• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Current highlights
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 The Florida lien law
 Architect Starnes elected county...
 Shall we continue to sleep
 Sources and resources for architectural...
 Architectural programming for industrial...
 Branch office building of the clearwater...
 News and notes
 Advertisers' index
 Back Cover






Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00117
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: March 1964
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00117
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
    Current highlights
        Front Cover 2
    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The Florida lien law
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Architect Starnes elected county commissioner
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Shall we continue to sleep
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Sources and resources for architectural design
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Architectural programming for industrial progress seminar
        Page 17
    Branch office building of the clearwater Federal Savings and Loan Association
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    News and notes
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Advertisers' index
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.




3v T March, 1964
BINDING coWV

FOriia Awcie
OFFICIAL JOURNAL of the FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS of the AMERICAN INSTIT AAR ECt..






Current Highlights...

* TALK OF AN ALL-OUT BUSINESS BOOM THIS YEAR IS CROPPING UP these days in Wash-
ington. Some forecasters expect even greater gains than those being predicted
by the President's economic advisers. They see big jumps in jobs, sales, and
profits, as well as shortages and bottlenecks. They stress the fact that business
activity is already rising smartly though the impact of the tax cut still hasn't even
started to show up. Optimism is spreading. It is infectious . contagious the
kind of psychology that goes with a boom.
Note that this is still a minority view. Official forecasts see only a brisk
upturn with total output to rise nearly 7% as against 1963's 5%-plus. The
economy would still have a little slack. A boom, though, would push growth
above 8 %.
Some of the boom talk is political propaganda normal in an election year.
But there's more than electioneering to it. The all-out optimists expect the
tax cut to spark a chain reaction of consumer spending, inventory-building
and plant expansion. Meanwhile, autos and housing would stay high.
* THE TAX CUT AND THE NEW BUDGET MAY BE MORE STIMULATING to business than
originally planned. They'll have maximum impact this year, not 1965, despite
the President's economy drive. Economy and stimulation in the same period
sounds contradictory; but its' a matter of timing. Remember the new Budget
runs July 1964 to June 1965; U.S. spending will rise through December then
show the cuts. Meanwhile, tax withholding is falling more than first set to 14%/0
right now (from 18%). It was to go to 15% now and 14% in 1965.
How real are the President's spending cuts? A lot more so than some of the
cynical talk going around. Some slashes will never be made, because he
has estimated too high on the amount of government-owned mortgages that
will be sold or has counted too much on Congress changing the farm laws. On
the other hand, Congress may not vote all Johnson asked for. Net -substan-
tial reductions though less than he is claiming.
* WASHINGTON IS UNEASY ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF INFLATION later this year -
considerably more so than officials care to admit, except in private. Few econo-
mists believe that a boom-demand for goods will strain supplies. Most feel present
idle men and machines will serve to prevent bottlenecks. But they expect that labor
and business may try to capitalize on the increase in everyone's expectation to
make a big push for higher prices and wages.
The President will act to stop a wage-price spiral. He will put pressure on
unions to hold demands to productivity gains. And he'll discourage "unwar-
ranted" increases in prices but not by clobbering any industry such as
steel two years ago. Officials will be scanning the indexes, ready to clamp
down.
* THE FEDERAL RESERVE WILL CURB CREDIT FAST if prices start to zoom. This agency,
which is responsible for controlling our money supply, would deliberately try to
slow down the tempo of the business expansion as one way to check infla-
tion and shrinkage in the value of the dollar. This would not sit well with the
President who wants nothing to interfere with good business on Election Day.
But he would accept tighter money as necessary.
* INTEREST RATES WILL NOT RISE MUCH, if prices hold relatively stable and if the bal-
ance of payments continues to improve as expected. This is now the view of
top Treasury experts. It reflects a switch in thinking from late 1963. The demand
for credit is still expected to rise with the tempo of business except perhaps
for mortgage credit where the 1964 gains may not match last year's. But the sup-
ply of savings will be up, too. And it may be year-end before business steps up
plant expansion and its need for cash.







&/2v/ t/OYOPy. J.j&V&,c&, Imneoi aet no exlt e t e ts!

As the world's largest producers of genuine mahogany,
we import our own .. entirely from Central and South
America, and always have a good stock of both logs and
lumber. That's why we can give you what you want, cut
to specifications, when you want it.
You may finish genuine mahogany in virtually any color
or degree of tone, and we can supply up to 20-foot lengths,
24-inch widths, and 4-inch thickness. This prestige
product is available at prices competitive with many
inferior woods.
So in much larger sizes, you can use the same wood that
brought world renown to such names as Chippendale.
Duncan Phyfe and Stradivarius . the same mahogany
that remains unchanged, uncracked. unwarped in the
Cathedral of Ciudad Trujillo built in 1514 . the same
magnificent material chosen for the interior of the
luxurious new Hotel Sheraton in San Juan.
And if it's slipped your mind. tests by the LU. S. Forest
Products Laboratory and Cornell University show genu-
ine mahogany to be superior over other popular hard-
woods in nearly all properties for mortising, boring,
planing, warping, shaping and turning. So let your
imagination go when you plan how to use it.
When you want the prestige of adding
that "extra something" to
your work. use genuine
mahogany. Write direct
for more information and *
address of your nearest
distributor. We will be
happy to cooperate with
architects and decorators.






