Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00120
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: June 1964
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00120
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text

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State of Florida

Architectural Scholarship

and Research Foundation

President, Florida Association of Architects

In this issue of The Florida Archi-
tect dedicated to the needs of educa-
tion and educational environment, it
is compellingly appropriate that we
also direct our attention and concern
to the special needs of those young
people aspiring to our profession.
Whenever I have talked with fellow
Architects there has always been a
keen awareness of the profession's re-
sponsibility for its educational process.
We have concerned ourselves with
career guidance for young people. We
have frequently engaged in seminars
and practicing professionals are regu-
larly utilized as guest lecturers at our
Universities. We have for many years
provided scholarship loans and grants.
The current year has seen the toil
and effort of many years past bear
fruit with the dream of appropriate
and more adequate facilities for the
University of Florida College of Archi-
tecture and Fine Arts becoming
rapidly a reality.
Yet, if we examine closely the pres-
sing needs of students of Architecture
and the opportunities to be available
to these students when they enter the
profession, we must conclude that we
are not meeting our responsibilities
to the full extent of our ability.
On a sunny Sunday afternoon in
April, I attended Commencement cer-
emonies at the University of Florida.
It was an impressive, colorful and al-
together inspiring spectacle as some
3,100 students assembled to have con-
ferred upon them the various degrees
so richly earned. I wondered at the
time what the total number might
be graduating this year from all our
State's great universities and ponder-
ed, too, what their numbers may be
five years and ten years from now
with a keen awareness of our State's
JUNE, 1964

mammoth new university expansion
Among the 3,100 that day there
also stood fourteen black robed
figures, each to receive his BS in
The month previous it had been
my special privilege to join in the
good company of AIA Regional Direc-
tor Bob Levison and Dean Bannister
and his faculty, for the purpose of
honoring these students on behalf of
the University and our profession.
Such days have a particular quality
of emotion which stirs memories and
envokes a kindred spirit and a com-
passion for the young graduates. We
can almost share their struggles, their
successes, their failures, their high
sense of achievement at this moment
and we can recall, as they can not
anticipate, the struggles and successes
and failures and sense of achievement
yet to come, as each in his own way
must find his place.
Such occasions are good and mem-
orable. They arouse emotions and ex-
I pressions of great depth and sincere
meaning which we want to label
"trite" as a mask to conceal the true
depth of our uncomfortable emotions.
From these same depths spring our
passion for life, beauty and order,
replete with a determination to en-
hence the competence and polish to
brilliance those minds engaged in the
creation of our human environment.
Thirty-one Hundred graduates at a
single University in a single year sig-
nifies at the very least a growing
dynamic Florida.
These fourteen architectural grad-
uates represent more than two hun-
dred aspiring freshmen, who began
courses in Agriculture five years ago.
They are also the sum total of archi-

tectural graduates for the year in all
of Florida's great universities. Even
though Miami's now accredited Col-
lege of Architecture will soon add to
the trickle, these facts must be con-
sidered as acutely significant.
In addition to the fourteen, there
was one masters degree conferred, and
this too has meaning which must not
be lost to us.
Our exploding urban society is
deeply engaged in the business of
simply not producing sufficient num-
bers of Architecturally trained minds
with ever increasing skills to meet
the demand of our times.
In such a society, the special abili-
ties of the professional Architect to
translate physical and emotional hu-
man requirements into satisfying en-
vironmental designs is quite obvious.
There is a future need for Architec-
turally trained minds, however, which
is more obscure, but no less vital.
Special capabilities, attainable only
through Architectural education, will
find profitable employment in offices
of finance, building and government
when such abilities are made avail-
able. The field of home building is
especially fertile to those with desire
and talent. Public office can be a
uniquely rewarding outlet of enor-
mous value in these particular times.
Architects can find increasing employ-
ment of their talents and abilities in
research, product development and
It is our implicit responsibility to
intensify our efforts toward career
guidance in our primary and secon-
dary school systems, for to achieve
an appreciative and responsible society
(Continued on Page 38)

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Florida Architect

74-a 7 Iasce ---

Message From the President . . . . . . . .
By Roy M. Pooley, Jr., A.I.A.
The Philosophy and Programs of Florida's Community Junior Colleges
By Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
Considerations In Selecting and Planning the Community
Junior College Site . . . . . . .
By Dr. C. W. McGuffey
Site Planning and Development A Case Study
of Miami-Dade Junior College . . . . . . .
By Andrew J. Ferendino, A.I.A.
Educational Planning for Community Junior College Facilities . .
By Dr. Lee G. Henderson and Dr. H. L. Cramer
Facilities Plan for A Changing Junior College Program -
A Case Study of Edison Junior College . . . . .
By Dr. Charles Rollins, C. William Brubaker, A.I.A., and
William R. Frizzell, A.I.A.
Selecting the Air-Conditioning System f r Junior Colleges . . .
By Newton C. Ebaugh
The Effect of Architectural Barriers on the Handicapped School Child
By Fred H. Albee, Jr., M. D.
A Totally Accessible Educational Facility . . . . . .
By Betty Orsini
News and Notes . . . . . . . .
Heating Handbook FAA Board To Meet Changes
Advertisers' Index . . . . . . .

Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President, 809 Bert Rd., Jacksonville
William T. Arnett, First V.-Pres., University of Florida, Gainesville
Richard B. Rogers, Second V.-President, 511 No. Mills Street, Orlando
C. Robert Abele, Third V.-President, 550 Brickell Avenue, Miami
H. Leslie Walker, Secretary, 620 Twiggs St., Tampa
James Deen, Treasurer, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
BROWARD COUNTY: Thor Amlie, Robert G. Jahelka; DAYTONA BEACH:
David A. Leete; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Richard E. Jessen, Frank E. McLane,
William J. Webber; FLORIDA GULF COAST: Frank F. Smith, Jr., Sidney R.
Wilkinson; FLORIDA NORTH: Thomas Larrick, James T. Lendrum; FLORIDA
Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: John 0. Grimshaw, Herbert R. Savage, Earl
M. Starnes; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, C. A. Ellingham, Walter B.
Schultz; MID-FLORIDA: Fred G. Owles, Jr., Joseph N. Williams; PALM
BEACH: C. Ellis Duncan, Kenneth Jacobson, Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region American Institute of Architects
Robert H. Levison, 425 South Garden Avenue, Clearwater, Florida
Executive Director, Florida Association of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables, Florida
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA, Chairman; Wm. T. Arnett, Fred W. Bucky, Jr.,
B. W. Hartman Jr., Dana B. Johannes.
Shows the Administration Building of the Gulf Coast Junior College, Panama
City, Florida, for which B. W. Hartman, Jr., A.I.A., is the architect. The
columns are poured concrete; the second floor and roof structure is pre-
stressed concrete and the spandrel panels between columns are precast con-
crete with cold-glazed cement-enamel finish. Building end walls are non load-
bearing brick.

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Inisitute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida
Corporation not for profit. It is published
monthly at the Executive Office of the Asso-
ciation, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
34, Florida; telephone, 448-7454.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year; April Roster Issue,
$2.00 ... Printed by McMurray Printers.

Business Manager




. 1

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. 13

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S 19




S. 38


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Fire safety
comes first
-economy's a bonus
in Florida schools

Fire protection should certainly be one of the most
important considerations when building a new
school. Concrete provides this protection-and at
exceptionally low cost. Concrete can't burn. It
stays solid and safe ... never wears out.
Concrete helps keep classrooms quiet, too. It
reduces sound entry into rooms-decreases the
need for sound-proofing within rooms. And
concrete is one of today's most attractive building
materials. New design and construction methods
provide,interesting surface textures and colors,
new shapes and styles for walls and roofs.
Concrete saves on upkeep expense. There is no
need for painting. It is easy to see why concrete
with its long life, low cost and upkeep is the first
choice of so many communities for their newest
schools of every size.

1612 E. Colonial Dr., Orlando, Florida 32803
An organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete

The Philosophy and Programs of

Florida's Community Junior Colleges
Director, Division of Community Junior Colleges
Florida State Department of Education

When Joe Brown, Margie Stringer,
and Pete Norton completed high
school, they did not know what op-
portunity might lie ahead for them.
Joe's family could not provide the
$1,500 he needed to go to the state
university. In fact, his father actually
was opposed to "college educated"
men, anyway. "Get a good trade," he
said, "and stick with that." On the
other hand, Margie's problem was dif-
ferent. Her father wanted her to go to
college and would have borrowed to
pay for it if necessary. Margie's high
school grades, however, were none too
good, and her problem was one of
admission. Pete Norton's problem was
a different one entirely. He wanted
to study law, but he had no money
and very little opportunity to save
enough to go away to school. The
death of his father during his junior
year in high school had created a fa-
mily financial problem, and college
seemed out of the question. Fortun-
ately for these three young people, a
community junior college had been
established in their home county, and
this institution offered them a "tailor
made" opportunity to continue their
education an opportunity which
otherwise would not have been avail-
able, not only to these three young
people, but to many of their class-
Florida's community junior colleges
have developed as a result of concern
over the educational opportunity that
might be available to the young people
of this state. These institutions have
been able to provide a great deal of
additional opportunity because of the
fact that this concern has been consci-
ously included as a major part of their
purposes. The community junior col-
lege in actuality represents a new ap-
proach to post high school education
-new because it is adapted to the
needs of the twentieth century rather
than to the eighteenth.
The basic purpose of a junior col-
lege is to provide for a diversity of
educational opportunities beyond the
high school, and it is designed to pro-
vide for the Joe Browns and Pete Nor-
JUNE, 1964

tons the opportunity to continue their
education at the lowest possible cost.
They will not be able to live at home
and carry part-time jobs while attend-
ing classes. They will, thereby, be ob-
taining a college education at the
lowest possible cost to themselves, to
their families, and also to the state
Margie Stringer will find in the
community junior college an oppor-
tunity to take courses which are ap-
propriate for her abilities and interests.
These courses will enable her to be-
come a young business woman, a secre-
tary, a clerk in a store, or, equally im-
portant, a well-educated young house-
wife who will have the responsibility
to raise a family within the community
in which she is living.
While Pete Norton's problem is
similar to Joe Brown's, he will find
that he will be in a position to ob-
tain the first two years of his law de-
gree at the local community junior
college, and then be able to obtain
helpful scholarships and loans to go
on beyond that point. He will find
that the junior college is interested in
his welfare to such an extent that it
will help him obtain funds not only
for these first two years, but also for
the years beyond the junior college.
In addition to giving help to these
three young people, a community
junior college will also be in a position
to provide services for many other
youths and adults in the community.
Quite often youth who have dropped
out of high school find in later years
that the education they missed is im-
portant, not only to their vocational
well-being, but also to their personal
well-being. Junior colleges have offered
courses to adults in the community
on as simple a level as aiding them to
complete high school; on as compli-
cated a level as helping them improve
their on-the-job skills; or, on as per-
sonal a level as providing them coun-
seling and guidance services through
a testing program, supplementing
whatever other agencies in the com-
munity may provide in this regard.
The community junior colleges can

provide an intelligent approach to pro-
viding for these educational needs
which have been created many years
When Norman Carroll was sent by
his company to look over several po-
tential sites for their new electronics
plant, he checked with the local edu-
cational authorities first of all. Nor-
man knew that there were three spe-
cific needs his company would have:
1) that they have a good geographical
location for their industry based on
logistics and other factors which are
peculiar to the industry he repre-
sented; 2)that they have a source of
trained personnel because this new in-
dustry could not operate without skill-
ed personnel; and, 3) that there be
some educational institution nearby
which could encourage their em-
ployees to further their education.
Norman found that the only appropri-
ate sites which met these conditions
were those which were at some dis-
tance from state universities and the
kind of educational opportunity which
were needed by the top-level staff in
his company. He did find, however,
several potential sites located near
junior colleges in the state, and eventu-
ally he recommended that one of
these be selected.
An added bonus, he found out later,
however, was the fact that the junior
college also acted as a focal point for
all educational activities in the com-
munity. He found out specifically that
the junior college could arrange with
the Florida Institute for Continuing
University Studies to establish classes
at the graduate level in related en-
gineering subjects in that community.
He found also that in-service programs
of a non-college credit nature were
available for those employees below
the top level who worked in the in-
dustry and who needed additional edu-
cational opportunity. The plans that
his company worked out with the
junior college for pre-service education
at the technician level also provided a
ready source of skilled personnel.
These were three specific services made
(Continued on Page 8)

