HILLIARD T. SMITH, JR., AIA
Historically, the architect's
role is that of skilled designer
and master builder, employing
many technologies as tools to
create human environment hav-
ing esthetic value and useful
purpose. From this oldest of pro-
fessions have come some of the
most significant influences on
the history of mankind.
Witness the great works from
the temples of Egypt, the Acrop-
olis, all the Seven Wonders of
the World, through the magnifi-
cent cathedrals of the Middle
Ages and the Renaissance to the
modem day marvels of high rise
These are the creation of men
with the ability to coordinate
various technical disciplines into
an aesthetically pleasing combi-
nation of materials satisfying the
human and practical require-
ments of each set of conditions.
These are the creation of men
with a dominant drive-a desire
-to transform the need for
something useful into a signifi-
cant work, making its contribu-
tion to our visual environment.
As our technology has become
more sophisticated and our prod-
uct more complex, knowledge
has become fragmented into
more and smaller capsules of ex-
pertise. Out of this has been
created the specialist or one who
is authoritative on one part of
the whole. Dealing in depth in
these capsules of knowledge,
these specialists lack the under-
standing and scope of training to
coordinate and translate the
many parts into a beautiful and
still efficient whole. This skill
of coordination requires a thor-
ough and qualified understand-
ing of the science of planning.
In buildings, the science of plan-
ning is the essence of an ability
to successfully bring together
esthetic sense and technology.
It is this ability to bring to-
gether esthetic sense and tech-
nology which produces architec-
ture and not just buildings.
have asked if we are in danger
of creating a technological waste-
land in which our ends are dom-
inated by our means, where
technical instruments rather
than human considerations de-
termine our course.
The profesison of creating a
visual environment fit for hu-
man occupancy requires deep
understanding of the arts, hu-
manities, social sciences and en-
gineering. Of the professions,
only architecture requires such
breadth of responsibility and di-
versity of materials. No other
has such direct relevance and
responsibility in civic affairs.
If there are some among those
with capsules of knowledge who
would relegate the environment
of our society to a technological
wasteland that is devoid of spir-
itual, moral and human values,
we admonish them to heed well
the import of such responsibility.
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., President
1123 Crestwood Blvd., Lake Worth, Florida
Herbert R. Savage, President Designate/Vice President
3250 S. W. 3rd Avenue, Miami, Florida
Myrl Hanes, Secretary
P. O. Box 609, Gainesville, Florida
H. Leslie Walker, Treasurer
Citizens Building, Suite 1218, 706 Franklin Sf., Tampa, Fla.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Broward County Charles R. Kerley / Robert E. Todd
Daytona Beach David A. Leete / Tom Jannetides
Florida Central J. A. Wohlberg / Ted Fasnacht
James J. Jennewein
Florida Gulf Coast Frank Folsom Smith / Jack West
Florida North F. Blair Reeves / William C. Grobe
Florida North Central 0 Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Ellis W. Bullock, Jr. / Thomas H. Daniels
Florida South Robert J. Boerema / James E. Ferguson, Jr.
Francis E. Telesca
Jacksonville e A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr. / Roy M. Pooley, Jr.
John Pierce Stevens
Mid-Florida Wythe D. Sims, II / Joseph M. Shifalo
Palm Beach Jack Willson, Jr. / John B. Marion
Richard E. Pryor
Director, Florida Region, American Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, 1600 N. W. LeJeune Rd., Miami
Executive Director, Florida Association of the American
Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
Donald Singer / Milton C. Harry / Lowell L. Lotspeich
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
Eleanor Miller / Assistant Editor
Ann Krestensen / Art Consultant
Black-Baker-Burton / Photography Consultants
M. Elaine Mead / Circulation Manager
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. It is published monthly at the Executive Office of the
Association, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables 34, Florida.
Telephone: 444-5761 (area code 305). Circulation: distributed with-
out charge to 4,669 registered architects, builders, contractors, de-
signers and members of allied fields throughout the state of Florida
-and to leading national architectural firms and journals.
Editorial contributions, including plans and photographs of archi-
tects' work, are welcomed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
Editor or the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA publications, pro-
vided full credit is given to the author and to The FLORIDA
ARCHITECT for prior use. . Advertisements of products,
materials and services adaptable for use in Florida are welcome,
but mention of names or use of illustrations, of such materials and
products in either editorial or advertising columns does not con-
stitute endorsement by the Florida Association of the AIA. Adver-
tising material must conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material because of arrange-
ment, copy or illustrations. . Controlled circulation postage paid
at Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; subscription, $5.00
per year. March Roster Issue, $2.00 . McMurray Printers
Inside Front Cover
OCTAGON BUILDING' FUND
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
FLORIDA CONCRETE and PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION
STUDENT DESIGN WINNERS
RELIGION AND ARCHITECTURE -
FLORIDA ARCHITECT FEATURES-
A reference Index for 1966
COMING IN FUTURE ISSUES
FRONT COVER DECEMBER 1966 Traditional time
of the year to cast an appraising look over the past year, take
an enthusiastic look toward the coming year, and send your
heartiest best wishes to all! We do all three -gratefully!
Cover masterpiece by El Greco.
VOLUME 16 U NUMBER 12 E 1966
Sowing The Seeds Of Future
We must practise what we preach!
As members of the Architectural Profession, we urge our clients to employ designs of beauty, to consider scale
and harmony, and to cherish open space and natural charm of the environment. Let us do the same with our own
It has been resolved that the AIA enlarge the present site of the Octagon House, create a new headquarters
building, and restore the historic Octagon House as a beautiful landmark of our architectural heritage. Worthy
goals and much needed if we are to continue to represent the finest in creative excellence. Our profession is
growing vigorously and this is our proud opportunity to create a worthwhile 4ocal point for future generations -
yes, to build for our future.
But, to sow these seeds of the future, our building plans need fii a support . $900,000.
The AIA asks to receive all pledges by the end of 1966, if possible. A pledge form, like the one shown below,
will be available from your own chapter. Your pledge is tax deductible in the 1966 tax year.