A' "" 'lff.. '


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GAS GENIE


NATURAL GAS
GASGRAIMG
G^^ASAAIN THE HEADLINES


SUCCESS STORY: NATURAL GAS AIR CONDITIONING ZOOMING! Preliminary 1963
reports from Florida Natural Gas Association members indicate a 421% increase in air
conditioning tonnage over past three years. Florida thus outstrips national figures which
i show 400% increase since 1957. Florida distribution systems credit special year-round
rates, low operating and maintenance costs for enabling them to show bigger increase
over shorter period of time. Complete survey results will appear in next issue.

GOLD COAST USE OF NATURAL GAS "SPECTACULARS" GROWING. Peoples Gas System cus-
tomers in Miami Beach-Sunny Isles area are using novel natural gas effects to outshine competition:
Plush Doral Beach Hotel features 14 ornamental gaslights in their Spanish Garden (in addition to
three all-gas kitchens to supply their gourmet cuisine.) Fabulous Castaways, one of America's top
motels, awes guests with torch atop their king-size waterfall. New oceanfront Hawaiian Isle Motel
commands attention with luau torches and twin underwater gas flames. Kitchen is all gas, and laun-
dry features commercial dryer.

BUSINESS AIR CONDITIONING CUSTOMER IS "LIVE" RESIDENTIAL PROSPECT. Tuppen's Boats of
Lake Worth removed one-ton electric air conditioner, had Florida Public Utilities install a 5-ton
engine-driven natural gas unit to cool a much larger area. Says owner Tuppen, "We are more than
pleased. Hurry up and extend your mains so we can have gas air conditioning at home, too."
SAFETY NOTE: Guess who installed natural gas stand-by emergency generating equipment in
case of electric power failure the Miami Beach Fire Department.

"CALL THE POWER COMPANY TO COME CUT THEIR LINES." That was the word
when City Gas Company completed its first "total energy" installation for Miami's Polar
Palace.Ice Skating Rink. Fueling a 125KW Caterpillar internal combustion engine-
generator set, natural gas not only furnished air conditioning, but also makes ice for the
Shrink, electricity for lights and miscellaneous appliances. Direct uses of natural gas in-
clude cooking and water heating.

PUTTING ALL THEIR BREAD IN ONE BASKET Increased efficiency resulted for Bell Bakeries of Fort
Pierce when that City's Natural Gas Utilities Department converted various fuel oil and LP gas
operations to natural gas. Now the one fuel fires both ovens and boiler bakes the bread, heats
the water, heats the building, provides steam .. and brings smiles to the accountant's office.

THEY LIKED "COOKING WITH GAS" SO-O-O St. Petersburg's Mound Park City Hospital started
with an all-gas kitchen . liked it so well they added a 1,500,000 B.T.U. natural gas dryer in their
laundry . liked that so well they had the City's Gas Division convert their three 200-H.P. boilers
from Bunker C fuel oil to natural gas.

COLD WEATHER PROBLEMS JUST AREN'T. Despite record cold snaps which caused electric power
overloads and interruptions (particularly in South Florida), no failure of natural gas to meet peak
demands has been recorded. People Gas System, with the state's largest customer list, topped all
previous sendouts with a record high of 393,710 therms on Jan. 14, 1964, an increase of 21,824 therms
over last winter's high ... yet logged not a single low pressure complaint.

BIG PRINTER IS BIG USER OF NATURAL GAS. High-speed printing presses, which
print four colors at once, would produce mostly a massive mess of smears if natural gas
didn't dry the ink the instant it touches the paper. An idea of the scope of this opera-
Stion: Weiss Lithograph of Miami, one of the country's top producers of magazines (such
as TV Guide) is also one of the top customers of Florida Gas Company's Miami Division.

NATURAL GAS TO NEW SMYRNA BEACH ELECTRIC PLANT IS MAJOR USER. Work is well
along on the 14-mile transmission line extending natural gas service from Daytona Beach to New
Smyrna Beach. Delivery of gas to South Florida Gas Company's brand new distribution system in
southern Volusia County is scheduled to begin as this issue of Gasgrams goes to press. One major
customer who will cut costs with natural gas: New Smyrna Beach's new municipal electric plant.
Reproduction of information contained in this advertisement is authorized without
restriction by the Florida Natural Gas Association, P.O. Box 1658, Sarasota, Florida
2 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






a NEW reinforced

Brick Masonry

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CODE-APPROVED* FOR 6" ONE-STORY CLAY MASONRY
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For more information about the 6" wall, and the desirability of using Merry
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F;4ru hdCL/ BTnLhLz- 614taU
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MARCH, 1964







74




Florida Architect
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS



o 7This Imsc ---


Curren tHighlights . .


The Florida Lien Law . . . . . . . .
By Robert H. Levison, A.I.A. and Henry P. Trawick, Attorney

Architect Starnes Elected County Commissioner. . . .
By H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA

Shall We Continue To Sleep . . . . . ...
By Roy M. Pooley, President Florida Association of Architects


Sources and Resources For Architectural Design . .
By Philip N. Youtz, FAIA, FRSA


. 13


Architectural Programming For Industrial Progress Seminar . . . 17

Branch Office Building of the Clearwater Federal Savings
and Loan Association . . . .... 18 through 20
Architects: Wakeling, Levison and Williams


News and Notes .....
New Registrations
Peace Corp Architects
Advertiser's Index . .