(Continued from Page 7)
available to Mr. Carroll's company
through the community junior college.
Through the above example we have
described another specific function of
the community junior college-that of
providing educational opportunity for
many people which would not be avail-
able through other sources. This phil-
osophy has been active not only in the
actual operation of the community
junior colleges of Florida, but also has
been expressed in the law. The law
specifically charges community junior
colleges in Florida with providing
three specific categories of educational
opportunity: First, community junior
colleges are expected to provide the
educational opportunity normally car-
ried on in the freshman and sopho-
more years of the university. In this
respect, Florida's junior colleges are
currently providing educational op-
portunity for more than 60 per cent
of Florida's freshmen. Within a few
years, this figure will climb until al-
most 90 per cent of Florida's freshmen
will be attending a junior college prior
to attending any other kind of educa-
tional institution. Educational oppor-
tunity at the freshman and sophomore
level has been made available within
commuting distance to more than two-
thirds of Florida's high school seniors
and soon will be available to almost
all high school seniors in the state.
This fact has placed Florida in the po-
sition of making education beyond the
high school far more readily available
than is true of almost any other state,
except perhaps California.
Secondly, the law provides that
junior colleges shall offer vocational-
technical education. While this is
often referred to as occupational edu-
cation because of the diversity of oc-
cupations, the variety of offerings in
this area is almost unlimited. Each
junior college seeks in terms of its own
local situation to provide the kinds of
educational opportunities which will
provide for individuals who will begin
their work upon completion of junior
college graduation. This kind of edu-
cation has increased very rapidly over
the past few years. As a matter of
fact, total enrollment during the Fall
of 1963 represented a 60 per cent in-
crease in numbers of students enrolled
in these courses over the Fall of 1962.
The variety of programs include
such examples as fashion design at

Miami-Dade Junior College, engineer-
ing aide at St. Petersburg Junior Col-
lege, civil engineering technology at
Central Florida Junior College, and
industrial technology at Pensacola
Junior College. They include pro-
grams in the health related services
such as the associate degree nursing
program (RN), and the dental hy-
gienist program. Also included are
programs in police science, a wide va-
riety of business related programs, in-
cluding hotel and restaurant manage-
ment and data processing as well as
programs in drafting and design and
related areas. The greatest challenge
may include many occupations as yet
unknown. In order to serve the com-
munities in Florida, and in order to
serve a great majority of students who
will be attending junior colleges, these
types of occupationally oriented pro-
grams will in the future constitute an
even greater portion of the junior col-
lege offerings.
The third function specified in the
law is simply labeled courses for
adults. In this area community junior
colleges offer many opportunities for
continued education to the adult
population. The welfare of the State
of Florida as well as that of the in-
dividuals who live in the state is great-
ly dependent upon the availability of
worthwhile work for our citizens.
When people lose opportunities to
make a living through action resulting
from automation or from other matters
over which they have no personal con-
trol, it is more important that oppor-
tunity for re-education be made avail-
able to them. This sometimes involves
merely personal improvement; at other
times it also involves learning new
skills. It is a responsibility of the
junior college to provide this oppor-
tunity, or to arrange that it be pro-
vided through another agency. The
many other facets of continuing edu-
cation constitute the variety of course
offerings in this area.
All of these point up the strong re-
sponsibility the junior college has to
provide guidance and counseling ser-
vices, services which will enable all
people to determine their potentials,
their aptitudes, their interests, and
their level of attainment. It is for this
reason that the community junior col-
lege places heavy emphasis upon the
development of a sound testing and
guidance and counseling program.
As a result of these purposes, the
junior college must represent in its

physical appearance, in its physical
usefulness, in its placement within the
community, the kinds of programs
which have been outlined above.
There must be opportunities for people
to enter the junior college during day-
light and evening hours for the pur-
poses of personal counseling, for pur-
poses of attending classes, and for the
purposes of attending cultural and
other educationally related activities.
The approach must be an inviting one;
the services must be valuable.
Factors of operation such as the
7:00 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. schedule, the
wide range of age groups attending
classes on the campus, the need to
develop "collegiate spirit" among the
young people attending and at the
same time not discourage older ones
from participating in the college ac-
tivities, these all require careful atten-
tion to campus planning. The need
for a high degree of cooperation with
other educational agencies in a com-
munity, the need in some of our less
populated areas for the community
junior college to become the focal
point for many activities including
mental health centers, library centers,
vocational skills centers, counseling
and guidance centers, science centers
for surrounding high schools, and a
myriad of other educational tasks
which can be assumed by this institu-
tion, also affects the kind of construc-
tion and campus development needed
for a community junior college. The
special need for flexibility of structure
to enable the offerings to evolve to
meet the changing needs of the com-
munities served is a most important
In no other educational institution
is there more opportunity for sound
planning procedures which reflect the
philosophy of an institution than in
the community junior colleges of






November 11-14

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guaranteed against struc-
tural defects for the life of
the installation.
Along with luxury, G-P Gold
Crest paneling features
built-in economy. G-P's
Acryglas Patron-Proof fin-
ish protects the wood so
maintenance is no longer
a problem.

TESTED Georgia Pacific's
new exclusive Acryglas
Patron-Proof finish meets
rigorous government tests
for institutional furniture

Factory-finished channel groove type-Grooves shall be 1/2" wide at 16"
o.c. cut to approximately the depth of the lace veneers.

4' 4' 4' 4'
7' 8' 9' 10'
/4" No. Plies 3

Face Veneers-Selected paneling grades book matched for color and bal-
anced grain figures.
Core-Solid tropical hardwoods or equal


Adhesive Bond-Urea-Formaldehyde, interior and lamination will be ac-
complished by hot-press method.
Edge-Left side will be square finished so as to butt against the right side
of the adjoining panel (at channel groove). This provides for a balanced
appearance when installed.
Finish-Acryglas Patron Proof Finish
Selling Price per 4' x 8' panel'
Walnut $29.95"
Distressed Heirloom Cherry 28.75'
Golden Elm 26.95'
Pecan . 26.95"
Based on 8' panels-S' or 10' panels lightly higher



Miami, 77 N.W. 72nd St.
Phone 758-7616

Orlando, 2721 Regent St.
Phone 293-5781

Jacksonville, 1333 Haines Street
Phone 356-4833

Tampa, 3701 East Columbus Drive
Phone 626-6107

Form No. PP44-1/64


onsdea ons in Selecteing and P(annCuin...

The Community Junior College Site

Assistant Director, School Plant Administration
Florida State Department of Education

Selecting the junior college site and
planning its development are among
the most important steps involved in
the process of acquiring and owning
the junior college plant. The site
should be conceived as an integral part
of the total educational plant, and
therefore, decisions regarding its selec-
tion and development should be based
on criteria fulfilling the educational
goals and functions of the institution
it is to support. The site chosen will
influence the character of the insti-
tution, its operating policies and its
ultimate organization. Both the selec-
tion and the planning of the site can
enhance the extent to which the in-
stitution can be of service to the com-
munity. Similarly, a well selected and
adequately planned site can enhance
greatly the task of meeting the com-
munities needs for recreation, cultural
activities and similar services. These
considerations, as well as the efforts of
the site upon the ultimate architectu-
ral plan, point to the importance of
acquiring the best site available.

Several important factors should be
studied and decisions made regarding
them before a specific site is selected.
Among the most important of these
are: (a) the boundaries and area to be
served by the junior college should be
determined, (b) the potential number
of students should be estimated, (c)
land use patterns of the geographical
area involved should be broadly de-
fined, (d) the potential number of
junior college centers required to serve
the area should be projected, and (e)
the general land area in which a spe-
cific site is to be located should be de-
termined. Careful appraisal of these
factors and studied decisions regard-
ing them should help to assure that
desirable results will be obtained and
that prudent use will be made of
public funds.
The approach in making the selec-
tion of the specific site on which the
institution's facilities are to be located
JUNE, 1964

should involve methods and criteria
that have withstood the test of experi-
ence. Several of the more pertinent
criteria that have been used as guide-
lines in selecting a specific piece of
land for a junior college site are dis-
cussed in the following paragraphs.

Site Location
If it is accepted that the junior col-
lege should be an inseparable part of
the community, the physical relation-
ship of the site to the community
should reflect this premise: A site
reached by streets leading through
slums, crowded industrial sites or sur-
rounded by third rate commercial
property must be discouraged. Instead
the site should be located to provide
convenient access for fulltime and
'round-the-clock use by the community
and so that use can be made of recrea-
tional, cultural and other service fa-
cilities of the college. Relationship to
business, industry and government is
important and necessary to the extent
that opportunities for mutual and re-
ciprocal experiences are provided.
However, this does not necessarily
contemplate that the community col-
lege should be next door neighbors to
a slaughter house or a foundry. Except
in rare instances, campuses should be
located in residential areas with ample
zoning restrictions in the surrounding
area to protect them from odorous,
noisy, unsightly and otherwise unde-
sirable neighbors.
The main campus should be located
near the projected future population
center of the area it is to serve. If
long range population projections indi-
cate the need for several branch centers
in addition to the main campus, the
functions of the main center should
be considered in determining its lo-
cation. The main campus may provide
specialized services to the entire stu-
dent body and, therefore, should be
located conveniently to serve it.
The additional branch centers es-
tablished to serve population segments
not conveniently accessible to the
main center should be located for

convenient access to the students it
will service. Sites for these centers
should be chosen only after thorough
study shows a large enough potential
to justify their existence.
Natural and man-made barriers to
population expansion such as county
or district lines, large non-developable
land tracts, large bodies of water and
industrial developments provide guide-
lines to the direction of probable fu-
ture population expansion. It is im-
portant to know these limitations so
that the site can be chosen to be con-
venient to the areas of potential
A thorough study of existing and
proposed future highways, streets and
roads is needed to provide the most
advantageous choice of sites to best
serve the district. Because the junior
college serves a student body that rides
and walks, the availability of public
transportation and direct and conveni-
ent vehicular access to the college over
fast moving arterial thoroughfares
seems essential, particularly in metro-
politan area. This is a most important
factor in determining both the travel
time and the convenience to students
in reaching the college campus for
Size of Sites
How much land is needed for a
junior college? Any answer to this
question may be unrealistic unless it
is related to and given in light of the
program of services to be provided by
the college. The question was asked
of a well known architect as to why he
felt one hundred acres was enough
land for a junior college he had plan-
ned. The answer was, We tried eighty
once before and that wasn't enough.
The point is that a fixed or "rule of
thumb" formula if followed may
either place limitations on the institu-
tions program or assign entirely too
much for the needs of the program in
a given area. Although such formulas
may be used as guides, the best esti-
mate of need should be based on an
analysis of the institutions projected
(Continued on Page 24)



A4 W'

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Case Study of Mami-Vade un aeo ellege...

