Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 The architect and the city
 What good is architecture?
 Foreign builders say no to our...
 Use of lighting, space contrasts,...
 St. Augustine, Florida: Architecture...
 Advertisers' index
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00132
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: June 1965
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00132
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The architect and the city
        Page 5
        Page 6
    What good is architecture?
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Foreign builders say no to our subdivision houses
        Page 10
    Use of lighting, space contrasts, create drama
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    St. Augustine, Florida: Architecture of the old city
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Advertisers' index
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
Uni versity- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.




IF arch tect

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The National
Quadricentennial Celebration
St. Augustine, Florida


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S SIT'Jis UF l? .! ,* MIAMI, FLORIDA PHONE: AREA CODE 305, 633-9831



Florida Architect

ln 7I 4ae ---

The Architect and the City . .
By William T. Arnett, AIA

What Good Is Architecture? .

S 5

Foreign Builders Say No to Our Subdivision Houses .

Use of Lighting, Space Contrasts, Create Drama . .

The National Quadricentennial Celebration, St. Augustine,
Architecture of the Old City . . . . .
By F. Blair Reeves, AIA

Advertisers' Index .

William T. Arnett, President, 2105 N.W. Third Place, Gainesville
James Deen, President Designate-Vice President, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
Forrest R. Coxen, Secretary, 218 Avant Building, Tallahassee
Dana B. Johannes, Treasurer, 410 S. Lincoln Avenue, Clearwater

BROWARD COUNTY: William A. Gilroy, George M. Polk; DAYTONA BEACH:
David A. Leete; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Dana B. Johannes, Frank R. Mu-
dano, William J. Webber; FLORIDA GULF COAST: Earl J. Draeger, Sidney
R. Wilkinson; FLORIDA NORTH: James T. Lendrum, Jack Moore; FLORIDA
Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: James E. Ferguson, Jr., John 0. Grimshaw,
Earl M. Starnes; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr., Harry E. Burns, Jr.,
Walter B. Schultz; MID-FLORIDA: John B. Langley, Joseph N. Williams;
PALM BEACH: C. Ellis Duncan, Kenneth Jacobson, Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region American Institute of Architects
Robert H. Levison, 425 South Garden Avenue, Clearwater
Executive Director, Florida Association of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 3730 S.W. 8th Street, Coral Gables

Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Verner Johnson, Joseph M. Shifalo
Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine, Florida. (See Pages 15-22).
Photo: P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida.

. 10

. 11


. 15-22

. 24

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Inisitute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida
Corporation not for profit. It is published
monthly at the Executive Office of the Asso-
ciation, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
34, Florida; telephone, 448-7454.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. .Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year; March Roster Issue,
$2.00 ..... Printed by McMurray Printers.


VOLUME 15 96



To blend structural solidarity with the
aura of age, use Merry's St. Augustine
Oversize Face Brick (09-250). Enhance the
look of Early America by using light gray
mortar and a beaded joint. Result? Pleas-
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For more information about this and other
fine Merry Brick, ask the Merry Brick
representative who calls on you,
or write the company direct.

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W/e4age #oam dte Pew ieot, 0

The Architect and The City

President, Florida Association of Architects

Two international meetings in June
will focus attention on the historic
and continuing role architects play
in the making and remaking of cities.
The first, the Pan American Con-
gress on Historic Monuments, will
meet in St. Augustine on June 10-12.
In our nation's oldest city, celebrat-
ing its 400th anniversary, a distin-
guished group of architects from the
Americas will consider the preserva-
tion and restoration of historic build-
ings and landmarks-those significant
elements that relate people and towns
to their heritage.
St. Augustine is an appropriate site
for such a conference. The 16th cen-
tury architects of Phillip II of Spain,
occupied with the great complex of
the Escorial and other works, were
not too busy to make well formulated
plans for Spain's cities and towns in
the New World, and St. Augustine is
no exception. The great Castillo de
San Marcos, the Plaza de la Constitu-
cion, and the adjoining streets and
houses all testify to the skill and per-
ception of those early designers.
The second conference, the XI Pan
American Congress of Architects, will
meet in Washington on June 14-18
concurrently with the 97th Annual
Convention of the American Institute
of Architects. Here an equally dis-
tinguished group of architects from
the Americas will explore the theme,
"Cities of the New World." This
Congress/Convention in Washington
will bring together the largest group
of architects in the history of the
Our Capital City
No more appropriate city than
Washington could have been chosen
as a place for architects to explore
JUNE, 1965