FAA OFFICERS 1964
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President, 233 E. Bay St., Jacksonville
William T. Arnett, First V.-Pres., University of Florida, Gainesville
Richard B. Rogers, Second V.-President, 511 No. Mills Street, Orlando
C. Robert Abele, Third V.-President, 550 Brickell Avenue, Miami
H. Leslie Walker, Secretary, 620 Twiggs St., Tampa
James Deen, Treasurer, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
DIRECTORS
BROWARD COUNTY: Thor Amlie, Robert G. Jahelka; DAYTONA BEACH:
David A. Leete; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Richard E. Jessen, Frank E. McLane,
William J. Webber; FLORIDA GULF COAST: Frank F. Smith, Jr., Sidney R.
Wilkinson; FLORIDA GULF COAST: Frank F. Smith, Jr., Sidney R. Wilkinson;
FLORIDA NORTH: Thomas Larrick, James T. Lendrum; FLORIDA NORTH
CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA NORTH WEST: Barnard W. Hartman,
Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: John 0. Grimshaw, Herbert R. Savage, Earl M. Starnes;
JACKSONVILLE:: A. Robert Broadfoot, C. A. Ellingham, Walter B. Schultz;
MID-FLORIDA: Fred G. Owles, Jr., Joseph N. Williams; PALM BEACH:
C. Ellis Duncan, Kenneth Jacobson, Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region American Institute of Architects
Robert H. Levison, 425 South Garden Avenue, Clearwater, Florida
Executive Director, Florida Association of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables, Florida

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA, Chairman; Wm. T. Arnett, Fred W. Bucky, Jr.,
B. W. Hartman Jr., Dana B. Johannes.
THE COVER
Showing the rear elevation of the Clearwater Federal Savings and Loan Asso-
ciation. The parking facilities are at the rear of the building, so that the rear
elevation in effect, is as important as the front elevation. More illustrations of
this building appear on pages 18 through 20.


. 25


Junior College Conference
AIA PC Competition


. 27


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Inisitute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida
Corporation not for profit. It is published
monthly at the Executive Office of the Asso-
ciation, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
34, Florida; telephone, 448-7454.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year;
. Printed by McMurray Printers.

FOTIS N. KAROUSATOS
Editor
VERNA SHAUB SHERMAN
Business Manager
H. P. ARRINGTON
Acting Circulation Manager


VOLUME 14

NUMBER 31964


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


. 2nd Cover


. 20


. 11












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in interior-exterior color planning. She attended the
New York School of Interior Design and has had ex-
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Mrs. Kagey is available as a consultant to architects,
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Mr. Thomas has been appointed as a technical paint


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The experience and service of both Mrs. Kagey and Mr.
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4 Sufeated wo 7mat 7a ...


THE FLORIDA LIEN LAW


By
ROBERT H. LEVISON, AIA
FAA Regional Director

HENRY T. TRAWICK, Attorney
Kirk, Pinkerton, Sparrow, Trawick & McClelland
Sarasota, Florida


This article is based on the ex-
perience of one architectural firm
who has found this format to be
successful in handling the specifica-
tions situation. The intent of this
article is to present a workable plan
and a guide for consideration by oth-
er firms. Each individual should cer-
tainly adopt a format to his own
liking.

The article is divided into three
sections, all of which are for the use
of the practitioner, Architect's Off-
ice Precedure, Summary of Provisions
and Suggested Supplementary Gen-
eral Conditions.


ARCHITECT'S OFFICE PROCEDURE
1.'Notify Owner lie is required to
record Notice of Commencement
of swork in Clerk of Court's office
and post a cops of Notice on the
site, before work is started. If
work is not started in 30 da\s, an-
other Notice must be recorded
and posted. Notice shall show all
information required by 8-1.131-
Ili.
2.'Notif% Ow)vner he will receive No-
tices of Lien from all material
suppliers and sub-contractors. No-
tices of Lien will be in the form
shown in S..061-1 2 i c. (Refer
to suggested form on this page).
3.'The Oswner may appoint the arch-
itect to file Notice of Commence-
ment and to receive Notices of
Lien. or he may act for himself.
or he may designate ansione else.
4. Notif\ the Owner not to make
any payments before Notice of
Commencement is recorded.
5. Advise Owner payments to Con-
tractor may be made at times and
with percentages retained as
agreed upon by the parties sub-
ject to obtaining partial releases
on progress payments. \hen final
payment is due. it, or 10 per cent
of the contract price, whichc\er
is greater, shall be retained until
the Contractor furnishes affidavit
that all lienors have been paid in
full.
6 Ad ise Owsner that a payment
bond in statutory form furnished
by the Contractor and a Siiets
Insurer in amount not less than
MARCH, 196-1


the total amount of the contract
price. will exempt the Ow\ntr
from the requirements of the
Lien Law.
7. The Architect, designated by the
Owner to do so, shall-
a. Record Notice, of Commence-
inmnt as man\ times as requir-
ed before \work is started.
b. Recei\c Notices of Lien from
all material suppliers and sub-
contractors either directly or
through the Owner.
c. When partial payments are
due under the terms of the
contract between the Oner
and the Contractor, the archi-
tect shall require the Contrac-
tor to submit waiters of lien,
release of litn, or partial re-
leases of liens, an affidavit that
all lienors have been paid in
full or giT'ng names and
amounts of honors that have


not been paid in full. lie shall
not authorize payment by the
Owner until liens ar. satisfied.
d. When final pamnient is due,
lie shall authorize withholding
the entire amount of the final
payment or of 10 per cent of
the contract price, w\hichever
is greater, until all liens have
been satisfied and final affi-
davit is furnished.

SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS
1. Record a Notice of Commence-
ment in Clerk of Court's office
before S4.1 ;l inprovminent is be-
gun.
2. Post certified cop\ of alxboe notice
at the site giving.
a. Description of property to be
improved. I legal description)
b. General description of im-
provement.
(Continrad on Page 8)


NOTICE TO OWNER

(owneI's name and address'l
The undersigned hereby informs vou that he has furnished or is furnish-
ing services or materials as follow\ ..... .........- .
.. ...-......-....-..-. .................... --.. .............. .... ........ .... ..... for the
(general description of sin ices or materials)
improvements of the real property identified as.. ......
-.-- -.... -- .......... .. ........ ..... ...... ......... under an order gi en by
(propcrtv description)
.--.. --........ ... ........ --.. -....... --........- ............ cFlorida law prescribes the
sening of this notice and restricts your right to make payments under
sour contract in accordance s\ith section 84.061, Florida Statutes.
C o p ies to : .. ............. ..... .. ...... ..
(I.ienor's signature and address)






Lien Law ...
(Continued from Page 7)
c. Name and address of Owner or
name and address of title hold-
er if other than Owner.
d. Name and address of Contrac-
tor.
e. Name and address of surety
company issuing payment bond
and amount of bond, if any.
f. Name and address of Owner's
agent.
3. If the improvement is not com-
menced within 30 days after No-
tice of Commencement is record-
ed, the notice becomes void and
another notice must be recorded
before improvement is begun.
4. The Contractor who is under con-
tract to the Owner has a lien on
the improved property provided
his claim of lien is recorded in
the Clerk's office. 84.051.
5. 84.061 Sub-contractors and mate-
rial suppliers have liens on the
improved property on which they
have furnished materials, labor or
services, but they are required to
serve the Owner with notice of
lien before, or not later than, 45
days after commencing to furnish
materials or services. Owner must
expect to receive such notices
from the contractor, sub-contrac-
tors, material suppliers, and others
who contribute to the improve-
ment. Claims of lien must be re-
corded in the office of the Clerk
of Court. The lienor shall also
mail a copy of the notice to the
Owner's agent if the Owner has
appointed one.
6. Lienor's notices to Owner shall
show:
a. Owner's name and address.
b. Materials and/or services fur-
nished.
c. Property description.
d. Source of order for materials
and services.
7. The Owner shall make no pay-
ments on a contract before record-
ing the Notice of Commence-
ment.
8. 84.061-3-c-1 The Owner shall pay
payments due the Contractor as
they come due, except the final
payment, but before making pay-
ment to the Contractor the Own-
er may require him to furnish an
affidavit stating that all lienors
have been paid in full or amounts
owed each if they have not been


paid in full. Acceptance of the
Contractor's affidavit does not re-
lieve the Owner of his obligation
to lienors from whom he has re-
ceived notice. The Owner may
pay such outstanding bills direct
to the lienors if the balance owed
on the contract is sufficient to
cover them and he shall deduct
such payments from the balance
due the Contractor.
9. When the last payment becomes
due, the Owner shall retain it or
10% of the contract price, which-
ever is greater, until the Contrac-
tor has given the Owner his affi-
davit that all lienors have been
paid in full or amounts owed each
if they have not been paid in full.
He shall continue to withhold
payment until the Contractor fur-
nishes an affidavit that all lienors
have been paid in full. If the
Owner fails to withhold payment,
the improved property will be sub-
ject to all liens of lienors of which
the Owner has notice.
10. Claims of lien recorded by lienors
in the Clerk's office shall show
all of the information required by
84.081. The claim of lien may be
recorded at any time during the
progress of the work but not more
than 90 days after final furnishing
of services or materials.
11. 84.201 Lienors may waive or re-
lease liens or issue partial release
of liens at any time.
12. 84.211 Liens may be discharged
as described in this paragraph.
13. 84.231 A payment bond in statu-
tory form furnished by the Con-
tractor and a Surety Insurer in
amount not less than the total
amount of the contract price be-
fore beginning construction will
exempt the Owner from the re-
quirements of the lien law.


PAYMENTS TO CONTRACTOR


1. Payments to the Contractor will
be made as provided in Chapter
84, Florida Statutes as amended.
2. Monthly payments of -_- per cent
of the cost of labor, materials and
services used in the construction
of the building, and of materials
suitably stored on the premises
or in bonded warehouses off the
premises, will be made by the
Owner on the architects' certifi-
cate upon request for payment by


