Commission had
called for competitive bids from ar-
chitects on the proposed courthouse-
jail complex.
The authority under which the Clay
County Commission acted was Chap-
ter 57-990, Laws of Florida, as amend-
ed by Chapter 61-884, Laws of Flor-
ida, which provides that the Board of
County Commissioners in all counties
in the State having a population of
not less than 19,200 and not more
than 20,000, according to the last
official statewide census, is authorized
to enter into and make contracts for

the purchase of materials, supplies,
and services without requiring com-
petitive bidding thereon, providing
that the amount to be paid therefore
shall not exceed $1,000.
In the complaint the Association filed,
it is asking the Court for a declaration
of rights under the statute explained
in the preceding paragraph. The
Court is being asked to interpret the
term "services" as it is used in the
statute. We thereby hope to prove
that, under the existing case law in
Florida, this term should not include
"professional services." The complaint
also attacks the constitutionality of
the statute on the grounds that it is
an invalid attempt to enact a local
act, commonly referred to as a popu-
lation act.
The Association complaint was filed
on January 9, 1968 and the defend-
ants have 20 days in which to answer
the suit.
It has been learned that the Commis-
sion opened the four competitive bids
on January 13 but no action will be
taken to award a contract, pending
the outcome of the suit.
The complaint stated, in part:
"13. Plaintiff, FLORIDA ASSO-
was created and continues to ex-
ist for the purpose of maintaining
high standards of conduct for its
members, who must be architects
licensed to practice in the State
of Florida, and was further cre-
ated and continues to exist for
the purpose of protecting the
public at large by the mainten-
ance of high standards of profes-
sional conduct for its members;
its rights are affected by the
aforesaid statute and written in-
strument in that members sub-
mitting bids in compliance with
the aforesaid notice are in viola-
tion of the standards of profes-
sional conduct governing archi-
tects and subject to loss of mem-
bership in the Association, there-
by resulting in injury to the pro-
fession and the public at large; its
rights are further affected by the
fact that the public at large will
suffer if contracts for architec-
tural services must be preceded
by competitive bidding, and pub-
lic notice calling for said bids,
thereby impairing the status of
the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Archi-
A copy of the complaint may be ob-
tained by contacting the Association's
offices in Coral Gables.

24 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

Ralph Schwarz qf Ford Foundation
To Head AIA Urban Affairs Center
Ralph Grayson Schwarz, a leading ex-
ecutive of the Ford Foundation foi
the past six years, has been appointed
head of the new Urban Affairs Center
being established by The American
Institute of Architects, it was announ-
ced last month.

AIA President George E. Kassabaum,
FAIA, said Schwarz would take over
his new position on Feb. 1, and will
be located in the Institute's headquar-
ters in Washington, D.C.

For the past year, Schwarz has been
president of the Fund for Area Plan-
ning & Development, Inc., a non-
profit organization supported by the
Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller
Brothers' Fund, and has represented
the Secretary General of the United
Nations, the U.S. Ambassador to the
U.N., and the Mayor of New York
City in the direction of planning ac-
tivities concerned with expanding
U.N. Headquarters and related facili-
ties in Manhattan. Earlier, he directed
the design and construction of the
new Ford Foundation Headquarters
in New York City, and was Director
of Operation and Director of Build-
ing, Planning and Construction for
the Ford Foundation.

Kassabaum said that as head of the
AIA Urban Affairs Center, Schwarz
will "lead in the investigation and de-
* velopment of a 'humane environment'
an environment that will be com-
passionate and sympathetic to man
and in the development of the new
architecture for that environment
which will be concerned with the
human and social consequences of
physical design."

Schwarz said the Center "will address
itself immediately to the most urgent
problem of today's environment -
the crisis of the inner city, and par-
ticularly that of the Negro ghetto."
But he added that in the long-run,
the Center will be concerned "with
the total problem of achieving the
'humane environment,' whether urban
or rural, suburban or inner city."

The AIA, Kassabaum said, is establish-
ing the Center to assist the architec-
tural profession in meeting new urban
design demands, and to "guide our
society in dealing with environmental
problems." He said the Center will
"attempt to reunite in this nation's
thoughts and actions our physical en-
vironment and social improvement,
demonstrating that they are, as we
once knew them to be, inseparable."