the problems of urbanization. Our
capital city is America's unique metro-
polis. Planned in 1791 by a young
French designer, Pierre Charles L'En-
fant, it remained for more than a
century singular among the major
capitals of the world as a city plan-
ned from its inception as a permanent
scat of government. Furthermore,
Washington is intimately identified
with one of our best early architects
-designer of Monticcllo, the campus
of the University of Virginia, the
Capitol at Richmond, and a host of
other projects. lie found time, inci-
dentally, to write the Declaration of
Independence and to serve as our
third President-Thomas Jefferson.
Society Looks to Professionals
In every age, some profession has
exerted profound influence. When
America was first founded, the minis-
try kept the settlers together and
served as their temporal and spiritual
leaders. Later, lawyers constructed the
legal and political framework in which
an orderly society could develop.
Still later, the engineer backed by
the financier, developed the trans-
portation systems that permitted our
nation to bridge its frontiers. And
now that the land has been exploited
and we have run out of physical
frontiers, society is turning increas-
ingly to the architect to remake our
physical environment into something
economically sound and aesthetically
It is high time. For our cities-the
vital forums for the exchange of goods
and ideas upon which our complex
society depends-arc strangling on
disorder and ugliness.
The Importance of Design
President Lyndon B. Johnson re-
minds us that the challenge of the
city "will not be met with a few more
parks and playgrounds. It requires at-
tention to the architecture of build-
ing, the structure of our roads, pres-
ervation of historic buildings and
monuments, careful planning of the

Our difficulties seem endless. Old
gridiron street systems are choked
with traffic for which they were never
planned. Whole business sections are
blighted by profusions of ugly signs,
rundown store fronts, and streetscape
junk. Owners of rundown buildings
that used to be premium housing arc
letting them run down still further.
Random location of motels, gas
stations, housing and subdivisions,
junkyards, and billboards are depres-
sing property values for everyone. All
this is driving the middle-class citizen
farther out into the countryside where
he can pay still higher taxes as he ex-
tends his utility lines and builds more
and more schools and churches.
Ugliness and disorder depress the
community spirit and flatten the
pocketbook. We are fast becoming
known as the nation with the most
beautiful buildings and the ugliest
cities in the world-and we deserve
the title.
This is not just the concern of the
architect; it is the concern of the
public, too.
The Critical Period Ahead
We are building at a pace today
that dwarfs anything that has ever
been done by any nation at any time.
Within the next 40 years, we will
have to duplicate every single struc-
ture in the nation to replace obso-
lescent buildings and neighborhoods
and house a population that will
double in that time.
We have the ability to build a new
America that will rival the beauties
of Greece and the glories of Rome.
We also have the ability to make a
man-made mess that will turn Amer-
ica, in truth, into God's own junk-
We also have the power-as citi-
zens-to decide which it will be.
Working together-as citizens of
communities, men of business, lead-
ers of government, professionals of de-
sign-we can see to it that, in our
towns and cities, we use that power



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"IR~~l~ IL-_MUNN"_=& ~ 'T~~PI~~
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1V2 million cubic feet under one roof with no interior supports!


This imposing structure-360 feet long, 125 pOS
feet wide and 5% stories high-is one of two
built for the American Agricultural Chemical Company
near Pierce, in Polk County, Florida. Designed by
Lakeland Engineering Associates, Inc., for storage of
bulk fertilizer, the structures are part of a multi-million-
dollar phosphate complex.
The prestressed concrete double-T's of the inclined
roof are 8 feet wide, achieve a span of 75 feet. The
hollow flat slabs for the flat roof are also prestressed.
Anchored to cast-in-place concrete side walls, the pre-
stressed members bear the entire roof load. No

kes it
sible interior columns are needed. To provide the
maintenance-free advantages of an all-
concrete building, end walls are concrete masonry.
Prestressed concrete, today, provides exceptional
versatility of design. With appropriate decorative treat-
ment, the type of construction shown could provide a
handsome church or dramatic civic auditorium. More
and more, engineers and builders are choosing pre-
stressed concrete for structures of every size and type.
1612 East Colonial Drive, Orlando, Florida 32803
An organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete


- -'' '~ '




