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Mesac e From9e 7P redenetL.
Fellowship HasA Purpose
By WILLIAM T. ARNETT
President, Florida Association of Architects
To organize and unite in fellow-
ship the architects of Florida. So be-
gins the new FAA statement of pur-
pose adopted at the 50th Annual
convention in Jacksonville last No-
To many people, fellowship sug-
gests some rosy, intangible kind of
relationship with others that can be
used to fill empty hours or possibly
even to escape the pressures of every-
But that is not the meaning fellow-
ship has for us. In FAA it is and
should be primarily a means toward
It was to consider and to define
the purpose of our fellowship in spe-
cific terms that the old and new Ex-
ecutive Committees of the FAA
Board met early in December in Win-
ter Park with the chairmen of the five
new FAA Commissions. Out of this
intensive two-day study period has
come among other things a
simple statement of ends, of purposes,
of goals forVFAA for 1965.
Our First Purpose
First, we will seek to build an even
stronger and more effective Associa-
tion,'so that the profession may be
of ever-increasing service to society.
The complete revision of the Asso-
ciation's Bylaws at the November
Convention has made it possible to
inaugurate a simplified and stream-
lined organizational structure, well
suited to the needs of a rapidly
No revision was made in the offi-
ces of Secretary and Treasurer. But
the elimination of three vice presi-
dencies and the establishment of the
office of Vice President President
Designate, in which James Deen is
serving, will give the Association the
continuity of administration it has
lacked heretofore. Of equal impor-
tance is the simplification of the FAA
We have approximately 25 com-
mittees which are the life blood of
the Association. These committees
are now grouped into five functional
Commissions: the Commission of the
Professional Society, headed by Hil-
liard T. Smith; the Commission on
Education and Research, headed by
C. Ellis Duncan; the Commission on
Professional Practice, headed by Fran-
cis R. Walton; the Commission on
Architectural Design, headed by Wil-
liam K. Jackson; and the Commission
on Public Affairs, headed by Herbert
The accomplishment of a profes-
sional association is probably measured
best by the accomplishment of its
committees. This year, each Commis-
sion and each Committee will have
not only a long-range goal, but a sim-
ple limited objective to be carried out
during the year.
We owe a great deal to those who
man Commissions and Committees,
unselfishly devoting their time and
energies to the good of the profession
and the community.
Our Second Purpose
Second, we will seek the establish-
ment by the Florida Legislature of a
comprehensive study committee to co-
ordinate the efforts of the various
segments of the construction industry
so as to further the best interests of
building owners and the general
Construction is America's largest
production field. In Florida, construc-
tion represents annually a $2 billion
segment of the economy, establishing
it with agri-business and tourism as
one of the state's largest and most
important economic and social
Our population explosion has
moved Florida into position as ninth
ranking state in the Nation. But in
building a major component of the
construction industry it ranks sev-
enth among the fifty states.
Our construction industry is large,
but it is also complex and loosely or-
ganized. And the interests of thous-
ands of Floridians in it are varied
Consider, for example, the compon-
ents of the construction industry. First,
there are the owners public and
private whose needs and aspira-
tions are paramount, and without
whom there would be no building.
Second, there are the design profes-
sions that include architects and their
co-professionals in engineering, plan-
ning, landscape architecture, and in-
terior design. A third group is the
operational group of home builders,
general contractors, specialty contrac-
tors, and materials manufacturers and
distributors. A fourth group includes
realtors, mortgage bankers, and insur-
ance underwriters. A fifth group in-
cludes building and zoning officials,
sanitation and health departments,
and other regulatory agencies.
To an increasing extent the con-
struction industry has become the con-
cern not only of individual clients
but also of the public and of govern-
ment. It is for this reason that the
FAA in a resolution adopted at its
November Convention, urgently re-
quested the Florida Legislature to take
cognizance of the importance of the
industry in the Florida economy, and
to establish a comprehensive study
committee to coordinate the varied
and contradictory segments of the in-
dustry in the public interest.
Our Third Purpose
Third, we will seek to deepen and
strengthen communication between
the eleven AIA Chapters, the two
(Continued on page 12)
MIAMI WINDOW A O I P.O. BOX 48-877, INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT BRANCH
M IAM.I W I N W UUV U lUll MIAMI, FLORIDA PHONE: AREA CODE 305, 633-9831
OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
7T1&s s4e ---
Fellowship Has A Purpose . . .
By William T. Arnett, FAA President
FAA Special Award 1964 Convention.
A Partial Restoration of Fort Clinch
By Herschel E. Shepard, Jr., Architect
Church Buildings For All The People
By Alan R. Logan
News and Notes
UCLA Competition . . .
House & Home Design . .
Chapter Presidents Meet . .
Church Conferences . . .
. 2nd Cover
Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Treaty Oak . a "little plan" . . . 19
By James O. Kemp, AIA
Advertisers' Index . . . . . . . . . .. 20
FAA OFFICERS 1965
William T. Arnett, President, 2105 N.W. Third Place, Gainesville
James Deen, President Designate-Vice President, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
Forrest R. Coxen, Secretary, 218 Avant Building, Tallahassee
Dana B. Johannes, Treasurer, 410 S. Lincoln Avenue, Clearwater
BROWARD COUNTY: William A. Gilroy, George M. Polk; DAYTONA BEACH:
Francis R. Walton; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Dana B. Johannes, Frank R. Mu-
dano, William J. Webber; FLORIDA GULF COAST: Earl J. Draeger, Sidney
R. Wilkinson; FLORIDA NORTH: James T. Lendrum, Jack Moore; FLORIDA
NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA NORTHWEST: Barnard W.
Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: James E. Ferguson, Jr., John 0. Grimshaw,
Earl M. Starnes; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr., C. A. Ellingham,
Walter B. Schultz; MID-FLORIDA: John B. Langley, Joseph N. Williams;
PALM BEACH: C. Ellis Duncan, Kenneth Jacobson, Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region American Institute of Architects
Robert H. Levison, 425 South Garden Avenue, Clearwater
Executive Director, Florida Association of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 3730 S.W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Verner Johnson, Joseph M. Shifalo
Cumberland Sound as seen through a musket loophole in the Northeast Scarp.
Feature in this issue is the partial restoration of Fort Clinch, Amelia Island,
Florida which received a FAA Special Award at the 1964 Convention.