the Contractor. Requests for pay-
ment shall be accompanied by es-
timated specified in Paragraph ---,
and properly executed partial re-
leases of liens by all lienors who
have served notice on the Owner.
3. Final payment will be made 30
days after acceptance of the build-
ing by the architect and the Own-
er upon request by the Contractor
and on condition that:
a. The Contractor furnish prop-
erly executed releases of liens
from all lienors who have serv-
ed notice on the Owner.
b. The Contractor furnish his af-
fidavit that all lienors have
been paid in full and/or the
names and amounts due lienors
who have not been paid in full.
In event not all lienors have
been paid in full, the Owner
shall retain a sufficient sum to
pay lienors in full, and at his
option may make direct pay-
ment to lienors to obtain com-
plete releases of liens.
c. The Contractor furnish a Cer-
tificate of Occupancy if such
is issued by the local building
official.
d. The Contractor furnish As-
Built drawings and mainte-
nance and operating instruc-
tions as required by certain di-
visions of these specifications.
e. The Contractor furnish guaran-
tees signed by sub-contractors
and the Contractor for certain
portions of the work specified
herein.
f. The Contractor furnish a guar-
antee signed by the Contrac-
tor, in form acceptable to arch-
itect and the Owner, agreeing
to repair or replace as decided
by the architect, all work and
materials that prove defective,
within one year from date of
acceptance of the building.
4. In event the Contractor furnishes
a payment bond in statutory form
in amount not less than the total
contract price, at the time of exe-
cution of the contract and as re-
quired by the Owner, exempting
the Owner from the requirements
of the Mechanics' Lien Law, Flor-
ida Statutes, all monthly pay-
ments and final payment will be
made to the Contractor in full
upon request by the Contractor
and the architect's certificate of
approval.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






,4c4itec t Image roaden ...


Architect Starnes



Elected



County Commissioner


By H. SAMUEL KRUSE, FAIA


On February 11, 1964, Architect
Earl M. Starnes, a political unknown
before the election, piled up the larg-
est majority to overwhelm incumbent
Hughlan Long and become Dade
County's Commissioner from District
7.
Starnes, a Director of the Board
of The Florida Association of Archi-
tects and past-president of the Florida
South Chapter of the American Insti-
tute of Architects, whose most note-
worthy office before the election was
as a member of the City of Miami
Minimum Housing Board, won his
job under a new system that was ap-
proved in a charter amendment elec-
tion last November. In the new
system eight commissioners from Dis-
tricts and a Mayor for the Dade
County Commission are all elected
countywide.
Starnes credited his win to his
strong pro-Metro campaign and prom-
ises to fight for better zoning, stronger
stand against zoning variances that
hurt the county, and better long-range
planning for Dade.
His campaign emphasized his train-
ing and skills as an architect fitted
him for putting plans for Dade Coun-
ty into action and his faith in metro-
politan government as the logical
vehicle for the solution of regional
problems. His candidacy was indorsed
by the seven leading newspapers of
the county.
Members of the Florida South
Chapter of the American Institute of
Architects are exceptionally jubilant.
For the last seven years they have
supported metropolitan government


against detractors and obstructionists,
only to have the architect's point of
view ignored when there arose com-
munity development issues of especial
interest to architects. Now the archi-
tect's special views will sit on the
Commission and will be expressed.
Starnes takes his place on a strong
pro-Metro Commission, for the most
part stripped of its close ties with
the City halls that have consistently
thwarted the exercise of metropolitan
government pcrogative for urban re-
newal, county wide tax assessing and
collecting, countywide zoning and
planning, and many needed com-
munity developments. Dade citizens
are hopeful that at last they have a
Commission worthy of the problems
it must solve.
Earl M. Starnes is 38 years old, a
native of Winter Haven, a graduate
of the University of Florida, cum
lauded, 1951, and a member of Phi
Kappa Phi, an honorary society. He
is married to Dorothy Jean Prather
of Winter Haven and they have four
children: Tom 10, Bill 8, Janet Max-
well 6, and Patricia Ann 2.
Besides his AIA-FAA interests, Earl
has been Treasurer and Vice-President
of the Miami Chapter of Construc-
tion Specifications Institute and is
currently President of the Joint Co-
operative Council of Florida, Inc. His
civic activities include Meninak Club
of Miami, its President in 1962 and
its National Director, and Vice Chair-
man of City of Miami Operation
Fix-up. IIe is a practicing architect
in the firm Starnes, Reutscher &
Associates, Coral Gables, Florida.


MARCH, 1964


Florida Architects must
praise the Florida South
Chapter of AIA for its un-
dying efforts in the cam-
paign to elect Earl M.
Starnes to the Dade County
Commission. The image of
the Architect has been
broadened by the election
of Starnes. Editor.











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If






Message rom? 7e A,4 President...


Shall We


Continue To Sleep...


By ROY M. POOLEY, JR.

President
Florida Association of Architects


By one o'clock the stadium bound
roads and bridges were choked with
cars. A gaily dressed, festive throng
streamed in merging rivers of color to
the gates. With magnificent precision,
a height of anticipation and the time
of beginning melded into silence.
Crisply striped emerald turf, framed
by the ovaled crowd, stood hushed
and expectant under a brilliant clear
sky as a lone light plane streamed
its banner overhead.
Suddenly, with an explosive roar of
thunderous approval, the 1963 Gator
Bowl spectacle began to unfold its
drama before the 50,000 avid football
fans.
It was that kind of afternoon and
through the usual following hours of
revelry, more than 400 souls wearily
found their way to rest in the Roose-
velt Hotel. December 28th glided
into the 29th. A wisp of smoke curled
into the gray morning sky and blos-
somed into billowing clouds in a few
short minutes. The raw quiet morn-
ing was suddenly alive in a fever of
wailing sirens and panting trucks as
a few heroic hotel employees raced
from floor to floor and room to room.
The first sleepy guests discovered
their peril as the curious appeared in
the streets from nowhere and every-
where.
At days final end, the nation's
press, radio and television had told
the stories of tragedy and heroism-
the valiant efforts of fireman, navy
helicopter pilots and hotel bellmen.
A woman jumped eleven stories to
her death and a fireman succumbed