House & Garden has always maintained that the services of an architect are
highly advisable for any building project more ambitious than a tool shed. It must be acknowl-
edged, however, that in many localities, architects for residential jobs are not easily available.
There is only one architect for every 10,000 people in the U.S., and a growing number, possibly
a majority, are not interested in designing houses. Some have found it a money-losing practice.
Some believe that satisfying the needs of a single family is less worthy a goal than satisfying the
needs of thousands of school children, hospital patients, concert goers, government workers or
Sunday worshipers. And some feel the relatively small scale of a house (a scale that rules out
impressive monumentality) is too confining in scope. Nevertheless, a good architect is worth the
search, since he can save you both money and irreparable mistakes.
But the services of an architect are not to be confused with architecture, an art which critics,
philosophers and architects themselves have been trying to define since the Augustan age. Most of
their definitions (by no means, all) have listed as indispensable: sound construction and the effec-
tive fulfillment of specific human needs. Yet no one claims that these are in themselves enough to
qualify a house (or any other building) as architecture. What are the missing ingredients?
Uniqueness is one. Since every natural site is unique, a house specifically designed for it would
necessarily be unique. No copy would qualify, even though the house it is copied from may be
generally regarded as a masterpiece. A look of inevitability is another requisite. If any of the lines,
details, materials or finishes move you to say "I wonder why they did that?" the house lacks
The criterion most vital in House & Garden's opinion is somewhat more intangible. In any
house worthy of being labeled architecture, not only the exterior form, but the interior spaces, the
colors, textures, light, acoustics have a poetic quality that exerts an emotional appeal. "It is not
enough to see architecture," says the Danish professor, Steen Eiler Rasmussen; "you must ex-
perience it."
If poetry is necessary to architecture, is architecture, then, necessary to a house? In our smaller
cities and suburbs there are thousands of well-constructed houses, well oriented to pleasant sites,
well planned for family living-houses which, if not visually distinguished, are at least inoffen-
sive. No one would call them architecture, yet thousands of families live in them contentedly,
comfortably. And the poetry their houses lack would not increase their comfort. It would, how-
ever, offer them, day by day, hour by hour, the sense of exhilaration most people get from dis-
covering a perfect blossom, watching the rising of the moon, looking at a fine painting, listening
to a superlative performance of a great symphony.
House & Garden admits that a house need not be architecture to be an inviting, comfortable,
convenient, well-beloved home. But any family is greatly to be envied who has all that and
architecture, too.
(Reprint from House & Garden; Copyright (c) 1965 by Conde Nast Publications, Inc.)
JUNE, 1965 7






For information contact Dick Martin, our Construction
loan man. Write him c/o American National Bank of Jackson-
ville, 2031 Hendricks Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida or Call him
Collect at 398-8661.








Apopka, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Bartow, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Blountstown, City of Blountstown
Boca Raton, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Boynton Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Bradenton, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Chattahoochee, Town of Chattahoochee
Chipley, City of Chipley
Clearwater, City of Clearwater
Clermont, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Cocoa, City Gas Co.
Crescent City, City of Crescent City
Cutler Ridge, City Gas Co.
Daytona Beach, Florida Gas Co.
Deland, Florida Home Gas Co.
Delray Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Eau Gallie, City Gas Co.
Eustis, Florida Gas Co.
Fort Lauderdale, Peoples Gas System
Fort Meade, City of Fort Meade
Fort Pierce, City of Fort Pierce
Gainesville, Gainesville Gas Co.
Geneva, Alabama, Geneva County Gas
Haines City, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Hialeah, City Gas Co.
Hollywood, Peoples Gas System
Jacksonville, Florida Gas Co.
Jay, Town of Jay
Lake Alfred, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Lake City, City of Lake City
Lake Wales, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Lake Worth, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Lakeland, Florida Gas Co.
Leesburg, City of Leesburg
Live Oak, City of Live Oak
Madison, City of Madison
Marianna, City of Marianna
Melbourne, City Gas Co.
Miami, Florida Gas Co.
Miami Beach, Peoples Gas System
Mount Dora, Florida Gas Co.
New Smyrna Beach, South Florida
Natural Gas Co.
North Miami, Peoples Gas System
Ocala, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Opa Locka, City Gas Co.
Orlando, Florida Gas Co.
Palatka, Palatka Gas Authority
Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities
Palm Beach Gardens, City of
Palm Beach Gardens
Panama City, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Pensacola, City of Pensacola
Perry, City of Perry
Plant City, Plant City Natural Gas Co.
Port St. Joe, St. Joe Natural Gas Company
St. Petersburg, City of St. Petersburg
Sanford, Sanford Gas Co.
Sarasota, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Starke, City of Starke
Tallahassee, City of Tallahassee
Tampa, Peoples Gas System
Titusville, City Gas Co.
Umatilla, Florida Gas Co.
Valparaiso, Okaloosa County Gas District
West Miami, City Gas Co.
West Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Williston, City of Williston
Winter Garden, Lake Apopka Natural Gas
Winter Haven, Central Florida Gas Corp.
Winter Park, Florida Gas Co.




Gas Air Conditioning gives Deland State Bank most for it's money!