THE HARVEST OF SUCCESS
If these seeds are sowed well, what will be harvest? We will bring in a crop of advantages and developments . .
a new headquarters building which will be a fitting 'crown' for our profession and will represent us well in the
nation's capitol . much-needed office and meeting space . the restoration of Octagon House, which it so
richly deserves as an early American. landmark of residential architecture . creation of the Octagon garden . .
and we will have planted and harvested a crop that wil still be reaping rich rewards for generations yet to come.
Here is an opportunity for every member of the AIA to make a once-in-a-lifetime investment in the future
of his professional society. Let Florida lead the way!
(You may use this form for your pledge.)
................... ....... ...... ........ I .... .. ............ .. .. .........
American Institute of Architects Foundation, Inc.
Octagon Headquarters Campaign Fund
1735 New York Avenue, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20006
In consideration of the gifts of others,
I pledge to the Octagon House Cam-
paign Fund as follows:
TOTAL PLEDGED $
PAID HEREWITH $
BALANCE DUE 1S
(Make check payable to AIAF)
CONTRIBUTION BY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTION BY FIRM
SIGNATURE OF CONTRIBUTOR
REGISTERED UNDER D.C. CHARITABLE SOLICITATION ACT. REG. NOS. 6-07-495 AND 6-07-496
If this contribution is made for more
than one individual, please list names
on reverse side.
BALANCE PAYABLE (Check appropriate box)
TWO INSTALLMENTS-1967 & 1968
Do Not Write
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
*...:' . . .. ..*.. .
ie .'-* PACE -A
I .. : ,: .
.i, ... ..:. .
The ALL-ELECTRIC concept gives you more usable spaces
The exploitation of usable, revenue-producing space in commercial buildings is as important to the
owner/investor as the exploration of outer space is to world scientists. That's why more and more
--Li ---J---=..... 1 l-..l.JI-- ... -~-i..!--- Al I 1 n-L TDI='/.rrtI
Bartow Lake Worth
Bushnell Moore Haven
Chattaoochee ML Dora
FL Mead New Smyrna Beach
Ft Pierce Ocala
Green Coe wings Quinc
Havana St. Cloud
Jacksonvll Beach Tallahassee
Key West Vero Beach
Lake Helen Williston
on i.i_ ,f IF
Better and more profitable use of space is the basic advantage of the all-
electric concept. This means added income for office buildings, shopping
centers, hotels and motels; added capacity for hospitals, nursing homes,
medical centers and dormitories; and more classrooms for schools.
Whatever your next commercial project, you owe it to your client to inves-
tigate the application and advantages of ALL-ELECTRIC construction
WHEN CONSUMERS OWN,
PROFITS STAY AT HOME
DECEMBER, 1966 3
arCTrIIleCTS, enginesrr and uudders are specifying ALL-EL n %...l
AL IN D 00R5i
AIL 4 OOq
L OUVe/e PO0R
years or 0
A Challenge toAIA Members
Never has there been a time when people
within associations needed so urgently to work
together to bring their best efforts and abilities
to bear on common problems.
The challenges which associations have faced
in the past are likely to be dwarfed by the chal-
lenges of the future. Technological change, man-
power issues, the challenge of competitive indus-
tries and expanding government-all these are
beating upon us with such insistence that there is
hardly time to attend to one emergency before
another crisis is upon us.
112- 32nd Avenue West, Bradenton, Florida
FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
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Bradenton, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Chattahoochee, Town of Chattahoochee
Chipley, City of Chipley
Clearwater, City of Clearwater
Clermont, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Cocoa, City Gas Co.
Cocoa Beach, City Gas Co.
Coral Gables, City Gas Co.
Crescent City, City of Crescent City
Cutler Ridge, City Gas Co.
Daytona Beach, Florida Gas Co.
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Eau Gallie, City Gas Co.
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Fort Pierce, City of Fort Pierce
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Haines City, Central Florida Gas Corp.
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Lake Alfred, Central Florida Gas Corp.
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Madison, City of Madison
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Melbourne, City Gas Co.
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North Miami, Peoples Gas System
Ocala, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Opa Locka, City Gas Co.
Orlando, Florida Gas Co.
Palatka, Palatka Gas Authority
Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Palm Beach Gardens, City of
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Panama City, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Pensacola, City of Pensacola
Perry, City of Perry
Plant City, Plant City Natural Gas Co.
Port St Joe, St. Joe Natural Gas Company
Rockledge, City Gas Co.
St. Petersburg United Gas Co.
Sanford, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Sarasota, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Starke, City of Starke
Tallahassee, City of Tallahassee
Tampa, Peoples Gas System
Tavares, Florida Gas Co.
Titusville, City Gas Co.
Umatilla, Florida Gas Co.
Valparaiso, Okaloosa County Gas District
West Miami, City Gas Co.
West Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Williston, City of Williston
Winter Garden, Lake Apopka Natural Gas
Winfer Haven, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Winter Park, Florida Gas Co.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
... OR HOW A RUUD WATER HEATER KEPT 400 SKIPPERS & THEIR CREWS IN HOT WATER
When over 400 visiting yachtsmen berthed at the
million-dollar Marina Mar in Sarasota, Florida last
season a RUUD Gas Water Heater was there to
take command of the hot water situation.
Providing hot water and showers for all boating
enthusiasts who dock here is a never ending job ...
and dependable "Captain" RUUD, the Gas Water
Heater meets the challenge by working twenty-four
hours a day. From the 300-seat "Upper Deck" res-
taurant, which also uses Natural Gas in its kitchen
for broiler, range, and oven, to the 24-hour "Galley"
snack-bar, to the half-dozen shops at dock-side,
RUUD is constantly on the go, furnishing hot water
from a single Natural Gas Heater.
Isn't this the kind of fast recovery and dependability
you want in your water heating?
Check with your local Natural Gas Utility or Gas
Appliance dealer... "Captain" RUUD has brothers
who can go to work for you.
Served by Southern Gas & Electric Corporation of
WINTER PARK / FLORIDA
Florida's Pipeline to the Future . .
serving 35 Natural Gas Distribution
Companies in over 100 communities
throughout the state.
