' I bz '~t~
h I Z
A FIRM FEE-
AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
Several months ago an architect was interviewed by an
industrial client to design a building. At the close of the
interview the architect was asked whether he would be
willing to reduce his fee to meet that offered by other
architects. Although this particular architect at the time
wanted the job, he graciously apologized and indicated to
the client that he must stand by his fee for the kind of
work and services he, the architect, was expected to
Undaunted, the client pressed ahead and asked whether
the architect would at least assume the cost of the blue
prints. Evidently the other interviewed architects had
agreed to this. With this request by the client, and show-
ing real disappointment, the architect rose, started to leave
with the statement, "I can't meet their price.'
Then the client stated, "If you had cut your fee you
would not have this job."
It is the thick-headed client who doesn't realize that
one seldom gets more than one pays for; that beating down
the price particularly of professional services can be
costly and risky. Yet this situation occurs every day and
the tragedy lies in the fact that many architects become
parties to a process that guarantees they will suffer finan-
cial losses and/or diminishing public, professional and self
One of 12 architectural firms in the nation lost an
average of 5% on last year's gross business. Architects are
currently averaging a loss dn one project out of four. This
is serious for the architects, but it has deeper implications
for the owners.
City building inspectors say too many arcihtects, in-
cluding some of the best known, present plans for approval
that are sadly deficient.
Contractors say architects would get better bids on
their work if plans and specifications were better prepared.
They add that a major reason for sloppy work is that the
architect just isn't getting enough pay to feel that he can
afford the time it would take to do better.
This is a serious indictment of some members of the
profession, but the blame and the penalty must be shared
largely by the owner, who thinks only of cost and not of
Clients are increasing their demands and continuously
more complex building technology is increasing the costs
of professional services by the architect-engineer.
We are in an era when more and more technical skills
are being required. Much more sophisticated structural
systems and other influences are being envisioned and in,
corporate into buildings today. Programming, designing
and integrating the increasing array of technical building
components requires much more of the arcihtect's time in
research and coordination.
The functional requirements of buildings are changing
rapidly in every building type. The need to avoid the pit-
falls of obsolescence and create buildings with an economic
life equal to structural life demands more research by the
It is also true tighter building budgets are being experi-
enced as well as greater speed of construction and the need
for more knowledge of needs of specific building types.
Although these can work to the advantage of the owner in
savings, they do require additional architectural and engi-
Rapidly changing building costs, increasing variety of
materials and systems from which to select, affects price.
The architect is now required to have a much more sophis-
ticated cost control system within his office.
Office rent has been increasing, as well as fringe bene-
fits, which are required to obtain and to hold the right
kind of employees, and increases in Social Security taxes
have all added to the cost of doing business.
Two years ago the FAAIA introduced the recom-
mended minimum fee schedule which is presently being
reworked, and in 1968 "The Elements of Architectural
Services and Customary Compensation" will be introduced.
This document, old and new, was introduced to provide
increased benefits to both the owner and the architect.
This will result from improving the quality of architectural-
engineering services, raising the level of programming and
analysis and renewing efforts at superior design, budget-
setting and adherence, systems selection, materials selec-
tion and research into new ideas. It will result in more
competent preparation of complex drawings and specifica-
tions, produce better bids, require fewer change orders and
build better buildings.
For the architect, this compensation schedule will
provide for more appropriate salaries for staff members,
better working conditions, higher level of design achieve-
ment, additional services where required, and increased
personal satisfaction in the profession. In fact, it may pro-
vide opportunity for additional professional study and con-
tinued education, which we all want and need, and which
are necessary to keep abreast of technological advances and
to serve clients properly.
In short, you, the architect, must know your cost of
doing business and more adequate compensation will result
in higher professionalism, increased client satisfaction and
4 ; '- .
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are best for many residential areas
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It is the best of all floors for work
rooms.., bathrooms.., for porch or
terrace... for patios... for poolsides.
The first cost of terrazzo is
reasonable and according to the
National Terrazzo and Mosaic Associ-
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The extreme whiteness of
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H A product of GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, RO. Box 324, Dallas, Texas 75221
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
The William K. Hatcher resi-
dence, Jacksonville, winner of
the First Annual Florida Archi-
tects' "Wood Award," sponsored
by the Florida Section, Society
of American Foresters and the
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Offi-
cial Journal of the Florida Association
of the American Institute of Architects,
Inc., is owned and published by the As-
sociation, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. It is published monthly at the
Executive Office of the Association,
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Ga-
bles, Florida 33134. Telephone: 444-
5761 (area code 305). Circulation: dis-
tributed without charge of 4,669 regis-
tered architects, builders, contractors,
designers, engineers and members of
allied fields throughout the state of
Florida-and to leading financial insti-
tutions, national architectural firms and
Editorial contributions, including plans
and photographs of architects' work, are
welcomed but publication cannot be
guaranteed. Opinions expressed by con-
tributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the
AIA. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publica-
tions, provided full credit is given to
the author and to The FLORIDA
ARCHITECT for prior use . Con-
trolled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 75 cents;
subscription, $6.50 per year. February
Roster Issue, $3.00 . McMurray
LOUIS I. KAHN, FAIA
SCHOOL DESIGN SEMINAR
FAAIA ORGANIZATION CHART
William K. Hatcher Residence
THE ARCHITECT- HIS VALUE
GET ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR COMPANY
by George N. Kahn
Herbert Rosser Savage, President
P. O. Box 280, Miami, Fla. 33145
H. Leslie Walker, Vice President/President Designate
706 Franklin St., Suite 1218, Tampa, Fla. 33602
Harry E. Burns, Jr., Secretary
1113 Prudential Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla. 32207
Myrl J. Hanes, Treasurer
P. O. Box 609, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Broward County Paul Robin John / Robert E. Todd
Daytona Beach David A. Leete / Carl Gerken
Florida Central James R. Dry / Ted Fasnacht
James J. Jennewein
Florida Gulf Coast Jack West / Tollyn Twitchell
Florida North William K. Hunter, Jr.