Transmlsmlon Company

JUNE, 1965

Foreign Builders Say No

To Our Subdivision Houses



American subdivision ho u s i n g
wouldn't sell in Europe, no matter
what the price. But the Robert King
High Towers is a "masterpiece," a
group of touring foreign builders said
The 46 builders, architects and in-
vestors are touring the U.S. to get
fresh ideas for construction in the six
countries they represent.
They toured the Miami Housing
Authority's new high-rise apartment
building for limited-income elderly
"From an architectural point of
view, this is a very impressive build-
ing," C. Boogertman of South Africa
said. "In my country, we still haven't
begun to look after our older people
as you do."
J. C. Dixon, also from South Africa,
thought the design of the 322-apart-
ment complex is a "masterpiece. It's

marvelous. It's functional and the up-
keep is easy."
Steven Frey, score for the group,
said the builders from Germany, Nor-
way, Spain, Portugal and Italy don't
believe they could market subdivision-
type housing in Europe.
"People there buy a house and
expect'it to take care of their children
and grandchildren. Forty years isn't
enough, and they don't feel the hous-
ing here will last much longer than
Besides the architecture of the Ro-
bert King High Towers, they were
fascinated with the design of door
knobs, faucet levers and jalousie
mechanisms that operate by pushing
a lever instead of turning knobs.
The plumbing and hardware were
engineered to make them simple to
operate for residents who have arthri-
tis or other paralytic diseases.

We can fill all your design needs
for any type, size or shape of
cast bronze or aluminum
plaques, name panels or dec-
orative bas-reliefs
3737 N. W. 43rd Street, Miami

No matter how you look at it,

phone wiring still looks best

when you can't see it.

So plan ahead

for plenty of telephone outlets

and enough public phones.

Call our Architects'

and Builders' Representative

while you're still in

the blueprint stage.

Southern Bell
...Serving You


Use of Lighting,

Space Contrasts, Create Drama

Since every house can't overlook
the Rockie or an ocean, what can be
done to give it a sense of continuing
Architects point out that the dra-
matic house is a result of design which
deliberately seeks this effect. Not
everyone wants or should have such
a house, says The American Institute
of Architects. Harmony and quiet suit
many people better. But for the per-
son who wants his house to offer con-
tinuing stimulation to family and
visitors, the AIA says, design may
provide it in several ways.

One is to create dramatic contrasts
in spaces. One example might be a
relatively low and narrow corridor
which creates a sense of "compres-
sion" and then "explodes" into a
large room with a high ceiling. Drama
results, too, from the continuing inter-
play and shifting patterns of light and
shadow. Skylights and high clerestory
windows provide a rich, changing
spectacle of falling light which, strik-
ing textured surfaces planned to re-
ceive it, alters mood and creates a
sense of mystery. Artificial lighting
may be built into brackets, cornices,
coves, soffits, walls, and ceilings to

create the precise nighttime effects
And, as with natural light, nature
itself-through the design of fire-
places, ponds, and gardens-can be
utilized for continuing pleasure. The
primitive lure of the flickering fire-
place is familiar to everyone. The
sight and sound of running water in
the smallest ponds can evoke pleasure
and restfulness. Greenery can be
brought into the house via small in-
terior gardens and planting boxes to
keep a sense of nature in the dra-
matic house all year 'round.

1251 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, Calif.
FACTORIES: San Leandro, California
Warminster, Penna., El Dorado, Arkansas

JUNE, 1965

-0*i^ ^ ^ ^ n

the growing number of new homes & apartments
that feature flameless YEAR-ROUND electric


**............................... ............................
...because It's the big "comfort-plus"
benefit that boosts sales and rentals.

Florida's Electric Compw

Year-round electric air conditioning is one of
the basic requirements in homes and apart-
ments awarded the GOLD MEDALLION
for the ultimate in electrical excellence.

UNE,' 1 965 I' I
JUNE, 1965 13


Some new additions to our line of decorative,
compressed wall. veneers are these 15-3/4" x
15-3/4" Shadowtones. The relief is 1/2"
compared to the 1/4" for our 12" units, and
on any high-rise installation, we insert wall
hangers at no extra charge.

Standard grey costs 75g sq. ft. and weighs
14 pounds per unit. Standard white costs 85
sq. ft. and weighs 19 pounds per unit.

From left to right: Horseshoe, Square Cameo,
4 Square, and Sawtooth patterns. Consult
factory or your Representative of our products
for other designs.

Architect: Charles Goldsmith, Clearwater Installer: M & M Tile Co., St. Petersburg


St. Augustine, Florida


Prepared by
Historic Buildings, FAA

"We come now to the harbour of St. Augustine, which
would be one of the best in America, were it not for its
bar, which will not admit vessels of great burden, as it
has but eight feet of water . A neck of the mainland
to the north, and a point of Anastasia island to the south
form the entrance of the port. Opposite to the entrance
lies Fort St. Marks so called from the river it lies upon;
this fort is a regular quadrangle, with four bastions, a
ditch fifty feet wide, with a covertway, place of arms, and
a glacis: the entrance of the gate is defended by a rave-
line; it is case-mated all round, and bomb-proof: the works
are entirely of hewn stone, and being finished according to
the modern taste of military architecture, it makes a very
handsome appearance, and may be justly termed the pret-
tiest fort in the King's dominions."
"The town of St. Augustine is situated near the glacis

The text of this article is compiled of
excerpts from various guidebooks por-
traying St. Augustine at different times
during its turbulent history.