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"
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SLATE FOR ROOFS AND FLOORS
PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT INSULATING ROOF AND WALL SLABS
We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.
Represented in Florida by
RICHARD C. ROYSUM
10247 Colonial Court North
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
Telephone: (904) 724-7958
November 22 December 4
Palm Beach Chapter, AIA, Archi-
tectural Exhibit. Norton Art Gal-
lery, Palm Beach.
November 27 December 17
FAAIA Architectural Exhibits,
La Monte Art Gallery, University
of Tampa, Tampa.
FAAIA Board of Directors meet-
ing, 9:30 a.m., George Washing-
ton Hotel, Jacksonville.
South Florida Chapter of Produc-
ers' Council annual Christmas
Party, 6:30 pm., Coral Gables
Meeting of the AIA Florida Chap-
ter Presidents, 10 a.m., 1000
Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral
AIA Grass Roots meeting for
Chapter Presidents, Octagon,
Washington, D. C.
FAAIA Council of Commissioners
FAAIA Board of Directors meet-
ing, St. Petersburg.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
IjmL of the real joys of the loalay Brason is
the opportunity to sai "'1iank you" anb pxtpnb
to you our warmpst grpetings anz goob uisfaps
for happiness anu prosperity all through the
FLORIDA PORTLAND CEMENT DIVISION
General Portland Cement Company
PLANTS AND OFFICES IN TAMPA AND MIAMI
DECEMBER, 1966 7
" .. l-
FIRST PLACE ... Charles M. Stewart, University of Miami . "for imagination in use of
concrete, display of material .. ."
1966 Design Competition
Announces Student Winners
The I lorida Concrete and Products Association recently announced the winners in
its annual competition between the architecture students from the University of Flor-
ida and the University of Miami.
From 20 entries from the two .schlol,. first place honors and $150 went to Chlarlco
M. Stewart, Uiiversity of Miami; second place and $75 to Dennis DeWolf, UlInii%\rs;i\
of Miami; third place and $50 to William O'Toole, Uniicrsitv of Miaimi; fourth place
to Miss Teresita Lascalnhr. University of I-lond,. and, fifth place to Wendell F. Orr,
University of Miami.
This fifth annual contest design constituted the problem of designing a Statc Head-
quarters Building for the Association using a variety of concrete products and iho\ ing
them off to their best ad;antalgc.
The jury, comprised of Nil Schweizer of Wintcr Park and Gene Leedy of Winter
Haven, also judged the entry of Donald Evans, University of Miami, Honorable Men-
tion on the basis of excellence of preecntatiun.
Commenting on the entries in their critique, the jury stated:
"The projects were critically reviewed without the consideration of
the competitor's experience or lack of it, and without thought to his
educational development. The projects are critiqued as if they consti-
tuted preliminary presentations and were judged accordingly. Certain
projects showed definite promise that indicated to the jury that the com-
petitor, if given definite direction, could colncivahlv develop a competent
solution. This attribute was reco-,nized in the iudgmernt."
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
SECOND PLACE . Dennis DeWolf, University of Miami
THIRD PLACE ... William O'Toole
University of Miami
FOURTH PLACE .. Miss Teresita
Lascaibar, University of Florida
- I ttt.
FIFTH PLACE . Wendell F. Orr, University of Miami
f, pi IA
(,;' t~i I
".. the electric way is by far
the most efficient and economical
method of manufacturing
mobile homes ... "
RITZ-CRAFT MOBILE HOMES, INC. of Sarasota
is a leader in the growing trend toward all-electric
mobile homes. These easy-to-keep-clean homes
are designed for comfort, convenience and safety.
They feature Full Housepower wiring, ample Light
for Living and all-electric kitchens equipped with
flameless electric range, water heater, and other
appliances to save work, save steps.
The Ritz-Craft modern plant meets the standards
of all-electric design and has earned the Award of
Merit for Electrical Excellence.
"Our plant is 100% electric, as well as our
offices, including air conditioning," says Wayne
O. Wright, Vice President. "We feel the electric
way is by far the most efficient and economical
method of manufacturing mobile homes, in addi-
tion to the added safety of our employees."
Florida's Electric Companies ) Taxpaying, Investor-Owned.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
DECEMBER, 1966 i 11
Architecture, Religion, and Relevance
The Church and Church Architec-
ture are moving but neither archi-
tects, clergymen nor congregations
seem to know in what direction, if
statements made at the recently com-
pleted Conference for Church Archi-
tecture sponsored by the American
Society for Church Architecture are
representative of the times. The Con-
ference was held in Chicago this
spring and drew attendees from as
far away as Connecticut, Florida and
Minnesota. Leading speakers includ-
ing Rabbi Morris Hershman of Joliet
Jewish Congregation in Joliet, Illi-
nois, and Rev. Gordon Gilkey of the
Welfare Council of Metropolitan
Chicago, challenged both architects
and clergy in attendance to establish
the relevance of church architecture
and the relevance of religion before
attempting to use architecture as a
means of expressing current religious
needs, attitudes and directions.
The over-all theme of the confer-
ence was Architecture, Religion and
Relevance and the need for more
detailed discussion of this theme was
evidenced by the comments made by
Rev. Cilkcy who spoke on "Hard
Times for Architects and Ministers."
"Never before," he said, "have so
many local church structures been
erected as in recent years; never have
so many been designed in so many
different shapes and forms, using so
many materials and decorated with so
many novel symbols. But at the same
time never has there been so much
criticism both of the volume of
church building and the final appear-
ance of the end result." "Today,/ he
said, "there are many unresolved dif-
ferences of opinion as to what the
church building is for and what it
should look like."
"We happen to be living," Rev.
Gilkey stated, "in a generation of
enormous theological and ecclesiasti-
cal change... the rules of the game
have changed not only without warn-
ing but without our permission . .
new forms of ministry are needed
for the old ones are inadequate. If
this is true within the church and
synagogue it is equally true within the
profession of architecture. The archi-
tect can hardly design a building to
reflect and symbolize the meaning
and function of a religious activity if
his clients are unable to provide the
definitions he needs as a guide."
