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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
Letter to the editor
Feature: New college
The case for accessibility
What is architectural philosophy
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
vi `'ir *3
p1't1 i IdP Alnrs leIarl16
THE PRESIDEnT'S MESSAGE
The ides of March are past
and spring is with us. In Florida
this means Legislative Session is
in full swing. Once more the hal-
lowed halls of our Capitol are
filled with the ringing voices of
our elected representatives who
have come to wrestle with the
multifarious problems of state
government taxes, education,
crime, efficiency, roads, budgets
-and all the other perplexing
questions they are called upon to
answer. In addition to the usual
responsibilities, this convocation
has been assigned the monu-
mental task of rewriting the Flor-
ida constitution. All this to be
done by a group of which a ma-
jority lack any legislative experi-
However, it does not follow
that these freshmen legislators
are any less sincere and dedicated
to accomplish the best for the
people of our state than might
be expected from others with
more experience. In fact, their
uncalloused enthusiasm and
sheer determination may well
produce results more satisfactory
than may be expected of cal-
But the fact remains that these
people will be getting on-the-job
training and need all the help
they can get. The legislative pro-
cess is, at best, tedious and time
consuming. No one person can
be expected to be intimately fa-
miliar with the multplicity of
subjects confronting a legislative
body. We have been told on
numerous occasions by those of
great experience in legislative
matters, that they must depend
on advice and counsel of those
considered expert in each of the
many subjects they must con-
sider. These men have indicated
that this counsel is not only wel-
come, but is actively sought from
those qualified. It is reasonable
to assume that those of less ex-
perience will have even more
reason to seek out this advice.
One rule of the game is that
those who offer such advice
must be qualified on the parti-
Scular subject about which one
seeks to counsel. All too often
those most qualified have re-
mained silent or too soft spoken
for fear of controversial en-
tanglement or an unwillingness
to take the time, and others less
qualified or not qualified but
with selfish interest at heart have
taken time and made the effort
to be heard, but loud and clear.
The results most often have not
been in the public interest and
at times catastrophic to that
No industry in the state more
sorely needs the attention and
studious consideration of our
legislature than the construction
industry. Ranking with agri-busi-
ness and tourism as one of Flor-
ida's strongest socio-economic
influences, it is so diverse and
loosely organized that it has
been misunderstood and has re-
mained uncoordinated, thereby
prevented from rendering its
best service. Certainly architects
are qualified as no other group
to render advice and to counsel
on the problems and solutions of
the construction industry. We
can and we must.
This association and its mem-
bership have long advocated leg-
islative study of the construction
industry as a whole. We have
had legislative programs aimed
at improvements in the public
interest, but our pleas have fall-
en on deaf ears. We must now
speak with a strong voice and be
willing to sacrifice individual
time and energy if we are to be
an effective voice in matters con-
cerning the industry of which
our service is such a vital part.
In the past we have been
prone to decide what is good and
what should be done, then leave
the doing to others. The results
are history. We have been told
by competent counsel that suc-
cess can only be proportionate to
the amount of individual effort
each of us is willing to expend.
We must be as minute men-
ready, able and willing at a mo-
ment's notice to take action, as
requested-or conceivably, not to
act. But in any case, we must
listen carefully to directions
given and be prepared to act.
These individual actions must
be coordinated with an overall
plan and conducted in concert
to produce desired results. The
plan is devised. The score is writ-
ten. The conductor is at his po-
dium. His baton is poised. Each
of us must be ready for the
downbeat, when the call is
HILLIARD T. SMITH, JR., AIA
of the american
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., President
1123 Crestwood Blvd., Lake Worth, Florida
Herbert R. Savage, President Designate/Vice President
3250 S. W. 3rd Avenue, Miami, Florida
Myrl Hanes, Secretary
P. O. Box 609, Gainesville, Florida
H. Leslie Walker, Treasurer
Citizens Building, Suite 1218, 706 Franklin St., Tampa, Fla.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Broward County Charles R. Kerley / Robert E. Todd
Daytona Beach David A. Leete / Tom Jannetides
Florida Central J. A. Wohlberg / Ted Fasnacht
James J. Jennewein
Florida Gulf Coast Frank Folsom Smith / Jack West
Florida North F. Blair Reeves / William C. Grobe
Florida North Central Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Ellis W. Bullock, Jr.. / Thomas H. Daniels
Florida South Robert J. Boerema / James E. Ferguson, Jr.
Francis E. Telesca
Jacksonville A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr. / Roy M. Pooley, Jr.
John Pierce Stevens
Mid-Florida Wythe D. Sims, II / Joseph M. Shifalo
Palm Beach Jack Willson, Jr. / John B. Marion
Richard E. Pryor
Director, Florida Region, American Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, 1600 N. W. LeJeune Rd., Miami
Executive Director, Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
Donald Singer / Milton C. Harry / Lowell L. Lotspeich
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
Donald Singer / Assistant Editor
Black-Baker-Burton / Photography Consultants
M. Elaine Mead / Circulatiop Manager
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institut of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, ; Florida Corporation not for-.
profit. It is published monthly at the Executive Office of thel
Association, 1000 Ponce de Leon Rlvd&, Coral Gables, Florida 33134 '
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305.). Circulation: distributed with-
out charge to 4,669 registered architects, builders, contractors, de-
signers, engineers and members of allied fields throughout the state
of Florida-and to leading financial 'institutions, national acrhitec-
tural firms and journals. '.
Editorial contributions, including plans and photograihs of archi-
tects' work, are welcomed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA publications, pro-
vided full credit is given to the author and to The FLORIDA
ARCHITECT for prior use. Controlled circulation postage
paid at Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; subscription, $5.00
per year. February Roster Issue, $2.00 McMurray Printers.
Inside Front Cover
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
FEATURE: NEW COLLEGE
I. M. Pei, Architect
THE CASE FOR ACCESSIBILITY
by Dr. Don A. Halperin
WHAT IS ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHY
by Robert C. Broward
FRONT COVER The span of three generations separates
the eldest and the youngest of the Jacksonville Arcihtects
represented in this issue on Achitectural Philosophy, but there
is no separation wherein ideals are concerned. Mellen C.