The Honor Awards Jury commented, "Painstaking, sympathetic and inspired
restoration of a magnificent historical monument, achieved with an incredibly
low budget. We hope that the work so well begun will be completed."
"We recommend that the story of Fort Clinch be published in The Florida
Architect and-later in the AIA Journal as an inspiration to the profession
and the public."
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Inisitute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida
Corporation not for profit. It is published
monthly at the Executive Office of the Asso-
ciation, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
34, Florida; telephone, 448-7454.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
ut publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
S. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reflect such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year; April Roster Issue,
$2.00 .... Printed by McMurray Printers.
FOTIS N. KAROUSATOS
VOLUME 15 1
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
?dd SpeteUal Adread-1964 vcuestio
A Partial Restoration of Fort Clinch
By HERSCHEL E. SHEPARD, JR., Architect
Photo No. 2
Fort Clinch State Park occupies the northern tip of
Amelia Island, Florida, located' fie east- of Fernandina,
Florida. Named for General Duncan Lamar Clinch, a
veteran of the War of 1812, the Indian Wars, and the
Mexican War, the park has become a popular tourist
attraction, and offers campsites, picnic areas, and the
impressive remains of Fort Clinch to the public.
The Florida State Board of Parks and Historic Memo-
rials has always recognized the historical value of the Fort,
as well as its potential as a major tourist attraction. There-
fore, in 1963 funds were made available for the first steps
of restoration, and my office was commissioned to begin
Unusual and challenging problems were soon encoun-
tered. However, before discussing these problems, it is
necessary to review the original design criteria and con-
struction history of the Fort, in order that our solutions
may be clearly presented and understood.
The Design of The Fort
In 1816 the Federal Government began construction
of a series of permanent coastal fortifications. The neces-
sity for such defense had been voiced by George Washing-
ton, but the War of 1812 was necessary to impress Jhis
fact upon Congress. By the outbreak of the Civil War,
closed forts protected most important harbors on the
Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
Fort Clinch was one of these closed forts. Designed
and built by the U. S. Army Engineers, its primary pur-
pose was to prevent passage into the deep water harbor
of Fernandina by way of Cumberland Sound. Its general
disposition was based on defensive principles first per-
fected by the French engineer Vauban in the 17th cen-
(Continued on Next Page)
(Continued from Preceding Page)
tury, and it was intended to withstand the effects of
The plan is that of an irregular pentagon, formed by
scarp walls connecting five Bastions, or protected gun em-
placements. Within each Bastion at approximately ground
level were located flanking howitzers, which fired parallel
to the face of the scarp walls as a defensive measure; atop
each Bastion was to be located an eight-inch Columbia, or
a high-trajectory weapon also used primarily in defense of
the Fort proper.
On the immediate exterior of the scarp walls was
located a ditch, from which graded fill sloped sharply
upward to form a crest, the elevation of which was a few
feet lower than the top of the scarp wall. The graded fill
then sloped gently from the crest to natural grade beyond.
This immense sand structure was known as, the Glacis, and
it was to completely encircle the Fort. The Glacis shielded
the scarp walls from the breeching action of cannon by
absorbing or deflecting the shot, and provided a clear field
of fire from the musket loopholes and parapets.
Within and parallel to the scarp walls were placed high
embankments of sand, called the Ramparts. Original plans
called for the mounting of fifty-nine guns, placed on the
Ramparts, located behind parapet walls. These weapons
were to furnish the basic protection from Cumberland
Sound. A passage-way, known as the Chemin-des-rondes,
was provided between the Ramparts and scarp walls, in
order that muskets might be fired through loopholes in
The interior space surrounded by the Ramparts was
known as the Parade. (See photo No. 1) Here were located
the one-story Guardhouse, Prison, Latrines, Lumber Sheds,
Blacksmith Shop, Bakery, and Kitchens; the two-story
Storehouse and Soldiers' Barracks, and the three-story Offi-
cers Quarters. Rainwater was collected for drinking pur-
poses and was stored in several underground cisterns. All
structures necessary as support facilities were located within
the scarp walls, and the Fort was designed to be self-
sufficient while under siege.
The designers of the Fort selected materials that had
been proven through long usage, as is indicated by the
original plans, dated 1851. Brick was chosen as the basic
construction material, probably for its availability, resist-
ant to shot, and adaptability' to the vaulted construction
required in the Bastions, covered passageways, and second
floors of the Storehouse, Soldiers' Barracks, and Officers'
Quarters. (See photo No. 2). Most floors on grade, pos-
sibly all roof surfaces, and a few lintels of short span were
to be of slate. The lintels and sills of all large windows and
door openings, the treads of all exterior stairs, and all gun
platforms were to be of granite. (See photo No. 3) The
original plans called for wood roof structures over all build-
ings not vaulted, with lesser spans employing rafters, and
greater spans employing purlins and rafters over heavy
trusses. It should be noted that a relatively ne* material,
cast iron, was used in the design of columns, second floor
girders, and in a unique beam made of cast sections bolted
together and placed above the porch of the Soldiers'
Barracks. (See photo No. 4)
-The Construction History of The Fort
Property for Fort Clinch was acquired in 1842, and
construction began in 1847. By 1850 the major portions
of the Seawall and the North Bastion were complete. Just
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
prior to occupation by Confederate forces in April, 1861,
major parts of the construction had progressed to the fol-
lowing point: the North and Northwest Bastions were
virtually complete, with the exception of gun platforms,
but the East, South, and Southwest Bastions were com-
plete only to the springing of the gunroom arches; vaulted
galleries to the Bastions were virtually complete; the scarp
walls between the North, Northwest, and East Bastions
were virtually complete, but the remaining three scarp
walls were approximately fifty percent complete; all Ram-
parts were virtually completed, but without parapets, gun
platforms, and armament; and the Prison, Guardhouse,
and Lumber Sheds were complete. Construction had not
begun on the Glacis, Ditch, Storehouse, Soldiers' Bar-
racks, Officers' Quarters, Blacksmith Shop, Bakery, or.
Latrines, and only a few walls of the Kitchens were in
place. There is no evidence that any armament had been
delivered to the site.
The Confederate forces occupied the Fort for approxi-
mately eleven months. With the exception of the erection
of a temporary parapet on the Northwest Bastion and other
minor modifications, no attempt was made to continue
construction. There is no clear evidence that the Fort
proper ever received Confederate armament, although tem-
porary shore batteries totalling thirty-three heavy ordnance
pieces were located on both Cumberland and Amelia
Islands. The shortage of men and armament, plus the
incomplete condition of the fortifications, compelled the
Confederate forces to view their position as untenable.