With thli in mind Rev. Gilkey in-
dicated that it would not be out of
order if a moratorium were declared
on all church building for a time, un-
til the religions themselves are more
nearly able to put forth an adequate
outline of what a church or religious
structure is really intended to be.
These thoughts were echoed by
Rabbi Hershman in the closing major
address of the conference when he
said: "If we ministers of religion can
convince parishioners that religion
has relevance for the community and
for the times in which we live, then
. . architects can make our church
buildings relevant for the community
in which we live. The paradox we
find ourselves in our great Country is
that the freedom for which it stands
has become the dissolving solution
that has permitted discipline to be
weakened by liberties, and goals to be
dissipated by the acid of disunity, and
idea to be eclipsed by expediency."
"Our buildings," according to Rab-
bi Hershman, "may be functional and
they may be quite useable, but ...
this is not the only function of a
religious building. The function of a
religious building is to arouse pride,
an emotion, a spirit of striving for
perfection, a striving for the imitation
of God, and with all our building to-
day, we are building for the purpose
of arousing a spirit of religiosity or
to create a quality of spirituality that
is so necessary in a religious building.
We are building today for function
without ideal, for practicality without
harmony, without inner being; for use-
fulness without a sense of beauty."
Rev. Godfrey Diekmann of St.
Johns Abbey in Collegeville, Minne-
sota described one of the current
events that emphasizes that we are in
a revolutionary generation and at the
same time moving toward an accept-
able solution to the problem. He re-
ferred to the Vatican Two confer-
ence called by Pope John and the
many changes in design and furnish-
ings that were decided upon and ap-
proved by the conference, all of
which are intended to bring the
church and the needs of man into
closer harmony. Rev. D i e k m a n n
stated that, "ten to fifteen years ago
when he personally advocated some
of the ideas endorsed by the confer-
ence he became known as somewhat
of a heretic while now that these
have been OK'd he has recovered his
conservative reputation again."
He urged that architects consider
that churches represent a horizontal
relationship of man to man as well as
a vertical relationship of man to God.
The trend of constant change and
uncertainty of the action on the
church as contrasted with the needs
of the modern community and the
men who live in it reoccured constant-
ly in the smaller seminars which made
up the bulk of the program of the
Careful study and evaluation of
the function which "probably should
be performed by the church and
which in some cases is being per-
formed" indicates that many socio-
logical needs which the community
fails to perform for its members civic-
ally ought to be done by the church.
In the ultimate analysis it may be
that the need for a sanctuary for
Sunday morning worship is really not
the most important functional phase
of modern church design or modern
church activity. This may be the day
when the counseling chamber, edu-
cation facilities, s o cial activities,
youth center facilities, and other
types of community needs will over-
shadow the older Sunday-only philos-
ophy of the use of religious buildings,
according to both leaders and partici-
pants in the several seminars.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
A MINOR SEMINARY FOR
An article prepared especially for The Florida Architect by
The Most Reverend Coleman F. Carroll
Bishop of the Diocese of Miami
The study and appreciation of un-
usual and fine architecture has always
been of keen interest to me. When I
undertook to proceed with the plans
I had for the building of a much-
needed Minor Seminary in the South-
ern part of Florida, I did so envision-
ing the many details that would, of
necessity, require a decision on my
part, and always hopeful it would be
the right one.
As we know, a Chapel for a Minor
Seminary presents unique architec-
tural problems not found in most
other Churches or Chapels. Here we
have a structure designed for the
daily spiritual needs of two or three
hundred young seminarians whose
numbers vary not at all from year
end to year end and yet is capable of
accommodating three times that
number on special occasions. The
arithmetic is inexorable. If, for ex-
ample, each of three hundred stu-
dents invites two parents, relatives or
friends to attend the services in con-
nection with a graduation ceremony,
the capacity immediately must be
nine hundred or more.
The problem then was to provide
for the fixed student population in an
atmosphere of intimate participation,
esthetically satisfying, spiritually re-
warding and liturgically correct, and
to provide the same qualities and
amenities for the occasional tripled
congregation. Apart from the usual
architectural considerations of site,
orientation, scale, internal and exter-
nal design and space, choice of mate.
rials, and the other factors and ele-
ments that go to make up a complete
and satisfactory building, the need for
this occasional triple expansion with-
out loss of intimacy of participation
was the one unusual element which
governed the concept of St. John Vian-
ney Minor Seminary Chapel.
The plan is cruciform in shape, in-
scribed within the limits of a walled
square. Some of the elements are
high and enclosed, some are low,
while others have palm fronds and
blue sky for a roof. All are unified so
that the low spaces flow into the high
space and the open spaces flow into
both. The effect is to give a sense of
being within a Chapel, whether cov-
ered or open, and always being close
to the Holy mysteries at the focal
point of the altar.
The high nave, in the main arm of
the cross, housing the daily congrega-
tion and the sanctuary itself, is the
dominant element of the whole com-
plex, rising as it does in a soaring
flight above the strong earthbound
horizontal elements of the surround-
ing enclosing low transepts in the two
cross-arms, the sacristies in the top
arm of the cross and the enclosing
pierced walls of the four courts open
to the sky and the roofed but other-
wise open Narthex. These surround-
ing horizontal elements are human in
scale, reflecting their affinity to the
very ground upon which they rest,
while the high nave seems almost to
spring to heaven on strong soaring
vertical elements branching into
spreading arms supporting the roof,
sheltering all beneath.
The Sanctuary is the central focus
of this high nave as well as the two
flanking low transepts. Following the
most recent liturgical recommenda-
tions, the altar is not set apart in a
distant apse but is in the very center
of the total congregational setting.
Botticino, Travertine and other exotic
marbles are in the flooring, the low
reredos, the Communion railings and
in the main Altar and the Altar of
On the opposite wall, over the
main entrance doors appears the large
pipe organ, encased in African Ma-
hogany, all designed to be an integral
part of the wall itself. Simple, slat-
backed, open-end bench type pews
are in this same material, as are the
recessed facias of the paired concrete
vertical piers and the indirect lighting
baffles forming a cornice over the
opening glass walls on both sides of
These opening glass walls lead to
two of the four landscaped courts on
either side. Two minor courts flank
the sacristy wing. All are an integral
part of the Chapel itself, and though
open to the sky are within the Chapel
and not outside its limits. They con-
tain ample space for overflow crowds,
close to the altar, and are embellished
with the beauty of tropical flowers,
plants and trees with devotional
shrines, reflecting pools, bubbling
fountains, Stations of the Cross and
a peal of three bronze bells suspended
in their own tall structure.