Greeley, F.A.I.A., holds Florida registration No. 26. Herschel
E. Shepard, A.I.A., No. 2976. Photo by Judith Gefter.
VOLUME 17 NUMBER 4 1967
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
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-We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
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OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.
Represented in Florida by
RICHARD C. ROYSUM
10247 Colonial Court North
1000 Ponce de Leon
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
Telephone: (904) 724-7958
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
John C. Turner, senior archi-
tectural major at the University
of Florida, who drowned Easter
Sunday while skindiving, was bur-
ied at Miami Thursday (March
Turner was two weeks from
completion of his senior design
thesis at the time of his death.
He was to receive his Bachelor of
Architecture degree this April,
after five years of study.
On Monday (March 27) Tur-
ner's fellow members of the Stu-
dent Associate Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects
and the faculty of the Depart-
ment of Architecture voted unan-
imously to recommend that he be
awarded his degree in Architec-
Attending Turner's funeral
were his family, friends, and the
members of his senior class.
THE ASSOCIATION EXTENDS ITS MOST SINCERE SYMPATHY TO THE TURNER FAMILY.
PERSPECTIVE LAYCE HONOR
L. G. WILLIS
U. F. SKETCH PROBLEM BECOMES REALITY
The Sarasota County Recreation De-
partment announced plans to erect a
series of shelters on many of the County's
Gulf beaches and island parks. Tom
Kincaid, Architect, AIA, and his partner
Tollyn Twitchell read the newspaper ac-
counts and then discussed the shelter
program with Walter Rothenbach, County
Recreation Director. Mr. Rothenbach ex-
plained that the Department had received
several crudely constructed shelters when
a local business found that its shelter
sales were not as brisk as had been anti-
cipated. The County planned on repro-
ducing the shelters in great numbers.
Mr. Rothenbach agreed that the shelter
would constitute a major design element
on the County's beaches and welcomed
the chance to up-grade the design of the
HISTORY: Early in 1966, the Jackson-
ville Chapter of The American Institute
of Architects and the Northeastern Flor-
ida Chapter of the Associated General
Contractors of America agreed that com-
mon problems should be discussed, a
joint effort made to resolve them, and
recommendations prepared and dissemin-
ated within the industry.
COUNCIL: Accordingly, each Chapter
selected nine members to form the AIA-
AGC Council, to meet monthly and pro-
ceed in such manner.
PURPOSE: To prepare and make available
information that will be helpful in con-
ducting our business relationships and to
standardize, to a degree, such routine
matters. Being the end product of the
experiences and knowledge of many in-
dividuals, the resulting recommendations
should be a helpful guide and a time
"BLUE BOOK": It has been decided to
disseminate the output of the Council by
the creation of a reference manual cov-
Mr. Kincaid remembered his student
days at the University of Florida and the
extra excitement and enthusiasm gener-
ated by solving real problems for actual
clients and suggested the possibility of
a shelter sketch competition for univer-
sity students. The possibility of a sketch
problem was discussed with Florida Uni-
versity Professor and Architect Harry
Merritt who, without hesitation, sched-
uled a sketch problem for his class of
A modification of Sam Evans' design
was selected for construction of the first
series of 12 shelters (see photograph).
It is significant to note that the cost of
each shelter was $115.00 less than the
originally proposed structure and that
all were found intact after Hurricane
ering practices and procedures for bid-
ding and performing work. The manual is
issued as a loose-leaf binder containing
pertinent nationally prepared documents,
supplemented by locally prepared supple-
ments and provides sufficient capacity
for inserting pages on additional matters
as they are developed. Additional as well
as revised pages will be sent, without
additional charge, to registered holders
of the "Blue Book" manuals.
USE: Recommendations of the Council
are specific within the areas of their ap-
plicability but should not be applied to
areas of interest that are not common to
this Council. When you encounter prob-
lems not presently covered, or an exist-
ing recommendation that is questionable,
bring this to the attention of a member
of the Council in order that the subject
may be placed on the agenda for study.
The Council believes that wide-spread
use of the "Blue Book" will improve
working conditions and relations within
the Construction Industry.
A 35-year-old Jacksonville architect,
Lynwood G. Willis, is the recipient of the
1966-67 "Distinguished Service Award"
from the Jacksonville Jaycees.
The award is presented annually to a
man between the ages of 21 and 35, not
necessarily a Jaycee, who has distin-
guished himself through civic service and
accomplishment in his vocation or pro-
Willis, a graduate of Georgia Tech,
was cited for service on the boards of the
Gator Bowl Association, the Jacksonville
Jaycees, the Volunteers of America and
the Opportunity Branch of the YMCA.
How do you keep kids in public hous-
ing projects off the grass and, at the
same time, give adult residents an out-
door haven in the densely built-up city?
You replace the grass with outdoor
"rooms" and imaginatively-designed play
areas, as has been done in New York
City's Riis Plaza. Originally, the grassy
mall, flanked by high-rise apartment
buildings, was barred to residents by
chain-link fences. The policy not only
kept residents from enjoying the prop-
erty the fences were broken down by
children. Working under a grant from
the Vincent Astor Foundation, architects
Pomerance & Blreines and landscape ar-
chitect M. Paul Friedberg ruled out
fences and "keep off" signs and rede-
signed the 3'/2-acre mall as a series of
outdoor "rooms" with active and quiet
spaces defined by flowing brick walls.
Mature trees were retained. Sculpture
and paintings of bristly hawthorne were
used as design elements. This view shows
a section of the unconventional play-
ground, whose simple structure encour-
ages countless games. The mall now is
used not only by the 8,000, residents, but
by thousands of visitors.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
From the 16th thru the 26th of March
the Orlando Art Association and the Mid-
Florida Chapter of the F.A.A. sponsored
an exhibit of architectural drawings and
models at the Loch Haven Art Center in
The exhibit entitled "The Still-Born"
was a collection of "works which (had)
been conceived in the Architect's mind,
(had) suffered all the pangs of creation
and then (had been) relegated to the
dust-gathering shelves in the back room
for various and sundry reasons." The
projects presented were by architects
Dan Branch, Robert Broward, Robert
Browne, Gene Leedy, Lowell Lotspeich,
William Morgan, Alfred Browning Parker,
William Rupp, Nils Schweizer, Don
Singer, Kenneth Treister-and Charles
We compliment the Orlando Art Asso-
ciation and the Mid-Florida Chapter for
a fine exhibit in the name of architec-
ture, and we thank Nils Schweizer, who
was responsible for gathering together
the material, for his insight.