They withdrew without resistance when a Union naval
task force made its appearance offshore.
Union forces reoccupied the Fort and town of Fer-
nandina on March 2, 1862, and remained throughout the
balance of the war. Thus Fort Clinch is historically signi-
ficant for its passive, rather than active, role in the Civil
War. It was the first Union fort occupied by the Confed-
eracy to be reoccupied by Union forces.
Construction work proceeded soon after reoccupation.
Labor and materials were brought in from the North, and
during the period 1862-1865 almost all structures were
substantially completed, in remarkable accordance with
the original design.
However, a few important modifications were made
during construction. Construction of the Officers' Quar-
ters was halted after a few first floor walls had been
Photo No. 5
The restored roof trusses
and brick gables of the
Soldiers' Barracks as seen
from the second floor.
All lumber was pressure
erected, and was never resumed. The roof construction of
the Bakeries, Blacksmith Shop, and Latrines was changed
in design, possibly in 1863, from wood rafters supporting
slate shingles to wrought-iron angles and tee sections sup-
porting galvanized corrugated iron. The records indicate
that this was expensive, but it may have been necessary
for increased protection against fire.
Also, the arrangement and type of armament was rede-
signed in 1863 and again in 1865. The latter arrangement
called for four fifteen-inch guns and thirty-six eight-inch or
ten-inch Rodman guns or equivalent rifles to be mounted
on the ramparts. Furthermore, two-story bomb-proof struc-
tures were to be constructed against the northwest, north-
east, and east parade walls; three vaulted passageways were
to be constructed from the parade through the ram-
parts to the Chemin-des-rondes; and the Bastions were
to be cut down to allow the guns mounted behind the
parapets to fire over them. These last changes were sub-
stantially completed during sporadic construction beginn-
ing in 1865. The four fifteen inch guns were installed,
probably in 1867. This was the only permanent armament
ever placed, except that in the Bastions, although almost
forty guns of various descriptions were stored within the
Fort for many years.
In 1867 all construction work was halted, and the Fort
was placed on caretaker status in 1869. Additional arma-
ment modifications were proposed in 1879 but never
accomplished. Except for changes made during the Span-
ish-American War, and for armament and facilities re-
moved since then, the Fort stands today as completed in
From 1869 to 1898 something less than minimum pre-
ventive maintenance was provided. Cisterns and magazines
in the Bastions developed leaks, as did the roofs of almost
all structures within the Fort. Sometime after 1879 the
slate roof of the Soldiers' Barracks were replaced with
wooden shingles, which subsequently deteriorated. Sand,
weeds, unmounted cannon, rubbish, and rattlesnakes were
noted during periodic inspections. The Fort was in this
condition when occupied by troops in April, 1898, during
the Spanish-American War.
Few modifications were made during the occupancy of
the Fort from April to September, 1898. Temporary re-
pairs were made to gain adequate shelter, two shallow wells
(Continued on Next Page)
(Continued from Preceding Page)
and one artesian well were driven, and a concrete emplace-
ment for an eight-inch breech-loading rifle was constructed
on the rampart behind the North Bastion. The partially
completed walls of the Officers' Quarters were demolished
and the brick used as aggregate in the in the concrete of
the eight-inch rifle emplacement. Two of the four fifteen-
inch rifles installed during the 1860's were placed in lim-
ited service, but no records have been found indicating
attempts to provide additional armament.
The Fort was virtually abandoned from 1898 to 1936,
when the site was designated Fort Clinch State Park. In
1937 the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing
roads and campsites, and undertook the monumental task
of removing large amounts of accumulated sand and debris
from the existing structures. Many objects of historic
value were found to be missing, and it is believed that a
number of cannon were dynamited and sold for scrap dur-
ing the period of abandonment. A similar fate seems to
have befallen the original cast iron columns at the Prison
and Guardhouse porches.
The existing conditions of the Fort were thoroughly
inspected by my office in 1963 as a necessary prerequisite
to further research and preparation of drawings. In gen-
eral, almost all masonry was in good condition, but repoint-
ing was required in most exposed surfaces. However, the
outer courses of brick in the North Bastion were in poor
condition due to the action of sand-carrying wind and high
tides, and portions of walls and chimneys in the Kitchens
and masonry gables and chimneys in the Soldiers' Barracks
were missing. Masonry in the Latrines, Bakery, and Black-
smith Shop was intact, and recent partial restoration of
the Storehouse( now the Museum), the Prison and the
Guardhouse had placed them in good condition.
All roofing, windows, doors, frames, trim, interior fin-
ishes, furnishings, and equipment were missing from the
Soldiers' Barracks, Bakery, Blacksmith Shop, and Kitchens,
with the exception of a few doors and frames in the latter.
It was evident that freezing rains were causing these struc-
tures to deteriorate rapidly, and that work in these areas
should receive first priority.
The scant remains of corrugated iron roofing, supported
by angle and tee sections, were found over the Bakery,
Blacksmith Shop, Kitchens, and Soldiers' Barracks. A
similar roof, almost intact, was found in place over the
Latrines. Limited information available led us to assume
that these roofs had been erected by the C.C.C., a conclu-
sion reinforced by the discovery of a portion'of an original
wooden truss, still in place at the Soldiers' Barracks, which
obviously antedated the metal roof system installed above
The ramparts, guns platforms and Chemin-des-rondes
were found to be in good condition. Granite and slate
surfaces had not visibly weathered. Cast iron gun pintles
and tracks were found in fair condition, but all cast iron
used in the bastions was in very poor repair. However, the
original cast iron columns and beam over the porch of the
Soldiers' Barracks were found in place and in good con-
Outside the scarp walls, the Glacis was no longer in
evidence. The ditch, now of moat proportions, existed
opposite the Southeast scarp only. Although reduced to
rubble by the action of the ocean, the Scawall was func-
tioning in a limited manner.
Upon completing the survey, an attempt was made to
limit the scope of the work, and we began research of con-
struction records and the preparation of drawings. At this
point our problems began, also.
