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The computer revolution:
* W U U E U U U U U U U
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HILLIARD T. SMITH, JR., AIA
Built in 1800, our Octagon
House has had a long and dis-
tinguished record of service.
Starting with the residency of
President James Madison while
the White House was being re-
constructed after fire damage in
1814 and continuing through its
constant use today as a backdrop
for influential entertainment
functions of the Institute, it has
become a living symbol of our
profession, one of which we can
be justifiably proud.
As further service to the pro-
fession, the Octagon House now
has the opportunity to be the
medium to provide equity to the
Institute for site expansion and
construction of long needed and
absolutely necessary space to
house the national headquarters
operation. By your tax deductible
contribution to the A.I.A. Foun-
dation, Inc., the Octagon House
can be purchased from the Insti-
tute. This will provide "front
money" for construction of the
new building. About $350,000 of
the $990,000 goal will be used to
restore the Octagon House so
that it can continue its service as
a site for social functions of the
Institute. Anyone attending a
gathering in this National His-
torical Monument cannot help
but feel its history and hear the
countless footsteps which have
passed over its worn floors dur-
ing a 166 year past.
The proposed new building
will contain 130,000 square feet
of space. Sixty per cent of this
will be for A.I.A use. The forty
per cent balance will be leased to
selected tenants. Income from
the rented space will amortize
the mortgage. As A.I.A. services
and functions are expanded in
the future, the rental space will
provide room for this growth.
Present projections indicate the
building will be adequate for at
least 25 years.
To raise the necessary fpnds,
each of the eighteen regions of
the Institute have been assigned
a quota based upon membership.
Florida's quota is $33,000. Cer-
tainly this paltry amount should
not be a burden to our member-
ship and is little enough to pay
for the benefits derived. Your
contribution is not only tax de-
ductible, but also may be spread
over three payments.
Florida has been recognized as
one of the outstanding regions
of the Institute. Several of our
regional directors have been hon-
ored for great contribution to
our professional society. Failure
of the Florida region to support
this worthwhile campaign would
be a renunciation of the past and
demonstrate a lack of faith in
the future. We must not fail our
past or our future.
oll he loina
of lhe american
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., President
1123 Crestwood Blvd., Lake Worth, Florida
Herbert R. Savage, President Designate/Vice President
3250 S. W. 3rd Avenue, Miami, Florida
Myrl Hanes, Secretary
P. 0. Box 609, Gainesville, Florida
H. Leslie Walker, Treasurer
Citizens Building, Suite 1218, 706 Franklin St., Tampa, Fla.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Broward County Charles R. Kerley / Robert E. Todd
Daytona Beach David A. Leete / Tom Jannetides
Florida Central J. A. Wohlberg / Ted Fasnacht
James J. Jennewein
Florida Gulf Coast Frank Folsom Smith / Jack West
Florida North F. Blair Reeves / William C. Grobe
Florida North Central Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Ellis W. Bullock, Jr. / Thomas H. Daniels
Florida South Robert J. Boerema / James E. Ferguson, Jr.
Francis E. Telesca
Jacksonville A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr. / Roy M. Pooley, Jr.
John Pierce Stevens
Mid-Florida Wythe D. Sims, II / Joseph M. Shifalo
Palm Beach Jack Willson, Jr. / John B. Marion
Richard E. Pryor
Director, Florida Region, American Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, 1600 N. W. Lejeune Rd., Miami
Executive Director, Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
Donald Singer / Milton C. Harry / Lowell L. Lotspeich
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
Eleanor Miller / Assistant Editor
Ann Krestensen / Art Consultant
Black-Baker-Burton / Photography Consultants
M. Elaine Mead / Circulation Manager
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. It is published monthly at the Executive Office of the
Association, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables 34, Florida.
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305). Circulation: distributed with-
out charge to 4,669 registered architects, builders, contractors, de-
signers and members of allied fields throughout the state of Florida
-and to leading national architectural firms and journals.
Editorial contributions, including plans and photographs of archi-
tects' work, are welcomed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA publications, pro-
vided full credit is given to the author and to The FLORIDA
ARCHITECT for prior use. . Advertisements of products,
materials and services adaptable for use in Florida are welcome,
but mention of names or use of illustrations, of such materials and
products in either editorial or advertising columns does not con-
stitute endorsement by the Florida Association of the AIA. Adver-
tising material must conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material because of arrange-
ment, copy or illustrations. . Controlled circulation postage paid
at Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; subscription, $5.00
per year. February Roster Issue, $2.00 . McMurray Printers.
Inside Front Cover
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
FROM NOW ON
by Donald I. Singer, AIA
PLANNING BUILDINGS BY COMPUTER
by Welden E. Clark and James 1. Souder, AIA
APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TO
BUILDING DESIGN PROCESS
by Robert F. Darby, AIA,
and N. W. Bryan
by Charles B. Thomsen, AIA
1967 ORGANIZATION CHART
REPORT: A-201 DOCUMENT
by H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA
DESIGN ACCOMPLISHMENT SEMINAR
LOWE ART GALLERY SCHEDULE
FRONT COVER This month's cover was designed especi-
ally for "The Florida Architect" by Lowell L. Lotspeich, AIA,
of Winter Park.
VOLUME 17 NUMBER 1 E 1967
January 13 14
AIA Grass Roots meeting for Chapter Presidents, Octagon, Wash-
ington, D. C.
Following is a schedule of Legislative Program presentations
to the AIA Chapters:
Florida Northwest Chapter at Pensacola.
Florida Northwest Chapter at Marianna.
Florida North Central Chapter.
Daytona Beach Chapter.
Florida North Chapter.
Florida Central Chapter.
Florida Gulf Coast Chapter.
Florida South Chapter.
Broward County Chapter.
Palm Beach Chapter.
FAAIA Board of Directors meeting, St. Petersburg.
FAAIA Council of Commissioners meeting, 10 a.m., 1000 Ponce
de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables (FAAIA Headquarters).
FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
YOUR NATURAL GAS UTILITY
Apopka, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Bartow, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Blountstown, City of Blountstown
Boca Raton, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Boynton Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Bradenton, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Chattahoochee, Town of Chattahoochee
Chipley, City of Chipley
Clearwater, City of Clearwater
Clermont, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Cocoa, City Gas Co.
Cocoa Beach, City Gas Co.
Coral Gables, City Gas Co.
Crescent City, City of Crescent City
Cutler Ridge, City Gas Co.
Daytona Beach, Florida Gas Co.
DeLand, Florida Home Gas Co.
Delray Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Eau Gallie, City Gas Co.
Eustis, Florida Gas Co.
Fort Lauderdale, Peoples Gas System
Fort Meade, City of Fort Meade
Fort Pierce, City of Fort Pierce
Gainesville, Gainesville Gas Co.
Geneva, Alabama, Geneva County Gas
Haines City, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Hialeah, City Gas Co.
Hollywood, Peoples Gas System
Jacksonville, Florida Gas Co.
Jay, Town of Jay
Lake Alfred, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Lake City, City of Lake City
Lakeland, Florida Gas Co.
Lake Wales, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Lake Worth, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Leesburg, City of Leesburg
Live Oak, City of Live Oak
Madison, City of Madison
Marianna, City of Marianna
Melbourne, City Gas Co.
Miami, Florida Gas Co.
Miami Beach, Peoples Gas System
Mount Dora, Florida Gas Co.
New Smyrna Beach, South Florida
Natural Gas Co.
North Miami, Peoples Gas System
Ocala, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Opa Locka, City Gas Co.
Orlando, Florida Gas Co.
Palatka, Palatka Gas Authority
Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Palm Beach Gardens, City of
Palm Beach Gardens
Panama City, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Pensacola, City of Pensacola
Perry, City of Perry
Plant City, Plant City Natural Gas Co.
Port St. Joe, St. Joe Natural Gas Company
Rockledge, City Gas Co.
St. Petersburg, United Gas Co.