James D. McGinley, Jr.
Florida North Central Forrest R. Coxen / Warren A. Dixon
Florida Northwest Carlton Noblin / Thomas H. Daniels
Florida South Robert J. Boerema / George F. Reed
Francis E. Telesca
Jacksonville Charles E. Pattillo, III
Herschel E. Shepard, Jr. / John Pierce Stevens
Mid-Florida Wythe D. Sims, II / Donald R. Hampton
Pahn Beach a Jack Wilson, Jr. / H. L. Lewis
Richard E. Pryor
Director, Florida Region, American Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, 1600 N. W. LeJeune Rd., Miami
Executive Director, Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
James Deen / Roy M. Pooley, Jr. / Donald I. Singer
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
M. Elaine Mead / Circulation Manager
LOUIS I. KAHN, FAIA, OF PHILADELPHIA, IS
ONE OF TODAY'S ACKNOWLEDGED MASTERS
OF ARCHITECTURE. THESE ARE HIS REMARKS
AT THE OCTOBER CONVENTION OF THE FAAIA.
Mr. Kahn was introduced by Larry
King, moderator, whose pungent pref-
acing quips brought much laughter
from the audience, and from Mr.
I think that humor can heal all. I
think that the home should be the
center of humor, so if I say anything
that even touches on humor, I want
you to laugh like hell. I'm going to
not be very orderly in what I say, I
have no notes. I can tell you honestly
that I will say nothing new from what
I have said before. It is impossible
without notes or preparation to say
anything new before so many individ-
uals. I think the only thing ingenious
can come when one person speaks to
another person. It is impossible to
generate in front of so many similar
personalities. I can't reach you.
I met a wonderful architect in Mex-
ico-his name is Barragan. I went
thru his house. It was the result of a
belief in something without borrowing
from any other source. The reason for
living is really to express. I know of
no other reason for living. Life itself
is very enjoyable, but one thing that
really strikes you is that of expressing
well. The arcihtect in that way is very
forunate, because he is constantly en-
gaged in having to express himself.
There is an atmosphere of understand-
ing among those in the profession.
This man Barragan asked,
"What is tradition?" At first I didn't
know, and then because of my respect
for him, which was after the first
meeting that day, I still didn't know
and yet I did know, and I said, "My
mind goes to London. Shakespeare
had just written "Much Ado About
Nothing." I couldn't get into the
theatre; I did not have a ticket. But
I looked thru a chink in the wall. The
first actor who opened his mouth to
speak fell as a heap under an escutch-
eon. The second actor fell also and the
audience reacted. There it was-noth-
ing. It made me realize that nothing
that happened ever before can ever in
detail be recaptured. It is motionless.
There is a residue left which we make
as that human value which is inde-
structible. When you see the artifacts
from the sea, like an old mirror, you
do not see a face, but you can imagine
a face. Nature cannot make an en-
graving or a beautiful mirror. That is
something that does not die. The ac-
tual details or the circumstances can-
not be recaptured. They are gone.
Really, in a way, it is of no value,
except the residue. Even history must
be measured not by the battle, but by
the plan of the battle before it hap-
Therefore, I said to him, "You
know what I think tradition is? It is
that power which can give us powers
of anticipation. Not history. We, as
architects, have got to have powers of
anticipation. You've got to see people
walking up the stairs, people in a
room, people using a building.
A wonderful thing to know is that
architecture stems from the creation
of institutions of man. When a man
you did not know, a teacher under a
tree, you had to have none, you lis-
tened to the teacher, and the student
felt the need for a teacher-at that
moment the institution to learn was
given expression. Everything in nature
records-how it was made; how it was
mixed. In the rock is the record of the
rock. Physics is a very good example
of what I say. Every record of many,
many years from the beginning of
time is recorded in the charts as it is
in the rock. There is a sense of how
we are made. Thru this special ability
or characteristic of man, we derive
our impressions and are able to express
them. It is a great quality a building
should have-not the sense of it, not
the eye appeal of it, but something
which gives you the feeling that you
have expressed something. I would say
that buildings today ought to look
primitive, but what do they look like?
They look like that lobby out there-
an atrocious thing. You have to have
a humorous mind to accept it. I
brought an Indian architect with me
and he did not express himself be-
cause he was really tongue tied!
The inspiration to learn is the basis
for all our institutions of learning.
We must think of the wonderful
leader we had in the first school. Who
should teach? What is a place? What
are the realm of spaces where it is
good to learn? The money stands very
realistically in front of you as a kind
of limit with maybe some considera-
tion to the cause. Though you must
meet all of the requirements, a feeling
of a space to learn is the essential.
You will find a gallery is never a
corridor or a place where all the re-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
turn air goes, or a place where the
lockers are. A gallery is the only class-
room which belongs to the student.
All other classrooms are rooms of
misery for the student. What is this
room? The one that must look into a
garden? It is never a hall just flanked
by two sets of doors, for that is a
prison. Our history books are filled
with rooms. There are classrooms now
which are without windows. A bird
is a better teacher- the storm, the
wind, the rain, the sun, the light are
better teachers than a distracting
power standing before you. Teaching
means what is not in the book, but
to introduce you to what is from the
Art is the language of man. Not
science. Science sets art. Science gets
you in touch with how you are made,
and which, when you have an under-
standing of it, brings you closer to
what your feeling of a mission really
is-to express the unexpressable. The
inspiration to live serves the inspira-
tion to learn. You might say that man
wanted to be made to express, but
he had no instrument and he went
to nature which can express all things.