Photographs by the Historic American
Buildings Survey and the St. Augustine
Historical Society

of the fort, on the west side of the harbour; it is an ob-
long square, the streets are regularly laid out, and inter-
sect each other at right angles, they are built narrow on
purpose to afford shade. The town is above half a mile in
length, regularly fortified with bastions, half bastions, and
a ditch; besides these works it has another sort of fortifi-
cation, very singular, but well adapted against the enemy
the Spaniards had most to fear: it consists of several rows
of palmetto trees, planted very close along the ditch, up
to the parapet; their pointed leaves are so many chevaux
de frieze, that makes it entirely impenetrable; the two
southern bastions are built of stone."
William Stork
Account of East Florida
With Remarks on its Future Importance to Trade and
Commerce. London 1776

JUNE, 1965

Castillo de San Marco

"On the Sunday afternoon in 1672 when the officials
and townspeople of St. Augustine gathered in the shadow
of the clumsy old wooden fort-the last in the succession
of wooden forts since Menendez' time-a new era was in
sight. Here was to be built a citadel whence all Florida
could be protected-a mighty fort to check the English
advance. For many months the limekilns had been roar-
ing, converting oyster shells into lime, and the quarry
workers chopped incessantly in the coquina pits, cutting
out the shell rock for the new stone fort. Notary Juan
Moreno (John Brown) attests to the ground breaking in
the following document:
I, Juan Moreno y Segobia, notary public for the gov-
ernment of this city and presidio of San Agustin of Flor-
ida, do certify and (give) true testimony whereto may
agree the gentlemen who might see these presents:
That today, Sunday, about four o'clock in the after-
noon, the year of one thousand six hundred and seventy-
two; being next to the fort of this presidio where the
site of the new fort is marked, which by order of his
majesty is to be built of stone, the senor sergeant major
don Manuel de Sandoya, governor and captain general of
these provinces for his majesty, in his royal name, ac-
companied by the judges, royal officials, sergeant major
don Nicolas Ponce de Leon and captain Antonio de Ar-
guelles of this presidio, who are officers of his majesty,
and many other persons and retired military officers of
the presidio; (the said governor) with a spade in his hands

and the other persons and royal officials present, began
this said day to dig the foundation trenches to commence
the building of said castle.
That the work continued on this said day and at most
of it, I, the notary, was present; and so that it may be on
record, by command of the senor governor and captain
general I give these presents in the city of St. Agustin of
Florida, on the said day; witnesses being Antonio de Ar-
guelles, captain of infantry for his majesty, the captain
Lorensso Joseph de Leon and don Entrique de Rribera,
citizens and retired officers in the presidio.
It is written on ordinary paper inasmuch as the offi-
cial stamped paper has not arrived in this presidio. Of
which I do attest.
Witness my signum (rubric) in testimony of truth.
Jn Moreno y Serovia
Scribe of the government
Affidavit Recording the Groundbreaking Ceremony for
Castillo de San Marcos, October 2, 1672.

IADOVOI Wt. Augustine
(Left) Chapel Doorway

Fort Marion

St. Augustine, Florida

Early 17th Century

"The Castle is a fortress of great strength, covering
several acres, and built entirely of stone from the neigh-
boring coquina quarries, and according to the most ap-
proved principles of military science. It is said to be a
"good specimen of military architecture."
Its walls are twenty-one feet high, terminating in four
bastioned angles, at the several corners, each of which is
surmounted with towers corresponding. "The whole is
casemated and bomb-proof." This work is inclosed in a
wide and deep ditch, with perpendicular walls of mason-
work, over which is thrown a bridge, originally protected
by a draw.
Within its massive walls are numerous cells. On the