Sanford, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Sarasota, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Starke, City of Starke
Tallahassee, City of Tallahassee
Tampa, Peoples Gas System
Tavares, Florida Gas Co.
Titusville, City Gas Co.
Umatilla, Florida Gas Co.
Valparaiso, Okaloosa County Gas District
West Miami, City Gas Co.
West Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Williston, City of Williston
Winter Garden, Lake Apopka Natural Gas
Winter Haven, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Winter Park, Florida Gas Co.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
A WARM, FRIENDLY WELCOME AWAITS GUESTS HERE!
Another example where owners of Florida's more modern motor inns
insist upon Natural Gas heating. In this case, it's the new Winter Garden A
Inn at Winter Garden, Florida. 0 In addition to heating the luxurious
units, this half-million dollar architect's dream was designed to use GAS Head chef Bert Leath says,
for food preparation and for heating the extra large swimming pool, and "I particularly like baking
all water throughout the inn. Fast recovery of hot water is important when with GAS-it makes cakes
so many showers are taken at approximately the same hour, and GAS and pastries lighter and
heats water faster. GAS thermostatically-controlled room heating insures fluffier. I've done all my
individual guest's comfort. GAS provides cool, clean cooking with "con- cooking with GAS the past
trolled" heat. Year 'round pleasure is derived from the GAS heated fifteen years . it cooks
swimming pool. l Take a tip from those who specialize in hospitality ... controllable."
GAS will better serve your needs too. Rest assured!
Served by Lake Apopka Natural Gas Company
AFlorida's Pipeline to the Future .
serving 35 Natural Gas Distribution
Companies in over 100 communities
throughout the state.
WINTER PARK FLORIDA
BMW DATA CENTER
~U~LK i~UI~ ~ 111, 1111111 U1
Tl r mnputer re% ll i
FROM NOW ON
The anticipation of the coming twelve months
is not unlike the feeling experienced by the
painter standing before an untouched canvas.
One has the feeling that to begin is to commit
ones-self beyond the point of no return in one
swift, ever so colorful, second . and yet, all
is ahead, and much good can come of it.
Several changes have taken place already as
I am certain you noticed before you had even
opened the cover of this first issue for 1967. A
new publications committee is at work toward
making The Florida Architect the visually and
intellectually stimulating publication that is be-
fitting the profession of architecture at its
creative best. Each issue henceforth will feature
several articles on a topic that should be of par-
ticular interest to the architects of Florida and
to the other persons, interested in the archi-
tectural profession, who receive and read the
magazine. To aid in the accomplishment of this
task, an editorial advisory board has been estab-
lished, composed of Dan Branch of Gainesville,
Tom Daniels of Panama City, Bob Broward of
Jacksonville, Nils Schweizer of Winter Park,
and two members yet to be named.
At a meeting held in Orlando in October, the
publications committee and the editorial board
began the planning which will form the basis
for a continuously evolving format. Each mem-
ber of the board and the committee will be
involved with the formation of a particular
month's issue, which will present a point of
view, well thought-out. We hope that this point
of view will evoke some thoughtful, lively
comment from both those who agree and those
who disagree. It is that sort of criss-cross of
ideas which can be the greatest source of in-
depth study. We will publish, the following
month, all the letters which are received. In
addition, a continuing series of articles is plan-
ned on architectural philosophy, and will be
begun in April with our entire issue devoted to
Other topics to be covered include, "His-
torical Florida", "Urban Design and Florida",
"Schools and Architectural Education", "Archi-
tectural Photography", and "The Nature of
It is a long road to the type of creative,
inventive chronicle that should be representa-
tive of intraprofessional intercourse. Our pro-
fession is committed by its very existence to be
the most creative member of the community.
Our demands for order and artistic discipline
must never cease, and this must certainly be
true for the publication which monthly bears
the title The Florida Architect.
We ask your help.
Donald I. Singer
Chairman, Publications Committee
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
The first of this month's series of
articles on the role of the com-
puter in architecture seeks to dis-
tinguish between architecture as
'the immediate practical process of
creating new examples,' and archi-
tecture as a scientific process of
enquiry into relationships. It is as
a tool for the latter that the
authors see the most immediate
usefulness of the computer.
by Welden E. Clark and
James J. Souder, AIA*
(reprinted with permission from
"Architectural and Engineering
News," March 1965)
*The authors are members of Bolt,
Beranek and Newman, Inc. in Los
Angeles. Both are registered architects,
and both hold architectural degrees
from MIT. Mr. Clark is co-director of
the BB&N Computer Laboratory. Mr.
Souder is former director of a pilot
project in computer-aided architectural
planning sponsored by AIA and the
American Hospital Association.
The curiosity of architects about
computers has been evident from
large attendance at several regional
conferences dealing with this new
technology. Oddly enough, how-
cver, not many architects have in-
dicated that they see any but the
most pedestrian uses for computers
in their work. The responses that
arise from these conferences too
often are limited to interest in
"control over engineering and
drafting" and concern with the
possibility for "multiplied stupid-
ity" in the misuse of powerful
Much of the uncertainty can be
laid at the feet of those trying to
use and to explain these new tools
-we are still stumbling along,
searching for pathways, and our
perspectives are not yet very broad.
As more of us learn how to use
and describe our tools this prob-
lem should diminish.
'Noble art' syndrome
There are, however, several easily
spotted types of reactions that are
evidence of hostility or apathy.
One of these says, in essence, "this
scientific jazz is probably all right
for those dull sorts of projects
done by engineers and developers
but it has nothing to do with ar-
chitecture, and it certainly is not
creative." This might be labelled
as the noble art syndrome.
A second reaction can be
phrased as "these marvelous new
machines should not be misused
for degrading, menial tasks but
rather reserved to be used for their
lofty purpose by true masters of
proven creative ability." This we
might call the noble instrument
The third easily typed reaction
goes something like "those mach-
ines must be fascinating play-
things, with all their flashing lights
and gadgets, but it's obvious that
no one is able to do a man's work
with them." This we will label as
the new gimmick syndrome.
Clearly, there is no room for
informed criticism and thoughtful
dispute, and the extreme attitudes
paraphrased by the preceding state-
ments are not useful criticism.
Architecture as we know it, be
it a house, a church, a factory, or a
townscape, cannot be created from
a cookbook or from a computer
program. One reason is that the
language of our cookbooks and of
our computers is not rich enough
to describe the essential ingredi-
ents. A more important reason,
though, is that we do not know
enough to be able to describe the
complex interactions of the ingre-
dients and the variations in desires
of the recipients.
The most gifted among us can
use new and untried materials,
or old materials and old forms in
new combinations, to achieve re-
sults acknowledged as good archi-
tecture. Sometimes the principles
inherent in these works can be
identified and applied broadly to
other works-we then speak of a
style as Bay Region, or Interna-
tional, or Carpenter Gothic. We
have not yet found the under-
standing and the language that
will permit complete rational ex-
amination and description of ar-
chitectural works and their reasons
for being. Will we ever reach this
state? If so, it would follow that
we could design and instruct com-
puters to perform much of what
is now done by architects.
An art? A science?
Are we suggesting that architec-
ture is scientific? Not exactly. In
casual speech we tend to talk of
architecture as a process, a disci-
pline, a way of life. This habit
leads to confusion between the re-
sult and the means.
One way to avoid the confusion
is to adopt limiting definitions for
some of the words we use. Let us
use the word architecture to refer
to the bricks and steel, the enclos-
ed and open spaces, the textures
and lighting patterns that are the
visual context of our human cul-
ture. We can allow the definition
to cover natural elements as well
as man-made ones.
But let us not use the word
architecture to mean the processes
that are performed by architects,
or the sensory perceptions and in-
tellectual concepts arising from our
experiences in that visual context.