It is not the will that makes archi-
tecture-it is the will of man. In
nature, the sunset says, "I'll make a
better one tomorrow." The reaction is
what a man paints, and that nature
cannot do. And nature becomes very
Art is the seeking of the expressions
of the soul. One can say that a mind
can be measured only by the degree
of soul that can penetrate and the in-
strument which is the brain can allow
it to penetrate. That is why some
people have a Stradivarious and others
have 10 fiddles.
These inspirations of man are the
making of the institutions of man.
This brings about philosophy, am-
bience and thought. It brings about
ways of religion. The many aspects
of school were brought about by the
inspiration to learn. The aspect of
wanting to live forever to express
brings about sport, athletics, health,
doctors. Institutions of government,
institutions of health, all stem from
inspirations within us.
Someone asked me the other day
how I would explain this epoch. I
would explain it as the time of the
white light and the black shadow. I
know of the revolt in our institutions.
Many new reasons occur to the mind
which just need expression. We all
know it takes two leaders to make
something work-one who knows
what he wants and the other who
knows how to make it. To take on
two jobs is taking on two roles. When
you get a client who wants to give
something to the world in the way of
expression. then the result is some-
thing that has the feeling of building.
Schools-the results may sometimes
be beautiful on the exterior, but with
lack of rule, lack of function, very
shallow buildings in the long run. The
sense of the coming of new institu-
tions can be thought of in this way,
by even how you make our present
institutions come up to our present
The building I am doing in Pa-
kistan-the second building which in-
cludes the Supreme Court-it oc-
curred to me that the Supreme Court
needs something to express its position
and meaning in Pakistan. I thought
of this idea that the Supreme Court
needed a school of the Supreme Court
in the Supreme Court. Just as the As-
sembly needed a school of the Assem-
bly in the Assembly. I felt that if
there were a school of the Supreme
Court where a scholarship were of-
fered to the lawyers and their duty
would be only to find the essence of
the Supreme Court as against its
being-the Supreme Court takes law
as law in relation to man and has
nothing to do with the circumstances
whatsoever. If this essence of law is
fixed in a school, I am sure the Judge
ascending the stairs of a chamber
would feel the pull of the essence and
would be a better Judge. If the
environment makes the Supreme
Court understand itself, then these
powers are very important. One must
find the center of every building a
house, a school. It could be that the
gallery becomes the religious center of
the school. Maybe a school should be
a great variety of rooms, not be made
of just one type of room-well organ-
ized, but exactly like the others. I
know that if I sat with a few of you,
or perhaps just one other, near a fire-
place and on a rug, I know I would
say something entirely different from
what I am saying right now. The
environment is so very important.
The mind is the teacher, as against
the instructor who is a very different
man. We must produce an atmos-
phere in order to get into the mind
of the student the sheer wonder of
wanting to express something; we
have to gather together a kind of an
appreciation of what is an expression
to the student.
We have bad buildings, bad bath-
rooms. We are doing pretty bad
things in my opinion. They are not
inspired things. They simply satisfy
square foot requirements and they
never arrive at being superior at all.
They have no spatial expression; they
are merely dumb and expensive.
When I said "white light and black
shadow"-I believe that even the sun
is on trial at this time. I don't think
this is a great period, because there
is no wonder in it. There is no core.
But I believe as soon as wonder
enters, I think we will find the serv-
ice of your new institution being ex-
pressed. Even the institution of well
These institutions need the mind
of a great statesman to come and put
this before us, but what we are get-
ting today to a great extent is repair.
Nothing, really, that seems to put
something before us that generates
-that which overshadows-not some-
thing that is just repairs, like our re-
development projects which are usual-
ly a combination of real estate and
Pinkerton's. And the so-called culture
center; even the bank has culture.
There is no more inspiration. Lincoln
Center destroyed many neighbor-
hoods. When there was just one facil-
ity in one neighborhood, the people
in that neighborhood had pride in it.
They are all new lamps for old, with-
out the genie.
Now one thing-I feel the architect
should feel that architecture does not
exist. No more than music exists-can
you touch it? What does exist is a
work of architecture, in the hope that
this work of architecture will be re-
ceived by architectural spirits as be-
longing to the treasury of architecture.
Because architecture does not lose
scale. It becomes a miracle, a miracle
which expresses a world within a wall.
NEW INNOVATIONS IN
AND SCHOOL DESIGN
If you haven't set foot in an ele-
mentary classroom since passing grade
6, you wouldn't recognize what has
happened to one. No longer is it a
square or rectangular box built for a
teacher and 25 or 30 children. It
might be a group of hexagon-shaped
spaces clustered around a central
arena, and collectively called a "pod."
It will house approximately 120 chil-
dren looked after by four teachers, and
the group is not divided according to
Such are some of the new and
challenging educational concepts and
architectural responses outlined to the
Daytona Beach Chapter, AIA, by Dr.
William Feild, Supervisor of Educa-
tional Facilities for Dade County
Board of Public Instruction, and John
Totty, Research Director of Pancoast/
Ferendino/Grafton, consulting archi-
tects to the Dade County BPI.
The Seminar comprised the pro-
gram of a regular Chapter meeting
and was an innovation by the FAAIA
in continuing education for the pro-
fession. In attendance as guests were
the entire Volusia County School
Board and others in the Education
On display were five designs of
elementary schools over a period of
four years, the latest still being in the
working drawing stage. The designs
traced the evolution of team teach-
ing, non-graded educational concepts.