to a heart attack, and twenty died
from choking smoke.
As always, the real story, the signi-
ficant truths, the lessons of value,
were discovered by only the few pro-
fessionals methodically searching for
cause and effect. Frustrated men,
knowing full well the lessons learned
must bc equated with political feasi-
bility-but grateful too, that as so
often before, this tragedy will help
protect others.
Among significant facts exposed in
the study of the Roosevelt Hotel fire
were these:
The building was erected during
the 1920's under a relatively strong
and enforced building code, requiring
fire resistive construction. Subsequent
strengthening revisions in the code
were not made generally applicable to
existing buildings. The loss of 22
lives might well have been multiplied
many times in a building of less fire
resistent construction and the prop-
erty loss could have easily been com-
plete.
And, under the specific conditions
encountered, application of only two
provisions of the current City build-
ing code (as applicable to new con-
struction) would almost certainly have
prevented twenty of the twenty-two
deaths suffered. (These provisions
deal with building exits and closure
of vertical shafts in multi-story build-
ings.)
Within days of the Roosevelt fire,
the community received another
shock. No lives were lost and the
story received only limited coverage,


but to thousands of recent Christmas
shoppers, news pictures of the huge
(and spanking new) suburban de-
partment store, with its collapsed
massive concrete roof beams, must
have made a vivid, if queasy, impres-
sion!
To the professional architect, the
impression had to be even more sick-
ening. Only by accident of time and
conditions was the damage limited
to a partial roof failure without per-
sonal injuries. But imagine just
imagine torrential rains falling on
those thousands of flat square feet of
roof, married to high winds-and on
Christmas Eve! It may well have
stood without a quiver but then
again, maybe not.
Some facts in this case: This build-
ing was constructed in 1963 in Duval
County, outside the City limits of
Jacksonville. Unlike the City, the
County government does not have a
general building code at all and to
date does not even require the name
of the designer for buildings erected
in the County, regardless of size or
use. A building permit is required to
assure compliance with zoning regu-
lations.
Unfortunately, Duval's attitude is
not unique. The State has recognized
urgent necessity of competence by
building designers, and requires strin-
gent examinations by Architects and
Engineers. State law prohibits prac-
tice of the design professions by the
legally unqualified. Yet, more often
than not, local communities and
(Continued on Page 27)


MARCH, 1964




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Interiat9g A4rt car d Science n p4citectretee...


Sources and Resources



for



Architectural Design



By PHILIP N. YOUTZ, FAIA, FRSA
Dean of the College of Architecture & Design
The University of Michigan


Last year, The Department of
Architecture, University of Florida
conducted Seminars concerning En-
vironment, Technology, and Archi-
tecture. THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
previously has published two papers
presented at the Seminars by Mr.
William Allen, ARIBA and Mr. Wil-
liam Scheick, AIA. Dean Youtz,
FAIA, FRSA, also participated in
one of these. His address is pub-
lished here.

The sources that influence an ar-
tist's creative work are often subtle
and difficult to identify. Few design-
ers would be able to analyze their
own method of sketching and devel-
oping a special concept for a new
building. Nor is it easy to say just
what experiences stimulate creative
thinking and which lack the power of
suggestion. When pondering a design
problem the mind is apt to explore a
good many tempting byways that
seem to have no conceivable bearing
on the task at hand. Yet in the midst
of this reverie an idea flashes into
consciousness and we arc started on
our architectural design, invention,
plan for a book, or musical composi-
tion. These contrasted pursuits seem
to follow a similar process and to
depend on an identical moment of
illumination. All of the arts, visual,
auditory and verbal appear to evoke
parallel behavior.
It may be rewarding to point out
some of the sources available to the
modern designer in case he wishes to
utilize them. It would be unwise to
MARCH, 1964


attempt to limit the territory over
which his imagination is permitted
to rove, and so the ten categories
which we will identify are chosen to
guide our own discussion, not to set
boundaries to his freedom of thought.
All of the sources that will be sug-
gested are provocative, all are mod-
ern in orientation, and all are inti-
mately connected with architecture.
The designer may repudiate most of
them but there is a chance that one
or two will strike the spark that we
have mentioned as characteristic of
the creative process. At least they may
serve to broaden the architect's out-
look and make him aware of the
world in which he lives.
Cultural Background
The first of these suggested sources
for architectural design which deserves
consideration is the architect's own
cultural background. The designing
artist is not an outlaw leading an ad-
venturous life outside the jurisdiction
of established society, but a true rep-
resentative of his times. His work may
defy all the rules laid down by the
critics, but examination of his prod-
uct will show that he cannot escape
the viewpoint of his age. He belongs
to a period and school however per-
sistent are his efforts to escape. Were
this not so he would not be able to
communicate with his public. Art is
never a private matter though some
artists may rashly assert this claim.
The arts are essentially a universal
language of imagination and emotion.