The Problems of The Architect
The first and most obvious problem was that of meet-
ing the budget of $35,000. The long-term intention of the
State was to restore all structures as completely as prac-
ticable, to include furnishings, finishes, and perhaps fac-
simile armament. It was immediately evident that our
work had to be limited to the preservation of critical areas,
and that the funds available would make even this drasti-
cally limited scope a difficult problem in itself. However,
preliminary cost estimated indicated that we should at-
tempt to repair the masonry of the North Bastion, restore
the roofs, windows, and exterior doors of the Soldiers Bar-
racks, Kitchens, Blacksmith Shop, and Bakery, and repoint
the masonry of these buildings and part of the North-west
At this time photostats of the original plans of the
Fort, related drawings, and some documents were located
in the Museum files. Careful comparison of the plans and
the existing buildings indicated the plans had been fol-
lowed with remarkable accuracy. Due to the limited scope
and nature of our work, further investigation seemed neces-
sary, and it was decided to use the original plans as a guide
for all detailing and reconstruction. This seemed particu-
larly fortunate, for a construction history of the Fort had
never been compiled.
The original plans presented problems of their own.
Many details were vague: since the Army Engineers both
designed and built the structures, the finer points were
evidently solved in the field. Other details had to be modi-
fied due to the scope of the work. As an example, rain-
water from the roofs of the Soldiers' Barracks, Blacksmith
Shop, and Bakery originally drained to underground cis-
terns, now completely filled with sand. As excavation was
not possible, downspouts were provided.
The greatest problem presented by the original draw-
ings concerned the original design of the wooden roof
trusses of the Soldiers' Barracks. The trusses spanned
forty feet, were ten feet on centers, and were essentially
king post in design. The design was not only a poor origi-
nal choice; our calculations proved it to be structurally
unsound, and it was necessary to add flitch plates to the
bottom chord. (See photo No. 5) It is possible that ten-
sion rods were added to the original trusses; at any rate,
field modifications of some type must have been necessary.
Our drawings and specifications were subsequently
completed and let for bid. The lowest bid, including five
deductive alternates, was well over the budget. Conversa-
tions with the bidders revealed that the scope of the work
was still too large for the quality demanded. Furthermore,
the bidders were wary of the unusual repointing and
masonry work required, and bid accordingly. In preparing
for rebidding, we further restricted the scope of the work
by eliminating all windows, doors, hardware, and the re-
pointing of the Northwest Scarp; and verious details were
modified, without impairing accuracy. The scope of re-
pointing work was indicated in terms of square feet required
per building; and masonry work was indicated in number
of brick required per building. Also, contractors were re-
quested to provide unit costs for all repointing and masonry
work in order that extras or credits could be easily deter-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Photo No. 6
mined and adjusted as the work progressed.
The results of the rebidding were successful. The State
decided not to accept a deductive alternate eliminating the
Kitchen roofs, and accepted the low bid for the increased
amount of $38,814.00.
Shortly after construction began, the greatest architec-
tural problem of the entire problem was encountered. Pre-
liminary demolition indicated beyond doubt that the metal
roof over the Kitchens, Bakery, and Blacksmith Shop had
been erected during the original construction. Fortunately,
demolition also indicated that the original roof of the
Soldiers' Barracks had been supported by wooden trusses,
but the metal roof, obviously installed at a later date, was
much older than we had assumed.
As work was in progress, it was necessary to decide
immediately whether to proceed with the wooden roofs
called for on the original and restoration drawings, or
whether to issue a major change order, changing all roofs
to metal construction, with the exception of the Soldiers'
Barracks. After careful deliberation, we decided to pro-
ceed with the wooden roofs, for several important reasons.
First, it was evident that the metal roofs were installed
as a relatively minor modification of the original drawings,
for the masonry parapets had been built almost exactly as
detailed for wooden roofs, except that the angles, tees,
and corrugated iron extended a considerable distance into
convenient mortar joints. However, in order to replace the
metal roofs, it would be necessary to remove large quanti-
ties of the excellent and irreplaceable original brick con-
struction. The loss seemed greater than the gain, particu-
larly since the installation of the wooden roofs would leave
the original masonry intact.
Another factor was the lack of detailed information
concerning the design of the metal roofs, for the existing
remains left a great deal to conjecture. The existing roof
of the Latrines spanned a much shorter distance than the
other roofs, and was of little help in furnishing details.
Furthermore, original detailed drawings of the modifica-
tion, if existing, were not immediately available. These
drawings would have to be sought in the National Archives,
and time did not permit this effort prior to making a
A third factor was that the pattern of the original
corrugated iron was no longer standard, and the wrought
iron tees and angles would have to be replaced with steel.
This fact, plus the lack of detailed information, indicated
that restoration of the metal roofs might well be less accur-
ate than the restoration of wooden roofs that had never
Other important considerations favoring wooden con-
struction were those of future maintenance and, of course,
the budget. These two considerations ended our reveiw
of the problem; the Contractor was notified to proceed
with the wooden roofs, and the work continued.
The problem created by the roofs made it clear that
more information concerning the construction history of
the Fort should be sought immediately. Many basic ques-
tions had arisen and were unanswered. Therefore, num-
erous construction documents were located during a visit
to the National Archives in the early part of 1964, and
much more information has been assembled since then.
Research is not yet complete, but most questions have
been answered. To the best of my knowledge, the brief
construction history contained in this article is the first
ever published regarding Fort Clinch.
The construction phase of the work proceeded smooth-
ly, for the general contractors, the subcontractors, and par-
ticularly the superintendent were interested in, and sym-
pathetic to, the work. The matching of the existing brick
was typical of most of the field problems encountered:
it was time-consuming but not too difficult, and was solved
satisfactorily. (See photo No. 6)
The erection of the trusses in the Soldiers' Barracks
proved to be a major construction problem. The narrow-
ness of the main entrance to the Fort proper would not
allow the passage of a fabricated truss, and it was not prac-
ticable to lift the trusses over the scarp walls by dragline.
The Contractor chose the only alternative: to assemble
them in place, piece by piece. However, each truss was
completely pre-assembled at the fabricator's yard, each
member was number-coded, and the trusses were then dis-
assembled and shipped to the site.
The restoration work was substantially completed in
September, 1964. Due to the unit costs of masonry and
repointing work required by the specifications, the Con-
tractor returned a credit of $1,364.43 to the State at the
time of closing.
Almost all information in this article regarding the
design criteria and construction history, of the Fort has
been derived from the original documents on file in the
National Archives, Washington, D. C. However, several
important documents were found in The War of The
Rebellion, A Compilation of the Official Records of the
Union and Confederate Armies, 1868-1869, U. S. Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Background in-
formation has been taken from The Encyclopedia Brit-
tannica, 1946 Edition.
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,S:a.e s... monet i;
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
IIG 1 ~LI I
Florida's Electric Companies... Taxpaying, Investor-Owned
JANUARY, 1965 11
,-r 'ti!:i"'\ ,~-
~:L:l:,~?Y1~Qt~.':. : :jt L.F .i ~i.?iU~i;:. '~~.~jt* li~;l:: ~
(Continued from 2nd Cover)
Student Chapters, and the Association
on the one hand, that the profession
may function with optimum unity of
purpose; and between the profession
and the general public on the other,
so that the architect may become
known as the professional playing the
leading role in the struggle for a bet-
ter physical environment.
Our internal communications will
be strengthened by two projects es-
tablished this month: the Presidents'
Workshop, and the Newsletter.
The Presidents of the eleven AIA
Chapters and the two Student Chap-
ters in Florida will meet early in Jan-
uary for an intensive Workshop ses-
sion with FAA Officers and Commis-
sion Chairmen. This meeting will
provide opportunity for discussion of
objectives and purposes for the com-
ing year, and should fill a genuine
need in Florida.
The Newsletter will be a new med-
ium of internal communication. Sim-
ple in format, lively and up to the
minute in content, it will be circu-
lated initially to the FAA Board of
Directors, Chapter Presidents, and
others on a "need to know" basis. If
it is successful, the Association may
wish to consider wider distribution at
some future time.
Among our vital media of com-
munication is The Florida Architect,
the official Journal of the Association.
This publication, long recognized as
among the outstanding publications of
its kind in the Nation, is read not only
by architects but by other segments of
the construction industry, public offi-
cials, and selected members of the
This brief view of the purposes of
FAA for 1965 does not answer the
question of what the Association ac-
complishes. The answer is that in the
manifold activities of the Board, the
Association's Commissions and Com-
mittees, and the Executive Director
and his staff culminate the combined
efforts of the architectural profession
But all these FAA activities to ad-
vance the aesthetic, scientific, and
practical proficiency of the profession
do not end with improving individual
proficiency alone. They are a dy-
namic indication of the Association's
(Continued on Page 20)
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
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Represented in Florida by
MACK E. PALMER
P. O. Box 5443
Jacksonville, Florida 32207
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Church Buildings For All The People
SBy ALAN R. LOGAN
Society for Accemible Contruction
In the design and construction of
religious edifices, as in commercial
construction, the prime criteria should
be: the needs, requirements and pre-
ferences of the people for whom the
facility is being created. Let us then
analogize by engaging in a brief bit
of "market research" similar to the
initial steps normally taken in the
planning of a business establishment.
True, the religious edifice must ac-
commodate (and oftimes house) the
proprietor and his staff and must,
therefore, satisfy their basic requisites;
but a church without a clientele, as a
business enterprise sans customers,
cannot long endure and does not
justify its creation. It is, thus, essen-
tial that the requirements of the con-
sumer hold precedence over those of
the management and employees.
In analyzing the requisites of our
consumer we must first establish pre-
cisely who the consumer is. Let us
begin with the whole: all religions
and all religious structures (which,
for simplicity, we shall refer to as
Churches are patronized by two dis-
tinct platoons: the permanent church
members and the non-affiliated church
goers. The church members are rela-
tively consistent in nature and at-
tendance. The church goers are the
occasional patrons. Members are ob-
tained from the ranks of the "goers"
and in order for the church to grow
and flourish, both segments must be
catered to. In the most recent statis-
tical evaluation it was disclosed that,
throughout the United States, some
63.4% of the population professed
church affiliation (membership) while
an overwhelming 96.4% declared a
religious preference. From these fairly
accurate figures we arrive at the hy-
pothesis that only approximately 3.6%
of the population will never, never,
set foot into a church and that our
"market" encompasses almost ALL of
the public. If we must build to satis-
fy ALL then we must dissect the "all"
and determine their make-up, their
predilections and their necessities.
Today's church goer-member is from
all walks of life, from all ethnic and
cultural levels, from infant to oldster,
and relatively impossible to personalize
or classify as to his likes, conceptions
of ecclesiastical beauty or utilitarian-
ism, or his reaction to motif or basic
style. He does have, however, one
fundamental and inherent demand.
If he is to be attracted to a church, if
he is to be offered the incentive to
return, if he is to be enlisted into
permanent and continuing member-
ship, he must find the church safe,
accessible and convenient. Fortunate-
ly, the factors that make a church, or
any facility, safe/accessible/conveni-
ent do not affect nor depend upon
the period, style or mode of architec-
ture. They neither detract, nor con-
(Continued on Page 14)
Serving You... The Telephone Team that Answers
Your Communication Needs
Combined in the huge team of tele-
phone people are all the skills and
knowledge necessary to keep tele-
phone service humming in homes
There are engineers to plan for fu-
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calls courteously, efficiently. Instal-
lers and repairmen to put in new
phones, keep service trouble-free.
Communications consultants to an-
alyze and suggest systems to meet
present and future needs of busi-
These and many more telephone
people comprise the vast team of spe-
cialists who are always on call to
keep your telephone service depend-
able and convenient.
(Continued from Page 18)
flict, nor oppose, nor upset.
What are Mr. Church Goer-Mem-
ber's physical requirements? Today,
he is a composite of the very old and
the extremely young, of robust health
and faltering gait, of alertness and
predisposition, of high elation and
deep despondency, of vitality and
senility, of euphoria and pain, of ac-
cident-awareness and accident-prone-
ness. Today, 10 out of 100 suffer
permanent pathological limitation of
activity and another 10 of the remain-
ing 90 are over age 65. Tomorrow,
because of medical advances and im-
proving economic conditions, the lame
and the halt and the elderly will
number 50 out of every 100 (this
based upon sound and qualified pro-
jection to the year 1980). Surely the
church structure is to endure until
and beyond 1980. It will weather the
years better than Mr. Church Goer-
Member will. It is reasonable to as-
sume that these 1 out of 2 (the limit-
ed, impaired, aged) are more in need
of spiritual comfort and counsel than
their more dexterous counterparts. If
the church is to serve ALL the people,
and particularly the spiritually needy,
it must be equipped to do so. It must
be designed for the consumer of today
The very same physical factors that
make a church accessible to the physi-
cally limited make it considerably
safer for everyone and offer more con-
venience to all. The more convenient
it is to go to church the more enjoy-
able the rite will be and the greater
the attendance. After all, this is why
churches are built, and they are being
built at the rate of 1400 per year.