Basically, these concepts placed chil-
dren in groups of 120 under the
guidance of a team of four teachers in
a space called a "pod." This space
will usually contain a central arena
around which are grouped supporting
areas for art, science, food service,
teacher work and the library.
Dr. Feild pointed out how through
consolidation and reassignment of
square footage, the schools now have
doubled the teaching space while not
increasing gross floor area. This has
been possible for several reasons. New
buildings are compact and air condi-
tioned, cutting down area devoted to
covered walks. The traditional cafe-
teria has been eliminated and a scul-
lery area provided at each school. Food
is prepared in a central kitchen,
brought to each school, and served
from steam tables to the children in
Construction of the buildings is by
methods and materials standard to
South Florida. Exterior walls are con-
crete block with stucco finish. Most
interior teaching spaces are carpeted,
an essential feature of open areas for
acoustical control. All buildings are
air conditioned and virtually window-
The purpose of team teaching is to
give more freedom and flexibility to
the educational process. Pupils can be
taught in large groups while at the
same time, one can receive individual
instruction from another teacher. Ori-
entation to team teaching methods
requires time and experience. A school
principal must be in favor of the con-
cept and be able to help his teachers
in fitting their individual abilities to
Dr. Feild reported that at first
teachers tend to organize the space
along lines of a traditional classroom.
Later the organization becomes much
more informal and eventually even
the movable visual barriers are pushed
aside, unused, as student and teacher
adapt to open spaces. Indications are
that both teachers and students are
enthusiastic about teaching and learn-
ing in this new environment.
The Seminar was well-received by
the audience. It is contemplated that
this same program might be presented
at other Chapter meetings around the
state during the coming year.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Just a note to congratulate you on
the November issue of The Florida
I thought the content, the arrange-
ment, and the design of the issue set
a high standard of excellence.
The editorial on page 6 was very
much to the point. We need to re-
mind ourselves constantly that the
magazine is read for the most part
by non-architects, and that one of its
major objectives is to serve as a me-
dium to acquaint the public with the
architect and what he does.
The series by George Kahn prom-
ises to be an instructive and profitable
one, and I look forward to the re-
maining articles on the gentle art of
William T. Arnett
Professor of Architecture
POST CONVENTION ORIENT TOUR
JUNE 27-JULY 14, 1968
boring excursion to.
Visit Todaiji Temple \
Buddha, Kasuga Shrine'
Pad and Nara National h
Afternoon at leisure.
Dinner at the hotel.
July 8, Man.
Morning tour of garder
le). Landscape ga
A Dinn .
pon arrival at
July 12. Fri.
All day free for your owd
In this small city with oh
wish td oisit on ur own!
Shrine, streets lined byo
Dinner at the hotel. /
v 13, Sat.
An absolute maximum of thirty architects
and architects' allies (here defined as any
student of environment) will reach for Japan
next July. A special tour is designed not as
a casual relaxation, but as an intensive use
of two precious weeks of the professional's
time: a full exposure to, and an interchange
of reaction to, a profoundly different envi-
ronment and philosophy.
The economies of group travel and an
efficient schedule create a remarkably low
cost opportunity to plunge into a compact,
vigorous, exotic country whose ancient and
modern design has so much to say to our own
Requests for itinerary and particulars
should be addressed to:
Lorraine Travel Bureau
179 Giralda Ave., Coral Gables, Fla.
II. Samuel Kruse, FAIA
Fotis N. Karousatos
Herbert Rosser Savage
Harry E. Bums, Jr.
Myrl J. Hanes
H. Leslie Walker
(Chairmen of Commissions)
j 11 a.
Herbert R. Savage ..... President
H. Leslie Walker,
Harry E. Burns, Jr ...... Secretary
Myrl J. Hanes ........ Treasurer
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA, Dir. Fla. Reg.
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., Past President
Joint Cooperative Council
A-E Joint Committee
Florida Professional Council
Past Presidents Advisory Council
Finance & Budget
Richard E. Pryor
a. Chapter Affairs
b. Student Affairs
RULES AND REGULATIONS
a. Credentials Committee
1). Resolutions Committee
c. Nominating Committee
HONORS AND AWARDS
John B. Marion
a. Craftsman Awards
b. Student Awards
c. IHonor Awards
Walter B. Schultz
Frank Folsom Smith
COMMISSION ON THE
Thomas H. Daniels
Robert J. Boerema
James E. Garland
John E. Sweet
John E. Sweet
James J. Jennewein
William G. Wagner
Ivan H. Smith
Charles E. Pattillo, III
J. Arthur Wohlberg
Roy M. Pooley, Jr.
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Paul Robin John
Kenneth R. Miller
Paul Robin John
F. Blair Reeves
Arthur H. Rude
John P. Stevens
John R. Ilowey
Roy L. Ricks
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
The all-electric Gold Medallion Home-status symbol
of modern living-opens up new vistas for homeowners
who want to enjoy the benefits of all-electric living.
Valuable floor space can be utilized with greater
flexibility because flameless electric appliances can
be placed anywhere . without the problems en-
countered with chimneys, flues and vents.
Every home or apartment certified for the Gold
Medallion, regardless of size, price or location, accen-
tuates the comforts and conveniences that Floridians
want. It has reverse-cycle electric air conditioning
for year-round heating and cooling comfort and it
includes flameless electric water heating and an all-
electric kitchen and laundry. It has ample Light for
Living . a lighting system designed for comfort,
safety and decorative beauty. And finally, it includes
Full Housepower . an acceptable ampere service
entrance and enough outlets and switches for modern
Florida's Electric Companies... Taxpaying, Investor-owned
RESIDENCE FOR MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM K. HATCHER- JACKSONVILLE
WINNER OF THE 1967 FLORIDA ARCHITECTS' "WOOD AWARD"
SPONSORED BY FLORIDA SECTION, SOCIETY OF AMERICAN
FORESTERS AND FLORIDA ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN INSTITUTE
ARCHITECT William Morgan, AIA OF ARCHITECTS.
I f I
Within the box-shaped cube of this resi-
dence has been packed an amazing amount
of spatial variety. In reality it is a four-story
house with an ascending spiral of two-story
perimeter spaces. Family activities occur on
the second and third floors. A study-guest
area occupies the top floor and utility areas
are located on the first floor. Four structural
towers, one on each side, contain plumbing,
fireplaces, air conditioning and stairs.
The house won the First "Wood Award"
for its utilization of wood. The structural sys-
tem consists of clear heart southern yellow
pine 6" x 6" posts supporting 6" x 12" beams.
Floor decking is 2" x 4" edge grain pine al-
ternating with 2" x 3" spacers, exposed below
for finished ceiling. Horizontal drop siding
is clear cypress, dressed and matched. All
wood, including door, trim and cabinet work,
is natural finished with preservative bleach-
The architect states that wood was used
in this residence to provide warmth com-
patible with residential character, to expose
structure as an integral part of the spatial
conception, to facilitate erection and to mini-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
history, architecture has recorded an
enduring expression of civilization. It
has been a vital force in the growth
of America and the shaping of its
destiny. Architecture is an art and a
science blended into a profession
intimately associated with the largest
segment of our economy-the con-
struction industry. Yet its realm is not
buildings only; it deals basically with
people, their lives, work, recreation,
and worship. All human activities are
strengthened through its influence;
our schools excel in teaching and
learning environment; efficiency is re-
flected in our office buildings; our
industrial plants are attractive and pro-
ductive; our churches enrich our wor-
ship, and our homes afford us every
comfort. Thus our architecture molds
a social structure that typifies our na-
Architecture concerns function,
structure, and beauty. Function de-
termines the size and shape of spaces
for human needs and the relationship
of such spaces, one to the other.
Structure is the enclosure of these
spaces and their adaption in terms of
color, materials, and mechanical con-
trols for human habitation. Beauty is
the quality that classifies a structure
with architecture and which gives
pleasure to those about it.
THE ARCHITECT- The archi-
tect is responsible for imparting these
distinctive characteristics and qualities
to our buildings. In so doing he serves
not only his client, but the public
interest as well. Rarely will a building
affect only its owner; seldom does it
stand alone. Our buildings are planned
with respect to their natural surround-
ings, and with regard for all physical
relationships and circulatory patterns.
In this way our communities develop
and their architecture has its impact
on all society.
* Our accelerated mode of living is
changing and expanding our cultural
needs. To meet this challenge the
architect applies his skill in adapting
new techniques and principles made
possil e through scientific advance-
ment. Because of continuing archi-
tectural research, new materials, struc-
tural systems, and methods of erection
are employed to create buildings that
are safer, more durable and econom-
ical than ever before.
VALUE OF THE ARCHITECT'S
SERVICES--In the 15th century
Leonardo da Vinci in advising the au-
thorities concerned with the recon-
struction of the Cathedral of Milan
"Just as it is necessary for physicians
. . to know the nature of man and
of life and health, and to know how
a balance and harmony of the ele-
ments preserves them ... in the same
way all this is needed also for the
sick cathedral. It needs a physician-
architect, who understands the nature
of a building, the rules from which a
correct method of building proceeds,
and the source and divisions of these
rules, and the causes which hold a
building together and give it perma-
The employment of a qualified
architect for a proposed project as-
sures the owner of satisfaction because
his building will be of high quality.
The quality will be apparent in terms
of efficiency, convenience, economy,
healthfulness, and safety with the re-
sult that the building will satisfy the
physical and psychological needs of
its occupants. And as better designed
facilities are provided, more of the oc-
cupant's time is released for other pur-
suits, and by means of the economies
afforded more funds are available for
other purposes. The value of the archi-
tect is demonstrated also through the
economies achieved by means of his
judgment in the selection of materials
and in his administration of an effi-
cient building operation. Throughout
all phases of the work the architect is
mindful of the owner's budget. He is a
constant adviser to the owner, guard-
ing him against loss and legal en-
The practice of architecture calls
for men of scientific mind, artistic
talents, sociological attitudes, and bus-
iness abilities. It constitutes a pro-
fession, like medicine or law, demand-
ing faithful service to the client and
to the public. The architect's func-
tion is to provide the leadership from
conception to completion of the build-
ing process, so that the completed
projects are a success and a source of
satisfaction to all that use them. A
contemporary architecture is the result
of such philosophy-an architecture
that functions for its need, and reflects
an expression of its function. The
building thus achieved, within avail-
able resources,, results in a complete
integration of utility, structure and at-
CODE OF ETHICS As is es-
sential to every profession, a code of
ethics, recognized by the public, is
observed by the architect. Although
the interest of the ethical practitioner
may be served by means of established
standards of practice, their true pur-
pose is for the benefit of the public.
The American Institute of Architects
has taken a lead in codifying the
standards, to which the majority of
architects subscribe. The Standards of
Professional Practice, AIA Document
1-330, covers all principles of good
practice, as well as the Mandatory
Standards. The following provisions
of the Bylaws of The Institute form
the basis for the enforcement of the
"Any deviation by a corporate mem-
ber from any of the Standards of
Professional Practice of The Institute
or from any of the rules of the Board
supplemental thereto, or any action by
him that is detrimental to the best
interest of the profession and The In-
stitute shall be deemed to be unpro-
fessional conduct on his part, and ipso
facto he shall be subject to discipline
by The Institute."