The AIA president said the Center
would be "action oriented," and was
being established by the Institute, and
supported by a large financial com-
mitment in relation to AIA's re-
sources, because of AIA's conviction
of the importance of the physical en-
vironment in urban life, and because
no other group or organization was
ready or able to take on the responsi-
bilities that have been assigned to the

Schwarz said the first tasks of the
Center, which will draw on all re-
sources of AIA but will operate inde-
pendently of the Institute, will put
strong emphasis on the finding of
ways to involve the architectural pro-
fession in model solutions for con-
necting the many disciplines con-
cerned with the urgent problems of

He said the Center's investigation of
the 'humane environment' will in-
clude the "definitions of the goals
and procedures of public and private
programs dealing with both the physi-
cal and non-physical environment,"
and that to accomplish this it is nec-
essary that public and private agencies
"possess a broader understanding of
the capabilities of the design profes-
sions, and that the professions be bet-
ter equipped to understand human
needs. Thus a logical program for the
Center will be research to translate
human understanding into terms
meaningful to the physical designer,
and the definition of design criteria
in terms of human needs."

Schwarz joined the Ford Foundation
in 1961 as a Program Associate to co-
ordinate overseas development in
West Africa. Prior to that time he was
assistant vice president of the New
York Herald Tribune, and was with
Bethlehem Steel Co. He is a graduate
of Lehigh University, holds a master's
degree in history from that institution,
and has done post-graduate work at
Union Theological Seminary, Colum-
bia University, and several European

His work for the Fund for Area Plan-
ning and Development, on behalf of
the United Nations and the City of
New York, has resulted in implemen-
tation of a plan to develop a two-
block International Center by New
York City, acceptance by the U.N.
General Assembly of a proposal for
expansion of the U.N. Secretariat, and
adoption of a proposal to build the
U.N. International School and an
apartment complex in air rights above
a Consolidated Edison substation.

USOE/AIA Educational Facilities
The AIA through its Committee on
School and College Architecture, and
the Office of Construction Service of
the U.S. Office of Education has com-
pleted arrangements to co-sponsor
eight regional workshops to be con-
ducted by the U.S. Office of Educa-
tion with an agenda that will cover -

1. Education Facilities in Commu-
nity Development

2. Facilities Planning and Design

3. Techniques for Planning

4. Federal Programs Relatable to
Education Construction.

With special emphasis on combined
occupancies, air-rights utilization and
multi-use of sites.

At each Workshop, a representative of
the AIA Committee on School and
College Architecture (CSCA) in the
area is being charged with organizing
AIA participation and attendance.

All chapters are urged to have mem-
bers who have particular interest in
this program contact the AIA Repre-
sentative in their area for particulars,
possible contributions to, or assistance
for the Workshop.

Tampa, Florida, Feb. 24 25.
Florida South Atlantic (Ga.),
Gulf States (Ala., Miss.)
Contact: Edward G. Grafton,
AIA, 2575 South Bayshore Dr.,
Miami, Fla. 33133.

"Charrettes" drawn by big horses or
by red tractors carry the hay to the
barn along the deep ruts of country
roads. "Charrettes" piled high with
ripe fruit, brimming with fresh vege-
tables, laden with cut flowers beckon
passerbys on Paris street corners.
"Charrettes" took elegant aristocrats,
a dull king and his heedless queen to
the guillotine. Yes, a "charrette" is a
cart in French, a handy vehicle, a
prime utensil of farming, commerce
and revolution.

But tell me, what has this got to do
with architecture, the Mother of the
Arts? We have all heard-haven't we?
-weary-eyed architects, haggard and
dishevelled students of architecture
utter the word panic in their voice as
an explanation of their condition.
They often look indeed as if they had
been overrun by such a vehicle on a
sixty degree slope and left in agony
for a good fortnight. This interpreta-
tion, however, is not valid in the
majority of cases.

As with many things, it all began in
Paris. The Ecole des Beaux Arts of
Paris, once the most renowned school
of architecture in the world, functions
in a manner very different from archi-
tectural schools in America. The
School itself provides an administra-
tive structure, general courses and
grades practically all the work done in
Paris and the provinces. The architec-
ture projects, however, are studied and
drawn in "ateliers," that is, studios.