north side, opposite the main entrance, is one fitted up
as a Romish church. It has now become converted into a
storehouse for military fixtures. These rooms are at best
dark, dungeon-like abodes; and, by natural association,
they revive the recollection of scenes characteristic of a
dark and cruel age.
Some of these gloomy retreats, though like Bunyan's
giant Despair they now can only grin in ghastly silence
at the Pilgrim stranger, yet look as if they were once the
strong-holds of despotic power. With this character the
gossip of common fame also charges them.
The Castle commands the entrance to the harbor. Its
water battery is furnished with a complement of Paixham
guns of heavy caliber. These are in a state of readiness to
be mounted.
The Castle is a place of chief and universal attraction
to the curious stranger. On approaching the main en-
trance, through the principal gateway, the first object of
interest is a Spanish inscription, engraved on the solid
rock immediately over head, and under the arms of Spain,
and is as follows, viz.:*"Reynando en Espana el son Don
Fernando Sexto y Sierdo Governador y Capitan General
de esta Plaza de San Augustine de Florida y su Provincia
el Moriscal de Campo Dn. Alonzo Fernandez de Herida
se couduyo esta Castello el ano de 1756 dirigendo las
abras et Capitan ynginero Don Pedro de Brazas y Garay."
*TRANSLATION-"Don Ferdinand the Sixth being
King of Spain, and the Field Marshall, Don Alonzo
Fernandos de Herida being Governor and Captain Gen-
eral of this place, St. Augustine of Florida and its prov-
ince, this fortress was finished in the year 1756. The
works were directed by the Capt. Engineer, Don Pedro
de Brazas y Garay."-See Williams's Hist. Flor.
On reaching the interior of the Fort, the several apart-
ments may be explored, except those where the magazine
is found, and those which are used as cells for prisoners
-the State being permitted to confine its prisoners there-
Within the bastion of the northeast angle, far under
ground, is a dark, dungeon-like recess, constructed of
solid mason-work. Before entering here, the guide will
furnish himself with a torchlight of pitch-wood."
Sewall's sketches of St. Augustine.
R. K. Sewall (Philadelphia, 1849)

de Mesa-Sanchez House
(now Spanish Inn)

43 St. George Street
St. Augustine, Florida

"In the middle of the tower is a sapcious square called
the parade, open towards the harbour: at the bottom of
this square is the governor's house, and apartments of
which are spacious and suited to the climate, with high
windows, a balcony in front, and galleries on both sides;
to the back part of the house is joined a tower, called in
America a look-out, from which there is an extensive
prospect towards the sea as well as inland. There are two
churches within the walls of the tower, the parish church,
a plain building, and another belonging to the convent of
Franciscan friars, which is converted into barracks for
Sthe garrison. The houses are built of free-stone, commonly
two stories high, two rooms up on a floor, with large
windows and balconies: before the entry of most houses
runs a portico of stone arches; the roofs are commonly
flat. The Spaniards consulted conveniency more than
taste in their buildings, the number of houses in the Span-
ish time, in the tower, and within the lines, was above
Interior View 900; many of them, especially in the suburbs, being built
Above of wood or palmetto leaves, are now gone to decay."
and William Stork
Below: (Ibid.)

Don Raimundo Arrivas House
44 St. George Street
St. Augustine, Florida



"At length we emerged upon a shrubbery plain, and
finally came in sight of this oldest city of the United
States, seated among its trees on a sandy swell of land,
where it has stood for three hundred years. I was struck
with its ancient and homely aspect, even at a distance,
and could not help likening it to pictures which I had
seen of Dutch towns, though it wanted a wind-mill or
two to make the resemblance perfect. We drove into a
green square, in the midst of which was a monument
erected to commemorate the Spanish constitution of 1812,
and thence through the narrow streets of the city to our
"I have called the streets narrow. In few places are
they wide enough to allow two carriages to pass abreast.
I was told that they were not originally intended for car-
riages; and that in the time when the town belonged to
Spain, many of them were floored with an artificial stone,
composed of shells and mortar, which in this climate
takes and keeps the hardness of rock; and that no other
vehicle than a hand-barrow was allowed to pass over them.
In some places you see remnants of this ancient pave-
ment; but for the most part it has been ground into dust
under the wheels of the carts and carriages introduced
by the new inhabitants. The old houses, built of a kind
of stone which is seemingly a pure concretion of small
shells, overhang the streets with their wooden balconies;
and the gardens between the houses are fenced on the

Overall View

side of the street with high walls of stone. Peeping over
these walls you see branches of the pomegranate, and of
the orange-tree now fragrant with flowers, and rising yet
higher, the leaning boughs of the fig with its broad lux-
uriant leaves. Occasionally you pass the ruins of houses-
walls of stone with arches and stair-cases of the same ma-
terial, which once belonged to stately dwellings.
'Twelve years ago,' said an acquaintance of mine,
'when I first visited St. Augustine, it was a fine old Span-
ish town. A large proportion of the houses which you now
see roofed like barns, were then flat-roofed; they were
all of shell rock, and these modern wooden buildings
were then not erected. That old fort which they are now
repairing, to fit it for receiving a garrison, was a sort of
ruin, for the outworks had partly fallen, and it stood un-
occupied by the military, a venerable monument of the
Spanish dominion. But the orange-groves were the wealth
and ornament of St. Augustine, and their produce main-
tained the inhabitants in comfort. Orange-trees of the
size and height of the pear-tree, often rising higher than
the roofs of the houses, embowered the town in perpetual
verdure. They stood so close in the groves that they ex-
cluded the sun; and the atmosphere was at all times aro-
matic with their leaves and fruit, and in spring the fra-
grance of the flowers was almost oppressive'.
William Cullen Bryan, 1829.