MANDATORY STANDARDS -
The first part of the code, the Obliga-
tions of Good Practice, calls for the
promotion of the highest standard of
conduct and sets forth basic principles
for the guidance of the profession. In
Part II the document spells out its
Mandatory Standards in detail and
The regulations further provide that
"The Board of Directors of The
American Institute of Architects shall
have sole power of interpreting these
Standards of Professional Practice and
its decisions shall be final subject to
the provisions of the Bylaws."
THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
OF ARCHITECTS-The letters
AIA carried after an architect's name
indicate that he is a member of the
national organization that represents
most members of the architectural
profession. AIA is the designation of
The American Institute of Architects,
whose standards demand of its mem-
bers the highest ethical conduct. The
AIA insignia is widely known to the
public and the government, and the
courts have recognized it as a symbol
of professional merit.
The American Institute of Archi-
tects is pledged "to organize and unite
in fellowship the architects of the
United States." It is dedicated to the
advancement of the profession through
education and training and through
aesthetic, scientific, and practical ef-
ficiency in practice. This professional
society further pledges its efforts on
behalf of the public by way of co-
ordinating the building industry and
the profession to insure improved liv-
ing standards ahd to make the profes-
sion of ever-increasing service to soc-
iety. Its objectives are carried out by
means of its staff in the national head-
quarters at Washington, D.C. Its
membership throughout the United
States is organized into local and state
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
chapters, which serve the public as
well as the practitioner.
The public can always be assured
that the architect identified with the
AIA has accepted the highest stand-
ards of professional competence, moral
duty, and integrity that have been
devised. AIA committees are constant-
ly at work to improve building re-
search, community planning and other
factors affecting the general welfare.
The public is always invited to turn
to its facilities at the local level or
in its national headquarters for any
assistance relating to the practice of
for his profession an architect is re-
quired to be registered or licensed
under the laws of the state or states
in which he practices. The candidate
for an examination usually must have
a college degree in architecture and,
in most states, must have at least three
years of office experience under the
direction of a registered architect. Any
deficiency in formal education short
of a college degree, will increase the
required years of practical experience.
EDUCATION The accredited
schools of architecture offer a five-year
curriculum leading to a professional
bachelor's degree in architecture. The
course of study is both liberal and
technical. Design, modeling, freehand
drawing, and architectural drafting
equip the student with tools for anal-
yzing a problem in form, color and
texture, and expressing its solution
with precision and clarity. Structural
engineering, environmental control,
materials and methods of construction,
history and philosophy of architec-
ture, professional and business prac-
tices, building economics, and gen-
eral non-technical subjects are covered
in depth in the undergraduate cur-
EXPERIENCE At the conclu-
sion of the undergraduate or graduate
college course, and prior to taking
the registration examinations, a min-
imal three year period of office train-
ing is essential. It is here where the
experienced architect meets the chal-
lenge of his ethical code of practice
which requires of him to endeavorr to
provide opportunity for the profes-
sional development of those who enter
the profession, by assisting them to
acquire a full understanding of the
functions, duties and responsibilities
WORK AND RESPONSIBILITIES
RESPONSIBILITIES The arch-
itect bears a grave responsibility, not
only on behalf of his client, but also
in the public interest. The proper dis-
charge of this responsibility requires
devotion to competent, ethical, and
The architect analyzes the needs
and requirements of his client, thor-
oughly studying the human factors
involved. The solution to the problem
includes study of the project site and
how it can be effectively developed
to best serve the owner's needs. The
final solution is determined through
comprehensive study and research re-
sulting in an integration of natural
and human factors. Frequently the
architect is called upon to assist in
preparing the program, in arranging
for financing the project, and in secur-
ing approvals from zoning authorities
and building officials should such spe-
cial services be required.
His knowledge in the fields of struc-
ture, mechanical installations, mate-
rials and construction methods indi-
cates his capabilities as a scientist.
His designs must be consistent with
the budget available for the project,
and the construction must conform
to local, state, and national building
and safety codes. The working draw-
ings and specifications must be com-
plete and concise so that costs can
be figured accurately.
Advice regarding the selection of
contractors is another important duty
of the architect. He analyzes proposals
and assists in preparing construction
contracts. Throughout the entire
building operation the architect is
the client's adviser and agent guard-
ing him against losses and seeing to
it that he gets full value for his money.
The architect reviews all contractors'
requests for payment and upon com-
pletion he certifies for final payment.
BASIC SERVICES-The basic
services of the architect are usually
divided into four phases as follows:
Phase 1: Schematic Design This
work consists of an inspection of the
site and conferences with the client
concerning the building program. The
client's needs and requirements are
carefully analyzed. Zoning regulations
and codes affecting the work are stu-
died. Sketches, and statements of
probable construction cost are pre-
pared for the owner's approval.
Phase 2: Design Development--
Upon approval of the Schematic De-
sign the architect proceeds with the
development of the plans and eleva-
tions of the building. Type of con-
struction, mechanical systems, and
materials are considered and recom-
mendations discussed with the owner.
Drawings, establishing all major ele-
ments, and outline specifications arc
prepared. A revised statement of prob-
able construction cost is made. All of
this material is then submitted for
Phase 3: Construction Documents
-Working drawings and specifica-
tions are finalized and all work is
coordinated with mechanical layouts.
Material and color schedules are dis-
cussed with the owner. Bidding forms
are prepared and assistance is given
in drafting contract forms. Cost state-
ments are reviewed and approval ob-
tained from the owner and from con-
Phase 4: Construction Contract Ad-
ministration The architect assists
in qualifying bidders and obtaining
proposals. He analyzes the proposals
received, advises relative to the award
of contracts, and assists in the prepa-
ration of such contracts. During the
construction period, the architect re-
views and approves shop drawings,
prepares such supplementary drawings
as may be required, and reviews con-
tractors' requests for payment. iHe
makes periodic visits to the site to
determine if the work is proceeding
in accordance with the contract docu-
ment, and keeps his client informed
relative to the progress and quality of
construction, issues contract change
orders as required, makes final inspec-
tion and, when construction is deter-
mined to be satisfactorily completed,
issues a certificate to that effect.
ADDITIONAL SERVICES In
addition to the basic services the archi-
tect may be requested to perform ad-
ditional services, for which additional
charges are appropriate, as follows:
Making changes after owner's
Providing planning surveys and
Making measured drawings of
Obtaining detailed or semi-de-
tailed cost estimates.
Preparing documents for alter-
nate bids and change orders.
Services resulting from fire or
other loss during construction.
Services resulting from default or
insolvency of contractor.
Services when construction con-
tract time is exceeded by 25%.
Preparation of display drawings
o Design of furnishings and special
Preparation of "as-built" draw-
Inspection prior to expirationof
COMPENSATION The archi-
tect's compensation for the basic serv-
ices discussed above is usually based
on one of the following methods:
A percentage of the construction
cost of the work.
A professional fee plus reimburse-
ment of expenses.
A multiple of direct personnel ex-
A salary, per diem, or hourly rate.
Fees are variable depending upon
the type of project and they vary in
different parts of the country. For
this reason some local AIA chapters
prepare suggested schedules of proper
fees for various types of projects.
There also is some variation in the
charges made by architects, and for
this reason these chapter recommenda-
tions are given as minimum amounts
for basic services on the particular
type of project indicated in the various
Regardless of the method of pay-
ment as listed above, the architect's
fee is a small fraction of the total
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
In fact, it's up to 8 hours closer.
Our shortcut routes have shrunk the globe.
Our smooth, swift Fan-Jets fly the Pacific with-
That's why it's not "The Far East" anymore--
not on Northwest.
With us, it's "The Not-So-Far East."
Tokyo, for example, is less than half a day's
flight from Seattle-on Northwest. And from
Tokyo, it's just a short hop to anywhere in
Take your pick.
Tokyo. Osaka. Hong Kong. Okinawa. Taiwan.
The Philippines. We fly to more places in the
Orient than any other U.S. airline.
And we've been flying there for years.
20 years, to be exact. So when you fly with
us, you know you're in the hands of an airline
that really knows the Orient.
Next trip, come our way to the Orient-and
see for yourself.
It's Not-So-Far East on Northwest.
Northwest's routes make it"Not-So-Far East"
MID-PACIFIC \ROU TE / ATLANTA
THE FAN-JET AIRLINE
We fly to the Orient from more
U.S. cities than any other airline. Choose
from 23 flights a week.
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DUNAN BRICK YARDS, INC.
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January 11 13
AIA Chapter and Section Presidents'
"Grassroots" meeting, Shoreham Hotel,
Washington, D. C.
January 26 27
FSBA Meeting Architects invited-
Attorney Harry Gray's office, Jackson-
Legislature begins Special Session
FAAIA Board of Directors meeting,
9:30 A.M., Robert Meyer Motor Inn,
April 30 May 3
Annual Conference Guild For Re-
ligious Architecture Hilton Plaza
Hotel, Miami Beach.
October 25 28
54th Annual Convention and Building
Products Exhibit of the FAAIA, Day-
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105 MM Micro-Film Tracing Reproductions
BY GEORGE N. KAHN, MARKETING CONSULTANT
1967 George N. Kahn
GET ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR COMPANY
If I were a mathematician I would try
to work out a formula to prove that the
number of sales you make will depend
on the amount of knowledge you have
about your company.
I may not hit it on the nose, but I
bet I could come pretty close.
A salesman cannot expect to sell ef-
fectively if he does not know his com-
pany and his product. Such ignorance can
be compared to sailing a boat without a
rudder. Company and product informa-
tion are at the very foundation of good
Some of you doubting Thomases might
"What about that fabulous salesman,
Charlie Smith, who made a million just
selling on the strength of his personality;
or the great Jack Brown, who could
charm an order from a sphinx?"
Personality and charm are fine attri-
butes for a salesman, but they are not
Customer Wants Facts
Today's customer wants facts about
your firm. The buyer must be able to
trust your advice and judgment based
on those facts. The customer is not buy-
ing charm and personality; he is pur-
chasing your product on the basis of
what he knows about the producer.
The guy ahead of you may have given
the prospect a thorough picture of his
company and its product and services.
You can expect the buyer to compare
your offer with that of your competition.
As Les Ryson, sales manager for a
chemical company, tells his men:
"Remember, that prospect has got a
scorecard in his head. Whenever you
make your pitch, he is mentally adding
up your points to see how they stack up
with your competitor's."
Knowledge Inspires Confidence
Company knowledge plays a positive
part in selling. A buyer feels more con-
fidence in a salesman who demonstrates
that he is familiar with his company's
product, policies, price discounts, organi-
zation, credit procedures, key personnel
and servicing practices.
Your outfit may be a multi-million
dollar corporation with an A-1 reputa-
tion. But to your prospect or customer
500 or 1,000 miles from headquarters,
your company is you.
But let's forget about the prospect for
a moment. I want to concentrate on you.
Factual information about your company
and product is bound to increase your
confidence in yourself and make you a
If you know your outfit is well or-
ganized, progressive and reliable, you'll
feel better about working for it. A sales-
man can't do his best for a company he
knows little or nothing about. It always
gave me a good feeling to know that my
firm was financially sound, well regarded
and kept its word with both its salesmen
Selling the Company First
What should you know about your
company? Experienced and successful
salesmen I've discussed this matter with
put these items at the top of their list:
1. History and development.
2. Size, including branches, divisions
and other holdings or subsidiaries.
3. Financial structure. The buyer
wants to know he's dealing with
a sound firm.
4. Reputation. If you can truthfully
boast about your company's reputa-
tion you've got a fine selling point.
5. Everything about the product,
starting with the raw material.
6. Company's distribution system.
Your firm's outlets should be in-
grained in your mind.
7. Credit policies. Be sure you're
right on this or you can be in hot
water with both the customer and
8. Handling of orders. The salesman
should know how the order is pro-
cessed, routed, etc. He should also
find out who at the plant is re-
sponsible for the processing,
amount of inventory and the bill-
This kind of data is available to the
salesmen from several sources. They in-
clude sales training programs, sales con-
ferences, plant tours, promotional litera-
ture, financial reports, employee publica-
tions, brochure, sales kits and manuals.
And don't forget the best source of
all-the people in your company. Ask
questions whenever you need information.
Plant tours, guided or unguided, are
a must for the man who wants to build
up his product and company knowledge.
An eastern sales manager compels his
men to visit the factory at least twice
a year. The trip is then discussed at a
subsequent sales meeting attended by
the heads of other departments.
Your company's annual financial re-
port is easily available and will take only
an hour of your time to read and digest it.
If you're just breaking in with a firm,
ask old customers what they think of it.
Chances are that you'll get a flock of
endorsements that you can profitably use
with prospects. I always found my regular
customers eager to plug the firm.
Here is a self-survey to find out if you
do know your company and are using
the information to help you make sales.
If you can answer "yes" to nine or more
questions, you're moving toward success.
Have You Met Your Company?
1. Do you really read company litera-
ture, manuals given you?
Yes [E No 
2. If a prospect stumps you with a
question about your firm, do you do
anything about it Yes ] No O
3. Are you interested in the operation
of other departments?
Yes [ No [
4. Have you ever visited the production
line at your company?
Yes E No [
5. Could you this minute describe your
firm's distribution system?
Yes E No [
6. Do you have a pretty good idea of
your outfit's financial structure?
Yes E No O
7. Can you honestly tell a prospect how
his order will be handled?
Yes E No [
8. Do you know your firm's inventory
on products you sell?
Yes E No [
9. Do you feel customers have confi-
dence in you? Yes [ No E
10. Do you keep a file on company data?
Yes E No E
11. Do you worry about not having
enough knowledge about your firm?
Yes [ No E
12. Do you know the actual size of your
company? Yes E No E
REPRINTS FOR YOUR SALESMEN . this is a condensed version.
Each lesson is available in an expanded form, in a 4-page brochure,
size 8,1 1, printed in 2 colors on white glossy paper and is 3-hole
punched to fit any standard 3-ring binder. Each subject in this expanded
version is fully and completely developed in comprehensive detail and
includes a self-examination quiz for Salesmen. Prices are as follows:
1 to 9 copies (of each article)
10 to 49 copies (of each article)
50 to 99 copies (of each article)
100 or more copies (of each article)
S50 cents each
371/, cents each
__30 cents each
__25 cents each
Marketing Consultants, Sales Training Division, Department TP, 212
Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010.
Listed here are the titles of the first twelve lessons in the "Smooth
Selling" Sales Training Course.
1. The Salesman is a V.I.P.
2. Are You A Salesman?
3. Get Acquainted With
4. You're On Stage
5. You Can't Fire Without
6. You Are A Goodwill Salesman, Too
7. Closing The Sale
8. How To Set Up An Interview
9. Relaxing Between Rounds
10. The Competition
11. Taking A Risk
12. Playing The Short Game
The entire series may be pre-ordered or individual articles may be
ordered by number . address orders to the George N. Kahn Co.,
When ordering, please mention the name of this publication.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
This Is Red River Rubble...
It's a hard, fine-grained
sandstone from the now-dry
bed of the Kiamichi River in
Oklahoma. In color it ranges
from a warm umber through a
variety of brownish reds to
warm, light tan . Face
textures are just as varied. Over
thousands of years rushing
water has sculptured each
individual stone with an infinite
diversity of hollows, ridges,
striations, swirls and has
worn each surface to a soft,
mellow smoothness . The
general character of this
unusual stone suggests its use
in broad, unbroken areas
wherein rugged scale and rich
color are dominating factors
of design ... Age and exposure
can do nothing to this stone
except enhance the mellow
richness of its natural beauty...
DUNAN BRICK YARDS, INC.
MIAMI, FLORIDA TUXEDO 7-1525
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
University of Florida Libraries Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Ga inesVille, Fla. 10 Accepted As Controlled Circulation
32601 Publication at Miami, Fla.
Be sure your architect has the letters
after his name. These letters signify that
this architect has pledged to practice his
profession according to the mandatory
standards of the American Institute of
The AIA is a professional organization
for architects which was founded over
one hundred years ago. Membership is
not automatic upon being granted regis-
tration to practice as an architect, nor
are all architects required to be a mem-
ber. The AIA does not act as a registra-
tion agency, but architects who join are
pledged to provide a high quality of
professional service. By-laws of the Insti-
tute provide for action against a member
who acts in an unprofessional manner.
Invest wisely in the comprehensive serv-
ices of an architect who bears the letters
AIA after his name.