Instead of using one word to sug-
gest at the same time an intellect-
ual process, a material object and
an emotional experience, let us
take pains always to define our
relationship to the context. Thus
we can talk of the art (or craft, or
technology) of architecture as the
immediate practical process of cre-
ating new examples, and of the
more remote science of architec-
ture as the process of inquiry into
relationships and the development
of theories about those relation-
Such a distinction between activ-
ities enables us to focus on the
art of architecture as the process
of producing documents for build-
ing a church or a laboratory, a
school or a memorial, somewhat
independent of the uses which so-
ciety will make of the building.
Likewise we can focus on the sci-
ence of architecture whether we
are concerned with theories of seis-
mic design, psychophysical percep-
tions of space, or cultural symbols.
A part of the folklore of architec-
tural education is the idea that
each new building is a unique
This is generally raised in argu-
ments against stock plans and
detailed prototype designs, and
usually with good reason. The dan-
ger in the idea is that it easily be-
comes stretched to the notion that
the process of planning and design
itself is unique to each project.
Many objections to the use of
computers (and to many of the
analytic techniques of engineer-
ing) are seemingly based on this
fallacious confusion between a pro-
cess which is general and a desired
solution which may be unique.
The consumption of sketch pa-
per is tribute to the amount of
thought given to each new design
problem the architect faces, but
the volume of crumpled paper in
the wastebaskets suggests that each
new problem is submitted to hit
or miss testing of ideas against
complex backgrounds of informa-
tion, with the result that thinking
is slowed down or circumscribed ...
'Can they think?'
Controversy recurs on the theme,
"Can computers think?" If we de-
fine thinking as the creative activ-
ity performed by the human brain,
then the question can be dismissed
as ridiculous and our human feel-
ings of superiority are undisturbed.
If, however, we regard thinking as
the purposeful process involved in
solving problems, formulating and
through mazes, then we can trans-
form our original question into a
succession of more meaningful
questions having to do with spe-
cific actions, explicit criteria for
cvalution of the actions, and cer-
tain particular computers.
With these specific questions,
then, we can expect the answer to
be sometimes yes and at other
times no. Further, we can expect
that when the answer is no we can
work towards changing that answer
by pursuing such question as
"What more must we know to
design a computer that can think
in this way?" and "How can we
teach the computer to think about
All this pertains directly to the
application of computers in archi-
tecture and planning. Some of the
tasks we perform as architects and
planners can now be done as well,
or better, by computers. There arc,
however, other things that com-
puters cannot now begin to do:
here, the difficulty may well be
that we cannot say what it is we
wish done, or how.
It is fruitful to look for ways to
use computers in the production
and analysis of architecture. Many
of the processes we perform have
parallels in other fields where
computers are being used with
As architects we must improve
our understanding of the expand-
ing design problems we face and,
since our human resources arc lim-
ited, any tools which can either
help us to see problems better or
improve our efficiency in solving
them must be ,thought of as useful
Roles for the computer
The concept of a close mutual re-
lationship between man and mach-
ine in the performance of intel-
Icctual tasks is intriguing: each
extends the capabilities or offsets
the shortcomings of the other.'1 2
Specifically, the computer can rap-
idly scan large amounts of infor-
mation, can transform the infor-
mation, can stimulate the outcome
of complex operations (for ex-
ample, patterns of movements)
whose components vary, and can
compare outcomes of these com-
putable operations with design cri-
teria or with outcomes of alterna-
tive design assumptions.
Only those aspects that arc
quantifiable can be measured, of
course, but such a mutual, or "sym-
biotic' relationship can allow the
man to control the choice of data
and analyses, and to provide the
judgment and the imaginative in-
sights which elevate the process
above the level of mere mechanical
The next few years will see use-
ful and relevant application of
computers throughout the building
process, from the architect's as-
similation of the background facets
to the control of construction
scheduling and of production of
components. Some examples have
been discussed in the literature
2, 3, 4 and others at recent confer-
ences5, 6, 7. One current applica-
tion by the authors is an aid to vis-
ualizing a complex of interrelated
spaces such as a large existing medi-
cal center. Floor plans to the build-
ing, site plans, etc., are described
to the computer by tracing rele-
vant room outlines and relation-
ships with a graphic input device
connected to the computer. The
sketches are displayed by the com-
puter as drawn and can be rejected
or modified and labelled before
Once a set of drawings is avail-
able in computer storage, they can
be processed for computation of
areas, distances, etc. The computer
can then be queried to provide
data summaries by types of spaces,
by areas, by distances between like
spaces, and other measures the
architect needs to study adequacy
of available facilities for present
and future uses.
The data can be displayed and
plotted as ink line drawings show-
ing, for example, all circulation on
one illustration, all rooms of stor-
age and supply function on an-
other, etc. This is not a tool that
will radically alter the process of
design. It is an example of an aid
that can improve effectiveness of
man in ,the design process.
There are many other capabili-
ties. Many useful applications are
visible through the cracks in the
Process will not be remote
All current trends in the technolo-
gy suggest that this will not be a
remote process but rather a func-
tion deeply imbedded in the ar-
chitect's office and a viable part of
his staff operation. Plans can be
traced directly into a computer
that can comprehend them and
respond quickly to any number of
The same computer can hoard
information about human activi-
tics that the plans are designed
for, or costs of the kinds of space
the plans provide, and it can cross
reference these kinds of informa-
tion in responding to complex
questions that occur to the de-
signer. When the designer has
tested and modified the plans to
his satisfaction, they may be stored
or printed out.
Today these things are being
done in only a few laboratories
and a few pioneering architectural
and engineering offices, but the
authors believe that this kind of
tool will be placed in the average
architect's office at feasible cost.
Some practitioners are already
using the available tools and eager-
ly awaiting stronger ones. Most
universities are teaching students
in a number of disciplines to use
computers in their work. There is
small reason to believe that com-
placency will protect us from the
'Licklider, J. C. R., "Man-Computer-
Symbiosis," Inst. of Radio Engineers
Transactions on Human Factors in
Electronics, Vol. ITFE-1, No. 1, March
2Souder, J. J., W. E. Clark, J. I. El-
kind and M. B. Bro n, Planning for
Hospitals: A Systems Approach Using
Computer-Aided Techniques, U. S.
Public Health Service Project W-59,
publ. by American Hospital Associa-
tion, Chicago, Ill., 1964.
\Alcxander, C., Notes on the Synthesis
of Form, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, Mass., 1964.
4Soudcr, J. J., and W. E. Clark,
"Computer Technology: A New Tool
for Planning," Journal of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects, pp. 97-106,
5Engineering Foundation Conference
in the Building Construction System,
Andover, New Hampshire, August
"California Council, American Insti-
tute of Architects annual meeting,
Coronado, Calif., October 1964.
7"Architecture and the Computer,"
the First Boston Architectural Center
Conference, Boston, Mass., December
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
by Robert F. Darby, AIA
Chief, Architectural Division,
Reynolds, Smith and Hills
N. W. Bryan, President,
Computer Services Inc.
The design of a building requires
the efforts of a variety of individ-
uals from different disciplines and
interaction of these individuals with
the client, with the construction
industry, with material and build-
ing component suppliers, and with
each other. The building design
team must determine the client's
requirements, establish criteria and
design an aesthetically pleasing,
functional and economically feas-
After the design criteria has
been established, the building com-
ponents and construction methods
must be selected from the vast pos-
sibilities available. This selection
may require coordination with con-
tractors on special or new construc-
tion problems and with producers
and manufacturers on available
materials and products. Previous
job histories may be searched for
adaptability of materials, client ac-
ceptance, etc. All of these methods
must be used either intuitively or
after a detailed search, and the
most economically feasible archi-
tectural, structural, mechanical,
and electrical components designed
and integrated together to form a
As the building is being de-
signed and as the client requests
changes to the original criteria, an
up to date cost estimate must be
maintained. The design team us-
ually is faced with maintaining a
design time schedule and with stay-
ing within a design budget. Be-
cause of these practical considera-
tions, the number of schemes or
methods considered is usually
sharply curtailed, which leaves a
question as to whether the result-
ing design is the best or most cre-
To compound the building de-
sign problem, knowledge and in-
formation must be available to
apply the design process to a wide
range of building types and to serve
varied kinds of clients. Office
buildings, motels, schools, hos-
Application of Computer
To Building Design Process
pitals, etc. must be designed for
public agencies, corporations, pri-
vate individuals, institutions, etc.