What can be done to insure Safe/
What determines Safety, Accessibility
and Convenience? We know for a fact
that totally accessible construction per-
mits easy access to even the most ex-
tremely limited BUT it does not im-
pose any hardship or inconvenience
upon the non-limited. We can safely
design for the extreme and satisfy all,
and it can be done without increased
cost. Physical limitation runs the
gamut from poor vision and high
blood pressure down to those incap-
able of walking. The extreme is the
non-ambulatory, the wheelchairite.
This same wheelchairite could be the
Parson himself with a leg fracture, a
sprain or post-operative limitation. So,
keep the pews filled and the Pastor in
the pulpit, design all churches to ac-
commodate the wheelchairite and
everyone will benefit. Technically this
can be accomplished rather simply.
Most architects have been given a
copy of the American Standards As-
sociation "Specifications for Making
Buildings and Facilities Accessible to,
and Usable by, the Physically Handi-
capped (ASA:A117.1-1961)." If you
do not have a copy, or if you desire
additional copies they can be ob-
tained, without cost, from: S.A.C.,
P. O. Box 7368, St. Petersburg, Flori-
da 33734. These specifications spell
out, to the letter, all of the technical
aspects; but it is left up to the indi-
vidual architect to synthesize these
requirements into an aesthetic and
Primary features to incorporate into
all construction are: mono-level con-
struction from street (or parking area)
to all points within the structure
(whenever possible); both stairs and
gently rising gradients in combination
(Continued on Page 20)
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the best white cement available.
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Besides our brilliant white, standard shaped
tiles, we have a rainbow selection of 90 dif-
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tectural decor. The color is impregnated into
the Gory roof tile to assure lasting tinted
beauty. The tile is made of moisture and mil-
dew resistant materials to provide the home
with an attractive roof that will last a life-
time with a minimum of maintenance.
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GORY ROOFING TILE MFG., INC. 1773 N. E. 205th ST. NORTH MIAMI 945-7691
14 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
The revolutionary CELLON* process is proving to be the
most valuable development ever to come out of Koppers
Company, Inc.'s relentless research for better pressure- .
treated wood preservatives. This impregnating treatment,
applicable to any wood or wood product, provides 100%
penetration of pentachlorophenol into every cell of the
wood. The preservative is deposited in non-leaching crys-
talline form, and the treated product emerges dry.
Among many improved qualities, this new treatment is
colorless, odorless, practically weightless and non-swelling.
Materials treated are paintable, unchanged in dimension
and free from raised grain. They retain the same strength,
weight and appearance as untreated wood.
The principal advantage, of course, is outstanding resist-
ance to decay and insect attack... consistently better than
woods treated with regular light-solvent pentachlorophenol
For more than a year Alger-Sullivan Company in Northwest
Florida has been CELLON treating long-leaf yellow pine and
other species for industrial, commercial and residential
uses. If your next plan calls for a combination of natural
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Century, Florida, AC 305-256-3456. Brochures on request. -. .
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News & Notes ...
UCLA Competition . .
The Regents of the University of
California have authorized a compe-
tition to select an architect for the
proposed new University Arts Center
in Berkeley. The competition has
been approved by the American In-
stitute of Architects. The preliminary
stage is open to any architect resident
and licensed to practice in any of the
United States. Registration forms are
available by addressing: Eldridge T.
Spencer, FAIA, Professional Advisor
for the University Arts Center Com-
petition, 251 Kearny Street, San Fran-
cisco, California 94108. Registrations
must be postmarked by January 30,
1965, with preliminary stage entries
due March 13. The proposed new
structure will have 61,800 square feet
of net assigned floor space, and a
budget of $2,825,000. Author of the
wining entry will be awarded either
the contract for architectural services
or a cash prize of $25,000. Other final
competitors will receive $5,000.
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House and Home Design ...
Entries in the House and Home
1965 Homes for Better Living pro-
gram are being received, with registra-
tion blanks due at House and Home
by January 31, 1965. Awards will be
made in three categories: Custom
Houses designed for an individual
owner; Merchant Built Houses sold
speculatively, and Garden Apartments
and town houses for rent or sale.
Binders showing entries must be mail-
ed by March 21, with judging in
April. All award-winning entries will
be displayed at the AIA convention
Chapter Presidents Meet...
A Presidents' Workshop will be
sponsored by the FAA in Tampa on
Saturday, January 9, 1965. The presi-
dents of the eleven AIA Chapters and
two Student Chapters will be guests
of the FAA for luncheon and a series
of talks by FAA officers and commis-
sioners. The purpose of the workshop
is to talk over mutual problems and
(Continued on Page 18)
Be sure to attend the Florida Industries
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see the newest products under the Flor-
ida Sun ... products developed to serve
your home and office tomorrow.
See exhibits for every member of your
family. Attend business seminars for
industry. Plan NOW to attend.
APRIL 27-30, 1965
Open daily at 10:00 a.m.
for business visitors only.
From 2:00 p.m. to closing
for the general public.
SSponsored by The Florida Development Commission
This advertisement contributed by The City of Orlando
FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT
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Bartow, Central Florida Gas Corp.
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Bradenton, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Chattahoochee, Town of Chattahoochee
Chipley, City of Chipley
Clearwater, City of Clearwater
Clermont, Lake Apopka Natural Gas District
Cocoa, City Gas Co.
Crescent City, City of Crescent City
Cutler Ridge, City Gas Co.
Daytona Beach, Florida Gas Co.
Deland, Florida Home Gas Co.
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Eau Gallie, City Gas Co.
Eustis, Florida Gas Co.
Fort Lauderdale, Peoples Gas System
Fort Meade, City of Fort Meade
Fort Pierce, City of Fort Pierce
Gainesville, Gainesville Gas Co.
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North Miami, Peoples Gas System
Ocala, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Opa Locka, City Gas Co.
Orlando, Florida Gas Co.
Palatka, Palatka Gas Authority
Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities
Palm Beach Gardens, City of
Palm Beach Gardens
Panama City, Gulf Natural Gas Corp.
Pensacola, City of Pensacola
Perry, City of Perry
Plant City, Plant City Natural Gas Co.