TO THE EDITOR
I was pleased to see that the March issue
of THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT contained
a picture of the proposed legislative
building. I feel that the architectural pro-
fession can render a great service in the
improvement of public design by encour-
aging informed criticism. I look forward
to reading the comments of your mem-
bership on the proposed building.
D. Robert Graham
Representative, Dade County
I am looking at the March issue in which
you display the rendering of the new
Legislature building in Tallahassee.
Having lived in Washington D. C. for
some time and also having visited Talla-
hassee many times, as my wife went to
college there, please believe me when I
say I am shocked that in this day and
age that public-architecture design seems
to be a sort of "fence stradling design,"
having its columns planted in the late
eighteen hundreds, neoclassic, but it bold
window panels and the parapet design
fitting the buildings at Merritt Island
It is unfortunate that Florida has to suf-
fer from such poor political architecture.
If the Association has any vote at all, I
know it will vote this building down as
not significant enough for Florida nor
Victor E. DeKonschin A.I.A.
I have observed the photo of the model
of the proposed Legislative building in
Tallahassee and I have duly noted your
request for comments.
In this regard, I have only one. If my
eyes do not deceive me, I believe there
is a mural of sorts on the side of the
portico, which would only serve to
cheapen the building and the dignity
with which it should be associated.
The mural on the side of the Bacardi
building in Miami is an eyesore, but there
is precious little we can do about that
now. In my opinion, murals have a place,
but only on the outside of Art Museums,
Cultural Exchange buildings, etc., and
then, only after a great deal of thought
Compressed Concrete Corp.
. Enjoyed the issue of "Florida Archi-
tect" especially the portion on Primitive
One other item caught my eye if
that is a photo of a "model" of the pro-
posed Legislative Building shown on page
6, I'll eat it (in your presence). It looks
like a rendering to me and a medi-
ocre one at- that. Am I right, or do I
Although it is always difficult for an
Architect to evaluate a building without
knowledge of the program, this one looks
very poor and is, in my opinion, falling
far short of the dynamic, progressive
image which Florida professes to pro-
Robert J. Boerema, A.I.A.
Editor's Note: Put away your mustard,
Bob, it was a rendering!
The proposed Legislative Building ap-
pears to be a beautiful example of
Washington, D. C. Monumental Bad
If it is possible to vote against someone
to prevent this disaster from occurring,
please let me know.
Stephen J. Ginochio A.I.A.
It's only natural that that is the proposed
It's from that old period called "Late
Stephen M. Davis A.I.A.
I thoroughly enjoyed your essay in the
March issue of "Florida Architect" on
Primtive Florida Architecture.
I experienced a great nostalgia for the
many boyhood hunting excursions
through West Florida with my father. He
had friends tucked away in every ham-
mock and hollow, where the bird shoot-
ing was good, many of whom lived in
just such structures.
I suppose that enjoying these buildings
functionally as well as visually has had
as great an influence on my own build-
ings as anything else.
Robert B. Browne A.I.A.
New College was founded in Sarasota
in 1960 by a self-perpetuating Board of
Trustees. From the ouset, the college
sought to create a high-quality program
and it enlisted fine faculty and excellent
students. First classes were held in 1964.
Architecture was considered to be vital
to the development of the college and in
the spring of 1963 with the assistance of
a grant from Educational Facilities Lab-
oratories the college set out on a unique
architect selection process.
A special Board of Trustee subcom-
mittee, working with an advisory board,
made up of outstanding national figures
in architecture, selected nine firms and
invited them to visit the campus and
become acquainted with the spirit and
educational philosophy of the college.
The nine were: The Architects Collab-
orative; John McL. Johansen; Louis I.
Kahn; Ernest J .Kump; I. M. Pei; John
Lyon Reid; Eero Saarinen Associates;
John Carl Warnecke; and Harry Weese.
Together the group visited the college
and spent two days touring the area and
hearing the college present its plans.
Then the nine were invited to return to
present individual concepts of the philos-
ophy and design of the campus and its
After the individual interviews, the
Board of Trustees selected I. M. Pei as
its architect and the design process began
The first phase, completed in the
summer of 1965, consisted of three
major buildings connected by a central
court. Each of the buildings in turn was
interlaced with gradually decreasing-
sized courts. In each building there were
34 rooms, each housing two students.
Each room had a private entry, private
bath, air conditioning, and the architect
designed the project so that each build-
ing resembled a small Mediterranean
The next two phases include a dining
and student center building and a class-
room building. Phase II contains a dining
room seating 350, lobby, lounge, private
dining rooms, and snack bar.
The following have been involved in
New College East Campus development:
I. M. Pei & Associates-Architects and
planners, New York City. Shelton Peed,
Design Architect of I. M. Pei.
Bert Brosmith of Sarasota Supervising
Architect for Phase I.
Weiskopf & Pickworth, Structural Engi-
neers, New York City.
Ebaugh and Goethe Inc. Mechanical
Engineers, Gainesville, Florida.
Lane Marshall, Landscape Architect, Sar-
James A. Knowles, General Contractor,
St. Petersburg, Florida-Phase I.
Settecasi and Chillura-General Contrac-
tor, Tampa, Florida-Phases II & II 1/2.
Graham Contracting, Orlando, Florida-
Phases II & 111/2.
Cement: Concrete= Sunshine: Florida
Yes, just as this simple ratio states cement is
to concrete as sunshine is to Florida. We all know
the important role Florida's delightful. Near-round
climate has played in the state's tremendous
growth over the past twenty years.
Even more significant is what an adequatcn
amount of cement means to concrete. It is
portland cement that makes concrete the number
one construction material .. be it patios or
high-rise buildings. highways or seawalls.
Basic concrete mix formulas are designed to
use only enough cement to insure maximum
strength. durability, stability, watertightness and
other characteristics of quality concrete.