The two low transepts, though fur-
nished with permanent pews to pro-
vide for more than double the daily
congregational seating and the built-
in-confessionals, also open in like
manner into these beautiful courts so
that the whole space, inside and out,
flows one into another as a unified
As a foil to the colorful courts at
ground level the upper reaches of the
high nave are bedecked with a con-
tinuous diadem of sparkling faceted
glass. The plain high walls between
the glass above and the openings be-
low are hung with the modem ban-
ners or tapestries, depicting Saints
and Teachers of the Church. A huge
fresco treated in the manner of a
Drurer engraving or etching is hang-
ing over the broad surface of the
plain wall over the Sanctuary.
The structure, itself, is a virile mas-
culine concept in poured-in-place re-
inforced concrete, faced on the ex-
terior, between exposed structural
members with precast panels in mar-
ble aggregate. The floors of the aisles
are variegated Vermont slate, with
colorful terraz under the pews and
in the sacristies. Venetian Terrazza
paving was used extensively in the
courts and other walks. The Sanctu-
ary marbles were quarried and fabri.
cated in Italy (Carrara).
For those who like figures and di-
mensions the following may be of in-
terest: The enclosed space--open and
covered-is 177' wide by 197' long.
The high nave is 96' from door to
Sanctuary wall and is 54' wide. The
ceiling soars 48' above the floor. The
height of the overhanging and soar-
ing eaves is 56' above the ground.
Each transept is 56' long by 33' wide.
(Architect on this project was Al-
fred D. Reid Associates of Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. Artists and artisans who
contributed to the interior embellish-
ments were coordinated by Key En-
terprises Inc. of Miami.)
Architecture for the Church
By The Venerable J. Ralph Deppen, D..D
(Reprinted from Inland Architect, April 1965)
The alacrity with which the archi-
tectural profession and the building
industry responded to the late boom
in church building is only an eyelash
shy of phenomenal. Seldom has a
demand been so enthusiastically and
profitably supplied. Church building
became the fertile field for the archi-
tect, and more than should have done
so, dressed and spoke in a fashion
they deemed appropriate to wooing
the newly-rich and respectable client
-the church building committee.
And now, the American scene is
blotched with a plethora of ecclesias-
tical cliches in architecture. The few
and wonderful exceptions give only
eloquent proof to the rule.
Too few church building commit-
tees and their architects ask seriously
and sincerely, "Why and what are we
building?" Consequently, the build-
ing program is frequently a canny
battle of preconceptions or a capitula-
tion to a fad, and the result is a
material and spiritual misfortune. No
doubt, the fault rests first in the cli-
ent, but the architect is more than an
accessory after the fact.
Can anyone really build a church?
In a theological sense, the answer is,
"No." The Church is the work of
God, conceived in His infinite wis-
dom and built "upon the foundation
of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus
Christ himself being the chief cor-
ner-stone" . The fault in so much
of the recent and current building of
churches is that both the client and
the architect have presumed upon the
role of God. The client has had its
own peculiar notions about what
makes it a church. The architect has
been responsive to the client and has
essayed to create a material environ-
ment which would produce, in a ran-
dom collection of religious persons, a
A spiritual experience is not neces-
sarily a good thing. Satan is as spir-
itual as are Michael and Gabriel.
Their differences are moral. And this
is what differentiates good from bad,
so-called church architecture. That
which is moral conforms to what is
right, and good church architecture
is architecture which conforms to
what the Church is.
Good church architecture will not
presume to create the Church.
Rather, it will strive to achieve an
environment in which the People of
God can be and become what God
wills for them. A good church build-
ing is one which is ever prepared to
welcome the worship and work of the
Body of Christ, but which is ever
incomplete without the worshipping
This is an appeal for reserve, per-
haps even austerity. It is not, how-
ever, a surrender to sterility. Sterility
we already have in the profusion of
churches which are so stylized as to
do, for their users, all the work of
inspiration and devotion according to
some preconceived, and usually an-
achronistic, pattern. Creativity is what
the Christian world needs; the spirit
and the matter with which to worship
and serve God rightly here and now
and then. This is the difficult charge
an architect faces when he agrees to
build a dwelling for the Church. This
is the kind of charge which will keep
architects creative. And why should a
church be less of a challenge to crea-
tivity than a motel?
The Architect-Creative Designer
By Alfred Browning Parker, FAIA
A church exists because of people
with mutual beliefs. A church in the
truest sense never begins with a build-
ing. It is a church because of what
people believe, not because of carved
limestone and elaborate rood screens.
While the great monuments of medi-
eval times may excite our imagination
and even lead us down primrose
paths of imitation, we must remem-
ber they came into existence as the
byproducts of an intense religious
spirit. Many of the architectural fea-
tures commonly attributed to
churches are trappings and expensive
ones at that. They are never substi-
tutes for a vital congregation.
Most of us know and are fairly
articulate as to what an architect can
do. We are not all so knowledgeable
as to our limitations. It is not our
prerogative to decide the uses to
which a church will be put.
If an architect has to decide what
the uses of a church should be, he is
trying to be a theologian and not a
designer. On the other hand, direc-
tions from the church to the designer
should not be completely fixed, arbi-
trary and unchangeable.
Many designers are fond of saying
that a church must proclaim its posi-
tion in the community. I suggest that
such a proclamation need not be a
shout, but rather a quiet assertation
of strength and refuge.
. The major errors we make
fall into two categories: The first is
the trap of tradition in which a stage
set is produced in Gothic manner,
Colonial style, historical Byzantine or
whatever the antecedents of the indi-
viduals and their community. This
obeisance leads to the production of
monuments to bygone ages. It is con-
sidered by many to be the safe, sure
way to realize a fitting and proper
edifice for the church. The second
snare is the self-conscious effort to be
different. Church buildings will be
different if they successfully solve the
manifold problems presented by their
members. Difference in this context
is admirable and to be sought.