The entire building design pro-
cess can be defined as an informa-
tion and communication problem.
Members of the design team must
communicate with each other,
with the client and with a small
army of construction industry per-
sonnel to obtain the information
necessary to design a building. To
date, drawings, charts, handbooks,
conferences, and telephones have
been used to try to solve this com-
mnunication and information prob-
The electronic computer has
been used for several years to solve
individual problems arising within
the different disciplines, but be-
cause of hardware limitations, com-
puter techniques have not been
applied to the total building design
process. Availability of new elec-
tronic computer hardware (third
generation computers), with time
sharing capability and tremendous
increases in computational speed
and in storage capability, has re-
moved the hardware limitations.
In the next few years, the new
electronic computer hardware with
its mass storage availability will be
used in setting up a building de-
sign information system which will
revolutionize the building design
The computer cannot replace
man's emotions, his feel for a de-
sign or his creativity, but the in-
formation system will help the de-
sign team to solve many of the
problems of information and com-
munication existing today.
The information system will
consist of an information base, an
arithmetical description of the
building (building model), appli-
cation subsystems, a designer-ori-
ented language, and a large elec-
tron computer with remote time
sharing consoles. The information
base stored in the computer will
contain information about mater-
ials, material systems, construction
systems, etc. For example, shape,
density, cost, thermal conductivity,
and reflectivity could be stored for
a typical wall material. A geomet-
rical and mathematical model of
the building will be defined and
maintained within the computer as
the design progresses.
A designer-oriented language will
allow the designer to communicate
with the computer using english
language statements. The designer
will use this language in defining
and maintaining the model and to
utilize the application subsystems
for the various disciplines. Appli-
cation subsystems will perform re-
quested calculations and design
building components using data
from the information base and the
building model. Designers will
have immediate access to the en-
tire system through remote con-
soles located in their offices.
Development and utilization of
this system, with the computer
performing most of the routine
work, will free designers to produce
better and more creative designs.
The computer hardware required
to implement this system is now
available and is economically feas-
ible for small and large architect
and/or engineering firms through
the use of time-sharing.
The systems approach to the
building design process is not being
used today and in fact has not
been fully developed. Building de-
signers must develop the programs
necessary to implement this ap-
proach in the next few years or see
the ever-expanding informational
and communications problems
completely overwhelm and stifle
the building design process.
Not too long ago in an article
for Fortune Magazine Walter Mc-
Quade referred to the "tweedy old
profession of architecture". It is a
tweedy profession, isn't it? WVe are
rich with tradition. There is a
sound and sturdy base of history
a wealth of cultural heritage
which guides our actions, and con-
ditions our values.
For the most part, this tradition
is good, and, paradoxically, one of
the deepest traditions among arch-
itects is that of questioning the
traditional forms of architecture.
But while we constantly ques-
tion and challenge the traditional
forms of architecture, we are slow
to challenge our methods of prac-
tice. In fact, most architects con-
tinue blindly to use out-dated and
antiquated techniques of design,
management, and production.
Nevertheless, I am optimistic.
During the last 3 years I have had
the good fortune to meet and work
with a number of architects at
Caudill Rowlett Scott, and in
other offices, who are challenging
some of these old methods -and
in the process have become com-
mitted to the half-veiled promise
offered by computer technology.
Promise of Computers
This technology the art and
science of processing information
- will have the most far reaching
consequences on the practice of
architects of any contemporary
Those are bold words. And I
must admit that there is not yet
proof of their accuracy. Indeed,
the delight and wonder of working
with computers is seductive and
has caused many of us who seek
this work to overstate our case.
But some facts bear us out. In
the last 10 years, computers have
developed at a tremendous pace.
Compared to 10 years ago, com-
puters have increased their speed
100 times, they are one-tenth their
former size and the cost of compu-
tation is one-thousandth that of a
decade ago. By one estimate, our
capacity to process information is a
million times greater than 10 years
ago. Presently there are 30,000
computers in the nation worth
about eight billion; 1000 times as
much strict computational power
as 10 years ago.
And all indicators point to an
increased rate of development.
Those are impressive statistics and
we can't afford to scoff at them -
or say, "That's interesting, but we
arc architects, not engineers. This
doesn't affect us." It does.
Speculation aside, a number of
practical applications exist which
one might profitably pursue.
First, you might use a computer
as an arithmetic machine, a calcu-
Architecture / Tradition
By CHARLES B. THOMSEN, AIA
Caudill Rowlett Scott
Architects, Planners, Engineers
lator, or a super adding machine
and with it, do some of your ac-
counting, cost estimating and engi-
neering. You might also build
mathematical models of some of
your designs and test their func-
tioning under various conditions.
Secondly, you could use a com-
puter as a meter, like the speed-
ometer of your car, or a barometer.
But you would probably be meter-
ing the conditions of your firm,
perhaps forecasting your man-
power demands, determining the
amount of overtime that is being
recorded, testing your overhead, or
sampling the net profit of an
Thirdly, the computer could
serve as an electronic filing cabinet
which collects, stores, creates, com-
bines and retrieves data.
Used this way, the computer
produces your specifications, deter-
mines the properties of building
materials, or collects some statistics
on the successes and failures of
your past practice to guide you
around future mistakes in manage-
All of these things can be done
for you with impressive speed. A
medium size computer can make a
million additions per second, read
90,000 characters of data per sec-
ond from magnetic tape, and out-
put 1000 lines of information per
second on a highspeed printer.
These capabilities will help us as
architects to provide better services
to our client, to prosper, and at the
same time free us of tedium and
make our work more enjoyable.
Progress in a Year
At CRS we are trying all these
things, and although we have only
begun, I believe the prognosis for
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
success is good. It may be too early
to tell. As a concentrated research
effort, this work has been under-
way only a year.
But let me explain how we
Three years ago, we solved a
major problem for a high-rise office
building project with a computer.
We determined how high it
should be built for maximum eco-
We had clients who wanted to
build on a very choice site in
downtown Houston. It was to con-
tain a home office as well as gen-
eral rentable office space. Our
client's charge was "Tell us the
optimum building size for maxi-
mum economic return."
The answer was complicated, but
possible. We needed data in three
areas: business economics, con-
struction costs, and the implica-
tions of height on the building's
efficiency. We were able to formu-
late the data and with a com-
puter's help, we rapidly calculated
the return on investment for build-
ings from 15 to 50 stories. Inci-
dentally, in this instance, 32
stories was the answer we found.
This success encouraged us and
we have pursued many other appli-
cations. At present we are working
with several other approaches
which will affect design. The most
promising appears to be simu-
Simulation is the art of model
making and testing. A model (or a
simulator) is a device which, in
some way, can be made to act like
a part of the real world.
Of course a model can be a dia-
gram, a girl in a new fashion, a
cardboard physical replica of a
building, or a numerical structure.
But all have one purpose to imi-
tate something. A computer im-
plemented simulator is no differ-
Normally we think of models as
a physical tangible entity. It's not
necessarily so. We can use num-
bers as the materials with which
to build the model. In the high
rise project, we built a model of
the economic activity of 35 differ-
ent buildings and predicted which
would be the most profitable.
Now we are trying to build a
model of a university to test its
growth and functioning over the
next 10 years and to see how it
would respond to varying design
Our approach is this. When we
are asked to develop a master plan
for a college or university, we must
first establish potential growth and
determine how the institution uses
its facilities. Precise answers to
these two issues require processing
enormous quantities of informa-
tion. Then we must find ways to
"grow" the campus. Each new
building causes a department to
move. The vacated space is filled
by another department and even-
tually the effect ricochets through-
out the campus.