A significant reduction in cement content in
a mix cuts the concrete quality in one \way or
another... be it the use of too much water, or
replacing cement with so-called "extenders"
Unfortunately, the undesirable effects of
such cutting may not show up until long after the
concrete is in use. Strength readings alone don't
tell even thing, especially about durability.
The fact is there's no substitute for portland
cement in concrete. It is with good reason that
there should be absolute insistence on accurate
and adequate cement content.
If you have any questions on the proper design
of concrete mixes or any other phase of design
and construction, the Portland Cement Association
has a staff of trained specialists ready to assist
you. Feel free to call on them at any time.
S.,-.., PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION
1612 East Coloniil Drive. Orlando, Florida 32803
Art orgoitiiallon ',o Ccineil i ianufictr( i-rlli itmlpr'ovt and cth t ld Ithe tt e of pdrlhtnd Lt LI'el Irl ad corlln r
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
'T-jF I -1~4
RI A 'i,7
Curtain walls of blue Glasweld sandwich panels. Galaxy Apartments, Long Beach, Calif. L. S. Whaley & Son, Owner, Builder. Arch: Hugh Gibbs & Donald Gibbs. A. I. A.. Lone Beach
5 a I
0 i -0
(a) Glasweld is an exterior
grade, steam cured, asbestos
reinforced panel with an all
mineral enamel surface. l1
(b) Glasweld's surface and
base sheet are completely in-
2. Sizes and Thicknesses. I .
Glasweld can be furnished in
1V", 3/1", 4" and /16" thick- M ilr-
nesses. The s1" panels are
available in 48" x 96" sheets,
all other thicknesses in 48" x 96" and 48" x 120". Sheets
are also available with YV6" perforations spaced i3/j" on
centers in V1/" thicknesses.
Glasweld has the following properties:
(a) It is 100% incombustible.
(b) It is fully waterproof.
(c) It is dimensionally stable.
(d) It is highly chemical and abrasion resistant.
(e) It is flat and non-warping.
(Glasweld installations in the United States and Canada
since 1957 have performed with complete satisfaction.)
Glasweld can be employed for a wide variety of decorative,
durable and structural exterior and interior applications:
Fascias Balcony dividers
Soffits Wainscoting and wall
Window inserts paneling
Ceilings (perforated Column facings
or plain) Counter tops
Railing panels Facades
Fixed and movable Sliding doors
partition components Walk-in freezer panels
Double-faced Glasweld can be obtained by permanently
laminating single-faced panels back-to-back in the factory,
or by bonding back-to-back with mastic, on the site.
5. Cutting and Drilling.
(a) When Glasweld is not ordered cut-to-size from the fac-
tory, local shop-cutting is generally more economical
and more satisfactory than site fabrication. Shops
handling cement asbestos boards can hold close tol-
erances with Glasweld and can handle materials more
rapidly than is possible in the field.
(1) For most applications heavy industrial shears can
be used for cutting Glasweld.
(2) Satisfactory cuts may be made with carborundum
discs, diamond blades and some tungsten carbide
(3) Curves or unusual shapes may be cut with band
saw nibbling devices or special plastic-cutting
(c) Job-Site Cutting:
(1) While Vs" Glasweld need be scored on only one
side, thicker panels should be scored both sides
and broken on a straight edge, with "C" clamps
securing the panel close to the scored line over
the edge of a table. The Glasweld shall be placed
,face up over a straight edged support close to the
scored line and broken with an even pressure
exerted from one edge.
For Additional Information *
Call the Following U.S. ilyW
Distribution Points 777 Third Avenue,
777 Third Avenue,
New York, N. Y. 10017.
West Palm Beach
Glasweld is a flat,
exterior grade all mineral panel.
Blue Glasweld sandwich panels, Galaxy Apt's, Long Beach, Calif.
(2) Power saws using rein-
when large quantities of
straight cuts are required.
(3) For circular cuts or
curves, portable nibblers,
saber saws, and shingle
cutters have proved suc-
(4) Smooth beveled edges
may be obtained by
chamfering with a carbo-
rundum flocked steel file,
inserted in a 2 x 4 block.
Glasweld is stocked in 24 standard colors in a", 4' x 8'
and 4' x 10'. Some /" and 3/6" are also available for im-
mediate shipment. Special colors may be specified to be
formulated to match swatches or chips submitted. Factory
samples of limited production runs will be offered for
approval before manufacturing.
7. Installation Methods.
(a) Glasweld is bonded by adhesives and secured with
(b) U.S. Plywood Corporation does not guarantee perform-
ance of any adhesives, mastics, sealants, caulking
compounds or glazing compounds used in conjunction
with Glasweld. All panels must be mechanically sup-
ported top and bottom when mastics are used.
U.S. PLYWOOD CORPORATION guarantees that Glasweld
Sheets will retain their structural integrity for the LIFE OF
THE BUILDING on which they are installed. U.S. Plywood
Corporation guarantees the colorfastness of its Glasweld
Sheets, when used for exterior applications, for ten years
from the date of sale by U.S. Plywood Corporation, and
BUILDING in which they are installed.
Any Glasweld Sheets covered by this guarantee which,
upon inspection by the architect and an authorized rep-
resentative of U. S. Plywood Corporation, are found by the
architect and said representative to have faded or be
defective will be replaced, or at the option of U. S. Plywood
Corporation, the purchase price of the material will be
This guarantee is applicable only when the products cov-
ered by it have been installed in accordance with the
recommended written installation instructions of U. S.
Plywood Corporation and with established building prac-
tices, have been accorded treatment which is considered
good practice in the .uioirig industry regarding stor-
age and maintenance, and have been subjected only to
This guarantee constitutes the sole liability of U. S. Ply-
wood Corporation relating to the described products AND
IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, IN LAW OR IN FACT, INCLUDING THE WAR-
RANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
9. Availability and Technical Services.
Glasweld is available through 135 U. S. Plywood Corpora-
tion branches. Our Architects' Service Representatives
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problems and in suggesting specifications.
THE CASE FOR
DR. DON A. HALPERIN
The author, Dr. Don A. Halperin, is a practising
Gainesville Architect and one of few Architects
holding a Doctorate (Eng.). He is a professor of
building construction at the School of Architecture
and Fine Arts, University of Florida, Gainesville. He
is a registered Architect both here and in Ohio.