The architect may have his prob-
lems should he attempt a calm un-
der-statement of building purpose.
In one instance, on a site bordered
by heavily traveled roads, an architect
proposed to pull a grassy meadow al-
most completely over the church in
the form of a mound surrounding it
with a crown of precast elements. All
light entered from the sky. A cross on
the earth mound was illuminated by
the glow from within the church.
ihe huge berm of grass, dominated
by a cross, would eliminate noise,
simplify maintenance, reduce cost
and emphasize a community presence
of repose and harmony with the
earth. While the building committee
agreed that the project met their theo-
logical requirements, solved the site
problems, came within the budget
and was a serene accommodation to
the natural world outside and to the
spirit of the thing within, neverthe-
less the project was never accepted.
The imposing church edifice was too
firmly fixed in their minds to permit
a simple and direct approach.
Every architectural commission is
both a trust from the present and a
pledge to the future. For obvious rea-
sons this is especially true in a religi-
ous assignment. Architects fulfill a
noble and traditional function in
bringing their best creative efforts to
THE PLORIDA ARCHITECT
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYNAGOGUE
... As Seen By Some Leading Architects Around The World
In America, the synagogue is developing into a complex
institution where the multiple manifestations of Judaism
can take place in warmth and freedom. There is no arch-
itectural tradition to match the Jewish faith. Architects
can contribute to a trend by creating spaces which serve
their purpose with clarity and nobility . The archi-
tecture of the snyagogue should be an eloquent expression
of the spirit of man.
A place of worship, simple as it may be, serviceable as it
need be, is or should be different from a mere place
of assembly. Something is happening there which is more
than just existence, more than just a social event. An
idea is there, an attitude toward faith, an attempt to solve
life's problems . Modest as it may be, a place of wor-
ship seems to demand dignity and serenity as its birthright
S. .Its destiny seems to be to express in static material
man's drive toward the spiritual.
DAVIS, BRODY AND WISNIEWSKI
Although there is no historic tradition of synagogue design,
there are some strong traditions of worship and ritual.
Traditionally, the synagogue is different from other places
of worship in that it is basically a gathering place for
laymen; priests are not required . We have, therefore,
striven to express architecturally this unit of ritual and
congregation by designing spaces which have a central
orientation, developing from the circle, the square, the
octagon, rather than the rectangle . in contrast to the
usual axially directed space which sets up an audience
to stage relationship.
When I first designed a synagogue, it was with no early
preparation in our faith. It was not synagogue attendance,
not the religious atmosphere of a home, but the Nazi
atrocity plus readings in Martin Buber which turned my
feelings of vague yearning into a need for a concrete
expression of kinship . Many synagogues, designed from
Florida to Colorado to New England, make me, I sup-
pose, an expert. The conditions motivating the designs
We Jews have no tradition of building, but we have a tra-
dition of which synagogue buildings can be based the
service and the congregation. In every building I have
designed, it is the way in which the service is carried out
which established the whole tone and feeling of the build-
ing. And I don't listen passively to the generalities of the
committee in finding this tone, but search for myself and
find it often where none thought it existed.
In design and structure, the work must be of our time
. . There can be no question of "modern" or "period"
styles. The building cannot be an imitation of some past
way . Our modern construction ways are what they
are, have their own expressive vocabulary, and must be
The people must gather together in the greatest possible
intimacy so the prayer arises as if from a single throat
. The test of the religious service is whether the con-
gregation is participant or merely onlooker. It would
appear that the generally required auditorium plan is
inferior to the traditional plan and so (with little success)
I recommend the latter . ._Parenthetically, the central
bimah plan is perhaps the only distinctively Jewish con-
tribution to architectural form.
There is no real difference between the sanctity of the
parts of a synagogue structure. Our religion is hori-
zontal . .
.. Consider the seven-branched Menorah. Exodus calls
for one such candlestick . Then why do the architects
And now just a word why, especially at this time, every
architect should lend his hand to God's work. At this
time, we of the human condition are in danger of anni-
hilation. Our statesmen have turned out to be politicians,
our scientists have developed a demon in a little bottle
and don't know how to keep .the cork in. To whom shall
we turn for guidance? Does Isaiah not give the answer?
"Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God . ."
The problem of designing the contemporary synagogue
is a nearly impossible one . Religious space has always
in history been the most exacting and pleasurable to build
... A Jewish temple is as great a problem. The difficulty
comes from the habits of the High Holy Days, when the
attendance, shall we say, swells. Now a space is either
small or large, but it can hardly act like an accordion . .
Once this hurdle is crossed, the design of a synagogue is
the finest problem in architecture, a space where awe and
reverence are the prime considerations, an inspiring chal-
lenge to the artist. The should's and shouldn't of design
from this point are the architect's business. The temple
as a problem, unlike many Christian churches, is open to
talent. The Southern Baptist Church, for example, must
have a Colonial steeple. The Jewish Temple merely has
to be beautiful. As simple as that.
Art and Ecclesiastical Architecture
By R. H. Havard
Born in South Wales, Great Brit-
ain, Mr. R. H. Havard studied at
Pembroke College, Oxford; Slade
School, University College, London
and Art Schools in the British Isles.
Winner of several prizes and scholar-
ships including the Rome prize, he is
a member of N.S.I.D., an Associate
of the Society of Canadian Industrial
Designers, a member of the Royal So-
ciety of Arts, and a member of the
Montreal Art Directors Club.