We are now working, assisted
by an EFL grant, with Hewes,
Holz, and Willard of Cambridge,
Massachusetts and Duke Univer-
sity to develop a series of programs
which will simulate this affect.
The programs will show the need
for future facilities, help Duke use
existing space more effectively,
help us determine proper location
of new buildings, simulate pedes-
trian circulation and eventually
simulate the physical evolution of
Of course this is a very ambi-
tious effort but there are other
applications which are very simple
although also very helpful. Perhaps
."-- --- z_.
"All I know is that every hour it quits for ten
minutes and the cup of coffee disappears."
REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION FROM THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
the most important requirement
for good design is sound informa-
tion. The computer, not as a simu-
lator, but as an information ma-
We are experimenting with a
program to retrieve data on build-
ing materials. Using this, it is pos-
sible to rapidly compare relative
characteristics of many construc-
tion systems. In this case, the
value of the program is not its
ability to calculate, but in its
ability to select information in a
specified way .. .
Graphic Data Processing
. Probably one of the biggest
impacts on architectural design
may come from a new field of
computer capability-graphic data
processing. Computers were first
able only to process numbers.
Then they developed the capabil-
ity to handle letters. Now graphic
data processing is becoming a
reality. When graphic data process-
ing becomes more economical, it
will have a tremendous effect on
the process of architecture not
only in the production of working
drawings, but in design.
At CRS, we are very anxious for
this technology to come. During
the last two years, we've been
working hard to change our ap-
proach to construction systems and
accompanying g r a p h i c systems.
The philosophy is this: we should
view construction as an assembly,
not of details, but of total systems
-a structural system, window wall
system, a partitioning system. And
if we are able to think about build-
ing in this way, we will be able to
detail t h e s e systems separately,
without thinking of them as ap-
plied to a specific building. These
systems theoretically will then ap-
ply to more than one project. The
information which describes their
properties, their details and graph-
ics will be stored on magnetic tape,
or discs which then can be re-
trieved by computer, modified by
light pen and cathode ray tube by
a designer, and then produced on
working drawings by a computer
driven plotter. This will allow the
architects in the firm to spend
their efforts to create better sys-
tems, working on specific designs
rather than grinding out another
set of working drawings.
Now this isn't as "cloud nine"
as it may sound. It is possible to
make architectural drawings with a
computer. CRS and others have
done it. Hardware is available. At
the moment, the problem is not
hardware but software the pro-
grams to operate the machines.
It's still difficult to get drawings
into the computer-lengthy,
clumsy instructions have to be
written. The techniques for filing
these drawings, retrieving them
and reproducing them again are
still difficult and expensive. But if
the progress in graphic data pro-
cessing over the next five years
equals the progress in alpha-nu-
meric processing over the last five
years, we shall all be working with
computers in our drafting depart-
ment . .
Questions and Answers
. Some questions no doubt
come to mind:
1. How much does it cost?
Computer time is surprisingly
inexpensive. It is often calcu-
lated and charged in hundred-
ths of a minute. The real cost
of computer operations is devel-
oping the capabilities of people
and programs. We haven't thor-
ough experience yet, but a wild
swinging guess would estimate
computer operations at 4 to 5
times the actual hardware costs.
The hardware costs vary. You
might run a routine program in
accounting at a local service
bureau, or $50 a month, or
lease a small but complete com-
puter for $1500 a month. An
elaborate system with a light
pen and a cathode ray tube
might go for $20,000 a month.
2. How big does a firm have to be
before it can use computer
I really don't know. This varies
a great deal with specific appli-
cations. For instance, the study
that we did for the high rise
office building would have been
just as useful if CRS was a
1-man firm. On the other hand,
our management information
system would be useless to a
firm of only 15 or 20 people.
It simply would not be neces-
sary . .
3. Will computer technology save
I really don't think so. We
should be interested in com-
puters as a means of improving
our capabilities. Our manage-
ment information system allows
us to run our firm more effi-
ciently. This may reduce costly
inefficiencies. There may be
greater earnings in fees if com-
puter technology can expand
the scope of professional archi-
tecture. But few ways will be
found to save labor with a com-
puter in a firm that isn't geared
4. Will computer technology pro-
duce more beautiful architec-
Perhaps by freeing designers
from tedious chores or by pro-
viding more precise information
which will establish order and
In design, numbers can be as
helpful as butter paper and soft
pencils. We use numbers to des-
cribe many parts of an architectural
problem dollars per square feet,
(Continued on Page 16)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Blume, Cannon & Ott, Columbia, 5. C., Arcnitects Jonnson & King, Columbia, S. C., Engineers
M. B. Kahn, Construction Company, Columbia, S. C., General Contractors
A Skillful Blend
Richland County Law Enforcement Center
Columbia, S. C.
The Richland County Law Enforcement Center
in Columbia, S. C., gives a pleasant impression
of "stretch-out" space. Yet, the architect has
skillfully integrated the Center's components to
provide for maximum functional efficiency.
Modern building materials and techniques
have also been skillfully used. Solite lightweight
structural concrete is used for the building's re-
inforced concrete frame and for all floor slabs
The use of lightweight construction substan-
tially reduces materials and handling costs, sav-
ing time and money on the job, provides more
usable floor space, cuts maintenance and up-
keep. This means a solid dollar savings for
Richland County taxpayers-plus a handsome,
efficient building of which they can be proud.
Lightweight Masonry Units and Structural Concrete
Atlantic Coast Line Building, Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Electric Cooking Serves up more Profits
* EVERYTHING'S UNDER CONTROL
when cooking is done electrically. You set a
dial; you get better, tastier food...consistently!
* LESS MEAT SHRINKAGE .. because
electric heat provides better control and more
* ELECTRIC DEEP-FAT FRYERS save up
to 50% in frying compound. Fats don't "break
down" quickly; can be re-used longer.
* ELECTRIC GRIDDLES have 100% usable
area .. no hot spots, no cold spots.
* YOU SAVE HOURS of clean-up time;
save on repainting costs; because flameless
electric makes no soot, smoke, or fuel grime.
* SURFACE ELEMENTS are in direct con-
tact with pots and pans . very little heat
seeps into the kitchen. This reduces the oper-
ating costs of air conditioning equipment.
* FLAMELESS ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT
offers many other advantages: flexible
arrangement; faster peak service; more satis-
fied customers; and it costs less in the long
run because it lasts longer.
See your dealer or call Commercial Cooking representative
at your electric utility company.
They know from experience that
electric cooking is the better way
ALL-ELECTRIC KITCHEN OF
DOLPHIN RESTAURANT, PANAMA CITY BEACH
W. C Hales, its proprietor, says. I ve been operating
restaurants for many years and I have found electric
cooking superior in every way. Our kitchen stays so
clean and comfortable that I'm always glad to have our
patrons come in and see it."
DANKER'S MOTEL INN, MIAMI
(Recipient of the Award of Merit for Electrical Excellence)
J. Fred Danker President says: "Our restaurant kitchen
-with 100',3 electrical equipment-is completely safe,
clean and efficient. Our year-round electric air condi-
tioning system insures clean, comfortable cooling and
heating in our iooms. as well as in lobby and dining area."
- ia '. iii'
CO-OWNERS OF CAFE SEVILLE, TAMPA
Roberio Rodeiro and Freddie Carreno declare. "We
w were impressed with the speed and cleanliness of an
all-electric kitchen to begin with But when a TECO
commercial cooking representative showed us the
economies to go along with the conveniences we
^ were sold. Our kitchen stays so clean and cool, our
wI employees are happy and so are we."
WHATABURGER DRIVE-IN RESTAURANT,
G. C Scott, Jr. its owner, says. "I do not regret. for one
minute, our decision to go all-electric in cooking equip-
ment, air conditioning and water heating. Our fry
kettles have a rapid heat recovery, and we like the
uniformity of heat control on the griddles We feel we
could not obtain this, to the same degree, with fuel-fired
equipment and are especially pleased with the low
cost of this all-electric operation."