"Emerging from the solitudes and shades of the pine
forests, we espied the distant yet distinct lights of the
watch towers of the fortress of St. Augustine, delightful
beacons to my weary pilgrimage. The clock was striking
ten as I reached the foot of the drawbridge; the sentinels
were passing the alerto, as I demanded entrance; having
answered the preliminary questions, the draw-bridge was
slowly lowered. The officer of the guard, having received
my name and wishes, sent a communication to the gov-
ernor, who issued orders for my immediate admission. On
opening the gate, the guard was ready to receive me; and
a file of men, with their officer, escorted me to his Excel-
lency, who expressed his satisfaction at my revisit to Flor-
ida. I soon retired to the luxury of repose, and the fol-
lowing morning was greeted as an old acquaintance by
the members of this little community ..
"The houses and the rear of the town are intersected
and covered with orange groves; their golden fruit and
deep green foliagefi not only render the air agreeable, but
beautify the appearance of this interesting little town, in
the centre of which (the square) rises a large structure
dedicated to the Catholic religion. At the upper end are
the remains of a very considerable house, the former resi-
dence of the governor of this settlement; but now (1817),
in a state of delapidation and decay, from age and inat-
"At the southern extremity of the town stands a large
building, formerly a monastery of Carthusian Friars, but
(Continued on Page 20)

JUNE, 1965

Oldest House

Slater House

(Street Facade)

Slater House

Rear View)

now occupied as a barrack for the troops of the garrison.
At a little distance are four stacks of chimnies, the sole
remains of a beautiful range of barracks, built during the
occupancy of the British, from 1763 to 1783; for three
years the 29th regiment was stationed there, and in that
time they did not lose a single man. The proverbial salu-
brity of the climate, has obtained for St. Augustine the
designation of the Montpelier of North America; indeed,
such is the general character of the Province of East
Voyage to Spanish Main. (London, 1819)

"The city of St. Augustine is built in the style of an
ancient Spanish military town. The plan of the city is a
parallelogram, traversed longitudinally by two principal
streets the whole length. These a'e intersected at right
angles, transversely, by several cross streets, which divide
the city into squares. Though not larger than many of
our New England villages, the city is nevertheless regul-
arly laid out, as it was intended to be compactly built,
each square having more or less space, once occupied with
groves of the orange, which a few years since were the
glory and wealth of the place. Indeed, it was once a forest
of sturdy orange trees, in whose rich foliage of deep
green, variegated with golden fruit, the buildings of the
city were embosomed; and whose fragrance filled the body
of the surrounding atmosphere so as to attract the notice
of passers by on the sea; and whose delicious fruit was
the great staple of export.
"The harbor fronts on the east, and is furnished with
good wharves. The sandy beach of the Ft. Sebastian
brings up the rear on the west, affording space for a de-
lightful drive around the city; while a once thrifty but
now ruinous suburb-the bubble of a speculation in
"morus multicaulus" times-called the North City, fills
the background on the north.
The coquina rock, a concretion of sand and shell
formed on the neighboring sea-beach on the south side
of the bar and on the island-the upper extremity of
which opens in sheets, ready for quarrying, and on which
quarries are now extensively worked-is the principal
building material. The streets are excessively narrow, and
are furnished with neither side-walks nor pavements. The
houses are usually two-story buildings, generally crowded
into the streets; and are built without much regard to
architectural style or ornamental beauties.
Not unfrequently ,a piazza projects from the base of
the second story, w\i5b in some cases is inclosed with
movable Venetian shifters, so as to control the draft of
air, and increase or abate it at pleasure.
These appendages, though they add greatly to the
comfort of the occupants, nevertheless disfigure the build-
ings by impairing their symmetrical proportions. The pi-
azza, especially, awakens a sensation of peril, as one passes
for the first time on horseback through the streets, par-
ticularly if he has been accustomed to the broad thorough-
fares and elevated structures of a northern Anglo-Ameri-
can city. The contrast is great."
Sewall's sketches of St. Augustine
R. K. Sewall (Philadelphia, 1849)