The effect of Freud's writings has
been to turn the attention of the
architect, artist and designer inward
to his own private life. The individual
engaged in creative work makes a very
important contribution to the aes-
thetic resources of his day. But when
we study his accomplishment in the
light of history, we find that he adds
his gift of visual expression to a school
or tradition which he develops or re-
directs. The historical analysis of an
artist's work does not lessen his stat-
ure as an original creative personality.
Rather it reveals a genius as a man
with the ability to absorb the artistic
legacy of his time and to contribute
richly to its growth. The artist's in-
debtedness to his social background
exists whether, like Piccasso, he leads
a revolt, or whether, like Manet, he
does not entirely abandon academic
traditions.
Originality is not something starkly
new and therefore unrelated to cur-
rent cultural patterns, but rather a
restatement and extension of existing
resources. The creative mind makes
use of certain sources that the artist be-
lieves will have continuing value for
visual expression. A successful school
informs the student of these cultural
achievements so that he may choose
those he wishes to preserve and those
he desires to reject. The wise teacher
of the visual arts does not tie the
student to any set ritual of design.
The history of architecture and civil-
ization is presented as a path to the
(Continued on Page 16)




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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


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MARCH, 1964






Architectural Design...
(Continued from Page 13)
present, not to the future. From this
point where history ends and tomor-
row begins, the student must advance
boldly in his own initiative. If he is
able to accept this challenge to move
forward into the unknown, he has
the essential qualification to become
an architect or artist.
The cultural heritage from which
the modern designer draws his inspir-
ation is science civilization with its
rapid expansion of knowledge, its new
technology, its development of power
industry and its discovery of atomic
energy. To grasp the significance of
this social revolution places unprec-
edented demands on the designer. He
must abandon the precepts which
guided him so well in handcraft cul-
ture and adopt a new code applicable
to a scientific age. He must acquaint
himself with the new philosophy of
science and participate in the creation
of a new cultural environment for
man. The architect's job is to give
form and beauty to this emergent sci-
entific order. He can succeed in car-
rying out this difficult commission by
promoting a closer alliance between
science and art.
To accomplish this desirable goal,
the designer needs to adopt a social,
not a personal attitude toward his art.
He must accept his responsibility for
introducing harmony into the chaos
of experimental new prototypes intro-
duced by the applications of science.
Hitherto the designer has too often
been inwardly, not socially, oriented.
He has taken too personal an attitude
toward his work and failed to recog-
nize that he had a duty to his com-
munity. The professional education of
artists is comparatively recent in ori-
gin, so this egocentric outlook may be
a sign of immaturity, which, hopefully,
they will outgrow. Or it may be an
anachronism carried over from Vic-
torian hero worship.
That it is possible for the architect
to take the leadership in designing
the new science oriented world, is
shown by some striking examples,
Canberra in Australia, Brasilia in Bra-
zil, and Chandegar in India. These
are bold attempts to mold nations by
means of architecture. The success or
failure of such projects must be judged
not merely by aesthetic standards but
also by political requirements. Are
these designs simply creations of fam-
ous architects, or do they embody the


aspirations of three awakening na-
tions? Does contemporary architecture
represent individuals or people?
Architecture Redefined
The second source for architectural
design is a new definition of archi-
tecture derived from anthropology.
Before offering this for your consid-
eration, it may be appropriate to run
over some of the familiar past at-
tempts to state the nature of build-
ings. Architecture has been described
as Fine Art, as the expression of
structure, as Space with a capital let-
ter, to quote from Professor Bruno
Zevi, as Visual History, to refer to a
book I wrote, as a sequence of historic
styles, and as a practical device for
shelter. All of these attempts show in-
sight, but they all seem to emit some-
thing essential. If Fine Art is used to
denote a composition that has only
secondary practical uses, I would not
be able to accept it as an adequate
synonym for architecture. Structure
has always played a very important
part in shaping architecture, but with-
out aesthetic interpretation, it may
be a dry bag of bones. One of the
important tools of the architect is the
arrangement of space, two dimensional
floor plans, three dimensional eleva-
tions and four dimensional traffic pat-
terns which involve time sequences.
You will note that I have added a
dimension to Professor Zevi's list.
However, his definition leaves out
structure, design and function. Archi-
tecture evolves in certain recognizable
patterns which we classify as styles.
These are interesting historically be-
cause they reveal origins. But style is
only one attribute of architecture.
Shelter is a primary function of all
architecture but it is often the least
significant feature. Responding to an
irate client, Frank Lloyd Wright de-
clared, "Madame, all my buildings
leak!"
I would redefine architecture as one
of the physical forms of culture. By
culture I mean the accumulated
knowledge, behavior patterns and aes-
thetic achievements of a given society
at a particular place and period. Cul-
ture is a broad concept. It involves
learning, activity and design. As an
expression of culture, architecture per-
forms a wide range of functions. It is
not simply an object of beauty but it
is also an income producing piece of
real estate. Its structure may sum-
marize the technical advances of its
day, and its exterior may reveal the