Mr. Havard lived and painted in
Europe, Canada and the United
States. His paintings are in a number
of private collections as well as in
many public buildings including some
major works in new churches in Brit-
. At the risk of over-simplifying
the pattern, a risk demanded by the
brevity of available space and because
Theology is not the prime purpose
of this Journal, it may be said that
the first thousand years of the Christ-
ian Church's history, that is to say
from the collapse of the Roman Em-
pire in the 3-4 Century, A.D., to the
early 14th Century, was concerned
principally with three main themes:
first, the establishment of Rome as
the great arbiter of the new Faith;
second, the establishment of its re-
visions of existing pagan practices as
the new religion; and third, the in-
doctrination of its subject peoples
with the absolutism of the new dog-
Since, as in all ages, the majority
of people were illiterate [not merely
in comprehension, but literally, since
the Dark Ages, quite unacquainted
with the written word] it was impera-
tive that a pictorial approach be
adopted for the propagation of the
new teachings of faith. Decoration of
the early church building was, there-
fore, largely composed of broadly
drawn incidents from the Old and
New Testaments, with an increasing
injection of the miraculous to in-
crease the authority of the Church's
leaders. During this period, of com-
plete ignorance of the masses, it was
an easy thing, through art, to feed the
fears of the superstitious mind.
With the advent of St. Francis and
St. Dominic (13th Century) a fresh
wind began to move through the
Church and men. While St. Francis
led the way from abject terror and
taught the love of God for all things,
St. Dominic began the elevation of
education from its then low state to
the glory it had once held before the
decline of the Classical World. The
Church of Rome had successfully
established its hegemony over the
greater part of the western world and,
in its new found assurance, was be-
ginning to tolerate a broader and
more gentle interpretation of Faith.
Now the arts began to display greater
felicity of line and form. Duccio, fol-
lowed by Giotto, Pisano, Masaccio,
Donatello and others, while still ex-
pressing pictorially realistic interpre-
tations of the Articles of Faith now
opened the way to a flexibility of in-
terpretation not previously possible.
Parallelling the establishment of
clerical power in Rome, there was
also the establishment of a new aris-
tocracy the merchant princes of
Venice and Florence. These princes,
while dominated by the Papal author-
ity, also, through their blood relation-
ships, dominated it and its political
policies. Not themselves being clois-
tered monks, these princes built li-
braries and treasuries of classical
knowledge along much broader lines
than did the early monasteries, and
as a direct consequence their mem-
bership in the Papacy engendered a
climate which fanned the early wind
of change into a raging storm of fer-
ment culminating in the High Ren-
aissance and the analytical century
called the Age of Reason (18th).
A hundred years follow in which
enlightenment leads to cynicism and
the Art of the Renaissance grows
through Baroque into the Rococo.
Here, as an expression of the age, the
artist is concerned not so much with
Faith as with charm, and with dec-
oration as such. It is not merely an
accident that by this time Faith had
become subordinated to Society, and
the impetus of early fervor had be-
come absorbed by a more complex set
of social values. This is not applicable
only to the 18th Century. it is a con-
tinuing stream of change, continuing
through the florid effervescence of
the Industrial Revolution into the
present and on into the new To-
In this present age, more than the
Age of Reason, we are concerned
with analysis. Everything, including
Faith, is being subjected to the micro-
scopic examination of a clinic, and
as a consequence the style of artistic
decoration is also changed. Consider
the Chapel of the Rosary at Vence,
designed by Hcnri Matisse. Here we
have the epitome of social commen-
tary at the midpoint of the 20th Cen-
tury for this chapel was created in
1950-51. This is the period which
also sees the Church accept a position
in Society as -that of a mere social
activity and not as a force which
forms that Society. Our ecclesiastical
construction today, except where it
carricatures by exaggeration the
Gothic details of the past, is one with
office buildings or factories. No at-
-tempt is made to furnish an environ-
ment conducive to meditation.
It is significant to note how the
changes in architectural and art styles,
as well as philosophical concept, re-
flect the fundamental changes of
structure in our Society.
Since architects are concerned with
the validity of art in architecture, for
they have to justify the expenditure
of sometimes large sums of money
for this purpose, it should be of in-
terest for them to know that many of
the natural and hitherto inescapable
dangers which threatened any decora-
tion (subsidence, dampness, and
light, to mention a few) have now
been, to a substantial extent, removed
by means of modern discoveries of
Chemistry. Because of these develop-
ments, ensuring as they do a longer
life for the artwork, it should be a
much easier job to persuade Ecclesi-
astical commissioners to budget for
such work than was possible in earlier
generations. Had Leonardo da Vinci
been able to avail himself of the
laminating process, it is almost cer-
tain that he would not have used the
fresco technique for his famous "Last
Supper". Neither would Michael An-
gelo have prejudiced the survival of
his ceiling paintings in the Sistine
Chapel through that same, very vul-
nerable painting method, for with the
protective elements of melamine
resins, ultra-violet retarders, and high-
pressure laminate their creations
would still be as fresh and unblem-
ished today as when they were first
created instead of the sadly faded and
disfigured appearance they, now,
Art will always have a place in
Ecclesiastical Architecture, not only
for aesthetic reasons, but also because
the propagation of the Faith will
always demand a pictorial presenta-
tion, and architects should, as an
obligation to their clients, make sure
that such art work is afforded the
longest life possible and ought, there-
fore, to make use of these new pre-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
An Educational Concept
George Williams College is devoted to training
leaders for youth groups, community agencies and
humanitarian organizations throughout the world.
This concept places emphasis on active student
participation in many creative areas.
Imaginative design, with a free-form concrete
motif, reflects the creativity of the activities to be
housed in the Leisure and Creative Arts Center,
featured here. This beautiful new structure has
combined facilities for gymnastics, swimming and
other sports as well as for painting, sculpture,
photography and dance.
Here, as in many new trend-setting designs, the
fine quality, ready mixed concrete was made with
Lehigh Cement. Lehigh Portland Cement Com-
pany, Allentown, Pa. District Sales Office:
Jacksonville, Fla. 32216.
The Leisure and Creative Arts Center is the architectural highlight of the
14 buildings on the all-new campus of George Williams College. Great
curving corner ribs, tied together underground with concrete encased
post-tensioned tendons of steel, carry the two intersecting concrete barrel
vaults for the gymnasium roof. Studios for painting, sculpture, photog-
raphy and dance are beneath the gymnasium. Post-tensioned concrete ribs,
117'long, support the concrete vaults over the natatorium. Both gymna-
sium and natatorium have unobstructed floor areas of 112' x 112' under
the 4' thick concrete roofs.