Florida's Electric Companies... Taxpaying, Investor-O wned
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA
Fotis N. Karousatos
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Myvrl J. Hanes
Herbert R. Savage
(Chairmen of Commissions)
1 4~7 ^ | ^ ~^~
H. Leslie Walker
, r T
A' 4' 4 4
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr. . President
Herbert R. Savage,
Myrl J. Hanes ....... Secretary
H. Leslie Walker ...... Treasurer
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA
James Deen ........ Past Pres.
Joint Cooperative Council
A-E Joint Committee
Florida Professional Council
Past Presidents Advisory Council
COMMISSION ON THE
Jefferson N. Powell
Thomas H. Daniels
STATE AND CHAPTER
Thomas II. Daniels
Robert C. Broward
RULES AND REGULATIONS
II. Samuel Krus6, FAIA
a. Credentials Committee
1). Resolutions Committee
c. Nominating Committee
HONORS AND AWARDS
John B. Marion
a. Craftsman Awards
b1. Student Awards
c. Ionor Awards
FINANCE AND BUDGET
II. Leslie Walker
J. Arthur WVohlberg
James T. Lendrum
James HI. Church
Ivan H. Smith
Donald R. Edge
J. P. Stevens
BUILDING CODES AND
Donald R. Edge
STATE BOARD OF
Robert H. Levison
J. Arthur \Wohlberg
Dan P. Branch
Donald lack West
Dan P. Branch
d. Financial Institutions
J. Bruce Smith
Donald I. Singer
I. Blount Wagner
Frank G. Schmidt, Jr.
John Pierce Stevens
F. Blair Reeves
Harry E. Burns, Jr.
Pearce L. Barrett, Jr.
James E. Garland
J. Vance Duncan
John E. Sweet
James H. Church
(Continued from Page 10)
quantity of students, length of con-
One of the problems we have
with numbers and architectural de-
sign is that we have not yet found
a way to measure beauty, elegance,
or grace. Is it because these things
are not tangible? Of course not -
we can use numbers to define all
sorts of non-tangible things -
weight, time, speed, heat and
we have assigned units to these
things pounds, hours, miles per
hour, degrees F. Perhaps the
trouble is that we have no units
for beauty. Heat is measured by
dimensional change in mercury
produced by expansion. Perhaps
we need a beauty scale. Larsen
Hall at Harvard, then, might be
"8 degrees Caudill."
Of course that's foolish because
beauty doesn't mean anything spe-
cific; it's a term that we use to
cover a whole concert of emotional
responses. Beauty is a highly per-
sonal reaction. It's inconsistent
and unpredictable. Furthermore
our problems of ugliness are prob-
lems of confusion, not of willful
malice. And if, as architects, we
limit ourselves to solving only
visual problems, we limit ourselves
The computer as an informa-
tion machine can help us to bring
order, to think with more disci-
pline, and to establish, through
knowledge, reasonable limits of
design freedom. And thus, we will
continue to build a more viable
tradition in architecture.
Score high. Specify oil-powered systems.
0IIHIFA OIL FUEL INSTITUTE OF FLORIDA
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
When writing to
manufacturers about new
products or advertisements
first seen here . .
tell them you saw it in . .
For greater profit and increased client
satisfaction, go ALL-ELECTRIC
All-electric buildings are returning daily proof that the/ are better in.'estments than those
restricted to the limitations of conventional s..stems
Green Cove Springs
New Smyrna Beach
The ad.'antages of the all-electric commercial building are
impressrie nothing makes a building more efficient to own
and operate, nothing can pro..ide more re'.enue-producing
space and permit a higher occupancy, ratio These facts can
The favorable economics and other proven ad.antages of
the all-electric system more than justify its application, or
at least a comparatr.e feasibility study. Stop burning up
your clients' profits. specify ALL-ELECTRIC for your next
F Florida Municipal Utilities Association
WHEN CONSUMERS OWN,
PROFITS STAY AT HOME
JANUARY, 1967 17
AIA Document, A-201, General Conditions
During the past several months,
we have witnessed a criticism re-
garding the "hold harmless clause
in the revised document A-201 -
General Conditions. This criticism
stems from contractors who are op-
posed to being held liable for in-
jury and/or damage through negli-
gence on their part. This is limited
indemnification. The architect is
still held liable for injury or dam-
age which is attributable in whole
or in substantial part to a defect
in the drawings or specifications.
Contrary to opinions generated
from contractors that the indemni-
fication is not insurable, we find
the following companies ready to
provide appropriate insurance:
Continental, Traveler's, Insurance
Company of North America, and
Also worthy of note is that with
contractors who were covered by a
Comprehensive General Liability
policy with a blanket contractural
liability endorsement prior to
October 1, 1966, no additional in-
surance premium is required.
We would tend to agree this
controversy should have been set-
tled by the Institute and AGC on
a national level. But the current
revision has been taking place for
the past two years. At the last mo-
ment, after the Denver AIA con-
vention this past June, AGC Board
informed the Institute that en-
dorsement could not be given, after
tentative approval by an official of
the contractors' organization. Based
on legal and insurance counsel,
A-201 as revised was published.
There was no alternative since the
present Workmen's Compensation
Laws are not adequate and the
owner and architects must be re-
lieved of the harrassments occur-
ing from contractors' negligence.
Furthermore, NSPE has pro-
vided for an indemnification
clause in their contracts for years
and, in fact, their clause is more
stringent than A-201. State and
Federal agencies include this
clause in their contracts.
We, the architects and contrac-
tors, must accept the "hold harm-
less" clause as being here to stay.
Architects are urged to insist on
this clause in their contracts. A
special report on this matter by
our Regional Director H. Samuel
Kruse is here provided.
By H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA
Director, Florida Region
Document A-201 has a new for-
mat in which the previous 44 Arti-
cles have been reorganized into 14
Articles under which all items per-
taining to the subject heading are
included in the Article bearing the
subject heading. Previously one
had to search the Document to be
sure, for example, that he had all
the items relating to Changes in
Work or Insurance. Documents
A-101, Owner- Contractor Agree-
ment and B-131, Owner-Archi-
tect Agreement have been coordi-
nated with A-201 and the same
terminology used for all three
Although there have been many
minor changes made in the re-
vision of A-201, it retains all of the
provisions of the 1963 Edition so
that historical continuity is pre-
served. The major change is the
introduction of an indemnification
clause in Par. 4.18 which places
the responsibility for damages and
injuries arising out of acts which
are solely or principally due to the
Contractor's acts of negligence.
Par. 11.1.2 requires the Contractor
to insure this responsibility by in-
cluding Contractural Liability cov-
erage in his Public Liability policy
at not less than the limits specified
and protecting the owner and his
Some architects might question
the mildness of the language of the
clause, since their own or the Na-
tional Society of Professional Engi-
neers documents have included a
more stringent indemnification
clause. In absence of a generally
accepted standard, there have been
many different indemnification
clauses as there are owners, con-
tractors and attorneys. Some were
innocuous with little or no protec-
tion for the owner and his archi-
tect while others were unreason-
ably harsh and perhaps not en-
forceable in the courts. The clause
in the new A-201 provides the nec-
essary protection and is not in con-
flict with existing laws regulating
the use of hold-harmless clauses
Some architects are not certain
what additional specifications
must be written or new action to
be required of them by reason of
this indemnification clause.
The architect will specify, as he
has always, the limits of coverage
for bodily injury and property
damage. His method for determin-
ing the limits with the owner and
his insurance counsellor is un-
changed. His specification writing
is no different than the way he has
been writing insurance require-
If the Contractor is covered by
a Comprehensive General Liability
Policy with a blanket contractural
liability endorsement, he is auto-
matically protected, pays no more
premium and does not even have
to report 'the contract to the insur-
ance company. Some companies
write General Liability Policies
which require a specified contracts
type of contractural liability en-
dorsement where the coverage is
for a specific contract. Most in-
surance companies will write this
type without additional premium.