In order to appreciate the challenge
which confronted the site planners
for the Miami-Dade Junior College
campus some knowledge of the phen-
omenal growth of the college is neces-
sary as well as an understanding of the
physical characteristics and limitations
presented by the site.
Metropolitan Dade County is the
largest of 67 counties in the state and
also the most populated, having a
permanent population in excess of
one million people. The urbanized
area follows a long narrow belt along
the coastal range and, with the excep-
tion of a few well defined areas of in-
tensive use, is characterized by a vast
sprawl of low density residential de-
velopments. Lacking any form of mass
transit facilities except a downtown
oriented bus system the principal
mode of travel is by private auto-
mobile. This fact alone exerted a
strong influence on the functional ar-
rangement of the campus.
The college began operation in
September of 1960, sharing facilities
of the new Miami Central High
School. The architectural firm of
Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and
Skeels was retained to design a com-
plete campus intended to accommo-
date 3,500 students on land adjacent
to Central High.
By November 1961 much of the
work on the campus plan had been
accomplished, and the working draw-
ings were complete for the initial ad-
ministration, classroom and library
building. Bids were about to be taken
when the Federal Government made
available to Dade County a far more
ample site that had as an added in-
ducement a number of heretofore ob-
solete buildings, which could be reno-
vated and made acceptable for tempor-
ary use.
The new site was a 230 acre tract
on Masters Field, an abandoned naval
air station which had been built dur-
ing World War II. The barracks and
the cafeteria, hurriedly painted and
cleaned, allowed the college to enroll
an astounding 8,346 students in Sep-
tember 1963. Already Miami-Dade
JUNE, 1964

was the largest of Florida's 28 junior
colleges, and urgently in need of fa-
It was possible, with certain modifi-
cations, to adapt the plans for the ad-
ministration building to the new site.
The work that had been accomplished
on the earlier development plan was
lost, however, as the physical charac-
teristics and geographical features of
the new campus were entirely differ-
ent. New design criteria were intro-
duced including a much larger student
body, the land having been granted on
the stipulation that 10,000 people
would be served. The campus is lo-
cated in the north central part of the
urbanized area of Dade County. It is
bounded on the east by a major four
lane arterial highway-27th Avenue-
and on the north by a proposed east-
west expressway. A former north-south
runway forms the west boundary, and
the Little River Canal flows along the
During construction of the admini-
stration building, and before the total
development program had been au-
thorized, two major projects were
undertaken which firmly established
several important elements of the
campus. The remodeling of a large
double hangar provided an arena-gym-
nasium to seat 7,000 people and an
open air stadium for football was lo-
cated on the south one-quarter of the
property. Both of these facilities were
needed by the high schools of the
county, and it was thought that ex-
posure of the high school students to
the college would be beneficial. Fif-
teen acres of land were purchased to
complete the north-west corner of the
new 230 acre tract.
The site, when acquired, was and
still is to a large extent open and sun-
baked, lacking defined space or gra-
ciousness of any kind. Even the natu-
ral volunteer growths of the region
have been prevented from growing by
vast areas of runway pavement. Left-
over military buildings, charmless ex-
pedients in their best days, were in
dreary condition until restored by the
Board of Public Instruction. Winds


Sight Planning


blow fine powdery sand across the
fields and heavy rains create awkward
areas of standing water. As primitive
as these facts sound, it should be
borne in mind that the military build-
ings allowed the college to claim a
campus when the opportunity arose,
and the great diagonal runways pro-
vided temporary paved parking areas.
Twenty-seventh Avenue, an already
overburdened street, provides the prin-
cipal means of access at present and
will always be the formal entrance to
the campus. The necessity for provid-
ing alternate points of ingress and
egress was recognized early in the plan-
ning stage, and the proposed east-west
expressway on the north seemed to
offer the ideal solution. Efforts in this
direction proved to be only partially
successful, however, as this section of
the expressway is but a small part of a
total network designed to serve the en-
tire metropolitan area. The needs of
the college were necessarily subordin-
ate to the primary function of the
system as a whole. Because the east-
west expressway must be connected by
a full directional interchange with a
proposed north-south facility just west
of the property it was impossible, with-
out spending an unwarranted amount
of money, to provide the campus with
direct on and off ramps in each direc-
tion. The best that could be achieved
was a direct connection for traffic
entering from the west, and a direct
connection through a signalized inter-
section for traffic leaving in an east-
bound direction. Traffic following a
reverse pattern must unfortunately ne-
gotiate a circuitous route involving at
least one left turn against opposing
traffic. Nevertheless, the expressway,
when a reality, will do much to relieve
the congestion on 27th Avenue.
The diameter of the inner area is
limited by the time a student needs to
go from one place to another. The
routes of pedestrian movement are
either defined or enforced, or follow
the shortest routes which students will
naturally take. The planners were
aware that students will congregate
(Continued on Page 32)

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1-slope geometric dome,
2-ft. diameter

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Educational Planning


Community Junior College Facilities

Assistant Director, Division of Community Junior Colleges
Florida State Department of Education
Consultant, Plant Planning
Florida State Department of Education

Florida has received nation-wide
recognition as a leader in planning for
junior colleges-planning for a state-
wide system of community junior col-
leges, planning for new programs of
instruction, and planning for campus
development and buildings.
There is some evidence, however,
that educational planning for physical
facilities has not kept pace with other
phases of the over-all planning. Edu-
cational planning has been defined as
the process by which those in posi-
tions of educational leadership as-
semble facts and resources pertinent
to the accomplishment of the mission
or goal of the institution. Accurate
and detailed educational planning is
an essential prerequisite to excellence
in architectural planning.
Although educational planning is
primarily the responsibility of the edu-
cational leader, in practice it must be
a cooperative effort of educators and
architects. Architectural design can be
no better than the educational plan-
ning on which it is predicated; and
incomplete, inaccurate or poorly con-
ceived educational planning limits the
effectiveness of the architect. If the
educator fails to assume his responsi-
bilities for educational planning, he in
effect abnegates to the architect the
making of educational decisions.

Community Junior Colleges in
Community junior colleges in Flori-
da are institutions of higher learning
operated as a part of the local public
school system. Although junior col-
leges are locally controlled, they are
also partners with the university sys-
tem in the state's system of higher
Junior colleges constitute a part of
an over-all state plan which will pro-
vide post-high school education for all
JUNE, 1964

citizens of Florida, and are operated
within a framework of law and State
Board of Education regulations which
implement the laws. The State Board
of Education has evidenced a continu-
ing concern with the quality as well as
the quantity and kinds of facilities
planned and constructed for junior
colleges. In recent years there has
been an increasing interest in the edu-
cational aspects of planning, and the
State Board of Education through its
regulations has attempted to foster
and encourage improved educational
planning of all junior college build-
Educational planning in a junior
college involves the following five ma-
jor steps:
1. Determination of the educational
goals, educational philosophy, and
programs of the junior college.
Goals, philosophy and programs
are derived from state law, from
state board regulations, from poli-
cy decisions of the local school
board, and from the college
through its statements of philoso-
phy and its development of pro-
grams designed to serve the stated
purposes of the college.
2. The calculation of teaching sta-
tion and other space require-
ments. This step includes the
projections of future enrollments,
the projections of future pro-
grams, the determination of
teaching station and other spaces
needed to meet these programs,
the inventory of existing space,
and the determination of addi-
tional spaces needed.
3. The determination of the quanti-
tative and qualitative aspects of
each room or space determined
to be needed.
4. The preparation of written edu-
cational specifications.

5. A review of the architectural
plans in light of educational spe-
cifications and the modification
of these plans to the extent neces-
Reference to each of these steps in
the educational planning process is
contained in the regulations of the
State Board of Education, specifically
Sections 130-8.42, 130-8.43, and 130-
8.44, as well as in the provisions of
Chapter 130-2 which relate to school
buildings generally. These legal refer-
ences to the educational planning of
junior college facilities in Florida re-
sult in the production of two docu-
ments which are useful to the architect
in developing plans for any specific
facility-the building survey report
and the educational specifications.
Building Survey
A building survey is required to be
made under the supervision of the
State Department of Education to es-
tablish the need for the junior college
facilities. The survey report includes
a statement of the purposes and pro-
grams of the junior college as de-
veloped by the faculty, a projection of
enrollments for a period of from seven
to ten years, a section on campus and
site planning, an inventory of existing
facilities, and a determination of the
additional facilities needed and recom-
mended. This survey report contains
steps one and two of the above men-
tioned planning sequences, and con-
tains step three in outline form.
Normally the survey report is largely
developed by the college staff. After
the college staff has completed its
study and recommendations, a survey
team composed of State Department
of Education, junior college, and uni-
versity personnel comes to the college
to review the work of the college staff
(Continued on Page 33)


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4A eace Study of Ed eon ecnioa eoeege ,

Facilities Plan For

President, Edison Junior College

A Changing

Junior College Program

As architects and school people are
well aware, the planning of the phy-
sical facilities to house programs of
higher education is becoming more
and more complex. Greater problems
in obtaining sufficient acreage, diffi-
culties in obtaining sufficient funds,
the increasing diversity of class offer-
ings, new developments in instruc-
tional aids, questions of class size and
faculty utilization, and the whole
area of student and faculty parking
have created a need for rethinking
many of our traditional concepts re-
garding the college campus.
The planning for a community
junior college must be considered
even more complex because of the
diversity of programs which must be
taken into consideration, because of
the desire to maintain a close student-
teacher relationship (since they are
for the most part commuter col-
leges), and because of the close rela-
tionship to its community. The plan-

ning for Florida community junior
colleges is further complicated by the
fact that building money is available
from the state legislature at two year
intervals. Thus the task involved is
one which must be approached with
a real respect for all of the difficulties
involved. In addition, the responsi-
ble board is the local Board of Public
Instruction which may not have a
great deal of experience with the cur-
riculum, philosophy, and building
needs of a community junior college.
However, all of the challenges in-
volved in building a community jun-
ior college in Florida also provide
great opportunities, since the school
boards and the state Department of
Education tend to give the adminis-
trator and architect a greater degree
of freedom in their planning.
Edison Junior College began its
existence on March 4, 1962, when
the president and a borrowed secre-
tary began in a borrowed office.

Within a month the Lee County
Board of Public Instruction hired the
Fort Myers architectural firm of
McBryde and Frizzell to do the plan-
ning for the new campus, an eighty
acre site donated by a local group of
land developers. The members of this
firm feeling their lack of experience in
junior college planning, recommend-
ed to the Board that the Chicago
firm of Perkins and Will be hired as
associates to aid in the campus plan-
ning. The Board hired the firm and
Mr. C. William Brubaker was the
architect designated to work with
Edison Junior College. A series of
meetings took place to develop an
understanding about the philosophy
of the community junior colleges in
general and Edison Junior College in
particular, the character desired in
the structures, the size of the site,
and the unique climatological aspects
of southwest Florida.
(Continued on Page 34)

McBRYDE & FRIZZELL, Associate Architects


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JUNE, 1964


F* ''CI
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Complete 1964 catalogue avail-

able from Blumcraft of Pittsburgh,

460 Melwood St., Pittsburgh 13, Pa.

*Trademark 1964 Blumcraft of Pittsburgh

Selecting The Air Conditioning System

For Junior Colleges

President, Ebaugh & Goethe, Inc.
Consulting Engineers
Gainesville, Florida

It is the duty of the Mechanical
Engineer to work with the Architect,
and to assist him in selecting the very
best type of air conditioning system
for the junior college, both from the
standpoint of initial construction cost
and maintenance and operating
energy costs.
The Engineer can best assist the
Architect by working with him in
three stages as follows:
1. Preliminary planning
2. Design of construction plans
and specifications
3. Supervision and inspection
Building Types
Types of junior college buildings
to be air conditioned vary widely.
Florida building designs are influ-
enced by climatic conditions and the
necessity for providing for large fu-
ture growth rates.
The great need of the junior col-
lege is for teaching space, including
classrooms, laboratories, large lecture
rooms and auditoriums, cafeterias,
and multiple purpose rooms such as
combined auditorium-gymnasiums.
Some of the earlier designs of jun-
ior colleges used the open or finger
design which was desirable prior to
the advent of air conditioned schools.
These designs usually had relatively
large glass areas in an attempt to ob-
tain maximum natural illumination
and ventilation.
These designs resulted in glare con-
trol problems and difficulty in dark-
ening the room for audio-visual edu-
cation programs. Large operable win-
dow sections were provided to
achieve natural ventilation which re-
sulted in excessive maintenance cost
due to failures of the operating mech-
anisms. Janitorial costs with such de-
signs were also quite high.
Some of the more recent buildings
are on the compact plan with little
or no glass and utilize interior corri-
dors. It has been shown that this
compact plan can be built with the
JUNE, 1964

same square footage cost with air
conditioning as can the more cen-
vcntional type without air condition-
School administrators list some of
the following advantages for the air
conditioned building with fixed glass
or with little or no glass on outside
1. Student circulation is much
easier and efficient as the dis-
tances are about one-third
those normally encountered,
with the campus plan of sep-
arate buildings and long out-
side corridors.
2. Students do not get wet from
driving rains when changing
classes between periods.
3. Wall space is freed up for
more display, books, equip-
ment, etc.
4. Library acquisitions last longer
with less trouble from fungus,
silverfish, roaches, etc.
5. Library, cafeteria, auditorium
and other areas are more acces-
6. Lighting is fully under the con-
trol of the teacher without
such things as drapes, venetian
blinds, etc., for audio-visual
7. The whole school and its
equipment stays cleaner by the
exclusion of outside dirt blow-
ing through conventional win-
dows and this reduces the
maintenance costs.
8. Screening is unnecessary.
9. Less distraction is encountered
by the students from outside.
10. The site area required for the
campus may be greatly re-
duced. This reduces the cost
of all outside facilities.
Initial Construction Costs
Air conditioning started in the jun-
ior colleges by first conditioning the
auditorium, cafeteria, and large as-
sembly rooms where it becomes a

must for proper environment. The
next step was to air condition the
library and classrooms. This type of
development usually resulted in
equipment rooms being placed in
individual buildings with a source of
heat distributed to a boiler room by
natural gas or oil. Necessary refrigera-
tion machinery was then added to
these equipment rooms as funds be-
came available for fooling the build-
ings. This machinery could take the
form of so-called package goods,
single or multiple duct systems, or
unit ventilators in each of the spaces.
The latter is limited generally pri-
marily to smaller spaces such as class-
rooms because of capacity limits. The
single duct system is best suited for
large single spaces such as audi-
toriums, cafeterias, etc., and the mul-
tiple duct or muti-zone systems, lend
themselves best for a large number of
smaller spaces to be conditioned.
Package Equipment
Package equipment has the follow-
ing characteristics:
1. Lowest initial cost
2. Lowest life expectancy
3. High operating cost
4. Because of its minimum design
there is a limited provision to
introduce large quantities of
fresh air
5. Poor humidity control
6. High noise level
7. High maintenance expense
Duct Systems
Single duct systems overcome most
of the limitations of the package
equipment, but art basically only well
suited for large single areas.
The multiple duct or multizone
system with a single large air hand-
ling unit with individual ducts to
each air conditioned space has the
following characteristics:
1. Reasonable initial cost.
2. Long life expectancy.
3. Low operating cost.
4. Ability to handle any required
(Continued on Page 36)

now belong


Today, Electric Air Conditioning
is essential to
comfortable Florida living,
working, and doing business.

"An Inexpensive Luxury"
Wallace ArnolJ il Ronnil\. FloriJd -3N-- "'Oor- .ar r'.undr
eleP'trai air conLdajlvlnin ha- been a great -. t SIif [lai ,inler and
summer . the rnm.nlhl) cLi i les- than %e exp\,eied I h,' a."

"A Primary Consideration"
J. R Smilli I. R Smith iConsl rui:tiin I.o Inc I Tampa. a\:
'Pro.perlii.e h..me buyers like the idea ol 'ear.r.und :linalte
contr.,l lor ci,.Il comfort in .uiirner and clean. Harneles-- armlh
in "inter It's a primary cnonsideration and an penenla3l feature
lfor suee~Aisul sale. nl ,ur Medallion.awarded hnme.."

new riggly wiggly supermarKei, ranama ul1y
Jimnir e Hiii t-, it nianllla r, hnd- "lecrlii \ear-round air conr
lini, n I hile pierfl'. anj t'er io pr..-blemi i. conling in -umnmer -.
*arriin. in inlter. >nme the -ampn .e on ducts handle bol
healiri, andi coolint functl.n&., it .idVe valuable space. he sav

"Electric Air Conditioning...a Necessity"
;,.ine\ C:len. builder-dleelopc r or f oier 3,b60) honres and
c..mmunltie, in the St. Peler-.urg area. 'a-.:;" rar.round electr
air iondilionlrin unit,, tor ,umnmer and ,inter cnml'.,rt a
;n talled in orer 90' of our home- in Le.lee Park. Sher
Heiphi.. Merna Park an.i in all .ur Medalhlin conperati,
3partmenit at Clearnlew Oak-. It's a nec'es-n\L in Florida


Year-round electric air conditioning, whether
provided by a central system or by compact
room units, serves a dual function. In summer
it cools, dehumidifies and filters the air; in
winter it provides clean, flameless, pleasant
warmth. A central installation operates with the
same set of ducts, both for cooling and warming.

All-season electric air conditioning contributes
greatly to the flexibility of house design. No
provision is necessary for cross-ventilation

Florida's Electric Companies

MI 6;

purposes. Flues and vents are not required.

The wisdom of choosing flameless electric air
conditioning is being demonstrated in homes,
apartments and commercial projects all over
Florida. Comprehensive and impartial engineer-
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We invite you to ask us for factual information
about its many advantages. There's no obligation.

Taxpaying, Investor-Owned

rederic's Steak House, .
Vest Palm Beach
'CustonePr comfort is of para- I
nount importance," sads F.
LI.a "'. r.-. i.- -.i s a n

Tampa's New
High-Rise Apartment
eac'i of the 87 aparltmenl. has
individually cnntrolled electric
vear-round air conditioning fnr
summer rtoling and winter
-armrh at the turn of a dial.

I I ~

JUNE, 1964


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Miami-Dade Junior College:
Conference Room

Pancoast & Ferendino

Grafton & Skeels

Interior Designer
Vern Currie, A.I.D., I.D.I
Richard Plumer Business
Interiors, Inc.

Broward Junior College
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

William G. Crawford, A.I.A.

Center . .Ma:n entrance
to Campus and Administration

Lower . Science Building

:." ,

Photo by Black Decker

Photos by Plummers Studios

~c~rirUlt ~~unua;

Site Selection . .
(Continued from Page 11)
program of educational services and
its projected ultimate enrollment.
Needs for space, such as for buildings,
parking, service drives, gardens, walks,
landscaping, and recreational and out-
door activities, must be carefully
analyzed if adequate site area is to be
It has become generally accepted
in Florida that a newly established
junior college should have a site of
not less than forty acres and when
the enrollment potential exceeds
five hundred students, the minimum
should be forty acres plus two acres
for each one hundred students
in the total projected enrollment.
However, this formula is used to es-
tablish minimums and it must be re-
emphasized that an analysis of the
needs of each institution is the best
way to determine site size require-
The availability of large tracts of
land may be limited, and acreage in
residential areas may be costly. At-
tempts to find a site large enough in
a suitable location may prove difficult.

Consequently, a choice may have to
be made among several sites, none of
which may completely satisfy the size
and location criteria. In such cases,
choices should not be made until all
factors are carefully weighed and the
probable effects on the junior college
program and the students are con-
Physical Characteristics
Shape, topography and soil condi-
tions are important factors to be con-
sidered in the selection of a site.
While actual shape and topography
cannot be determined by generaliza-
tions, some guidelines may be helpful
in the absence of more detailed analy-
sis of requirements.
Usually a site with dimensions in a
5:3 ratio provides the best land use
planning and with good topography,
may provide the most efficient land
utilization. Certainly, a long, narrow
or irregularly shaped site makes utiliza-
tion difficult and limits planning pos-
The topography of the land will
also affect land utilization as well as
campus layout. Excellent opportuni-
ties are provided by rolling, wooded
terrain to develop interesting and at-

tractive campus layouts. On the other
hand, ravines, gulleys, ponds and low
areas may cause excessive expenditures
to develop and loss of land to the in-
stitution. On the more level, gently
rolling site, land utilization is more
efficient, building location is less af-
fected and overall layout is less com-
plex to plan.
Drainage, both surface and sub-
surface, is an important consideration.
Too often, this factor has been either
forgotten or ignored. Drainage charac-
teristics of both the site and the im-
mediate vicinity should be carefully
studied so as to avoid problems that
may develop after building construc-
tion has taken place.
Soil characteristics should show fa-
vorable conditions for footings and
foundations and, where necessary, for
on-site sewage disposal systems. Soils
should support plant growth adequate-
ly in order that landscape planning
may provide for trees and nursery
plantings, and so that natural beauty
spots may be developed to enhance
the potential beauty of the site.
Availability of Utilities
Sites should be chosen which have
(Continued on Page 30)

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,4 atco-Part 7ieatice On: Atchitectwratl caries aned Ed ecatue ...

The Effect of Architectural Barriers

on the

Handicapped School Child

Medical Advisor, Architectural Barriers Sub-Committee

The emotional and academic penal-
ty imposed on the temporarily physi-
cally handicapped child in our schools
today is a subject worthy of considera-
The ultimate goal of education is to
prepare a child for adulthood-to as-
sure him of his rightful place in his
home and his community and sup-
posedly to help him become economi-
cally self supporting. Society has made
this possible through the public school
The orderly progression of the child
through the prescribed program of
education under the public school
system is many times interrupted be-
cause the child becomes physically
handicapped for a period of time fol-
lowing an injury or illness. This period
may last from one to ten weeks, at
times long enough to result in the loss
of an entire school semester. When
this occurs, emotional and scholastic
problems result which effect the child
in varying degrees of severity. The
more serious consequences seem to
take place when this unfortunate ex-
perience happens to a child who was
already doing poorly scholastically at
the time of the onset of the temporary
disability. Social adaptation for the
growing child is a problem of sufficient
impact, without the added frustration
of being cut off from friends who were
former classmates; coupled with the
humiliation of having to repeat a
grade. The additional problem, added
to already existing problems, may so
overburden the child as to create a
very devastating and far reaching ef-
fect, both emotionally and academi-
cally, on his entire life.
Why, then, is the temporarily physi-
cally handicapped child prevented
from continuing his education with
continuity, even when his condition
is not sufficiently acute to confine
him to his home? The answer is

the schools.
First, let us consider steps. Archi-
tecture of the past predominately em-
ployed steps to enter a building and
to gain access to the various floors.
For the non-handicapped, these are
not barriers except in the rare cases
of extremely emotionally insecure
children or accident prone children to
whom these steps actually become
"fear barriers." But, for the youngster
who must manipulate crutches due to
a physical incapacity, these are severe
and imposing barriers. To add to the
problem, is the overcrowded condi-
tions present in the schools today, and
the exuberance of youth who rushes
from place to place. Naturally, parents
aware of the problem consider it too
hazardous for the child to attempt to
attend school under these circum-
stances. And hazardous it is indeed!
It is true that the handicapped stu-
dent is given a chance to leave the
class early to try to avoid the rush but
this is not usually sufficient to over-
come the problem and the dangers
still exist.
Let us then consider a second archi-
tectural barrier-the heavy door. Arm
casts and crutches make it exceedingly
difficult and at time impossible for
a handicapped individual to maneuver
a weighty door.
Also, there is the matter of desk
design. Usually the desks are of a
type at which a person with a lower
extremity disability cannot sit with
comfort and concentrate on his studies.
Complicating the matter still further
for the student in a leg cast are the
narrow aisles between the desks and
the proximity of the desks to each
Breaking down the barriers in our
schools will make it possible for the
permanently disabled students to join
in the activities of their non-handi-
capped brethren engendering greater
(Continued on Page 28)

ALAN R. LOGAN, Chairman
Architectural Barriers Sub-Committee

Last year ('63) we had the
opportunity to introduce many of
you to both the problem and solu-
tion of Architectural Barriers. This
year we are concentrating upon
Barriers and Education and we find
a very strong relationship between
the accessibility of a state's schools
and its financial and moral health.
Human beings are a state's
greatest resources and, to be rich,
a state must develop its resources
to their fullest potential. An ex-
ceptional mind in a less than per-
fect body can be, and frequently
is, denied development strictly be-
cause of physical site factors (Ar-
chitectural Barriers). The tempo-
rarily impaired are slowed in their
progress and the permanently im-
paired are sometimes completely
arrested. If the "good mind" in
the damaged body" is allowed
higher education and specialized
training it emerges as a superior
productive and creative person
who will be an asset to all. If the
same mind is denied self-better-
ment and its resultant self-respect
we have, on our hands, a "vege-
table" unable to successfully com-
pete with his fellow man and
therefore dependent upon others
and upon the financial resources of
the state and community.
There is both a monetary and a
moral obligation to eliminate all
Architectural Barriers in the fu-
ture and the ARCHITECT plays a
major role.

JUNE, 1964

(Continued from Page 27)
human understanding in both groups.
It will also make it possible for the
more severely disabled students to at-
tend regular classes instead of special
education units, thereby decreasing
their tendency to remain dependent
on society throughout their lives and
thus rob them of many of their abili-
ties. A barrierless building not only
provides equal opportunity of access
and use to the impaired and non-im-
paired but it presents a safer, more
convenient and more attractive facility
for all.
Obviously progressive in this regard
is the New York State Department of
Education which has provided sets of
plans for the school boards to use in
planning schools free of architectural
barriers. New Jersey, also progressive,
has revised its "Guide for Schoolhouse
Planning" to eliminate architectural

I urge the residents of the State of
Florida to work toward totally acces-
sible public schools, built according to
ASA standards. Let us assume our
responsibility in this matter and not
neglect this problem, thereby compli-

eating the lives of our young who are
already facing a complex world; but,
rather, in this age of progress, let our
schools appear on the horizon of great
architectural achievement as a "monu-
ment to youth."

THE PROBLEM . She is barred-others endangered

Educational Editor
St. Petersburg Times

A Totally Accessible

Educational Facility

You won't be able to detect it
from casual observation but St. Peters-
burg Junior College's new Clearwater
Campus will be different from most
college campuses and public buildings
being built across the country these
It will be totally accessible-not
only to the hail and hardy of the stu-
dent body, but also to the student with
a heart condition . the student
weakened from a muscular disease ..
the student temporarily handicapped
by a cast on a broken leg . the
arthritic student . the student with
a visual handicap.
In short, no student able to qualify
(academically) to study on the Upper
Pinellas County campus of St. Peters-
burg Junior College will be denied his
chance at higher education simply be-
cause of physical inability to negotiate
the buildings and campus.
For, by pre-arrangement and care-
fully thought out design (design that
complies with the A.S.A. Standards
for making buildings and facilities

totally accessible), the SPJC Clear-
water Center will be completely free
of "Architectural Barriers."
The Clearwater college center thus
is joining an impressive handful of
pioneering Pinellas County (and Flor-
ida) facilities whose planners are help-
ing to establish a sort of precedent for
the nation by simply taking the time
and effort to assure that public build-
ings shall indeed be "public" and ac-
cessible to all.
Already agreements have been
reached so that, in St. Petersburg
alone, the city's big new Bayfront
Center arena-auditorium, the new Pub-
lic Library, the campus of Florida
Presbyterian College and many other
facilities will be free of architectural
barriers which would otherwise bar a
high percentage of the citizenry at one
time or another from using them.
These decisions have come about
through the efforts of the Sub-Com-
mittee on Architectural Barriers of the
Florida Governor's Committee on Em-
ployment of the Handicapped.

Arms of the highly organized Sub-
Committee in communities through-
out the State currently are conducting
a promotional and educational cam-
paign to encourage municipal officials,
planners, architects and builders to
alter plans on public buildings and fa-
cilities now being planned and/or con-
structed to assure that, when com-
pleted, they will not bar, or endanger,
the permanently or temporarily or
momentarily impaired from full use of
public facilities.
In the case of the SPJC center,
architect K. Whitney Dalzell, Jr.,
A.I.A., reports all the buildings will
be accessible via gently sloped ramps
rather than steps and the multi-story
buildings will be provided with special
elevators for which the impaired will
be issued keys, doors will be wide and
easy-open and ample room will be pro-
vided throughout for the wheelchair-
SPJC President Dr. Michael M.
Bennett, SPJC Vice-President Ken-
(Continued on Page 35)


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Ti~n 11

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JUNE, 1964

; .....- .- -; * _ r -* s ^ff ". _


Site Selection ...
(Continued from Page 24)
available either public or privately
owned utilities, such as sewage dis-
posal, water, electrical service and so
on. The provision of these services on
site may prove to be excessively costly
over the long term. Usually, the most
economical and efficient procedure is
to locate where such services are al-
ready available or can easily be ex-
tended to the site.
Other Considerations
Other considerations will include
the desirability of having available
needed property protection services,
afforded by municipal or county fire
and police departments. The availa-
bility of fire protection services may
reduce property insurance costs, as
well as provide the needed fire pro-
tection. Police protection may help to
discourage vandalism and prevent un-
necessary but costly damage to college
property. Traffic control on streets
near and adjacent to the site can en-
hance the safety of students and others
as well as expedite traffic movement.
The early acquisition of needed
acreage for either new campuses or to
expand an existing one is another im-
portant consideration. Obviously, a
tract of developed land with buildings
on it will cost more than undeveloped
acreage. From the standpoint of
economy and of having land available
when and where it is needed, acquisi-
tion of acreage in advance of need is
a sound principle.
Florida's program for the expansion
of its junior colleges has required the
preparation of a campus development
plan. From this point of view, the
campus development plan has been
conceived as a diagrammatic layout
showing: (a) functional relationship,
(b) land utilization, (c) arrangements
for traffic flow, both pedestrian and
vehicular, (d) the placement of build-
ings in relation to open spaces and
each other, and (e) landscaping.
The campus plan has been con-
ceived further as the product of an
on-going process providing direction
toward the goal of fulfilling the pur-
poses and needs of post high school
education, which is yet undefined and
continually changing in both its role
and the scope of the educational ser-
vices it provides for the community it

Purpose of the Plan
The purpose of the campus develop-
ment plan is to project in graphic
form the long range need for site,
buildings and other physical facilities
required to serve the purposes and
programs of a particular institution.
Properly conceived, the campus plan
will project an orderly pattern for
growth and will make possible needed
expansion and adaptations which are
inevitable if changing educational re-
quirements arc to be met.
Some of the benefits of a well con-
ceived plan are as follows:
1. Provides a logical and orderly pat-
tern for growth and expansion.
2. Makes change and expansion of fa-
cilities possible without impairing
on-going programs of the institu-
3. Permits long range development in
progressive stages without imped-
ing the attainment of basic educa-
tional objectives.
4. Allows the construction of facili-
ties that will meet program needs
at any given phase of development.
5. Makes possible the development
of the campus as needs occur and
as financing is made available.
6. Overcomes limitations imposed by

short-sightedness in making pro-
vision for unknown future needs
and functions not envisioned in the
early planning for junior college
Basic Educational Considerations
Before the planner begins his work,
he must have available information re-
garding the factors that will control
the preparation of the campus plan.
First, information must be available
on the current and projected needs of
the junior college program of educa-
tional services. The staff and faculty
of the institution should have avail-
able an educational plan that projects
the role of the college and the scope
of its offerings. Programs of studies
and course offerings should be identi-
fied and projected as far into the fu-
ture as possible. The projection of the
educational plan should provide in-
formation to include current and pro-
jected needs of the total program,
number and types of spaces required
for performing its educational services,
projected ultimate enrollment, sug-
gested needs for construction by
stages to fulfill priorities for needed
programs, finances available both
present and future, and desirable
(Continued on Next Page)

Pressure- Treated



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grouping of functions and facilities for
stage by stage development.
Functional Aspects
In addition to the basic educational
considerations, there are a number of
functional aspects that should be con-
sidered. These considerations will in-
clude answers to such questions as,
where should the library be placed and
what is the best location for the stu-
dent center? The following general
statements of principles regarding
functional requirements is restated:1
1. The campus should be zoned into
noise and quiet areas to avoid un-
necessary interference of a noisy
activity with a more quiet one.
2. Buildings requiring service or ac-
cess by the public should be group-
ed and made easily accessible from
drives and parking areas.
3. The library, considered the center
of student activity, should be given
a place of prominence in the over-
all scheme and made readily acces-
sible from primary pedestrian
traffic arteries.
4. The student center should be lo-
cated for easy student access. Need-
ed service should be provided
through short, direct service drives.
5. The administration building should
provide easy public access and
visual prominence from the public
approach to the site.
6. Community service buildings and
recreation facilities should have
direct public access from adequate
parking areas.
7. Pools, playing fields, and other
athletic areas should be reasonably
close to and have direct access to
shower and locker facilities.
8. Buildings housing mechanical
plants for heating and air condi-
tioning should be located so as to
provide the shortest utility lines to
the building units it serves, and at
the same time be readily accessible
to vehicular service.
9. Custodian's living quarters, if lo-
cated on the campus, should pro-
vide good surveillance of the site.
10. Utility lines should be planned for
easy expansion. Electric service
should be underground if possible.
Traffic Patterns and Flow
The junior college campus must be
planned with a concern first and fore-
most for its occupants, the students.
Its students move about the campus in
an unpredictable pattern. This pattern
changes from semester to semester and
JUNE, 1964

cannot be predicted in detail, although
heavy concentrations of pedestrian
movement can be identified, particu-
larly if building functions and uses are
known. A principle of long standing
is that the heart of the campus should
be planned exclusively for pedestrians.
Students will drive cars and ride
buses to the campus. Parking areas
and access drives should be provided
to handle the traffic and parking prob-
lem created by student vehicular traf-
fice to the site. The campus will be
much safer, and more convenient for
student use if vehicular traffic is con-
fined to the periphery of the site. This
means that access drives and parking
areas should not be developed in the
interior of the campus but be kept on
the periphery.
A further consideration is the neces-
sity to provide service to those build-
ings that require it. Service vehicles
should have convenient access to most
buildings, although it must be remem-
bered that the campus is planned for
students, not service. However, build-
ings can be serviced without interfer-
ence to instructional activities and to
student traffic if buildings are proper-
ly located. Service drives provided
should be direct to buildings requiring
it and routed so as to avoid pedestrian
Planning For Change
The dynamic nature of Florida's
junior college program requires a type
of planning which will enable the
orderly expansion and development of
the physical facilities required to serve
it. Basic considerations involved are
that change in education is inevitable
and it appears that student enroll-
ments will continue to grow for the
forceeable future. The past has
demonstrated in a forceful way that
change will come and that the direc-
tion of that change is unpredictable.
Therefore, provision must be made
for facilities changes, not to do so will
prove disastrous. Further, the physi-
cal facilities changes must be possible
without undue interference with oper-
ating programs of the college involved.
Continuous Appraisal and Evaluation
Many factors pertinent to the use
of the junior college are still unknown.
The unpredictable nature of enroll-
ments and curricular offerings make
specific identification of future needs
conjectural. Developing programs in
technical education are yet undefined.

Because of such limitations imposed
on planners concerned with the prep-
aration of the campus plan, both the
planner and the college administrator
should give continuous study and ap-
praisal to site development needs.
Needed modifications should be made
to the plan as the findings indicate
the need for updating.
To recount the mistakes of the past
is simply to give emphasis to the need
for careful, capable and prudent, long
range planning. The problems of site
selection and campus development
planning control the outcomes of long
range planning for the junior college
more than most other planning activi-
ties. Therefore, one can only conclude
that for long range planning to be
successful in fulfilling the requirements
for the future of the junior college
program, careful site selection and
capable, visionary campus planning
are essential.

1The Florida Department of Educa-
tion, Master-Planning Florida's Com-
munity Junior Colleges; Tallahassee,



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Site Planning...
(Continued from Page 13)
where pedestrian routes cross and that,
if "Eddy" areas are not provided, stu-
dents will create their own. In defer-
ence to a sub-tropical climate, given
to sudden downpours, walks are pro-
vided with cover wherever possible and
cars or buses are provided protected
loading areas. The building groups
afford a feeling of relative safety and
tranquility and a conscious sense of
being within or without which is the
essence of any kind of sanctuary.
The administration and classroom
building is the three-story paternal
element of a family of five buildings
to be grouped around the architectural
lake. The academic buildings will be
insulated from the heavy traffic and
marginal commercialism of 27th Ave-
nue by large parking areas and a bo-
tanical garden flanking the main en-
trance. The botanical garden presents
an attractive front yard to the public
and provides a pleasant transition from
the chaotic conditions of 27th Avenue.
It also serves a utilitarian function as
a valuable teaching aid. The area to
the west of the site, owned by the
F.E.C. Railroad, is being developed
as an industrial park. A large athletic
field will provide a buffer between the
central building group and any objec-
tional features that may develop in
this area. The athletic field is but a
short distance from the health center
which houses the shower and locker
facilities and equipment storage. Here
exists the only condition on the cam-
pus where it was not possible to
achieve a complete separation of ve-
hicular and pedestrian traffic. Stu-
dents communicating between these
two facilities must cross the inner
perimeter road. Should a problem de-
velop at this point it can be handled
by a manually operated traffic light or,
if serious enough, by the construction
of a pedestrian overpass. It is not
anticipated, however, that either of
these devices will be necessary.
The sense of being within or with-
out is further strengthened by the
intentional exclusion of athletic ac-
tivities from the central cove. The
Health Center, which occupies a
former hangar, is oriented on a slight
diagonal to the basic grid pattern of
the other buildings, and is linked to
the athletic field by a deliberate ex-
tension of its grounds. Together they

form a separate and distinct functional
element of the campus.
A multi-purpose square or "prado"
provides a definite, though subtle,
transition between the active and pas-
sive phases of campus life. Thus, the
academic environment the atmos-
phere of learning so essential to the
primary function of the central cove
remains undisturbed while the over-
all unity of the campus is preserved.
Any development plan that attempts
to project long range objectivities and
goals must be capable of orderly exe-
cution and, if realistic, tailored to fit
the financial resources that can be
expected in the future. This is a
relatively simple task where the
growth potential bears some reason-
able relationship to the financial abili-
ty to provide additional facilities.
Faced with a situation where the stu-
dent body, through the utilization of
inadequate facilities, had almost over-
night grown to within a small fraction
of the intended maximum, the prob-
lem confronting the planners of the
Miami-Dade Junior College was not
so simple. Since construction of the
new could only be accomplished at
the expense of removing the old, the
development plan had to be carefully

coordinated with the gradual elimina-
tion or conversion of the obsolete
military structures and improvements.
The development program was di-
vided into four general phases. Phase
I depicts progress as of this writing
and includes such permanent features
as the administration and classroom
building with a small parking lot ad-
jacent to it, the health center and
open air stadium. Much of the ac-
tivity is still relegated to the old
buildings, and the immense runways
are used for circulation and parking.
Visually the campus still resembles
an abandoned naval air station.
During Phase II the library, or
more descriptively the learning re-
sources center, has been added, and
several sizeable parking areas have re-
placed portions of the former runways.
Some temporary parking is still in use
around the health center and the sta-
dium. The campus is beginning to
take on a different appearance; the
botanical garden and prado are taking
form, trees define the perimeter road
and athletic field, and the landscape
center has been established.
Phase III sees the completion of
the science and technology building,
(Continued on Next Page)

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the replacement of more runway park-
ing with permanent facilities, leaving
only the large areas in the far corners
to be developed. The group of small
military buildings north-east of the
administration building have been re-
placed by a visitor and faculty parking
lot. The botanical garden is complete
and the plantings around the prado
are beginning to mature. At this
point the functional elements of the
campus are clearly defined. Only
small vestiges of the former use remain
and a new identity has been estab-
Phase IV is represented by the mas-
ter plan as it may exist from time to
time. Such a plan can never be com-
plete or absolute in the usual sense,
but must always be responsive to
technological changes and advances in
educational procedures. The hard-won
unity of the campus could be easily
damaged by the introduction of spaces
or structures not in sensitive relation
to the first efforts; other aesthetic and
practical thoughts will be necessary,
but should be expressed in the same
We have learned from other Florida
college facilities that Miami Dade
Junior College should have a total
architecture sober enough to con-
tribute to its educational process, in
necessary contrast to a resort image,
with pleasure but not austerity.

Educational Facilities...
(Continued from Page 15)
and, in effect, to serve as educational
consultants for development of a pro-
gram of action for the construction of
junior college facilities. It is important
to note that, in addition to its im-
portant role in the educational plan-
ning process, the survey report is also
an official document; and the statutes
require that facilities to be constructed
at a junior college must be recom-
mended by a survey and approved by
the State Board of Education.
In the great majority of Florida
junior colleges, rapid increases in en-
rollment have become an accepted
way of life. This face re-emphasizes
the need for long-range planning of
programs, of facilities and of sites. It
also dictates that immediate stages of
construction be consistent with the
long-range plan, and that facilities con-
structed include adequate provision
for later expansion and adaptation.
JUNE, 1964

Junior college construction funds
are appropriated by the Legislature
each two years and, although certain
funds become available at other times,
most junior college building programs
in Florida are developed upon a bien-
nial basis. Following the survey and
the determination of funds available
for the biennium, decisions must be
made by the college administration as
to the most urgently needed facilities
and those which will be included in
the construction program for the next
biennium. When this determination
is made, the educator and the archi-
tect together determine the groupings
of facilities within buildings as well as
the size and number of buildings to
be constructed.
Educational Specifications
Educational specifications contain a
description of the instructional pro-
gram including the activities which
are performed; the number of persons
involved and how they are grouped;
the furniture, equipment and instruc-
tional materials which are used and
stored; and other factors concerning
functions which help to determine the
size, shape and relationships of spaces.
Previous phases of the planning
process have established in general
terms the facilities needed. Now it is
necessary to develop a more detailed
description which will be the basis for
campus development and for the plan-
ning of specific buildings.
Purposes of Written Educational
The purpose of written educational
specifications stated generally and
briefly is to provide an instrument of
communications from the educator to
the architect of the educational pro-
gram which the new school plant is
to serve. This information concerning
the program is absolutely necessary.
It is quite apparent that the architect
must have these instructions if he is
expected to design facilities which
meet the needs of the instructional
The concept of writing the program
in a clear and organized fashion can
serve numerous purposes. The need
to write educational specifications
promotes clarification of thinking and
decision making. Many questions in
education are multi-sided with no
clear answer agreed upon by a ma-
jority of the educators. The staff may
talk endlessly about the alternatives,

leaving the decision to the architect
and perhaps an administrator. The
need to write the decision or alterna-
tives will provide a strong motive for
facing the realities of arriving at de-
The educational specifications pro-
vide a written record. This can serve
as a reminder to everyone concerned
of the exact instructions which were
provided. It also can be a useful aid
in orienting new staff members to
the facility whether they occupy it
when it is new or within a few years.
The time spent now on writing edu-
cational specifications can save time
later. The hours of conferences neces-
sary to dig out the facts concerning
the uses of the building may be re-
duced and the time of the architect
better applied to the work of solving
the problems which are presented by
the educator.
In theory, the preparation of writ-
ten educational plans for each facility
should promote economy which is
based, in this case, on improved utili-
zation. This may be expected because
the building will be designed to house
the program and permit it to function
efficiently. It is apparent that a build-
ing which hampers the operation of
the educational program can be costly
to the future of the youth who are in
attendance at the school and to the
society in which they live.
The writing of educational specifi-
cations serve certain educational pur-
poses which may be of limited im-
portance to architecture but are neces-
sary to insure that the facilities are
designed for an up-to-date program.
The need to write the educational
program may require the defining of
that program more specifically than
was previously done. In instances
where curriculum development has
been lagging, the planning for facili-
ties may stimulate activity by provid-
ing the impetus necessary to initiate a
reviewal of needs of the learner. These
re-evaluated needs should be the basis
for the aims and objectives of educa-
tion upon which the instructional pro-
gram of a particular school is founded.
The program which is described in the
educational specifications and the im-
plications it has for facilities provide
the most important guidance to archi-
tectural planning. The amount of
time necessary to prepare educational
specifications will vary considerably
according to the sophistication of cur-
(Continued on Next Page)

Educational Facilities...
(Continued from Page 33)
riculum development in a particular
Responsibility for Planning
Good planning requires teamwork,
but the responsibility for direction at
certain stages should be established.
The educator is responsible for supply-
ing leadership and initiative in the
educational specifications stage. At
this point the decisions are regarding
education and should be made by edu-
cators. The architect should be in-
volved in this stage so that he may
supply advice and may gain knowledge
and insight into his problem of de-
sign. He is a consultant and should
leave the making of decisions on edu-
cational matters to those who must
operate the school.
The educator in turn should respect
the realm of operation of the archi-
tect. The educational specifications
should permit freedom of design in
all ways possible and should refrain
from supplying restrictive instructions
where they serve no educational pur-
pose. In college planning, the line is
truly fine which demarcates the areas
of educational and of architectural
concern. The educator should refrain
from making drawings or layouts other
than those which show no more than
the relationship of various spaces, and
from specifying structural system or
design. These will be dictated in part
by the educational needs but the solu-
tion of the problems are architectural
During the architectural planning
phase the educator should assume the
role of advisor and reactor. He should
review the proposed architectural solu-
tions and react to how well they suc-
ceed in solving the educational prob-
lems. If the budget proves inadequate,
the educator should have an oppor-
tunity to determine the priorities
which are the basis for deleting or re-
ducing particular facilities in instances
where the changes will affect the edu-
cational program.
Educational planning of junior col-
lege facilities is reduced to written
form in two documents-the building
survey report and the educational spe-
The survey report includes descrip-
tions of purposes and programs, en-
rollment projections, inventory of ex-

isting programs, additional facilities
recommended and suggestions for long
range planning and campus develop-
ment. The survey report is an official
document, and, by law, the building
program proposed for the junior col-
lege must conform with the survey
The written educational specifica-
tions serve the primary purpose of pro-
viding communications between the
architect and his client. They are
necessary because the information is
too detailed and complicated to be
left to oral transmission. The need to
write educational specifications may
promote decision-making, provides a
written record, may reduce the total
planning time, may promote economy,
and may stimulate interest in curricu-
lum planning.
The educator should accept the re-
sponsibility for making educational de-
cisions during the time of preparing
educational specifications and should
serve as advisor and reactor during the
architectural planning phase. The
architect should observe and make
commentary during the educational
planning period and should be given
freedom to design during the architec-
tural planning period.
Planning for a junior college plant
is a cooperative venture requiring
teamwork between the educator and
architect which should be based upon
mutual respect and understanding.

A Changing Program...
(Continued from Page 17)
The importance of these prelimi-
nary discussions cannot be overempha-
sized, for if the architect is to clothe
the philosophy and ideals of an in-
stitution in steel and concrete, he
must have a clear understanding of
the philosophical bone structure of
that institution. Because the philoso-
phy of the community junior college
differs from that of the rest of higher
education in many respects, it is im-
perative that the architect be afford-
ed the opportunity to absorb this
philosophy by meeting with those
responsible for its implementation:
the faculty and the administration.
As a result of the discussions of the
general community junior college phi-
losophy and the specific goals and
ideals of Edison Junior College, it
was determined to try to establish a
pattern of design which would create
in student, faculty member, and com-

munity observer alike, the realization
that this was a unique institution,
differing from the secondary school
and the university. It was felt that the
structure in which much of the edu-
cational process takes place does a
great deal to establish an attitude for
students, faculty, and community.
We were looking for a design which
would impress the viewer that this
was not a glorified secondary school
or a semi-university, not a sprawling,
finger-type building but a compact,
flexible building tailored to southwest
Florida's subtropical climate and
rainy season. The buildings were to
be compact, two story, and close to-
gether so that advantage could be
taken of air conditioning, which is a
necessity for year round operation.
We asked that the buildings not be
scattered about at some distance from
one another because of the problems
this would create when going from
building to building in the hot sum-
mer sun or the precipitation of the
rainy season. An operable sash was
also recommended because of the fre-
quent periods when neither heat nor
cooling of the air would be necessary.
Because of the rapid growth in stu-
dent population experienced by com-
munity junior colleges in Florida and
because it was thought unwise to set
up a rigid pattern of curricular
growth, it was decided to make the
campus an experiment in organic de-
sign, which would introduce the con-
cept of continual adjustment. The
community junior college in Florida
experiences continuous growth in size
and curriculum so that an organic
plan had to be developed to provide
growth from opportunity to oppor-
tunity in a series of adaptations.
The faculty and administration of
Edison Junior College prepared esti-
mates of the growth in population in
the junior college district from which
a series of student projections was
devised. A facilities survey team from
the State Department of Education
conferred with the E.J.C. staff, con-
curred in these estimates, and made
recommendations for space and facili-
ties in terms of state regulations and
previous experience. They were care-
ful to leave their recommendations
flexible so that the local institution
could be given freedom to make deci-
sions in terms of local needs and
The architects and the administra-
(Continued on Page 35)

A Changing Program...
(Continued from Page 34)
tive staff then began to block these
spaces in terms of faculty recommen-
dations as to the most efficient kinds
of learning areas. As a result of this
cooperative thinking and planning,
a long range campus development
plan was evolved and a plan for im-
mediate action for the coming year
was devised.
Thus, Phase I of the building pro-
gram at Edison Junior College will
include two 2-floor units linked by a
second floor bridge. One unit will be
committed to science facilities on the
first floor, but the second floor will
be entirely flexible uncommitted
space in the future it will serve the
science program, but during the early
years it will house temporarily the
library and materials center, some
classrooms, and the faculty offices.
The other unit will house the student
center on the first floor (which will
also house the administration and
counseling facilities), and the second
floor will be flexible "uncommitted"
space for classrooms and, temporarily,
bookstore, business education, etc.
As the enrollment increases and
the college program develops and
diversifies in keeping with the needs
of the community, the uncommitted
space will allow organic change to
occur within existing units, and addi-
tional units will be constructed as
needs suggest at this future date.
Phase II at Edison Junior College
will probably mean the construction
of the library and materials center,
including administration and faculty
offices, which will eventually become
the heart of the campus. This build-
ing too would have uncommitted
space to provide the flexibility that a
continually growing and changing
educational program must have. Fu-
ture units will grow beyond the li-
brary unit, making it the central ele-
ment. Thus the campus development
plan now only suggests what cur-
rently seems to be a logical pattern
for future growth the actual size,
shape, location, and function of fu-
ture units can vary to satisfy needs
without adversely affecting the spirit
and character of the campus.
We hope that in our planning we
have typified the dynamic, well-
planned growth of the community
junior college in the state of Florida.
JUNE, 1964

Totally Accessible...
(Continued from Page 28)
neth Skaggs (of the Clearwater Cen-
ter) and architect Dalzell won ap-
proval, by the Pinellas County School
Board, for their plans to make the
campus "totally accessible."
The junior college's pre-planning to
weed out the "barriers" before the
construction was even "off the draw-
ing boards" could well spell the dif-
ference of whether a student makes of
himself a highly educated, well train-
ed and successful citizen or is relegated
to a life of dependence upon the
community and the tax roles.
Frequently an impaired student will
enroll in the "average" school regard-
less of the physical barriers that exist
-as long as officials will allow it-and
will then take his chances every class
change waiting at the foot of stairs
for some help to lift, or assist him, up
a flight of stairs. Often, though, the
student will forego his academic fu-
ture rather than face the indignity, in-
convenience and danger involved in
this daily procedure.
In a college or public school build-
ing planned ahead of time with ALL
students in mind, the simple addition

of one small and relatively inexpensive
elevator per building (the same ele-
vator proves priceless for moving and
installing heavy equipment and sup-
plies) can put all classrooms within
the reach of all students.
Similarly, the planning-ahead with
an eye to total accessibility can elimi-
nate needless step-ups where an entry-
way can just as well be flush (this
eliminates an accident hazard to all)
. . can substitute a gently sloping
ramp where a steep flight of stairs
might otherwise have been . can
provide wider corridors and doorways.
The expense is minimal yet the
changes reap heavy benefits.
They make possible scenes like the
one observed at St. Petersburg Junior
College the other afternoon as a
quadriplegic student, without the use
of arms or legs but with an excellent
mind, sat in a college teacher's second-
floor office dictating the answers to
his final exam. In a school less alert
to "barriers" and their restrictions that
can cut off a goodly part of the citi-
zenry from opportunity, such a student
probably could not ever have gotten
into the building, much less be sitting
for a final exam.

Interior design complements architectural
design in the photograph below of the Presi-
dent's office at Miami-Dade Junior College.
Pancoast Ferendino Grafton Skeels & Burnham, Architects

II ~'~ Ih~'l

Photographed by BLACK-BAKER



155 N.E. 40th STREET, MIAMI, FLORIDA PLaza 1-9775

Air Conditioning ...
(Continued from Page 19)
amount of fresh air.
5. Good humidity control.
6. Low noise level.
7. Low maintenance expense and
all equipment is outside of the
occupied areas except the room
8. Ability to heat some spaces and
cool others simultaneously when
this is required.
There are many variations of the
duct systems but the above are usually
best suited to Florida conditions and
for buildings not of the high rise
Unit Ventilators
Unit ventilators or individual room
air conditioning units for each space
to be air conditioned offer the best
in automatic control, but have higher
maintenance cost than the multi-zone
systems. For best results a so-called
4-pipe system is required. Two pipes
are used for conveying hot water into
the unit and two pipes are required
for conveying chilled water. This sys-
tem will allow some units to be in the
cooling cycle while others may be on

the heating cycle, a condition which
is necessary in North Florida in some
types of buildings. This system re-
quires a central water chilling and
central heating plant, and if the
building is not of the compact design,
the underground piping and water
chilling and heating equipment usual-
ly makes this system more expensive
than the others.
Unit ventilators are similar to indi-
vidual remote room conditioners ex-
cept that provision is made to intro-
duce 100% fresh air when desirable.
This feature permits the use of a two
pipe system through which hot water
is circulated during heating cycle and
chilled water is circulated during cool-
ing cycle. Cooling is accomplished, if
necessary, by introduction of 100%
outside air even though hot water is
being circulated through the piping
system. The two pipe unit ventilator
system is economical and performs
well except that temperature control
during cycle change-over is sometimes
lost. Also it may be necessary to zone
the piping system.
Large Central Systems
If it is known that the projected
growth of the junior college is to in-

elude several thousand students with-
in a reasonable number of years then
a central refrigeration system for chill-
ing water for all buildings on the
campus offers the most economical
system for the expected life of the
campus. A typical example of this
type of system is the one used at the
new University of South Florida in
Tampa. The projected rate of growth
was so large for this campus that de-
tail studies were made comparing all
of the major systems for providing
the necessary heating and air condi-
tioning services. The studies indi-
cated that a central power plant with
heating and water chilling equipment
and a four-pipe underground system
would be by far the best for the long
run. Figure 1 shows the costs required
for the central system vs. having heat-
ing and cooling systems in each indi-
vidual building. It will be noticed
that for the first two years the central
system was more expensive, due prin-
cipally to the fact that the under-
ground piping system has to be plan-
ned for a number of years in advance,
and is larger than required for the
first two years. After two years, it
(Continued on Next Page)

Figure 1. An Example of the Cost Comparison a Large
Central Heating and Cooling System versus
Equipment in Each Building University of
South Florida, Tampa.