Port St. Joe, St. Joe Natural Gas Company
St. Petersburg, City of St. Petersburg
Sanford, Sanford Gas Co.
Sarasota, Southern Gas and Electric Corp.
Starke, City of Starke
Tallahassee, City of Tallahassee
Tampa, Peoples Gas System
Titusville, City Gas Co.
Umatilla, Florida Gas Co.
Valparaiso, Okaloosa County Gas District
West Miami, City Gas Co.
West Palm Beach, Florida Public Utilities Co.
Williston, City of Williston
Winter Garden, Lake Apopka Natural Gas
Winter Haven, Central Florida Gas Corp.
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
WINTER PARK / FLORIDA
WINTER PARK / FLORIDA
News & Notes...
S(Continued from Page 17)
goals for 1965, to suggest ways in
which chapters and the association
may work together, and to prepare
the new presidents to be more effec-
tive in office. Of particular importance
will be the orientation on upcoming
problems in the Florida Legislature.
Church Conferences .. .
January 4-15, 1965 Institute of
Church Design sponsored jointly
by the Pittsburgh Theological Se-
minary and Carnegie Institute of
Technology. 616 North Highland
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
March 8, 10, 12, 1965 Church
Architecture Conferences sponsored
by the Florida Council of Churches
and local AIA chapters in St.
Petersburg, Miami, and Orlando-
April 27-29, 1965 "Architecture for
Education and Mission of the
Church," sponsored by the Depart-
ment of Church Building and
Architecture of the National Coun-
cil of the Churches of Christ; to
be held in Chicago.
WOOD is Stronger for Longer, for Less
intact yoa ewur/mbe dea/er o lacas wood cauntc
THE FLORIDA WOOD COUNCILS
8 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
January 9 FAA Committee on State and Chapter
Coordination-International Inn, Tampa-
Time 10:00 a.m. (All AIA Chapter Presidents.)
January 12 Monthly Meeting-Florida South Chapter, AIA.
Dupont Plaza Hotel, Miami-Time 7:30 p.m.
January 15 Monthly Meeting-Broward County Chapter
AIA. Ocean Manor Hotel, Ft. Lauderdale-
Time 12 Noon.
January 22 FAA Executive Committee Meeting-Cabana
Motel, Bradenton--(Time to be announced)
January 23 FAA Board of Directors Meeting-Cabana
Motel, Bradenton-Time 10:00 a.m.
Monthly Meeting-Gulf Coast Chapter, AIA
-Cabana Motel, Bradenton-Time Executive
Committee 1:00 p.m.; Chapter Meeting 3:00
p.m. Cocktail Party and Dinner at 6:00 p.m.
January 26 Miami Chapter Producers Council Information
Meeting sponsored by Dunan Brick Yards for
Federal Seaboard Terra Cotta Corporation.
March 20 Dedication of College of Architecture and Fine
Arts, University of Florida, Gainesville.
March 21 FAA Board of Directors Meeting-Holiday Inn,
Gainesville-Time 10:00 a.m.
June 5 FAA Board of Directors Meeting-Langford
Hotel, Winter Park-Time 10:00 a.m.
June 1 AIA National Convention and 11th Pan Ameri-
can Congress of Architects, Sheraton-Park
Hotel, Washington, D. C.
September 11 FAA Board of Directors Meeting-Miami.
November 17-- FAA 51st Annual Convention-
20 Jack Tarr Hotel, Clearwater.
Treaty Oak . a "little plan"
By JAMES 0. KEMP, AIA
President Jacksonville Chapter, A.I.A
In spite of the view held by some
of our learned colleagues that "little
plans are a menace" in any approach
to urban redevelopment, it appears
that a study small in scope can serve
a useful purpose to illustrate the prin-
ciples of total urban planning. The
Metropolitan Planning Committee of
the Jacksonville Chapter took this
position when asked by local authori-
ties to prepare such a study.
Perhaps a brief explanation of local
progress in community planning ef-
forts would clarify our main purpose
in participating in this study. Several
years ago a number of leading archi-
tects, with unanimous support of the
Jacksonville Chapter, worked in close
unison with the Chamber of Com-
merce and interested legislators to
establish the Jacksonville-Duval Area
Planning Board. Although the Area
Planning Board has made remarkable
progress, under the circumstances, to-
ward achieving its rightful position
as the recommending planning author-
ity for the metropolitan area, it has
yet to obtain the funds and staff nec-
essary to fulfill its ultimate purpose.
In the meantime, the haphazard
building machine crunches on, un-
guided by any comprehensive plan.
Many large scale developments are
being planned in Jacksonville, some
of which are adjacent to retarded or
depressed areas. These new develop-
ments will no doubt bring about rapid
change in the surrounding properties,
and such are the characteristics of the
area chosen for this study. We fully
realize that spot planning of various
areas of the city and county will not
bring about the total solution that is
being sought, and this study was not
presented to the public as a recom-
mended solution to part of our com-
plex planning problem. It was'done
to illustrate the possible orderly devel-
opment that can result from intelli-
gent urban planning, and mainly, it
served as a catalyst to stimulate com-
munity awareness of the need to step
up the development of a fully func-
tioning planning authority.
When the City Planning Advisory
Board, which mainly provides zoning
recommendations, asked the architects
to prepare a redevelopment study of
a retarded area, we considered the
possibilities of such a study and de-
cided to accept, if we could select the
site. In a joint meeting with repre-
sentatives of the Planning Advisory
Board, the Area Planning Board and
City Building Department we selected
a number of blocks surrounding the
recently proposed Treaty Oak Park.
Since this area bordered on the plan-
ned Gulf Life Insurance complex, ex-
pected to be the largest building com-
plex in the history of the city, we
felt that our point would be well
taken and meaningful to the business,
governmental and general community.
In addition, the famous Treaty Oak,
a natural beauty of huge proportions
and historical significance, struggling
to exist among a shambles of mean-
ingless one and two story clutter, had
at last been saved by the decision to
open a park round its sprawling
limbs. Community interest in this sec-
tion of the city was high.
The Area Planning Board prepared
a program, specifically, a land use
Block 1, 2, 3: High Rise
Aparement, 2-story Tow
Houses, and multi-level
Block 4: Community
Block 5: Busines Park
Block 6tand 7: General |
Business and Light
study to guide our thinking. Much
information had already been assimi-
lated for this area in anticipation of
its rapid change of complexion, but
no specific building development re-
quirements had been set down. The
program recommended the elimina-
tion of several minor streets and the
combining of multi-block areas into
superblocls. Not only was land use
of the superblocks diagrammed, but
population density, number of resi-
dential units, parking requirements,
business and light industrial distribu-
tion and general economic feasibility
were carefully delineated. This aspect
of our study was on sound footing and
the stage was set for our big produc-
A team of nine architects was or-
ganized to make our presentation. A
large drafting space high in the City
Hall, overlooking the proposed site
was arranged for our use thru the City
Commission. We set our schedule to
produce the entire project in one week
end. We felt that the study would
have more dramatic impact if it were
done thru a continuous, around-the-
(Continued on Nezt Page)
~~** .-*..;,~I ~ ~"~ "" IYIIY II:ly~_~ Z 1 I I
-l ~ t. * ** I i .
Treaty Oak ...
S(Continud from Page 18)
clock effort from start to conclusion.
A broad concept in the rough was
prepared before the week end by the
project coordinator, to give initial di-
rection to the work. The work began
on Friday night as the news media
stood by to make public pronounce-
ment of our progress. With the team
working in shifts, the study was meth-
odically produced and drew to a beau-
tiful conclusion on Sunday evening.
The Jacksonville Chapter had per-
formed a community service with the
expenditure of some 250 dedicated
man-hours, and we all anxiously
awaited the reaction. Three of the
larger drawings are shown here, and
nine more ground level sketches were
-:The response was immediate and
we knew that we had greased the
wheels of progress. Several important
business interests and governmental
leaders reacted enthusiasticaly to our
S- work, and the Chapter Committee
was asked to make several special pre-
sentations. Since that time, we have
made. eight such presentations, and
other-requests for similar studies have
been suggested to us. The Florida
Times-Union asked the Jacksonville
Chapter to participate in the prepara-
tion of their Centennial -issue and
delineate a 30 to 40 year projection
of change and growth in the Metro-
politan Area..We are currently hard
at work on this new project, making
plan studies and sketches, and pre-
pring the copy for the study. Eleven
architects are writing individual arti-
cles, expressing their views on various
aspects of urban and suburban growth.
SOnly Father Time will reveal the
; tire'valiueof this work that we have
done, but there is no doubt that the
community feels our presence and
willingness to provide leadership in a
solution to this important problem.
S(Continued from Page 12)
resolve, as the Bylaws phrase it, "to
make the profession of ever-increasing
service to society." For the people of
Florida, the combined efforts of their
architects mean professional compe-
sence speaking with a clear, united
voice on building a better environ- -
S sent for all of us.
(Continued from Page 14)
(when uni-level is impossible); safe,
wide tread, low riser, stairs with round-
ed nosings and with adequate hand-
rails (whenever stairs are necessary);
wide (36" or wider) doors that are
easy to operate and easy to see; ample
landings at entrances and at frequent
intervals on stairs and ramps; drinking
fountains, telephones, towel dispensers,
etc. within easy reach of both small
child and wheelchairite; no split-level
flooring; well lighted interiors (at least
theatre safelights near the floor);
ample corridors; elevators for multi-
storied buildings; visual warning for
the deaf and touch .r audio warning
for the blind (at all danger areas);
ramped agress to all stages and par-
ticipation areas; adequate provision
(according to ASA Specifications) in
restrooms and washrooms.
These requirements, which each
architect must meet in buildings .for
the public, do not inhibit nor restrict
the architect. They offer him new
challenge and new opportunity to
create effective and attractive "totally
accessible construction." It has been
proven, time and again, that Safe/
can be an artistic triumph as well as
a functional utopia. This concept of
"total accessibility" must be adhered
to throughout the entire church com-
plex. Churches are more than mere
temples of worship. They double as
class rooms, recreation halls, meeting
halls, theatres, lecture halls, youth
centers, arts and crafts centers, con-
cert, halls and dining halls. Offer
complete and total accessibility, not
merely token accessibility. Of all
forms of construction for the general
public, religious construction should,
above all others, provide SAFETY,
ACCESSIBILITY and CONVENI-
ENCE for all.
Alger-Sullivan Company 15
*Dunan Brick Yards, Inc. 3rd Cover
Florida Investor Owned
Electric Utilities .10-11
Florida Gas Transmission 16-17
Florida Industries Exposition 16
Florida Wood Councils 18
General Portland Cement-
Trinity White . . 4
Gory Roofing Tile Mfg., Inc. 14
J. I. Kislak Mortgage
Corp. of Florida . 16
Merry Brothers Brick &
Tile Co. .... 3
Miami Window . .. .
Southern Bell Telephone
& Telegraph Co. . 13
F. Graham Williams Co. .. 12
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Aerial View from South Jacksonville
Ve4ef w SeOa
DUNAN BRICK YARDS, INC.
MIAMI, FLORIDA TUxedo 7-1525
If you offer Quality to give the Service architects demand-they want to know about it. And the
best place to tell them is in THEIR VERY OWN MAGAZINE.
That's THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT-The only magazine of its kind in the State. It's the Official
Journal of The Florida Association of Architects, representing the eleven Florida Chapters of the AIA.
It's wholly owned by The FAA, and goes monthly to every architect registered in Florida-and also to
registered professional engineers and general contractors.
It's edited solely for these men whose work controls the spending in Florida's huge building business.
They've been called "the brains of building"-for through drawings and specifications they tell the great
body of construction what to use, and where, to develop thefinal form of the building designs they con-
Here is the 1965 Program for THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT. Each month's issue
will feature Florida architecture as indicated.
February Organizational Issue
a. Newly revised Bylaws of FAA.
b. Organization Chart showing the new Commissioner structure
with the committees of each as well as the makeup of the
c. FAA Architectural Honor Awards.
March FAA Membership Roster Issue
a. Dedication of College of Architecture and Fine Arts, University
b. Schools and College Buildings.
April --Residences and Apartment Buildings
May Office Buildings
June -Preservation of Historic Buildings
July -Hospitals and Medical Buildings
August Public Buildings
September Commercial Buildings
October Pre-Convention Issue
a. Hotels and Restaurants
November Convention Issue
a. Industrial Buildings
December Religious Buildings
FLORIDA'S ONLY OFFICIAL FAA JOURNAL . .
Owned, read and used by Architects
the florida architect
3730 S. W. 8th Street
Coral Gables 34