The better contractors usually
carry one or the other of this type
Most companies will classify the
A-201 type of liability for rating
purposes as Intermediate Form,
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
and in a few instances as Limited.
For a $1,000,000 project where he
has specified liability insurance
limits as $100,000/5300,000 for
bodily injury and $100,000 for
property damage, the premium is
about $600. Where Contractors
have experience credits or divi-
dends, the cost would be less. The
contractor doesn't really bear the
cost of the premium.
One word of warning. A-201
makes it clear that the architect is
responsible for his mistakes and
the architect must be sure he pro-
vides his own protection for errors
and omissions. The indemnifica-
tion clause in A-201 merely pro-
tects the owner and his architect
from the Contractor's negligence
related to the construction of the
project. It only protects the archi-
tect from the "scatter-shot type"
of claims (on the increase lately)
made by people hurt or damaged
by the construction process.
The following presents the pro-
vision in A-201 relating to indem-
4.18.1 The Contractor shall in-
demnify and hold harmless the
Owner and the Architect and their
agents and employees from and
against all claims, damages, losses
and expenses including attorneys'
fees arising out of or resulting from
the performance of the Work, pro-
vided that any such claim, dam-
age, loss or expense (a) is attribu-
table to bodily injury, sickness, dis-
ease or death, or to injury to or
destruction of tangible property
(other than the Work itself) in-
cluding the loss of use resulting
therefrom, and (b) is caused in
whole or in part by any negligent
act or omission of the Contractor,
any Subcontractor, anyone directly
or indirectly employed by any of
them or anyone for whose acts any
of them may be liable, regardless
of whether or not it is caused in
part by a party indemnified here-
4.18.2 In any and all claims
against the Owner or Architect or
any of their agents or employees
by any employee of the Contrac-
tor, any Subcontractor, anyone di-
rectly or indirectly employed by
any of them or anyone for whose
acts any of them may be liable,
the indemnification obligation
under this Paragraph 4.18 shall not
be limited in any way by any limi-
tation on the amount or type of
damages, compensation or benefits
payable by or for the Contractor
or any Subcontractor under work-
men's compensation acts, disability
benefit acts or other employee
4.18.3 The obligations of the
Contractor under this Paragraph
4.18 shall not extend to any claim,
damage, loss or expense which is
attributable in whole or in sub-
stantial part to a defect in drawings
or specifications prepared by the
INFORMATIONAL MEETING ON REVISED AIA DOCUMENTS
An important For-Your-Information meeting on the following revised
documents of the American Institute of Architects:
A-101 .. Owner-Contractor Agreement Form
A-201 ... General Conditions
B-131 . Owner-Architect Agreement Form
A representative of the Institute will be present to discuss these docu-
ments in detail and to answer any questions. Architects and contractors
are urged to attend this vital session at Parliament House Motel, 410 N.
Orange Blossom Trail in Orlando . January 28th as 10 a.m. This meet-
ing is being sponsored by the Florida Association of the AIA.
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
ORDERS WILL BE MAILED
An area seminar, scheduled for
Jacksonville on March 10-11,
1967, will take the design question
one step further . with the aid
of top-flight speakers.
Seminar coordinator Don Edge,
AIA, has significantly entitled the
upcoming seminar "Design Ac-
complishment," with heavy em-
phasis on the "accomplishment"
part. Design chairman for the
seminar is Dan P. Branch, AIA,
and Accomplishment chairman is
John P. Stevens, AIA.
Part of the AIA's "continuing
education" program, this seminar
will be held in Jacksonville's Thun-
derbird Motel. In order to spot-
light the effort and correlation be-
tween design and its accomplish-
ment, the seminar will utilize an
outstanding building as a 'living
example'-the Gulf Life Center, a
27-stories-tall building on a 12-acre
St. John's River-front site across
from downtown Jacksonville. The
building is also the tallest, pre-cast,
post-tensioned concrete structure
in the nation. It was designed by
Welton Becket & Associates of Los
Angeles. Kemp, Bunch & Jackson
of Jacksonville are associate archi-
Representatives from both archi-
tectural firms will be on hand to
take an active part in the seminar.
Moderator and dinner speaker will
be Mr. Jan Rowan, editor of "Pro-
gressive Architecture" magazine.
All panelists will attend all ses-
sions of the two-day coordinated
seminar. Presentations will place
emphasis on how various offices
and people resolved the design. In
addition, table-top exhibits will be
displayed by Producer Council
members and other invited guests.
Registration fee is $17.00
($10.00 for students) and this in-
cludes three meals.
One of the principal panelists at
the seminar will be Mr. Hal
Schley, vice president of building
for Gulf Life Center. Gulf Life
Insurance Company has given en-
thusiastic support to seminar lead-
ers for use of the building as a
"Design Accomplishment" exam-
"Our design concept for the
Gulf Life Tower was conceived to
capture the solidity and vitality of
a growing insurance company,"
architect Welton Becket, FAIA,
explained. "In addition, we sought
to utilize a material which would
visually unify the several structures
on the site." he continued. "We
selected concrete for its design flex-
ibility and evolved the precast,
pest-tensioning construction as a
single solution to presenting the
bold image we sought, providing
relative economy, shortening the
construction time, and providing
long-span, column-free floor areas
which is a desirable characteristic
of space for insurance company
The 430-ft.-high tower com-
pletely exposes its sculptured struc-
tural frame on the exterior. The
structural frame is supported by
eight tapered concrete columns,
two on each side of the square
tower. Precast, prestressed concrete
beams join the two columns at
every floor and cantilever outward
a distance of over 40 ft. on either
side. Each of the beams consists of
14 precast concrete segments
strung together with high strength
steel rods and then post-tensioned
by tightening fasteners on either
cnd of the rods.
A glass-enclosed lobby at the en-
trance level is recessed from a
glass-enclosed, two-story-high bank
on the second level, which is in
turn recessed from the tower's
window walls. Escalators serve the
banking floor from the lobby as do
the building's 12 passenger and 2
service elevators. On a concourse
level is a 600-seat cafeteria over-
looking the river, an employee
lounge and a large kitchen.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
__qli Bl II O NATURAL GAS
1AIlO^UMA ATA THE HEADLINES
BIG TAMPA BUILDER SCORES ON FIRST JOB-GOES FOR TWOI Skyline Homebuilders, Inc., long-
time successful West Coast builders, launched their first natural gas development, College Village,
near Tampa's U. of So. Florida last August. Plans for 300 homes in three years included natural gas
built-in ranges and ovens, water heaters, central heating, ducted for eventual air conditioning, gas-
lights and patio grills. With thirty-six homes already finished, and plans for completion telescoped
to two years, Skyline has started another new Tampa subdivision with the same lineup of natural
gas services from Peoples Gas System.
NATGAS WATER HEATER KEEPS 400 SKIPPERS IN HOT WATER. Over 400 visiting yachtsmen and
their crews who berthed in Sarasota's million-dollar Marina Mar last season had no hot water problems.
A single Ruud natural gas water heater took care of everything-showers, dockside shops, a Galley
snack bar and the 300-seat "Upper Deck" restaurant-which incidentally uses natural gas for range,
oven and broiler in its smartly modern kitchen.
\ GOLD FAUCETS IN SWANK CLUB SPOUT NATGAS HOT WATER. When Miami's
ultra-ultra Palm Bay Club installed gold bathroom fixtures, it served notice that only
the very best of everything would be provided to its socialite patronage. So how do they
cook, heat water, warm the swimming pool, light the extensive marina and grounds?
With natural gas, naturally!
"CLEAN, DEPENDABLE, SAFE" SO BIG JAX NURSING HOME BUYS Following the lead of
hundreds of hospitals and health-oriented institutions, Jacksonville's big, new Eartha White Nursing
Home installed two 1,500,000 BTU per hour boilers for heating, added two 1,000,000 BTU units
for hot water, rounded out a "clean sweep" with all-gas kitchen facilities. Florida Gas stressed clean-
liness, dependability and safety as essential in institutions caring for sick and disabled.