Figure 2. Estimated Annual Cost for Fuel and Electricit
for a Large Central System with various Type
of Equipment University of South Florid;



1' ~ t jA'


2~ 1.



r c
:' 3


shows substantial savings and, of
course, from then on. The type of
equipment to use in a central system
is delineated by Figure 2. This Figure
shows that in this particular case the
minimum owning and operating cost
is afforded by providing a steam tur-
bine driven refrigeration machine
which exhausts to absorption refrig-
eration equipment, thus using the
steam twice. This system is capable of
using the lowest cost fuels, which at
present are No. 6 heavy fuel oil or
natural gas on an interruptible con-
tract basis.

It should be obvious that the Engi-
neer should study each individual
building design to assist the Architect
in the planning stage to give the
owner a system which has the lowest
initial cost, consistent with combined
operating and maintenance costs over
the years. In the smaller junior col-
leges this wil seldom take the form
of the large central system referred to
In the larger junior college some
of the advantages of the large central
system may be incorporated on a re-
duced scale, provided a long range
plan for the college growth warrants
the higher initial expenditure re-
quired in the first year or two.
Actually, planning air conditioning
systems for junior colleges from the
Engineer's standpoint is no different
than planning it for other groups of
buildings. To render the very best
professional service one must study
each project on its merits and com-
pare the various systems available.
Frankly, budget limitations are usual-
ly so tight for the smaller college,
that this alone guides the selection of
air conditioning equipment into a
low cost flexible type which might
be improved as time goes along and
as the college grows to larger size.
It goes without saying, that regard-
less of the type of air conditioning
system to be used, the Architect can
help the Engineer keep the cost low
by using liberal thickness of insula-
tion for roof and other heat transfer
areas. We also recommend that more
money be spent on good construction
so as to decrease the size and cost of
air conditioning systems needed. The
occupants benefit by greater comfort
and the owner benefits by reduced
operating and maintenance expense
throughout the life of the college.
JUNE, 1964

JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.

G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary



"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"

TRINITY 5-0043 1 JLLt





We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.

Represented in Florida by

P. O. Box 5443

Jacksonville, Florida 32207

Telephone: 398-7255



State Foundation ...
(Continued from Page 1)
it is essential that our young people
have at least an awareness of the
importance of our environment to
their lives. This awareness is the essen-
tial step in stimulating the creative
desire in those young minds with po-
tential creative abilities.
To me it also seems we now need,
and are capable of providing, an Archi-
tectural Scholarship and Research Foun-
dation for the State of Florida, endowed
through the profession and designed to
seek out and assist capable young minds
to obtain superior architectural education
and to provide a sound vehicle for sci-
entific architectural research.
When the FAA Board of Directors
meets in July, it is my intention to
seek approval of this proposal in prin-
cipal and a determination to present
a formal plan for its accomplishment
to the Membership at the November
This necessarily superficial review
of one of our more compelling needs
is presented here to generate your con-
sideration, and to make available to
every Architect in Florida the oppor-
tunity to participate in an exciting
adventure. It will be particularly ap-
propriate that we bring a dearly held
dream of so many for so long to
reality at our Golden Anniversary
Convention, already dedicated to a
vital concern for education.

News & Notes
Heating Handbook...
"Heating Handbook" is a working
guide for architects, engineers and
contractors, identifying good practice
and the many regulatory codes and
standards that govern the complex
field of space and comfort heating.
The Handbook covers, clearly and in
detail, every aspect of the subject
from the applicable codes, standards,
and methods for the safe handling
and storage of fuels, to the codes both
existing and suggested, for the con-
trol of smoke and air pollution.
Solid, liquid, and gas fuels; steam,
hot water, warm air, and electric heat-
ing systems-all are included. All the
components and the codes or stand-
ards under which they operate are dis-
cussed in the Handbook, with emphasis
on furnaces, burners, heaters, and boil-
ers; pipes, valves, and fittings; ducts,
registers, and grilles; automatic con-

trols; fireplaces, chimneys, and insu-
lation. Extensive consideration is also
given to rating methods, heating and
maintenance contracts, codes, and in-
dustry standards as promulgated by
the United States Department of
ef Commerce.
Useful case studies illustrate the
application of correct principles and
call attention to potential hazards in
incorrect arrangements. Other helpful
sections are devoted to the step-by-
step conversion of existing gravity sys-
tems, both hot water and warm air,
to forced circulation; and to the
change-over of steam systems to hy-
Among the more specialized topics
are incinerators, district steam heat-
ing, and electric and infrared space
heating. There is also detailed guid-
ance for the proper lay-up and reacti-
vations of heating systems that must
undergo annual or periodic shut-
The final section in the Handbook
presents a suggested guide for munici-
palities and other authorities who de-
sire to formulate an effective heating
Robert Henderson Emerick, P.E.,
member of ASME and NSPE, is a
consulting mechanical engineer who
has practiced extensively in the United
States and abroad. A contributing edi-
tor to Mechanical Contractor, he is
also technical consultant to the Journal
of Plumbing, Heating and Air Con-
ditioning, and to Domestic Engineer-
ing. His previous books include "Basic
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning,"
"Heating Design and Practice," and
"Power Plant Management."
Further information on "Heating
Handbook" may be obtained from
the McGraw-Hill Book Information
Service, 327 West 41st Street, New
York, New York, 10036.

FAA Board to Meet...
The F.A.A. Board of Directors will
meet on July 18 at the George Wash-
ington Hotel in Jacksonville. This
will be the 3rd Board meeting this
year and a summary of all three meet-
ings will be presented in the July
issue of this publication.
F.A.A. members are urged to sub-
mit items for the meeting agenda
to be considered at the July meeting.
The deadline for receipt of agenda
items is June 26.

Changes ...
The following practicing Architects
announce the opening of new offices.
They are:
Robert C. Broward, A.I.A.
11646 State Road 13
P.O. Box 37
Mandarin, Florida
Phone 268-9180
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., A.I.A.
809 Bert Road
Jacksonville 11, Florida
Phone 721-0200
Dean Parmelee, A.I.A.
The Engle Building
2980 McFarlane Road
Coconut Grove, Miami, Florida
Phone HI 5-3546
Donald J. Frederick, A.I.A.
795 N.E. 125th Street
North Miami, Florida
Phone 759-5441


Bird & Son, Inc. 3
Blumcraft of Pittsburgh . 18
Dwyer Products of
Florida, Inc. . . 32
Florida Foundry & Pattern
W orks . 31
Florida Gas Transmission .12
Florida Home Heating
Institute . 16
Florida Investor Owned
Electric Utilities . 20-21
Florida Nautral Gas
Association . .. 29
Florida Steel Corporation . 22
General Portland Cement Co.
Trinity White . .. 26
Georgia-Pacific Corporation 9-10
Merry Brothers Brick
& Tile Co. 5
Portland Cement Association 6
Richard Plumer Business
Interiors 35
Robbins Manufacturing Co. 30
Southern Bell Tel. and Tel. Co. 24
Alger Sullivan Co. . .25
Super Sky Products, Inc. . 14
Weis-Fricker Mahogany Co. 2
F. Graham Williams Co. . 37
R. H. Wright . 2nd Cover


Let This Space

Work For You

If Architects in Florida can specify your products if you offer Quality to give
the Service Architects demand they want to know about it. Tell the Architects
your product story in THEIR VERY OWN MAGAZINE.
Let space in THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT work for you. It's the Official Journal
of the Florida Association of Architects, representing the eleven Florida Chapters of
the A.I.A. It's wholly owned by the FAA and goes monthly to every registered Archi-
tect in Florida, all registered Professional Engineers, all members of Florida Chapters
of the Associated General Contractors, as well as other business, public and adminis-
trative leaders total circulation 4200.
A recent survey by an advertising and public relations firm revealed that THE
FLORIDA ARCHITECT ranked number one along with another publication in the
architectural field.
Use this space to help the Architects specify the product or service you offer -
tell them about it where they'll see it regularly.

August Forest Products & Architecture
October Pre-Convention Issue
November Convention Issue
December Religious Structures

the florida architect
3730 S. W. 8TH STREET, CORAL GABLES 34, FLORIDA. 448-7454

74 Sctllic td 7 J"ic Adrcrua'zal Sc4a'zqi* *cmda

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bidd.Jd s iiid all pr..u I .l. 1 ...iililit d h rl. O I.L n jrh I ,fp f..,id
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. by

Centneeth Vaeyet

SPANISH PATIO by Kenneth Dalzell is the warm
realistic scene of an informal Spanish courtyard. Worl
ing in cool oils to achieve the white sunlight and pa
plaster tones of Spanish houses, the artist is a retire
New Jersey architect who turned to painting as a hobb
when he gave up his practice and moved to Florida
the mid-50s.
A native New Yorker and graduate of the Columbi
University School of Architecture, for four decade
Dalzell was engaged in the practice of residential an
commercial architecture in the North. He is a membE
-of the New Jersey Society of Architects and a past pres
dent of the New Jersey Chapter of the AIA and the Ai
Center of the Oranges (N.J.).
SAuthor of the book, "Dalzell Homes", which ran int
three printings, he has also written numerous article
for professional journals-Architectural Forum, Arch
tectural Record, and the American Architect as we
as for popular magazines such as House and Garden, House Beautiful, Bette
Homes and Gardens, and Town and Country.
Widely traveled in Europe, the Pacific and the two Americas, much c
the architect-artist's work is done from color transparancies made on h
various trips. He has exhibited and taken ribbons in juried shows, has ha
several one-man shows, and sold both oil and water color paintings to Florid
residents and businessmen.
Framed in natural wood, two inches wide and curving outward, the pain
ing Dalzell has donated for the Sanford Goin Architectural Scholarship Fun
is predominantly in tones of warm ivory and cream, accented with the tawn
greens and browns of trees, shadows, paving stones and water jug. The dar
clad figure in the doorway is holding a delft blue kerchief. Overall frame
dimensions are 20 by 24 inches.
Valued at $40, minimum bids will start at $15.
Deadline for entries in bidding is June 28, and all bids should be maile
to Mrs. Edmund MacCollin, 1480 Sunset Point Road, Clearwater, Florid.
A bank reference is requested with each bid but no checks should be ser
until the winner is notified.

F l



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