He is a member of the Society for Accessible
Construction and serves as professional consultant
to this organization. He is also, Chairman of the
Accessibility Committee of the Florida Governor's
Committee on Employment of the Handicapped and
consultant to the Florida Plan for Workshops and
Rehabilitation Facilities. He was a member of the
faculty of the National Institute on Accessibility,
The problem of architectural barriers is actually a very
small part of a much larger problem. It is a specialized case of
a general condition and once we have solved the encompassing
difficulty the particular solution will automatically be satisfied.
If all of this sounds something like modern math, it is
meant to. It is a condition of our existence today, generated by
an exploding technology, an exploding body of knowledge, and
an exploding population. The problems are generated and
remarkably the solutions are evolved simultaneously from all
the facts and factors which constitute our planet as it exists in
the 20th Century. Not too long gao most people who are now
living a full life with the aid of some sort of mechanical devices
might well have died either in infancy or shortly after the
crippling disease or catastrophe hit them. Medical knowledge,
which encompasses physical therapy, pharmacy, diagnosis and
treatment, has kept them alive as useful citizens.
This same medical knowledge has obviously been a most
important factor in keeping alive all people, at birth, through-
out their training and productive years, and in their golden age
of retirement. With more people in the world there are ob-
viously more who are in research, producing more medical
knowledge and so we have an ever increasing logarithmic spiral,
open-ended and expanding.
The largest single result of this proliferation has been
an enormous contribution to the population explosion. The
tremendous increase in the number of people inhabiting the
earth is a tangible fact, not a methematical proposition. It is
real, it is existing and it is getting worse in that it, too, in
terms of sheer numbers, is an open-ended logarithmic spiral.
There is no need for us to concern ourselves here with solutions
to the problems of food, or clothing, or shelter, or to attempt
to prescribe a method of controlling the increase in the number
of people, even though some have said that people are the
cancer of the earth. Let us rather consider only the problems of
transportation, both horizontal and vertical. We shall soon see
that when these are solved we will have automatically elimi-
nated the problems of architectural barriers.
Quite obviously the population of our cities will continue to
increase, so that the cities will become evermore crowded, as
will the counties, states, and the nation. It is also apparent that
our urban-centered American civilization will have more leisure
time, resulting in more and more travel. The design of our
highways and the interrelationship of bus, train, and air media
are not of our present concern since an excellent group of
trained minds is already atmwork on these problems. But, let us
consider the individual vehicles involved, and let us not forget
either that a vast multitude is daily travelling from residential
areas to commercial centers with resulting densification of local
transportation problems. Thus, autos, buses and streetcars
(which are really local trains) must be designed to handle large
numbers of people much more efficiently than they are doing
at present. It just doesn't make sense to have buses with tiny
little doors and several steps at the entrance and exit, when
these vehicles must load and unload hundreds of people in a
short period of time. The tiny doors and the steps create a time
delay at every stop. The additional cost involved, if any, of
lowering the floor level of the bus to curb height and widening
the doorways, would be easily amortized by the increased effi-
ciency so obtained. Incidentally, and only incidentally, the
buses would then be accessible to wheelchair passengers and
would eliminate a bit of strain from the lives of asthmatics and
those with heart trouble.
A similar line of reasoning should be applied to the design
of streetcars and railroad passenger cars. We must speed up the
loading and unloading process if we are to handle ever larger
numbers of people without cluttering the paths of travel with a
fantastic number of vehicles.
Once we have the people delivered to their destinations,
another difficulty is encountered. The problem of pedestrian
traffic requires a similar solution -the rapid movement of
masses of individuals. Along the pedestrian walkways contained
within shopping malls this means the automatic elimination of
curbs. Such hazards must of necessity slow down pedestrian
traffic, which invalidates a solution designed to provide a rapid,
free and easy flow of people. In fact, it is reasonable to provide
ramps, rather than curbs along all paths of foot travel, such as
a sidewalk wherever adjacent to a street, simply for the purpose
of moving people along in the most efficient manner. Inci-
dentally, and only incidentally, these little ramps are better for
wheelchairs and bicycles.
Let us now turn our attention to the design of the destin-
ation of our travelers, that is, individual buildings. Quite
recently a headquarters office building was designed by a
brilliant architect for an insurance company, to be located on a
pedestrian axis in a large metropolitan center. The building is
beautiful and quite impressive, mounted as it is on a podium
above a broad flight of steps, much in the manner of a Greek
temple. But, to build a Greek temple today just doesn't make
good sense nor does it make sense to have a broad flight of
steps terminate a pedestrian walkway, however impressive the
view might be. Steps today are an anachronism, incompatible
with high urban densities requiring the rapid movement of large
numbers of people. The same building mounted on a podium
approached by a broad ramp would be equally beautiful, and
would incidentally, be totally accessible.
Within that building, or any and every other building you
care to select, we find starcases as a mandatory feature im-
posed by the building code as a means of fire exit in case the
elevators fail. One shudders to think what would happen in
case of fire coupled with elevator failure. A mad stampede by
hundreds of people down a staircase should just one of them
stumble, death by trampling would be inevitable. How much
more logical it is to use a ramp instead ofa staircase, especially
when elvators are not present. Certainly it would be safer, and
it could handle much larger numbers of people far more effi-
ciently. Incidentally, a ramp could provide vertical access within
a building for everyone, even someone confined to a wheelchair
and would eliminate some physical strain for those of us who
are asthmatic or have bad hearts. But its primary purpose is
in solving the problems attendant to a population explosion.
Would ramping cost more? Of course it would, but cost is
not the criterion, for if it were, we should eliminate heating
and air conditioning. If people are cold, let them wear more
clothing; if they are hot, let them take off (bikinis furnished
by the management) Nonsense! The problem exists-we
MUST solve it. We have the means, we have the technology,
and we have the solutions let us employ our creative capac-
ity to the architectural aspect of the population explosion and
having done so, we will find that we have made it possible
for all people to be useful citizens, regardless of physical
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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The decision to devote this issue of our regional magazine
to the "Philosophy of Architecture" grew out of a concern
among many Florida architects with the paucity of articles
dealing with a love for the very act of architecture itself. It is
through this concern, with a belief in architecture and a com-
mittment to that belief, that we may be able to pull aside the
veil of confused and oftentimes irrelevant fragments of office
practice and business procedures and see through to the event
called "Architecture". It is with this event that we should be
deeply concerned if we are bold and brash enough to believe
tha. we are truly architects and not merely typical businessmen
with an architectural license to commit travesties.