The "ateliers" group from thirty to
two hundred students, each working
under a "Patron," a boss, sometimes
assisted by one or several associates.
A given atelier groups students of all
years who elect a massierr" and other
officers responsible for the operation
of the atelier, which is entirely in the
hands of the students. These ateliers
may be situated outside the school in
its immediate neighborhood or for
that matter situated in any part of

But again, what could this have to do
with charrettes? Quite a lot, quite a

French architecture students draw on
large sheets of paper stretched on ply-
wood frames, the whole thing being
furnished by the prosperous supply
stores of the School's neighborhood
who recuperate their frames after

These frames are quite heavy and to

Charrette !

Paul Buisson, Associate Professor of Architecture, University
of Miami, is a Graduate of the "Ecole Nationale Superievre
Des Beaux Arts" in Paris.

carry them from the atelier to the
School is an ordeal. So freshmen are
sent to rent a hand cart. These obso-
lete two-wheeled and iron-shod ve-
hicles are part of a strange Parisian
commercial enterprise: the wine-coal-
wood dealer who still dispenses these
commodities which were essential to
life in the capital in 1900. The often
mustached gentleman running these
establishments traditionally c o m e s
from the province of Auvergne and
has an accent which proves it. Imag-
ine a sort of bar where you can down
a glass of Beaujolais, pick up a neatly
tied pack of kindling wood, a fifty kilo
bag of coal and .. rent a charrette!

The panels are loaded into the cart, a
freshman put between the handles,
two behind to assist and the strange
caravan shouts its way through noon
traffic to get its load to the School in
time for the deadline.

The meaning of charrette-a cartload
of projects-was soon extended to in-
clude these frenzied moments in the
life of an architect when he struggles
to meet a deadline, when sleeping and
sitting down become impossible lux-

The nature of architectural work is
such that to the last minute efforts arc
concentrated on the design itself, on
the idea often at the expense of the

time necessary for the drawing phase,
the presentation or rendering as archi-
tects call it. This last-ditch effort to
finish on time often involves one or
several sleepless nights where mental
anguish, a part of creative work, is
made more unbearable by physical ex-

But strangely enough, a charrette is
not an unhappy moment in the life
of a student architect. The effort and
misery shared in common, the bad
joke which sounded so good at four
o'clock in the morning, a gaze into
another smiling haggard face, the
morning cup of coffee, the tremen-
dous relief when the last line has
been drawn, all these more than
make up for the sheer torture of giv-
ing birth to the project. And archi-
tects all have a masochistic trait in
common: they like their pain.

"Charrettes" in Paris are a bit more
colorful than in Miami: the atmos-
pherc of shouted commands, fright-
ened freshmen, tracing paper bonfires
drying the washes, the century-old and
very lewd songs accompanied by the
battered brass of the atelier's band, is
downright uproarious. When the last
drawing has gone, all students and
their professor drink a generous toast
to the departed charrette and the
wretched freshmen are put to work
cleaning the mess. N

26 / THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT / January 1969

This Is Zyrian Stone ...

This is an angle photograph of an actual panel 17' wide.

It began over 500 million years ago . in a quarry outside Min-
eral Bluff, Georgia. Through the ages, it adapted to a multitude
of earth changes. Today, It is a fine-grained mica schist that has
remained remarkably adaptable. It breaks into slabs of any desired
thickness (stocked only in /2" thickness) . or cut and saw it
to any shape. Variety is infinite. No two slabs show the same color
shades . they range from greens and bluish-greens through yel-
lows, browns and chocolate tones. Blend them to produce striking,
artistic effects. This unusual stone is ideal for veneering . future
uses are unlimited. It took over 500 million years for Zyrian Stone
to reach such perfection of beauty and facility. It was worth the wait.



1818 North 7th Avenue P. 0. Box 5
Lake Worth, Florida Miami, Florida
(305) 582-5760 (305) 887-1525

1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circult
Publication at Miami, Fla

Turpin C. Binnistei, FAIA
2029 3. W. 42nd St.
Gaincsville, Fla. 32601









Design may be unimportant in a
backyard tree house, but when
you need a building that works
with you, not against you; when
you're interested in reducing op-
erating and maintenance expense,
when you're interested in com-
fort, class and beauty; when your
company's image is at stake, then
you need an architect. But be
sure he has the letters AIA after
his name. These letters signify
that he has pledged to practice
the profession of architecture ac-
cording to the mandatory stand-
ards of the American Institute of


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs