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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
Perspective & Letter to the editor
Six Florida artists speak on Florida architecture
Richard Bugdal and Sebastian Trovato
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
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THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE
THE NEW ARCHITECT
The 1967 AIA convention in New
York City is history. The proclamations
and admonitions emanating from its ses-
sions, however, portend the future.
It was perhaps the most productive of
the many gatherings which have gone be-
fore and it was well managed, interest-
ing, entertaining, educational, and above
-all else-stimulating. Its true greatness
was most evident in the well coordinated
theme speakers. The thoughtful philos-
S ophy of Dr. Marshall McLuhan; the bril-
I .* liant and lucid discourse on education by
SDr. Harold Taylor; the practical admoni-
S' tions on practice of Charles Luckman;
Sthe delightful dissertation of Mayor John
SLindsay on the use of good design to
Transform New York into "a city for
HILLIARD T. SMITI, JR., AIA people and for living;" the awesome
technological predictions of astronomer,
writer, inventor Arthur C. Clarke; each of
these men contributed greatly to the
whole. The unveiling of researched-de-
veloped concepts of radical changes in
design education by Dean Robert L. Ged-
des and the revelations of the Case and
Co. study on the "cost of Architectural
Services" completed this star-studded
cast of brilliant presentations.
Space does not here permit an in-
depth report of each, but enough con-
clusions can be drawn to indicate a pat-
tern we each must follow if our profes-
sion is to survive and accomplish its
Dean Geddes's report would divide the
education of architects into nine "mo-
dules", each requiring approximately two
years of study. One module would qualify
technicians while six would be required
for specialist consultants or research. Dr.
Harold Taylor suggests deeper roots into
the liberal arts if architects are to be fit
to design the total environment.
If the students now and architects of
the future will need six to twelve years
education to meet the needs of expanding
responsibilities, where does that place
those of the present whose education was
drawn from the past? Does it not follow
that to keep pace we must continue our
education at an accelerated pace? Are
we not guilty of continuing our education
by mere chance, osmosis, or infrequent
exposure to some immediately needed
capsule of information? If we are to be
"whole architects" capable of designing
"whole buildings," providing "compre-
hensive services" in a total environment"
that is expanding at an ever accelerating
pace, then it certainly follows that we
must continue our education at the same
Charles Luckman, one of our nations
most successful architects, told us we
must be more concerned with money-
not only the client's-but our own. Call-
ing for "creative cost control," Mr. Luck-
man declared that it can produce "better
design, better planning, more efficient
professional services and more satisfied
clients." He defined "creative cost con-
trol" as producing fine design within a
required budget, concluding "It is easy
to be creative without a budget; it is in-
finitely more difficult, but equally re-
warding, to be creative within the bud-
get." After the creative concept is
achieved within the burget, we must then
control the development cost. After ad-
monishing architects to "make a better
living for themselves and their families,"
Mr. Luckman referred to the practice of
architecture as a tortuous occupation
filled with a "steady diet of trials and
tribulations," stating that neither pro-
fessional status nor increased profits can
shield us from "these daily doses of
duress," but suggested that a more
equitable fee arrangement could "make
them more palatable."
Supplementing Mr. Luckman's conclu-
sions, the Case and Co. report proves
the validity of his suggestions and neces-
sity of increased profit for survival. The
report shows that the cost of architec-
tural services has risen sharply; the
profits of architectural firms have drop-
ped sharply; and that clients are de-
manding "more complicated and sophis-
These conclusions were drawn from a
comprehensive study of confidential cost
and profit information from 223 archi-
tectural firms in 47 states and an analysis
of cost and profit details of 1150 projects
recently completed by these firms. The
report revealed that direct cost of services
and cost of outside consulting services
have increased enough to reduce net in-
come before taxes from 22.6r/ in 1950
to 9.2% in 1966. The report further
states that one firm out of twelve suf-
fered an average 5% loss last year and
that the average architect is currently
losing money on one project out of four.
Without quoting specific recommenda-
tions of the management consulting firm
and Mr. Luckman, it seems quite obvious
that we must budget time and costs with
care and use technical manpower more
effectively; find more equitable methods
of compensation; examine carefully the
cost of consulting services; plan profit
into practice; educate clients and the
public as to what architects do, how they
do it, and how they earn their fees.
Said in other words, we must learn to
better manage our practice and practice
This new building by a Florida prestresser is both head-
quarters for his operation and a showcase for his product.
Every prospective customer who visits the office sees a
demonstration of what precast concrete can do for the
building he has in mind. The special textured cast-in-place
corner walls provide architectural contrast for the variety
of smooth surface prestressed and precast components.
Dura-Stress Inc. uses Lehigh Early Strength Cement to
obtain both early and ultimate high strengths for their
units. Lehigh Portland Cement Company, Allentown, Pa.
District Sales Office: Jacksonville, Fla. 33216.
11 5 1..
"440F I~~~:I::---- --~
0 owner :
Dura-Stress, Inc., Leesburg, Fla.
Robert V. Ford, Leesburg, Fla.
and Precast Concrete:
Dura-Stress, Inc., Leesburg, Fla.
Second floor ceiling features
8' x 36" lin tee beams. Each
86' prestressed lin tee is
supported by two-story high
precast columns. This permits
use of non-load bearing interior
partitions on second floor,
which consists of 14" prestressed
double tee beams. Floor tees
cantilever to support second
story precast panels. Corner
walls have an exposed aggregate
"corduroy" surface. The
building provides 10,000 sq. ft.
of floor space.
Installing oil heating equipment does cost more.
We can fill all your design needs
for any type, size or shape of
cast bronze or aluminum
plaques, name panels or dec-
& PATTERN WORKS
3737 N. W. 43rd Street, Miami
ALGER-SULLIVAN CO . .
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FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS .
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FLORIDA INVESTOR OWNED UTILITIES CO.
FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT DIVISION .
LEHIGH CEMENTS . .
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION .
OIL FUEL INSTITUTE OF FLORIDA .
. p. 4
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. p. 6
Inside Back Cover
. p. 3
. p. 2
. pp. 10-11
. p. 14
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
But you won't have customer complaints about
high electric bills,
high maintenance costs
OIL FUEL INSTITUTE OF FLORIDA DIL0 AT
YOU CAN DEPEND ON IT
Ever notice how homes with gas
lights in front seem to attract a little
larger crowd of prospective home buy-
ers? It's like having an extra salesman
to sell your houses.
But gas equipment does more than catch
the eye. It offers you many ways to help close
the sale. For example, nothing makes a house-
wife happier than cooking on a gas range.
Growing families appreciate the economy of
modern gas heating, air conditioning and water
heating. And a gas grill in the backyard will please
any weekend chef.
Modern gas equipment goes a long way to help sell
your potential buyers. Incidentally, the money you'll
save installing gas equipment should make
you happy, too. For all the facts and figures,
0I talk to your local Natural Gas Utility repre-
sentative today. Check the Yellow Pages.
Serving all of Florida
through your local Natural
PINE TREE MAGICIAN
Pine Tree Magicians at Alger-Sullivan Company
take old-fashioned Southern Pine Trees and
turn them into modern items like bowling alley
runways, rail car decking, and laminated stage
flooring. But one of the best things they've
done to Southern Pine is introduce it to Kop-
per's new Cellon pressure treatment process.
Cellon can handle any kind of wood, of course,
and it does the same job on all of them. In
just eight hours, it impregnates every cell with
a non-toxic preservative safe for food service
and other discriminating uses. Advantages: no
rot or decay, no leaching or raised grain, and
wood that leaves the tank dry and ready for
shipment. The man in the picture? He's "mik-
ing" a Cellon treated boring in preparation
for an impregnation test. It's one of many
quality control procedures that are part of the
magic practiced at Alger-Sullivan Company.
How about your company's wood products?
Would the advantages of Cellon increase their
sell? Just call Alger-Sullivan, Area Code 904,
256-3456. Cellon just might be the treatment
to put a smile into your profit picture.
Koppers Company, Inc., trademark
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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ol1 1he lor0id
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE .
TO THE EDITOR .. ..
PHILOSOPHY . .
SIX FLORIDA ARTISTS SPEAK O
Compiled and edited by
Lowell Lotspeich Architect
S. Inside Front Cover
CHARLES FAGER .
ANN WILLIAMS .
FRONT COVER Detail of a painting in
oil from the brochure of Miami artist
VOLUME 17 N NUMBER R 6 E JUNE 1967
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pies.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
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GLAZED SOLAR SCREENS
UNGLAZED FACING TILE
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA
BUCKINGHAM AND VERMONT
SLATE FOR ROOFS AND FLOORS
PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT INSULATING ROOF AND WALL SLABS
We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.
Represented in Florida by
RICHARD C. ROYSUM
10247 Colonial Court North
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
Telephone: (904) 724-7958
A new design for a $4 million head-
quarters building on an expanded site
in Washington, D. C., was unveiled at
the annual convention of The American
Institute of Architects.
Architects Mitchell/Giurgola Associ-
ates presented models and drawings of
the new design to the 3,500 architects
and their guests attending the week-long
meeting. AIA's Board of Directors gave
unanimous approval to the new design.
Victor F. Christ-Janer, of New Can-
aan, Conn., was presented the 1967
$25,000 R. S. Reynolds Memorial Award
for "distinguished architecture using
The third American to receive the
award in the 11 years of the program,
Mr. Christ-Janer was honored for his
design of the James F. Lincoln Library
of Lake Erie College, Painesville, Ohio.
Key feature of the library cited in the
award is the architect's unique design
for the all-aluminum walls which hang
like drapery from cantilevered framing
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
ATI A NTTA
A jury from The American Institute
of Architects has selected Cumbernauld
New Town in Scotland as the Western
world's highest achievement in new ur-
ban design for modern human needs.
The architects and planners of Cum-
bernauld were chosen to be honored by
the first R. S. Reynolds Memorial Award
for Community Architecture, which con-
fers $25,000 and an original sculpture.
The $25,000 will be used to create a
scholarship in community architecture.
Chief architect and planning officer
for Cumbernauld since 1692 has been
Dudley R. Leaker, an Associate of the
Royal Institute of British Architects and
an Associate of the Royal Incorporation
of Architects in Scotland. He succeeded
L. Hugh Wilson, a Fellow of the Royal
Institute of British Architects, who held
the post from the beginning of the pro-
ject 1 1 years ago.
Cumbernauld is being developed on
a hilltop amid rural fields to absorb part
of the population of overcrowded Glas-
gow, 14 miles away. Every phase of this
compact community of an eventual 70,-
000 population was carefully planned in
what the AIA jury called the most
comprehensive project of community
architecture to date."
As a "new town" Cumbernauld was
designed to be a self-contained com-
munity where residents for the most
part would live, work and spend their
leisure. Key features of the town cited
by the jury are:
1. Complete separation of pedes-
trian and vehicular traffic in a system
of walkways and roads. The road system
serves all needs; yet no vehicle pene-
trates into a housing area unless it has
an origin or destination there.
2. A unique multi-level town cen-
ter to extend a half-mile in length when
completed. This facility is the center of
the roadway and walkway systems, with
each entering at a different level.
3. Cumbernauld was designed as a
single community, without subdivision
into neighborhoods. An urban density-
an average of about 85 persons per acre
in the housing areas-helps make all
parts of the town within easy access of
4. Architectural design and land
planning provide a high level of ameni-
ties for daily living. Scottish traditions of
architecture have been carefully pre-
served in the thoroughly modern houses.
5. Exceptional economy was attained
in development, a necessity because of
the Scottish tradition of low rents. Most
units rent from $20 to $27 a month,
not including utilities.
Jury members were chairman Morris
Ketchum, Jr., FAIA, New York, imme-
diate past president of The American
Institute of Architects; Archibald C.
Rogers, AIA, of Baltimore; and John
Fisher-Smith, AIA, of San Francisco. The
jury visited Cumbernauld and other com-
munities before making its decision.
HOW SWEET IT
The last two issues of" The Florida
Architect have been excellent. Com-
ments by local architects on philosophy,
design critiques, urban strategy, etc. are
refreshing. The architects of Florida
should be proud of The Florida Architect
and its editor.
Wray G. Succop, A.I.A.
The new format and content of the
magazine is wonderful! Al Parker's phil-
osophy feature was beautiful if only
we could all be so beautiful!
Frank McLane, A.I.A.
The magazine is beginning to show
improvement and I congratulate you on
your efforts. Keep up the good work.
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., AIA
What can design contribute to the urban environment? In the sophisticated city of
San Francisco, a talented design team headed by architects Wurster, Bernardi & Em-
mons turned an old chocolate factory and rundown warehouses into a handsome and
lively commercial center in which people shop, stroll, dine, and admire the view.
The Ghiradelli Square project, regarded as a classic lesson in good urban design and
restoration, won both an Award of Merit and the 1666 Collaborative Achievement
Award from The American Institute of Architects.
BY PAUL McKINLEY AIA
I believe strongly in the force of individual creative effort and its effect on the
direction of the progress of man. Creativity should produce order in man's existence
and in his works. I feel also that this creativity should be propelled by an intellectual
curiosity; a proper scepticism and a zest for experimentation. Underlying and broad-
ening the effectiveness of these attitudes must be individual awareness a vital
consciousness of one's involvement; both as an individual and as an interacting force
in the whole of life a consciousness of the broader aspects of man's situation of
which creativity and architecture are but a part.
The problems of society and our time are rooted in the individual and his needs.
It is to some of these needs that the architect must address his efforts. The extent to
which awareness and deeper involvement are present is one measure of the quality
of his efforts. Architectural practice in today's society has become increasingly difficult
and challenging. It requires the discipline of constant evaluation and re-evaluation -
the obligation to personal objectivity in architecture a constant distillation process
to produce a more sensitive and competent approach. Out of this concern must grow
a conviction that architecture must go beyond a vocabulary of building materials and
an architectural idiom. Meaningful architecture must grow from an enlightened and
"involved" view of the human situation. We concede our grasp of technology and
creative talent responsive to design principles. To this must be added a third ingredi-
ent an awareness of the human situation -the dilemma of the estrangement of
man and nature; the alienation of man and man. The architect owes to his work this
vital ingredient of understanding a matrix within which technology and creativity
can combine in building more meaningful in the human sense.
A vast amount of the work of architects is basically good and the profession con-
stantly seeks to improve itself by individual and collective study and criticism. However
the noted lack of an architectural "style" or identifiable continuity of achievement in
recent times, points perhaps, to this third ingredient awareness.
The uncertainty of modern life is reflected in all the arts. We see fragmentation
of old views and the effects of the emergence of an awesome scientific technology
that has produced a trauma from which man seeks to recover and reframe the concepts
of his world. Architects, as well as the psychologists, psychiatrists, historians and soci-
ologists must reaffirm man and his place in a changing society. We as architects
must be as responsible for man as we are for his "codes" and his "budgets." Our
buildings most be more than evidences of alienation, uncertainty and discontent. They
must embody a concern for the relation of man to his society and his involvement
therein. They must reflect a deeper understanding of the entire human problem.
As today's art, literature and drama demonstrate, our problems are great and their
resolution is a major concern of thoughtful men. Hopefully architects will exert
through their insights a strong and beneficial influence. To do so is incumbent on
architects as masters of the building arts. I do not believe such understanding develops
fully as a corollary of the cumulative experience of architectural practice, but must
flow from a constant growth in human awareness and consciousness, penetrating all of
life's activities. Man's problem in our age is life itself. We are men -we are only
different in that we devote our creativity to building. If as architects we are to con-
tribute in a vital way to the emergence of man from his dilemma of alienation and
uncertainty, we must locate ourselves as a part of that difficult and changing world.
From this hopeful vantage point we then can make a more meaningful contribution to
man's world. The architect is more than builder, more than innovator, more than
artist; he is also man but with a special obligation to the search for understanding.
I have thought that possibly much art and architecture springs from a conviction
of the artist that what goes on is the result of pure creativity, rather than creativity
brought to critical focus by understanding of the human problem and of the artist
in relation to that problem. If we concede that solutions in architecture must be in
terms of the problem, then we must concede the existence of this bigger picture and
accept this framework for our efforts. Since man is involved in all architecture, these
concerns must be a determinant of the architecture of our age. We are not only
committed to design as well as we can, but in a manner to give witness to this under-
standing of man and his relation to the world. Every building cannot be a milestone,
but most certainly it can be created within a framework of consciousness as broad
as the complexity of our age and the urgency of our problems. Emerging from this
will be not only an architectural "style" definable by the historians, but something
closer to man's needs and aspirations.
John M. Johansen, Architect,
New Canaan, Connecticut
Robert B. Murphy, Supervising Architect,
Milo S. Ketchum & Partners,
John L. Altieri, Mechanical Engineer
Martin Van Buren, Inc.,
Interior Planning Consultants
Sylvan R. Shemitz, Lighting Consultants
When are they going to paint it?
How about some aluminum siding?
These and other comments not quite
so kind were typical of Orlando's initial
reaction to the new public library. The
single element that stirred most of the
controversy was the appearance of the
poured concrete exterior walls. Rough
sawn boards in random widths from three
to eight inches were placed as shown in
the detail from Johansen's working
drawings. The result after stripping the
forms is a very, rough texture with a
strong vertical line. Reveals caused by
the form boards are deep enough to cast
shadows, especially in the low sunlight
of morning and afternoon, which in-
creases the apparent roughness.
Not since the construction of Inter-
state Four through the middle of town
had the public seen so much rough ex-
posed concrete. The initial reaction was
predictable. Reason prevailed, however,
and the City Commissioners have weath-
ered the storm without recourse to paint,
stucco, or siding.
A second look can now be given to
the building and the location. Many
studies have been made by library con-
sultants recommending downtown loca-
tions for main library buildings with
branches on the perimeter of the area to
be served. The same studies also point
out the difficulty of obtaining a site
adequate in size in a downtown location,
and the usual problems of traffic and
lack of parking facilities. A trip to the
Orlando library in its downtown location
by car during the day time will serve as
a graphic reminder of those difficulties
The overall form of the building is as
strong a sculptural statement as the sur-
face treatment of the exposed concrete.
Johansen has effectively used the verti-
cal circulation elements stairs, eleva-
tors, and ramps as great solid towers
of concrete continuing through the hori-
zontal line of the roof parapet. The
vertical excoriation of the concrete on
the stair and elevator towers further em-
phasizes the apparent height and slim-
ness of these elements. Fixed glass in
precast concrete or steel frames fills in
the spaces between towers. The com-
plexity of the mullions in the glass areas,
8 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
however, tends to minimize the desir-
able contrast between solid and void.
Due to the forming material and the
release agent used, the exterior concrete
has cured to a pleasing grey green color,
and it will be interesting to see what
change, if any, weathering will cause in
the future. Forming for the specified
surface texture proved to be difficult
and several patches can be seen. Heavy
surface texture on exposed concrete can
be seen. Heavy surface texture on ex-
posed concrete can hide many imperfec-
tions in the forming and pour, but it
still can't hide the horizontal lines
caused by variations in color or mix
between successive pours.
The interior of the Orlando library is
very successful. Careful thought has been
given in the choice of color and texture
to help create the proper atmosphere for
study and reading. The large public areas
are quiet and subdued in color. Brown
and grey tones predominate and mix
well with rich wood grain. Colors become
much more lively in the children's sec-
tion and the halls, stairwells and staff
Control or security in a library is al-
ways a problem, conflicting with exit
code requirements and desirable circu-
lation problems. The Orlando library is
no exception. Of the four stair towers so
strongly expressed in both the exterior
and the interior of the building, only
one is for public use. It can become an-
noying to be drawn across a large room
to what is obviously a stair tower, only
to be rejected by a sign on the door,
"Fire Exit Only."
Lighting is well handled for architec-
tural purposes. The exterior concrete
towers are flooded either from the
ground or by large custom designed fix-
tures attached by arms to the side of
the building. All fixtures are placed to
take maximum advantage of the concrete
texture. Stack lighting is very successful
and function. Most reading areas are
well lighted, however, the choice of re-
cessed ceiling incandescent fixtures has
not worked out well, particularly in the
two-story reading rooms.
The new library has definitely made
a significant contribution to the archi-
tectural enrichment of the Orlando area.
It is a bold statement of architectural
philosophy, and has not been accom-
plished without the controversy expected
from such a strong statement. A major
public building without some adverse
public reaction is either the first perfect
building ever built or just another ex-
ample of anonymous public architecture
which happens all to often.
a 4 tW re. 3"?
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4 out of 5
new dwelling uni
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heat water electrically
An overwhelming preference for the flameless way.
There must be good reasons and architects, builders.
plumbing and heating contractors and realtors know why
and apartment units. built ir
1 965-t968 n the areassajved.
.- *ri -
**; a* e e*; jic 1r~ r %;*: .*t
.. ?* *
10 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
. ts p ,
it's profit e!
'-1. In Florida, electric water heating is by far the first choice. for
cleanliness, safety, economy and dependability.
2. Easiest to hesta-anywhere. Only an electric water heater is...
FLAMELESS, so it can be tucked away in a closet, in an unused
corner, closest to the point of maximum hot water use.
3. eeds no venting. No heat is wasted up a flue. All the heat is
concentrated inside the tank.
4. Free from by-products of combustion. No flame, no fumes, no
soot and no odor .. silent as a light bulb.
5. Insulated all around-top, sides and bottom. Stays cool to the
Touch, for safety.
6. New speedy "Quick-Recovery" models can deliver as much hot
water in 24 hours as the average family uses in 2 full weeks!
7. Completely automatic. Electric water heaters can be depended
upon to provide a constant supply of hot water, without any
s attention. b
8. Electric water heaters cost less to buy, less to use. t t
6. .Nee hot a
upn to provde^ a con tuppyof ho wate, wout ny
8..: *. Electi .ate hars c n ost les to buy to u.se.
6'. S: : : : J : ..h
JUNE, 1967 11
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
:-4.1. .4A # *
Journey of a Letter
By Sebastian Trovato
"Most can raise the flower now,
For All have got the seed."
"All have got the seed." How true. How painfully sad to see so many seeds wither and die. So few plants able to grow. So
few flowers. So many excuses!
Architects are notoriously eloquent about the many reasons for their failure to achieve their noble goals. With the ever grow-
ing pressures of our business and science oriented culture the excuses often sound credible. Man's cry for a noble and dignified
environment is often drowned in the tears of frustration shed by a profession much too quick to make excuses for its abrogation
of its artistic heritage.
The following Florida artists were asked to comment freely about Florida Architecture. Here are individually successful artists
and craftsmen who strive to master their own media, to bring beauty to man from paint and clay. Is it any wonder that they seem
unsympathetic towards a profession which calls itself an "art" and still does so little with so much.
LOWELL LOTSPEICH --- Architect
JUNE, 1967 15
CHAR ES I lLbIRUII S Painter, silversmith, potter, weaver, registered architect-
CHn n ES fl irUS artist in residence, Stetson University, Deland, Florida.
I do not intend, in this essay, to censure architects for
not including works of art in their buildings. I do intend,
however, with whatever power I can extract from the written
word, to criticize architects in Florida and elsewhere, for fail-
ing to be concerned with building works of art. My whole
thought here rests on the premise than every architect must
be an artist. An artist who is not an architect needs only to
be an artist, with all the awareness, intuition, cognition,
illumination, concern for humanity, etc., that is implied in the
word. An architect, however, must possess all these attributes
and abilities, plus the abilities usually ascribed him, for every
drawn line that becomes solid form influences every life that
touches it, and therefore the course of human events. The
architect then, must as an essential prerequisite to his commit-
ment to the profession, be an artist. Those among us who are
successful without being artists are simply a sobering testi-
mony to the level to which architecture, once the greatest of
all arts, has fallen.
Is it possible to rationalize the fall of architecture? Is it
even possible to explain it? Has the rise of technology made
architects, in the full, traditional sense of the word, obsolete?
Are we drowning men caught in the whirlpool of a tasteless
society? The answers are not clear cut, of course, and perhaps
hindsight will tell a sad truth, but it is more encouraging to
believe that architects have abdicated their position: they have
failed to create a stimulating environment for man. They have
failed to produce, with all the resources of technology at hand,
a convincing body of the most significant works of art. There
are exceptions, of course there are "Stars" in the profes-
sion (who, not incidentally, meet the requirements I would
propose) and these few real architects have established,
through no fault of their own, a pattern of "form follows
fashion". These trendsetters Rudolph, Van der Rohe, Lun-
dy, Kahn, Stone, Yamasaki, Barnes, Johansen -to name a
few, are widely imitated as soon as they give form to a new
trend of thought. The forms that have taken'them perhaps
years to develop, the rest of the members of the profession
use without reference to any continuity in their own thinking
or form evolution.
Evidence that architects have failed to produce stimulating
environment is everywhere. Our cities are so ugly that even
governmental authorities have noticed, and from time to time
make efforts to do something. Most of what they do concerns
solving immediate political problems of traffic and slum ghettos.
The solutions are seldom successful even on a purely pragmatic
level and almost never on a sociological or artistic level. Other
evidence can be seen in the "art world". The most talked
about, most followed, most stimulating artists are those con-
cerned with environmental art. These artists are trying to in-
volve people in their work trying, literally, to create an
environment to which the viewer will react, either intellectually
or emotionally. This kind of art form would probably never
have evolved if there had been more Bruce Goffs, more Paolo
Soleris, more Frank Lloyd Wrights: architects concerned with
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
just this problem of a stimulating environment.
But what is it that prevents architects from carrying out
their most important function? The tendency, of course, is to
blame everything on the unsympathetic client or the budget,
but beyond these sometimes insurmountable obstacles, there
are problems which can be dealt with. For example, knowledge
of historical styles colors much architectural thinking. I'm
talking about Greek, and Roman, and Georgian, but I'm also
talking about Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies Van der Rohe.
This knowledge of our heritage, instead of freeing and stimu-
lating most designers, has limited their thinking, has cate-
gorized types of design, has kept them within the bounds of
a borrowed esthetic discipline. Insensitive use of materials and
total disregard for external environmental factors, to cite an-
other example, has divorced man from the world of nature.
Didn't anyone listen when Wright spoke of the appropriateness
of materials, and nature of materials? Our architects have cre-
ated giant monsters which fight nature in so many ways that
most of the architects' energy is consumed in making the
structures habitable through our fortunately advanced tech-
This great American technology doesn't always work for
us, however. It has led, logically, to the product catalog, which
makes it possible to select every building component from a
catalog of mass produced items, and somehow piece them to-
gether to make a building. Design, then, becomes limited to
the manufactured item, completely divorced from anything
akin to inventiveness, continuity, or unity. This is anti-art;
it is on the level of Marcel Duchamp's "Readymades," which
were nothing more than purchased, manufactured items which
he signed and exhibited as works of art. Architects are doing
the same thing, but apparently without the knowledge that the
pieces they put together need nothing more than the archi-
tects' coveted seal to make them "Readymades".
May I suggest that part of the problem lies with-the archi-
tectural schools? Very few of them are successful, even if the
attempt is made, in providing graduates with the proper ideals
to fortify them against a hostile clientel; very few of them
graduate artist-architects, even fewer, thinkers. Most of them
graduate problem solvers, not artist-architects who will have
the ability or desire to save the world for man.
If, as I proposed here, architects have abdicated their
position by failing to create a stimulating environment for man,
then there is hope of regaining that position by reassuming
their proper roles and attitudes. I believe this is possible: in
fact, I think architects must, in the technological society to
come, assume an active role of command; they must guide
governmental officials and direct every conceivable type of
engineer, for they will be, if properly educated, singular in
their understanding of three dimensional concepts, the rela-
tionship of those concepts to nature and to man's environ-
mental needs; and they will be motivated to conceive every
architectural effort as a positive influence on the evolution of
Potter, craftsman, registered architect, assistant
professor of art, University of South Florida, Tampa.
Looking at architecture today in Florida from the viewpoint
of an artist brings memories of my past point of view as an
architect in the Central states. I recall thinking that Florida
was a far-off fairyland where palms swayed and all new build-
ings such as Victor Lundy churches and Paul Rudolph schools
made The Architectural Record. After being in Florida for
almost four years, it appears there are many more non-architect
architects and non-architecture buildings than expected.
The same conclusion follows for artists. It seems that crea-
tive manipulation of environmental space has succumbed to big
business. Few so-called architects dedicate themselves and their
lives to the idea of architectural success being the relevant in-
novative manipulation of the space we live in and breathe. Suc-
cess is gauged by how many dollars of buildings pass through
the office each year and where the architect and his family
fit into the social set. I surmise that about 10% of the read-
ers of this publication are worthy of the title "Architect."
So many buildings in the West Coast area seem to be
irrelevant, poorly conceived redundant filibuster from the past
brought forth only because compromising "architects" are
easily bought by misguided clients. Why hide behind the old
saw, "You must compromise to make a living" or "do the
bad jobs to get the good jobs." The artists today that are
worthy of consideration are those who were willing to work
dedicatedly for their ideals and happily had both the facility
and relevancy to bring them to the fore. I say the same applies
to architects. Do any of you ever become philosophical about
your existence? What has your contribution been to humanity?
The responsibility for aesthetic homicide weighs heavily on
my shoulders. The architect should take up the task of educa-
tion to bring his client to an understanding and proper per-
spective of his involvement in the architectural process. Pos-
sibly the majority of architects do not do this because of their
own lack of understanding.
I am a potter, which to me means I manipulate special
ideas just as an architect except on a much different container
scale. Pots are like people, there are all kinds; and I suppose
you accept or reject them for what they are. This is a little
difficult to do with architecture. After the act, buildings must
be lived with for many years. The architect seems to me to be
under much more ethical pressure to put forth his best possible
aesthetic effort from a continually expanding knowledge than
any of his fellow citizens. This I believe strongly because of
the powerful impact environment has on existence. Why is it
that a well designed, innovative building such as the federal
offices in Tampa (which one would assume would fail because
of federal red tape) can be successful when down the street
there are new buildings for private enterprise which aren't
even decent copies of the past? Municipal and public buildings
usually fall by the architectural wayside because their designers
are influenced by politics and existing dogma, but take a look
at the outstanding exception in Orlando the Public Library.
Could the problem be the architect? It must be the client; he
knows all about architecture. Maybe it's the budget. Then what
is Christ the King Lutheran, a beautifully conceived low-cost,
simply done little church doing in Temple Terrace? Whoever
says good contemporary design costs more doesn't think logi-
cally. Today's labor with today's machines plus today's willing-
ness to expect, not only accept, change should be inspiring for
architects. As an artist, you would think by now I would be
suggesting that architects call in painters and craftsmen to add
to the creative appeal of their buildings. Instead, I believe
architects need to involve themselves more in the other arts.
How can you separate them? There are very many so-called
architects who have very little if any understanding of the arts
as a whole. If they did, architects everywhere would be making
more use of the community of artists presently. Almost any
outstanding artist I can think of both past and present has
been or is involved in overlapping areas of art.
Painter, sculptor, assistant professor of art,
University of South Florida, Tampa.
It has been said that the primitive concept of architecture
begins with a man finding a home in a cave on a hill. The
cave offers a sense of security and protection and the hill
allows him to overlook his enemies. It also means that he not
only needs security for himself and his family and protection
from the elements but a sense of identification with a society
- friends or enemies alike. He also has to go down the hill
to seek food or to deal with his friends or his enemies.
If the concept of architecture begins with the concept of
designing an environment in which man can live and work,
then Florida architecture begins with the notion of suitability
to a very peculiar kind of space. It is that kind of space inher-
ent in the Florida landscape; a landscape which is flat, open,
expansive, although not in the same sense as a Far Western
landscape. It is peculiar because in Florida a man has no iden-
tification with the space which surrounds him, no sense of
scale. There are no mountains by which he can establish a
sense of distance and height. Everything is at the same low
level: that of almost sea level. He is constantly made aware
of this non-identification by what I would call "instant archi-
tecture" whole new instant universities; instant institutions
all pre-planned and laid down; instant hotels, motels, shopping
centers and malls, civic centers, art centers, science centers,
instant cities and retirement complexes; instant suburban
home developments. All of these consist basically of buildings
which are flat-square. They are laid down end to end in
seemingly endless rows along a horizontal plane. They are
laid down, and did not grow up organically, generally
through the process of man identifying with his surroundings
and living in them. It is put there instantly, all at once before
he comes to live in it, or it is put there not for him to live in
at all but only to look at, to pass by, admire and move on
to some other section of the country from whence he came.
He is invited only to pass through briefly. I am reminded of a
quote from Kafka which reads, "I am not of this world, I am
only passing through." These flat, square boxes are then em-
bellished with surface decoration, glass to let the outside in
(which has to be covered by some form of sunscreen to keep
the sun out). One function contradicts another until even the
surface treatment is cancelled out.
It is an architecture which is made to look "new" or "mod-
ern" (if I may use such an ambiguous term), or it is an archi-
tecture in which the "old" is merely preserved for appearance.
It is an architecture which is superficially and artificially cold,
uninviting and impersonal. It has no personality or charm in
that it has no capacity for aging as do buildings found at
Yale, and Harvard Universities, for example. As a sculptor
would say, it has no patina thdwarmth of surface which
comes from aging. Every year concrete surfaces have to be
repainted to look "new" again and if they are not maintained
thusly they do not age but deteriorate.
Florida history is not very old. The population increases
and new building surges have only come in rather recent
years. Old buildings in Florida are hardly ever more than 50
years old with the exception of St. Augustine, a vertible
museum which is superficially preserved. I say "superficially"
because some buildings there are not actually as old as they
appear. Something of a feeling of terror occurs within me
when I witness the complete tearing down of an old building
in order to construct a new reproduction in its place which
is made to look like the old one as if it were the old one
itself and had been standing there the whole time. The old
Fort in St. Augustine is a better example of an historical mon-
ument in that one can better sense a feeling of history. But
the Old Fort is made of more permanent materials and things
have been left more as they were.
I get something of the same feeling of terror in regarding
the construction of new motels in Miami Beach. Nowadays, it
is most impossible to see the beach itself for the hotels clutter
the landscape and completely obscure the beach. Each year
th multi-million dollar hotels which were constructed one or
two years before are outmoded by a newer, fancier, more plush
hotel which is now more superficially impressive to the tour-
ists. The "old" ones are either torn down or remodeled to keep
up with the pace a fantastic pace at that, in which no one
can foresee where it will lead. What will they do next in Miami
Beach? There is no more room to spread out so the tendency
is toward "Little New York." The move is now.upward.
Old buildings, especially wooden ones, do deteriorate. In
Florida the climate and weather conditions are such that things
deteriorate or become overgrown with shrubs, trees, etc., more
quickly than other areas of the country. It has been only dur-
ing the last 20 years or so that we have begun to use concrete
block. Yet we seem to be concerned with a more ephemeral
and transitory kind of building than the notion of permanence
The average amount of time a family lives in one home
is no more than five years. We do not build houses for one
family but to satisfy several families who might live in that
same home. The construction is generalized and standardized
not only for the purpose of satisfying the needs of several
families but to make mass produced homes (suburban proj-
ects) easier to construct rapidly prefabricated instant boxes,
lined up in rows which all look basically alike, the product of
a computer oriented society. Even the so-called "custom-
designed" homes are gathered together in a common urban
project in which certain aspects are still standardized. Every-
one has a lawn of a certain size and the distances between
homes are the same, and so on. We lose our individuality
once again because of lack of personal identity and planned
obsolescence. All over Florida there are thousands of homes
which are going to seed. Nobody lives in them because they
are obsolete just so many more "new" homes for the gov-
ernment to dispose of. People do not buy and renovate an old
house very often. They build a new one which five years or so
later they move out of just one more surplus home.
Some of the homes built a few years ago along the lines
of Spanish influences have more charm in that they have more
capacity for gracious aging. They were not planned for obso-
lescence. They are more organic in that they are historically
more well rooted and suited to the landscape, as are for ex-
ample, hacienda type homes in Arizona and New Mexico, which
came from their environment and history. The earlier cliff
dwellings in that part of the country were a prime example
of organic architecture. In Florida, the A-frame construction
seems to fit its environment rather well and it is also histori-
cally well rooted. Our first influence in Florida, we remember,
were the Spaniards and the Indians. This is to say that there
are some examples of architecture in Florida in which an
imaginative use of basic structure has resulted in a well-
founded and suitable organic function.
Most of Florida architecture, however, is not only inorganic
in the sense mentioned above, but as planned obsolescence is
poorly planned. It is perhaps old fashioned nowadays to think
in terms of permanence. In an age where art has shifted to
more ephemeral and transient modes of expression such as
happenings and throw-away art, I am sure that many exciting
innovations are possible within the concept of disposable archi-
tecture as a natural development of prefabrication. But when
and if that development results in row upon row of waste
homes, like ghost towns of the West, it will be no better than
the pine trees and palmetto bushes which they replace. We
are filling in the swamps to make unusable land useful. I
question the use we are planning for it.
As long as these conditions continue to exist; as long as
the Floridian is treated as a tourist; invited briefly to attend,
to notice and perhaps be even overwhelmed by a surface
superficiality, his experience with his environment at best can
only be a brief encounter, totally lacking in depth. At that, he
can never really hope to establish anything of value in his
living. We become a generation of nomads traveling from
place to place in search of some kind of meaningful identifi-
cation with the society and the landscape in which we live and
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Painter, printmaker, staff-Jacksonville Art
Museum, art teacher-Duval county schools.
Art may be essentially identifiable as invention; invention
of means of expression which produces a newness of idea,
theme and form. The discovery of new expression and struc-
ture is individually determined.
The artist and the architect may individually interpret
the relationship of idea, the arts, and architecture and come
forth with a unified order of structure and visual statement.
The artist and architect are concerned with order. Each
possesses the desire to invent, create, relate and communicate.
The realization of creative ideas through expressive means
calls for sound physical, sensual, spiritual and intellectual
The artist and architect should be aware of what consti-
tutes professional criteria to bring about related creations of
The architect should be aware of the arts, comparisons of
good and inferior, examples in all art forms. The artist must
be knowledgeable of structure and space. Each to possess the
capacity to see with understanding in order to relate arts and
architecture. The artist, if he is to become involved with the
enhancement of architecture must understand the architect's
concept of design, space and material.
The Florida Arcihtect could become aware of the numbers
of professional artists in the state of Florida whose abilities
could be called upon to enhance space and place.
The architect should clearly state such matters as concept
of design, purpose, function of a particular structure to the
artist. Time allowed for a given project should be stated and
amount payable to the artist for design, execution of, super-
vision of installation, etc., clearly understood by the artist and
The idea of catalogue selection, "canned artifacts" and
appointments to enhance architectural creations are seldom
related, nor beautiful, nor are found to be less -expensive than
original works of art. More often it is an unfortunate compro-
mise that detracts from the architect's original concept of
function and beauty. Often, the professional artist has in exist-
ence works of art, paintings, prints, sculpture, pottery, weav-
ings which are available to the architect; for his consideration
and selection, to be housed as an enhancement to architecture
and in turn become a visual experience to those who pass
within viewing distance.
Art director, Brothers Bogusky Design Studio,
Miami, potter, sculptor.
Architecture the noblest of arts?
The ability to mold stone and wood into a visual expression
is a gratifying art. To deed this creation with a philosophy of
life and to give it function that can physically fulfill our every
sense must be considered a noble art. ,
To apply this concept to Florida architecture is to realize
the difficulties that must be overcome before she reaches her
It cannot be argued that the South Florida populace is
sheltered as well as any society behind our Dade Gothic, Hia-
leah Colonial and Miami Beach Modern facades.
But is this shelter enough? I think not. Florida is in dire
need of an architectural philosophy that will evolve from the
very essence of its sub-tropical climate. It is time to shed the
architectural skin that has been borrowed, reworked and that
is now destroying natural resources which have enticed a mil-
lion residents to settle in our state.
You, our architects, must give birth to an architecture that
does not ensnare us within four walls, an architecture that
does not close out our flowers, trees and birds. Movable walls,
roll away ceilings, solar screens, air screens are your tools of
an advanced technology a technology that promises an
architecture that will create a bond with nature and not
Expensive? Can good architecture be shared by all classes
of society? My wife and I, in planning our home, find it no
easy matter to co-ordinate quality and budget. But to com-
promise and buy architecture by the lowest cost per square
foot will only cheat us of years of living enjoyment.
Your challenge is a great one. Let your voices be heard,
survey, guide your zoning and tax boards, work closely with
your real estate editors and urge experimentation by your
Teach us through lectures and exhibitions. Teach our
children through new programs in school curriculums. Why
should architectural study be reserved for graduate level when
it is one of our most used facilities.
But, if you cannot meet this challenge, time may prove
to be your ally. It is said that "time mellows many things."
To those architects who have maintained their ideals and
strive to make our Florida architecture stand out rather than
stick out, I say, thank you.
See Cover and p. 15
Painter, Miami, Florida.
Prizewinner in many national shows, represented
in national galleries and collections.
If one can imagine the city as a heart,
and its beat the people living within its
environment, the analogy would just
about approximate the general idea of
what I consider a city to be. Some of
the environment would be physical, such
as light, space, air, etc., and others
such as psychological, emotional and
social. As an Artist I shall comment
mainly from a standpoint of esthetics.
The subject: Florida architecture, spe-
cifically Miami, my residence. First I
must mention that we in South Florida
are fortunately endowed with one of the
world's ideal climates, a fact that should
make a landscape architect very jolly
with our 365 green days plus a variety
of foliage, trees and abundant limestone.
Yet if one takes a second look around
the former mentioned items are not
properly used even in a mediocre man-
ner. Except for a smattering of good
architectural planning I find Miami on a
slow perpetual road to blight and de-
cadence, and it's reaching a point where a
complete overhaul is physically and fi-
nancially impossible. Something must be
done quickly! Zoning, the key to good
city planning, has become a political
football, kicked around at the expense
of Mr. John Q. Pressures have been
brought on Zoning Boards by unscrupu-
lous individuals to destroy or "Rezone"
for lightening profits, resulting in the
destruction of the original well planned
Rx: Complete new urban planning,
headed by a board of this city's most
creative architects. This planning and
operation must not be limited to slums
or badly blighted neighborhoods, but a
gradual normalization of all communities
realized. We are a new city and new
avenues of approach can be arrived at.
All Zoning must be acutely scrutinized.
This should bring about a creative so-
city with people as the generators, their
creative activities their aim and physical
element as their tools. Open spaces be-
tween structural masses should be the
main goal. This City has a definite lack
of parks and may I sadly add, public
beaches. Paris has Le Bois du Bulogne;
Rome has its many villas; Venice its
Lido and Canals even New York has
Central Park. Old Buildings must not be
torn down only to be replaced by new
facades. Too much architecture in Mi-
ami is all front and no back, giving the
appearance in many instances of a gi-
gantic sprawling movie lot. Architecture
in buildings must be moving constantly.
Architectural structure should be sensual,
and 'schmalz' should be avoided.
Interama is diligently approaching this
goal in such a manner. Let us hope that
the cup runneth over in the Metropolis
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
A truck stop goes
with Caterpillar engines
For the past 25,000 hours, Caterpillar G333 engines
have been generating power for the Commercial
Truck Terminal in Haines City. Total loss of power
in this time has only been 40 minutes.
Every minute counts for these engines. They
have a big job supplying total energy (el-:rr.:i, ',
hot water, air conditioning, and heat) for a 61-seat
restaurant, a 15-ton ice plant, a 28-unit motel, an
all-electric tire recapping shop, complete truck
garage facilities, a barber shop, a launderette and
a bunk house.
This big job for the Commercial Truck Terminal
by these C a-ip.il~. r natural gas engines is being
done for about half the cost of outside power.
No matter what your needs -prime power or
stand-by power -contact your Florida Caterpillar
Dealer, he can assist in engineering Caterpillar
capabilities to fit your needs.
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
JOS. L. ROZIER
MIAMI WEST PALM BEACH CLEWISTON FT. MYERS
JACKSONVILLE TALLAHASSEE OCALA
Caterpi I lar, Cat and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpi I lar Tractor Co.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulation
Publication at Miami, Fla.
University of Florida : trbri3es
Gainesville, Fla. 10
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