Five architects in the Jacksonville area were requested to
submit articles in support of this issue revealing what they, as
individuals, felt, concerning architecture, and were further
requested to submit a photograph of a building designed by
them which best exemplified what they felt, nothing has been
edited, so that from each man, you may be able to draw some
conclusion about him and his particular personal involvement in
It is hoped that in future issues, a continuing forum among
architects from other areas in the state will follow. It is a
matter of real concern when you, as an individual architect,
are asked by another architect to reveal in words and if pos-
sible, in a photograph, what you believe and are committed to,
in this work. If you are sincere in your daily life, then the
chances are that you will think most candidly about yourself
as an architect and the forces that motivate your career.
Some among us, even at this late date, may not understand
what it is that we are about. In order to better pin-point the
question: "What is architectural philosophy?" It may be best
to first reveal what is is not.
Architectural philosophy is not selm-delusion or the belief
that no one but yourself knows anything or can feel anything
about architecture; it is not the belief that anyone who is your
elder is a design "square" (There was Wright, Corbu, and
there is Mies and Aalto) nor the belief that everyone who is
your junior is an "impractical idealist" (all four of the above
did notable works while young). It is not concern with social
or civic status via this honored profession; it is not the petty
talk berating the architect who is less gifted, talented, or
positioned than oneself; nor the same of an architect whose
work you cannot understand because you are not so motivated.
Architectural philosophy does not include "image-borrowing"
BY ROBERT C. BROWARD A.I.A.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
via professional society membership, nor is it the pursuit of
power, prestige, money, fame (or notoriety) at the expense of
architecture as an art. It is not "self-indulgence" at the ex-
pense of a client amid the hue and cry that "no one under-
stands good design". It is most certainly not the sacrifice of
architecture upon the altar of quick-success, no matter how
alluring the bait nor desperate the circumstances. And lastily,
it is not the parroting of fancy phrases and euphuisms which
appropriately astound both layman and hungry student alike
with your power and knowledge. A cartoon of Allen Dunn's is
recalled with an appropriately-designed dowager speaking ex-
citedly back to the all-knowing, talk-type arcihtect who had
just made a verbal point: She answers: "But I don't want a
composition of interrelated inter-penetrating positive and nega-
tive spaces I want a closet!"
Architectural philosophy is, and can become no more than
a lone individual's personal concept, in current terms, of the
miracle of life. If we happen to be architects and we tend to
philosophize certain ideas and commitments, we are no more
unique than any other man or woman who sees the life process
as a great and fine event, with the exception that we look
through the eyes of the poet, and that, taken in its highest
sense, leads to the creative esthetic act that places in our hands
a wonderful gift. We are the sum total of all the foregoing
events in human history including our own genetic structure
and ethnic background. And, too, there are for some, greater
and more far-reaching opportunities than for others and
Shakespeare told us much about taking the tide at flood-time.
The great gift, besides life itself, is the talent and position
to joi nail of the men who were architects in the past and who
created the physical world of architecture that has been passed
on to us. From this vantage point, if we but see and feel the
wonder of it all, we can make manifest that which we believe
about life and hopefully, direct our abilities, our desire,
our very beings toward the freeing of man from his physical
bondage in time and space.
Each young man who has talent and who is somewhat of
an idealist in a culture all but eroded by the phalanx of quick-
acting opportunists will tend to develop a philosophy of life...
and if he becomes an architect, this will become his philosophy
of architecture with the work of his life becoming the trunk
of the tree of his belief. This young man would develop a
philosophy regardless of his calling but as an architect he
can truly help shape the world as a place of poetry and not a
place of prostituted values.
I believe that most creative architects parallel "men of
the cloth," in that they feel strongly about the condition
of man and about the forces which shape his daily life and in
many cases, decide his future for years to come. But like the
man of cloth, if his philosophy is not founded upon basic
principle, and is not flexible enough to allow new truths to
replace the old, the architect will fall by the roadside and there
will be no weeping for him. The man who can be called an
architect in the true sense of the word is a man somewhat
apart from man as we know the unique being today, and rightly
so. There is no reason to conform to a way of being that is not
in full concert with the laws of the universe as we understand
them. The architect who is committed to his work cannot turn
aside from it without observing his own demise. It takes a
somewhat dedicated man, perhaps moreso than any minister,
priest, or rabbi, to show by his daily actions as a creator of
spaces and objects in the light, that he can uphold the dignity
of all men, so that out of chaos can come beauty and under-
standable order. This daily act of belief cannot be supported by
a pessimist or an unwholesome man In fact, I cannot see
how a man can be an architect without being an optimist, and
basically an optimist concerning his own worth and abilities ...
The best example of this undying positive belief that I can
recall is the answer that Frank Lloyd Wright gave when asked
which of his buildings he believed to be his best. The reply
was-to be expected from a man who, in his eighties, was
younger than the youngest of us His answer: "The next
I believe that any philosophy of architecture which allows
less than the individual's deepest insight and talent to develop,
is worth little in the constant effort to separate fact from fancy
in our work and lives. If we are mature beings at all, we will
tend to realize who we are and not spend precious time making
believe that we are someone else in some strange fantasy world
of false success. When a new opportunity is placed before us
to create a new building it might be well to remember what
William Wordsworth wrote 160 years ago lest we add to the
sordidness of the world:
"The world is too much with us ;late and soon,
getting and spending, we lay waste our powers:
Little we see in nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!"
The only unyielding conviction I have
about Architecture is that it is an art as
well as a science or business. I also agree
with Herbert Read who says that signifi-
cant art comes from significant people.
To make our work meaningful we
must resist (not avoid) the forces of
society which attempt to deny our in-
sights, for whatever signifance we may
possess as individuals can only be mani-
fested in our work through self-knowl-
edge and self expression. Knowledge,
understanding and insight is an inevitable
sequence. True personal vision should be
the significant Architect's greatest stock-
in-trade and he should fight to imple-
ment it in his concepts even though his
client may not understand or want it. He
should regard each commission as his last
chance on earth. The notion of compro-
mise today for the "next job" tomorrow
has produced the plethora of mediocre
creations that surround us.
Photo by G. Wade Swicord
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
It is kind of the association to give me an opportunity to
express some opinions relative to the practice of architecture.
I feel sure that some of these opinions will be contrary to the
opinions of many architects who are now practicing and espe-
cially of those prospective architects who are now preparing to
enter the profession they are of a different generation from
Having entered the profession without adequate training,
I can earnestly urge all who have the opportunity to do so to
absorb all that they can in college, but by no means to be
content with such mainly theoretical training. They should be
prepared to continue to learn throughout their whole career.
After fifty years in active practice and eight years of retire-
ment, I find, in retrospect, that there were many things about
which I should have known but did not because I lacked the
proper training. Such knowledge had to be acquired the hard
way, in practice. There were few schools of architecture avail-
able fifty years ago. A different condition exists now, and there
is little excuse for one to fail to obtain the technical knowledge
which he should have to fit him for internship, during which
period he should get the practical training to fit him for
There are several doors through which a college graduate
may enter the profession, provided he has honestly earned his
degree, for then he is in possession of the keys which will open
them. One door through which he may pass, after he has satis-
fied the requirements of his State Registration Board and is
financially able to do so, leads to the immediate hanging out of
his shingle. I consider this procedure undesirable, except under
most unusual circumstances.
A second door leadstto a position as draftsman or assistant
in an established office, preferably a comparatively small office,
in which a varied type of practice is conducted, and where
practical experience may be obtained under a principal espe-
cially out-of-the-office experience in supervision.
A third door leads to a position as assistant in an office
where extensive and complicated projects are the usual and
where the practice may be conducted somewhat as a medical
clinic is conducted. Herel am encroaching upon a playing field
laid out for a game in which I have had no experience. It
seems to me, however, that while this opening may offer a
tempting and perhaps necessary solution to financial or other
problems, there is danger that the experience gained might
confine one to a definite single channel in the river of archi-
tecture instead of encouraging him to explore all of the other
channels, the knowledge of which is so necessary for the true
practice of the profession.
Architecture is, I believe, an art--in my opinion, the
highest form of art. It embraces and is influenced by all of the
other arts; therefore, I believe that an architect should be part
artist, for if he has not in his soul an appreciation of art, he has
embarked upon the wrong ship. The children of his brain may
turn out to be satisfactory for their purpose and yet lack that
intangible something which pleases aesthetically. Even a stark
structural wall may be pleasing if the composition of its
elements has been carefully considered.
An architect is dependent upon the receipt of fees in order
to practice his profession. For these fees he offers to perform
for his clients certain services. How faithfully he performs these
services may well determine how long he remains in practice.
The amount of the fee he receives and the amount of service he
agrees to render is a matter between himself, his conscience and
his client; but whatever the fee, he must remember for what
services the fee was paid and be conscious of his legal as well
as his professional duty to render those services to the best of
his ability. I prefer to avoid mention of the so-called customary
maximum or minimum rate of fees. The integrity of the prac-
titioner will affect his judgment upon this subject, and he will
sink or swim as a result of such judgment.
Some clients may desire limited services and the architect
may be willing to render such services for a commensurate fee.
It is my opinion that no project can be carried to completion
according to the true intent of the Contract Documents, except
under the full care and supervision of the author of the Docu-
The ethics of the architectural profession frown upon
personal advertising by an architect. The by-laws of The
American Institute of Architects prohibit advertising by its
members, however there are ways by which an architect may
obtain publicity. One of these ways is by offering himself for
public service, either in politics or in civic work. Too often the
architect secludes himself in his ivory tower and then complains
because he and his profession have been overlooked in the
selection of members of such Boards or Committees as City
Planning, etc. There are many places where an architect should
serve, but he will not be asked unless he lets it be known that
he is willing to do so. He should seek ethical ways in which to
signify his willingness to serve. The profession calls each
architect to serve the public upon whom he is dependent, and
his profession to which he owes allegiance.
Architecture is the concern of space. This means (1 ) shaping spaces
within our buildings, (2) forming transitions between interiors and
extreriors, (3) moulding spaces between buildings and (4) relating
structure to earth and sky.
An example of architecture is The Place By The Sea, 100 apart-
ments in Atlantic Beach, Florida.
Architecture is realized only in light: the light of the sun eternally
changing, and the artificial light of man defining space in the
absence of the sun.
ORIGIN Architecture begins in function. An apartment group begins with
the individual apartment, with the personal characteristics of each
resident: his preferences in music, painting, sculpture, wine, com-
MAJOR The major space of each apartment is devoted to the specific
SPACE qualities of each resident. A two story high space and an intimate
cave, presenting man's range of spatial experiences.
MINOR Secondary spaces are devoted to dressing, bathing, sleeping, food
SPACE preparation and consumption, storage, access. Minor spaces are
subordinated to major spaces both vertically and horizontally.
TRANSITIONAL The transition from interior to exterior space continues through a
SPACE transparent glass wall to a balcony or patio, ultimately defined by
the horizon of the sea or a grove of palms.
SPACE The space between buildings is arranged (1) for access to individ-
BETWEEN ual apartments, (2) for recreation, swimming and strolling, and
BUILDINGS (3') for automobile parking near each unit.
BUILDINGS The apartment group relates itself to neighboring residences by
TO NEIGHBORS repetition of the scale of individual residences, predominately two
stories high, of weathered wood or masonry with white painted
trim and garden fences.
RELATION The apartment group is strongly tied together by a continuous hori-
TO. SKY zontal third floor projection, occasionally punctuated by vertical
firewall reliefs which subdivide the skyline into a comprehensible
RELATION The site is a level sand sprit on the Atlantic Ocean, articulately
TO GROUND expressed by uncompromising horizontal masonry masses.
-MATERIALS Bearing masonry masses clearly express themselves inside and out-
side as supports. Cantilevered frame third floors and roofs straight-
forwardly define the lightness of the super structure.