OLD SAN FRANCISCO SHOWPLACE BRINGS GASLIGHT ERA TO FT. LAUDERDALE. Only the
decor in Homer Weimer's Old San Francisco Restaurant in Fort Lauderdale dates back to the "Gay
Nineties." Everything else is completely new and modern, from the gleaming, spanking-clean all-
gas kitchen to the battery of four 9-ton Bryant natural gas air conditioners, and the high-speed
Ruud hot water system. Peoples Gas had no problem convincing owner Weimer-he was already sold
on natural gas from his Pacific Coast operations.
NATURAL GAS IS GOOD BUSINESS FOR STETSON BUSINESS SCHOOL New home of Stetson
University's School of Business will have natural gas central heating-one of nine new systems being
supplied at the Deland school by Florida Home Gas Company. Other new systems are in the new men's
dormitory and the Sigma Nu Fraternity House. Gas heating in six other buildings replaces oil.
NATURAL GAS SPELLS EFFICIENCY IN ANY LANGUAGE. Latin flavor of Miami's
Cuban community reflected in new Florida Gas customers there: Wayjoy Cuban Baker
with new gas oven; same for Fernandez Bakery; two Rita Coin Laundries switching from
5 S HAWBA L.P. to natural gas; natural gas cooker for Giralda Meat Provisions, Inc.; cooking and
fESR'w/f water heating in swank Les Violin's Supper Club; Camaguey Sportswear with a new
SPEAKING OF SUDDEN DEATH . TWO MONTHS, THEN CURTAINS! After one of the shortest
experiences on record two months Dudley Funeral Home of New Smyrna Beach moved out
eight tons of brand new electric air conditioning and replaced it with natural gas. Continuing the
trend to natural gas, South Florida Natural Gas also signed up Tom & Marion's Bar-B-Que.
CUISINE OF MANY NATIONS UNITED IN MIAMI WITH NATURAL GAS. Valenti's famous Italian
restaurant has enlarged its all-gas kitchen and added 14 gaslights. New Wan's Mandarin House
prepares its Chinese cuisine in an all-gas setup. Scanda House's brand new Swedish Smorgasbord
adds another nationality to the natgas parade, and on Miami Beach, the celebrated French cuisine of
Le Parisien continues to win awards for its "flavorful flame" delights.
NATIONAL PUBLICATION COMBATS FLAMELESSS" PROPAGANDA. Produced by
American Gas Association, a new booklet faces facts in the comparison of gas vs.
electric service. Pointing out that there is potential danger in any energy source, the
booklet concludes that only the misuse of the service causes trouble. As evidence that
flame, under proper control, can be even less hazardous than a non-flame energy
source, the AGA cites Washington, D. C. records showing a ratio of electric meters to
gas meters of 1.1 to 1, whereas the ratio of electric fires to fires attributed to gas
was 26 to 1.
Reproduction of information contained in this advertisement is authorized without restric-
tion by the Florida Natural Gas Association, S. Dixie & Fern St., West Palm Beach, Florida.
Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery
January 7 29
MORRIS LAPIDUS FORTY YEARS
A retrospective of the work of one of the architects who has played a most
influential role in commercial building in the second quarter of the 20th
Century, particularly in the area of hotel and communal living projects.
JOHN KLINKENBERG RECENT WORK
Paintings and drawings done in the last year by this outstanding painter
and artist, who is also a member of the University of Miami Department
of Art faculty.
February 4 26
THE ART AND ARTIFACTS OF COLONIAL AMERICA
An exhibition assembled by the Gallery Staff under the sponsorship of the
Beaux Arts organization from numerous private and public collections of
the Decorative Arts furniture, ceramics, sculpture, painting and utili-
tarian objects of the Colonial period.
THE SCHOOL OF PARIS -
CONTEMPORARY FRENCH PAINTING
A survey of the work that is being done by second and third generations
of the renowned School of Paris painters.
February 22 March 10
CONTEMPORARY BRITISH PAINTING
A loan exhibition of present day work by approximately thirty of Great
Britain's leading artists assembled by the Tate Gallery in London.
March 4 31
THE JOHNSON WAX COLLECTION ART, U.S.A.
A collection assembled by the Nordness Galleries for the Johnson Wax
Company as a survey of the present stage of the Arts in the United States.
GEORGE STARK SCULPTURE
A one-man exhibition of the work of this promising young professional
artist. The Gallery hopes every year to be able to give one or two one-man
shows to such artists. April 2 30
April 2 30
JUANITA MAYE CERAMICS
A look at the work of the last year of the many diverse uses that can made
toward an artistic end of this medium.
A national competition open to any graduating senior of an accredited art
school or university in the United States or nearby countries. The prizes
offered will be several fellowships and scholarships to the University of
Miami Graduate School of Fine Arts.
BEAUX ARTS RENTAL SHOW
An exhibition of new items available for sale and loan in the Beaux Arts
Rental Gallery. May 6 30
THE LAND AND THE FLOWER
An exhibition of thirty landscapes from the Gallery's permanent collection
in cooperation with several garden clubs of Miami. The participating mem-
bers will each choose one painting as the inspiration for flower arrange-
ments to be displayed in a setting with the painting.
THE KRESS COLLECTION OF MASTERS
OF THE 14th 18th CENTURIES
THE ALFRED I. BARTON COLLECTION
OF PRIMITIVE ART
10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Tuesday-Saturday.
2-5 p.m. Sunday. 8-10 p.m. Wednesday.
(All Lowe Gallery exhibitions are open to the public without charge)
fLZ &S.V OOOQ 0
JALO/ 0S/E P.OR
Next Month in
The Florida Architect
Coming in March . .
A Look at
Coming in April...
^,Ze aluminum doors
112- 32nd Avenue West, Bradenton, Florida
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
they left the flooring to us...
M .P. 0'.
, T, .-
P1, :.:. . ..':l,.r .:r ",l, W~ H 1 ', r i,',,,
l -' 7'
TERRAZZO... for beauty, for durability,
for low maintenance
GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY
Offices: Chicago, Illinois Chattanooga, Tennes-
see Dallas, Texas Fort Worth, Texas *
Houston, Texas Fredonia, Kansas Fort Wayne,
Indiana Jackson, Michigan Kansas City *
Tampa. Florida Miami, Florida Los Angeles O
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"
Cline Aluminum Products, Inc.
Dunan Brick Co.
Inside Back Cover
1690 MONROE DRIVE, N. E.
OFFICES AND YARD
Florida Gas Transmission Co.
CERAMIC GLAZED BRICK
BRIAR HILL STONE
CRAB ORCHARD FLAGSTONE
CRAB ORCHARD RUBBLE STONE
SALT GLAZED TILE
GLAZED SOLAR SCREENS
UNGLAZED FACING TILE
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA
BUCKINGHAM AND VERMONT
SLATE FOR ROOFS AND FLOORS
Florida Natural Gas Association
PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT INSULATING ROOF AND WALL SLABS
We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.
Represented in Florida by
RICHARD C. ROYSUM
10247 Colonial Court North
Oil Fuel Institute of Florida
Trinity White -
General Portland Cement Co.
F. Graham Williams Co.
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
Telephone: (904) 724-7958
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
This Is Red River Rubble
It's a hard, fine-grained
sandstone from the now-dry
bed of the Kiamichi River in
Oklahoma. In color it ranges
from a warm umber through a
variety of brcwnish reds to
warm, light tan . Face
textures are just as varied. Over
thousands of years rushing
water has sculptured each
individual stone with an infinite
diversity of hollows, ridges,
striations, swirls and has
worn each surface to a soft,
mellow smoothness . The
general character of this
unusual stone suggests its use
in broad, unbroken areas
wherein rugged scale and rich
color are dominating factors
of design . Age and exposure
can do nothing to this stone
except enhance the mellow
richness of its natural beauty. ..
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulation
Publication at Miami, Fla.
University of Florida Libraries
Gainesville, Fla. 10