Owner: George Williams College, Downers Grove, Ill.
Architects: Mittelbusher & Tourtelot, Chicago, Ill.
Wilson Connell, Jr., Partner-in-charge
Structural Engineer: John R. Gullaksen, Chicago, Ill.
Consultant: Dr. William Schnobrich, Urbana, Ill.
General Contractor: Turner Construction Company; Chicago, Ill.
Ready Mixed Concrete: E. A. Keller Co., La Grange, Ill.
S 3245 NORTH-Jacksonville
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
From January through December, 1966
Reference Index of Articles
In "The Florida Architect"
6-9 Architectural Exhibit Awards
12-13 Future Town Forms, Part 1
14- The February Seminar
5-8 Dedication, U-F College of Architecture
9-12 Convention Seminar Report
16 Report on the February Seminar
17-32 Organization Chart, Committee Structure, Bylaws
34-35 Future Town Forms, Part II
37 Daytona on the Move
5-8 New Buildings Around Our State
Celotex Corporation in Tampa
Planetarium in Miami
Chocktawhatchee High School
University of Florida Chemistry Research
Miami Merchandise Mart
12 The Bulow Restoration
14-15 "Constancy and Change," Dedication Speech
by Leonard J. Currie
18 Design Concept Seminar
19 Boost for Builders
20 Architectural Secretaries
23-38 1966 Membership Roster
40 Newly-Appointed Architects
42 A New Treasurer, H. Leslie Walker
46 School Board Design Bureau Costlier Than
Back Cover "From Experiencing Architecture"
4 We Nominate Bob Levison
5 A Message from Broward Williams
7-8 "Distinction Out of Nothing,"
by Professor Robert Willson
9 Sculpture New Technique for Beauty
14-15 Education Research Project . Interview with
Robert L. Geddes, FAIA
Back Cover Design Concept Seminar
4 Meet Jack Peeples
5 Upcoming 52nd Annual Convention
6-7 Viewpoint, by Philip H. Hiss and
9-16 Douglas Village Feature
17 Galerie of Building Products
18 Re-Examinations Amendment, State Board
26 "Law and the Building Official,
William T. Arnett, AIA
28-29 Fort Lauderdale City Hall
30 Small Office and Urban Design
38 Seminar on Design of Medical Facilities
4-6 City of the Future, Student Designs
8 Bodhisattva Staue, University of Florida
13 A Message on the Future of Architecture,
by Morris Ketchum, Jr., FAIA
14-15 Burt Pringle, Stamped for Success
2-3 Direct from Denver
8-9 The Architect Takes A Stand
16-17 Candle Shop in Vienna
21 Letter from the AIA Journal
25 Message from the Tile Industry
26-28 More New Buildings Around the State
St. Rose of Lima Church, Miami Shores
Kodak Headquarters, Coral Gables
Parking Garage, Tampa
1st National Bank at Hialeah
30 City Design and the Revolutionaries,
by Paul Rudolph, AIA
4-5 Clouds Over the Capitol
7 Why Bad Design?
10-11 UM Computing Center
15 Newly-Registered Architects
16 Introducing: Our Photographers
20-21 International Design Conference -A Report
22-23 The Convention Story
25 Bylaws Recommended Revisions
28-29 Nominations for 1966 Officers
32-33 Outstanding Florida Craftsmen
36-39 Joint Announcement by Architects & Engineers
40 Drab Stores
5 Report from State Board of Architecture
7 School Construction Seminar
16 Workshop on Church Architecture
24-25 Salute to AdVertisers
36 Convention Metsage from Charles M. Nes., Jr.,
37 Exciting Convention Story
38-39 Convention Schedule of Events
42 Annual Awards Banquet
43-45 Craftsmanship, by Professor Arthur Phillips
46 Florida's Craftsman of the Year
47-50 Building Product Exhibitors
4-6 Penetrometers, by Professor John Schmertmann
7 Architecture for Florida Living annual edition
11 Awards and Honors for The Florida Architect
14-16 1966 Convention Review
20-23 Architectural Exhibit Awards
2 Octagon Building Fund
4 Lowe Gallery Exhibition Schedule
8-9 Concrete Design Student Winners
12-16 Religious Architecture
Most Florida architectural firms, general contractors, en-
gineering companies, financial houses, colleges and li-
braries maintain files of The Florida Architect. This index
is provided as an easy reference aid. If back issues are
available, they will be mailed to you upon your request-
50c per copy, except the March 1966 Membership Roster
issue which is $2.00. Send check or money order.
Cline Aluminum Products, Inc.
Florida Caterpillar Dealers
Inside Back Cover
Florida Foundry & Pattern Works
Florida Gas Transmission Co.
Florida Municipal Utilities
Florida Portland Cement Division
Lehigh Portland Cement Co.
Oil Fuel Heat Institute
F. Graham Williams Co.
Next Month in
The Florida Architect
A most interesting report on
Computers and how they
will and won't affect
the architectural profession.
Coming in February ...
A look at architectural
schools and the training of
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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ROYAL CASTLES NEVER CLOSE
(their Cat engines see to that)
Royal Castle advertises that they never close -
and they never have --thanks to two Caterpillar
diesel engines supplying standby electric power.
For seven years, the Royal Castle commissary
that supplies 135 of the chain's 154 retail outlets
has depended on their Cat electric sets for standby
electric power for their bakery, meat department,
freezers, lights and electricity for their retail store
next door. Also, auxiliary power is supplied during
peak periods between 5 and 9 p.m. from
December to March resulting in a lower industrial
electric rate and a savings for Royal Castle.
It's the job of two Cat engines to keep the com-
missary open, so that the Royal Castles never close.
How about your needs? If you are in the market
for good, reliable prime power or standby power,
then contact your Florida Caterpillar dealer. He's
as dependable as the equipment he sells. He can
assist you in engineering Caterpillar capabilities to
fit your needs.
YOUR FLORIDA CATERPILLAR DEALERS
Caterpillar, Cat and Traxcavator are Registered Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.