SCULPTURE Architecture is the meaningful organization of uniquely rich and
meaningful interdependent sculptural spaces, thoughtfully composed
and sensitively executed.
TRADITION Without the continuation of history, without Frank Lloyd Wright
and Le Corbusier, The Place By The Sea would not exist. The latter
work grows out of former examples. If it is significant it must con-
tribute to that historical continuism, it must contribute to man's
continuing concern for the world around him: to architecture.
We cannot escape ourselves. We can-
not separate ourselves from that which we
observe. To every design problem we
bring preconceptions, conscious and un-
conscious. Even if we are individually
aware of the specific images, abstract
principles, ideas, and value judgments
that we bring, it is difficult to deter-
mine our unconscious motivations. Fur-
thermore, our conscious preconceptions
concerning life, concerning anything, are
beliefs. Mathematics is our most verifi-
able and least ambiguous hypothesis, but
hypothesis it is, subject to modification.
Knowledge is based ultimately on as-
sumption; certainty is faith.
We delude ourselves in believing that
the design process begins with considera-
tion of a specific site, a unique function,
a particular structure, for our basic ap-
proach is predetermined by our precon-
ceptions. Yet there is an interaction be-
tween our preconception and the specific
nature of problems during the design
process; we learn as we create. Our pre-
conceptions change with time.
A building or anything created is the
materialization at a given time of our
conscious and unconscious preconcep-
tions, modified by specific factors. Yet
the realized idea, the building or created
object, does not in itself possess integrity,
beauty, symbolic meaning, or value of
any kind: it exists. Value, meaning, sig-
nificance, is preconceived by its observer,
consciously or unconsciously, just as it
was preconceived by its creator. In be-
coming a part of the observer's experi-
ence the created object interacts with the
observer's preconceptions; it communi-
cates. Similarity in meaning to creator
and observer results from similarity in
But architecture must be experienced
in space and time to be received; it
cannot be verbalized. Like all art forms it
has its own language. Architecture must
be understood through buildings, not
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
r I ri
There are perhaps two dozen architects
in the ,world qualified to submit "in not
over 1000 words, a statement concern-
ing your philosophy of architecture". I
am not one of them. Having been sd
invited, however, I shall make a state-
Buildings should be soundly con-
structed, useful, and beautiful.
There was a time when a statement
so simple would have seemed insufficient
to me and an essay from me then would
have been loaded with such esoteric pro-
fundities and subtleties as I thought were
expected and required to elevate a state-
ment to a "philosophy".
After 20 years involvement with ar-
chitecture, however, I feel that any
embellishment, elaboration, or extension
of the self-evident truth of that ancient
statement is little more than a pretenti-
ous and self-conscious exercise in ped-
It seems unimportant to me whether
one can articulate his approach to archi-
tecture; his work reveals this far more
eloquently and truthfully than his words
ever could. (It is for this reason that I
declined, though invited, to accompany
this piece with a photograph of one of
my buildings showing my "philosophy in
practice". If I had ever designed a build-
ing so soundly constructed, so useful, and
so beautiful that it would serve to illus-
trate my conception of fulfillment of
those essentials, I would have shown
that building-and no one would have
missed these words.)
An architect need bring one thing to
his work: love of architecture-not just
the accouterments of office practice, fee
structures and chapter affairs-but ar-
chitecture. So armed, he would take his
work more seriously than himself, and
good things would follow naturally.
I do not suggest that a world of archi-
tects who care about architecture would
issue only masterpieces; it is unthinkable
that each work would be a Parthenon or
a Dulles Airport. But to attempt less is
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bills easy to take.
Zonolite pours right into the voids, fills them com-
pletely, never settles. It is water repellent; any moisture
that gets into the wall drains down through it and out.
Cost: as low as 10 per square foot, installed.
ancE Zonolite Division, W. R. Grace & Co., Dept. FA-67
135 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60603
Somehow using jawbreakers doesn't sound like a good solu-
tion to the problem of insulating masonry walls. Send me
Zonolite Masonry Fill Insulation Folder No. MF-83, with com-
plete technical data and specifications.
CITY STATE ZIP
L.- - ------------ -
FLORIDA'S PROGRESSIVE PARTNER
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From Florida's resources
come the raw materials
from which Florida Port-
land Cements and Flor-
ida Masonry Cement are
made. Florida Portland Cement, with
plants in TAMPA and MIAMI, contrib-
utes greatly to Florida's economy with
Quarrying limerock at the Dade County Plant, Miami
substantial outlays for payrolls, plant
investments, taxes, operating expendi-
tures and material purchases. When you
use and specify Florida Cements man-
ufactured in Florida by Floridians you
contribute to the vitality and growth of
industry and improvement of Florida's
MANUFACTURING CEMENTS IN FLORIDA FOR FORTY YEARS
FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT DIVISION
General Portland PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
22 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR CAT-BUILT EQUIPMENT
Regency Square in Jacksonville uses
a dependable total energy system
Regency Square Shopping Center in Jacksonville,
Florida, which formerly opened on March 2, 1967,
is the first shopping Center in Florida with a total
energy plant. Total energy is an on-site system
providing all energy requirements without need for
externally supplied electric power.
The Regency Square total energy system is
powered by ten Caterpillar-built, model G398,
Natural Gas engines. They heat, cool and light
the seven connected buildings of the 900 foot mall,
plus a 20,000 square foot supermarket and small
shop building and an automotive service center-
all totaling over 600,000 square feet of leasable
Total energy systems engineered by Caterpillar
Dealers are being used by investors, builders,
architects and engineers. It's a dependable system
from which all energy requirements for a building,
plant or facility are supplied from a single power
source at very low costs.
No matter what your needs-prime power or
stand-by power- contact your Florida Caterpillar
Dealer, he can assist in engineering Caterpillar
capabilities to fit your needs.
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
JOS. L. ROZIER
MIAMI WEST PALM BEACH CLEWISTON
JACKSONVILLE TALLAHASSEE OCALA
Caterpillar, Cat and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulation
Publication at Miami, Fla.
University f Florida Libraries
Gainesville, Fla. 10
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