Edited by Louise Decatur Castleden
January 10, 1888, St. Augustine
At precisely 12 minutes past 5:00 this afternoon a
Ponce de special train carrying the passengers of the vestibuled train
Leon Hotel from Jacksonville arrived at St. Augustine. -The thirty
passengers were brought in 2 parlor cars, the "Governor
Bloxham" and the "Governor Perry", having made the
run in 57 minutes. In less than 5 minutes they were
rolling rapidly in carriages down Cordova Street in clouds
of dust, all eager to get a glimpse of the most wonderful
inn yet built.
It was dark, and the Hotel Ponce de Leon was bril-
liantly lighted by electricity. As the carriages turned
sharply into the private driveway, the expressions of
wonder and admiration burst involuntarily from their
lips. The carriages moved slowly through the great arched
porte cochre. The Spanish "Bien Venido" greeted the
Ponce guests from the arched ceiling of the vestibule.
de After being assigned to rooms and inspecting the ro-
Leon tunda and the beauty of the place, the newly arrived
Hotel guests walked in to dinner. The dining hall under the
electric light bringing out wonderfully the colors is un-
(Dining doubtedly the most beautiful ever designed.
Room Mr. H. H. Flagler and a small party of friends occu-
Rotunda) pied a table in the western extension; the other guests
were seated at tables nearby.
A party of 80 invited guests were present. At 8:00
o'clock an impromptu concert was given in the grand
dining hall.
Mr. Flagler was the constant recipient of congratula-
4 tions upon his wonderful achievements.
SMr. Carrnre and Mr. Thomas Hastings, the architects,
were also the objects of many laudatory expressions and
.r.. bore their honors modestly and benignly. Messrs. Mc-
Ponce Guire and McDonald were receiving congratulations all
Sde through the evening.
Leon The reception closed at 10:00 o'clock, and by 11:00
SHotel the great hotel was quiet. This was not the opening for
S(rl'terior that event will be formally celebrated on Thursday,
S of January 12.
Ballroom) The first dinner in the Ponce de Leon was served at
6:00 o'clock. Before its close the orchestra was stationed
in the south wing of the superb dining room, and the
friends of Mr. Henry M. Flagler and his trusted lieuten-
ahts gathered in the main room to listen, and to examine
at leisure the unrivalled room. That was all. Everything
was in perfect keeping with the retiring character of the
owner, whose generosity and public spiritedness has
caused waters to stand back and in their stead a building
to arise that would be a monument to his liberality for-
Every visitor was impressed with the modest bearing
,0 C1' of the man whose wealth had made this beauty possible,
-l. IU .u Alcazar as quietly he returned the greeting and congratulations of
Hotel friends.
The architects of the building were present, two young
men, Messrs. Carr re and Hastings, under thirty years of
age still, full of enthusiasm, and grateful for the oppor-
.-r tunity given them to design and carry out the work that
marks an era in hotel architecture, and gave them fame
(Continued on Page 22)
JUNE, 1965 -,

St. Augustine...
(Continued from Page 21)
seldom achieved in a lifetime of hard
work. Mr. Carrfre had his wife with
him and she shared gracefully her
husband's hour of triumph.
Mr. Thomas Hastings, the junior
member, bright, nervous, every move-
ment suggestive of genius, was here,
there, everywhere, his gala day, but it
is doubtful if he realized it. The
strain of the brain had not yet re-
laxed, and, as he said later, "I only
realized that the work of mind and
hands was mine no longer; that when
I leave tomorrow, I bid it good-bye,
and it saddened me as though parting
from a loved child." As indeed, it
was. Can anyone doubt that in its
design he had wrought part of his
own nature? So, at least, it appeared
to the writer, who, when enjoying
some of the beautiful details of the
house many times since, recalls the
youth so full of nervous energies, so
bright, and yet sad, as he appeared
that night.
Dr. Hastings, one of the noted di-
vines of the country and his wife
shared in the triumph of their son,
and it was beautiful to see the pride
with which they inspected the beauty
their son had designed and executed.
The artist, George Maynard who
for long months labored to produce
the exquisite symbolical figures on
the dining-room ceiling and in the
rotunda, attracted much attention, al-
though when spoken to in regard to
his work, blushed like a school boy.
The builders, Messrs. McGuire and
McDonald shared in the triumph of
the hour, and with reason, for in
their faithfulness in carrying out the
work of the designers had contributed
largely to its success. McGuire and
McDonald will be remembered while
the house stands.
Mr. O. D. Seavey, the manager,
who had given valuable assistance by
his practical suggestions about dif-
ferent parts of the house, might oc-
casionally be seen as he kept the
machinery moving that was to secure
the comforts and luxuries of the
hundreds of guests to assemble be-
neath the roof within the next month.
Surely it was a time of anxiety that
was, no doubt, shared by his wife. It
is doubtful if it was a time of pleasure
to him as he endeavored to draw to-
gether the many threads that held
the various departments.

JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.

G. FD LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary



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