visual aspects of a modern library or
bank. Its interior may be an artificial
environment which can be almost
wholly controlled by its occupants.
But the point which deserves par-
ticular attention in the new defini-
tion of architecture is the part it plays
in shaping, guiding and developing
society. Buildings are active, not stat-
ic, features of civilization. They are
effective tools for social coordination.
The basic function of architecture is
not its practical utliity but its role in
accelerating the cultural process. Of
course a distinction must be made be-
tween the monuments of dead civil-
ization and buildings still serving a
living society. Archaeological remains
are now quiescent; in their day they
too played an active part in human
affairs.
The young architect needs to pon-
der this redefinition of architecture.
He is not engaged in applying cos-
metics to structural surfaces. He has
not completed his job when he has
provided the classroom space and
amenities of a modern school. He is
engaged in modeling the form of
modern science oriented society. He is
responsible for the dynamic effect of
architecture on the community. Un-
less he grasps the opportunities of his
profession in these large and long
range terms, he had better take up
automobile racing where he is more
likely to injure himself than harm
society.
Mathematics
The third source for architectural
design is mathematics. This suggestion
may surprise you, at least those of you
accustomed to the more routine use
of numbers. What I have in mind is
not theoretical or applied mathemat-
ics, but fun with figures. A familiar
example is Lewis Carroll's "Alice in
Wonderland." A classic instance oc-
currs in one of Plato's dialogues in
which an uneducated slave is able to
solve a problem in geometry by an-
swering leading questions. Or you
may read the monthly department on
Mathematical Games conducted by
Martin Gardiner in the Scientific
American.
Apparently fun with figures has in-
trigued peoples all over the world
since early times. Last winter I was
reading Needham's History of Science
and Civilization in China, Volume
III, chapter 19, page 57, on mathe-
matics. There I found charts of two
(Continued on Page 22)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






74A4 Seweawt 04...


Architectural


Programming For


Industrial Progress


PLANT

PLANNING

FOR

PROFITS


The Florida Association of Archi-
tects will sponsor a Seminar on Archi-
tectural Programming for Industrial
Progress on April 17th in conjunction
with the Florida Industries Exposition
in Orlando, Florida at the Exposition
Park.
The three hour program, beginning
at 9 A.M., will revolve around Plant
Planning for Profits. A panel of three
Architects and three industrialists will
discuss important subject areas such
as devcolping channels of communi-
cation between Industrialist and the
Architect, the need to define rcsponsi-


bilitics of the Industrialist and the
Architect in program dcvelopmcnt and
program planning sequence for ulti-
mate land use.
The panel will be moderated by Dr.
Paul Douglass of Rollins College. The
coordinator for this FAA project is
John B. Langley, A.I.A. of Winter
Park, Florida.
Those members of FAA who desire
to exhibit their work will be permitted
to do so in the meeting room. The
specific designation of the meeting
room will be announced at a later
date.


FAA members should make plans
to attend this important seminar as
well as the Florida Industries Exposi-
tion, April 14-17.
The FAA Board of Directors will
hold their second meeting of 1964
on Saturday April 18th at the Cherry-
Plaza Hotel in Orlando.


Editor's Note: Complete details will
be formulated during the next month
and will be presented in the April
Issue.


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MARCH, 1964


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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





Clearwater
Federal
Savings
and
Loan
Association
Branch
Office


Wakeling, Levison & Williams
Architects -







Desiged for Fcutuee EBy LARRY 7oR
By LARRY REIS


This new building faces the north
end of the Midway Shopping Center
parking area and one block from a
busy north-south thoroughfare which
called for dramatic handling of the
exterior. The parking facilities are at
the rear of the building so that the
rear elevation, in effect, is as im-
portant as the front elevation.
The requirement given the archi-
tect was for a building with ample
office area for association use; at the
same time, a community room, em-
ployees lounge, rest room, storage
areas, plus sufficient second floor
space for any foreseeable future ex-
pansion.
The building contains 8500 square
feet on the first floor and 6500 up-
stairs. The exterior is composed of
Florida keystone coral rock, glazed
clay tile in a pleasant yellow bronze
color and bronze tinted glass. The tile
is applied with a non-staining epoxy
grout. The vaulting on the exterior
is a gel-coated fiber glass built up in
the same way that fiber glass boats
are built. It is thought that this was
the first use of this method of con-
struction in the architectural field.


On the inside a dome tile accous-
tical ceiling is used in conjunction
with Parawedge light diffusers over
the lobby area and Infinilite for the
working area.
The fiber glass vaulting is carried
to the interior for design continuity.
The interior trim and panelling are
ceylon teak while the vault facing is
yellow bronze clay tile which is used
again on the teller's counter, check
writing desks and in the coupon
booths. For the teller's stations Bel-
gian black marble is used and the
flooring at the teller's counters and
foyers si Georgia travertine. The com-
munity room has an oak parquet floor.
Of special interest to those who
visit the bank is the free standing
terrazzo stairway reinforced by steel.
This was conceived by the architect
as a piece of working sculpture.
The interior colors are avocado
green carpeting with pumpkin, tur-
quoise blue, absinthe green and yel-
low used in fabrics and accents. The
furniture is made of teak wood while
the wall covering in the private offi-
ces and conference room is green and
brown grass cloth with teak batten


trim. The walls in the open office
area are vinyl in complimentary
shades of green and gold.
The main floor includes the lobby,
teller's area, work area with two drive-
in windows and room for expansion,
a vault, coupon booths, managers
office, large storage areas, public and
employees rest rooms, employees
lounge, conference room and com-
munity room.
The community room is equipped
with refrigerator, sink, coffee-making
equipment and a motor-driven movie
screen which recesses into the ceiling.
All wiring is run under the floor
ducts. H eating and air conditioning
is zoned for various work areas and
private work offices. It is fed into the
space from vents around light fixtures
so that both heat and cooled air are
from a non obvious source.
The vault has a special heating and
air conditioning system installed so
that the maximum security and fire
safety aspects are not affected. Emer-
gency air supply and telephone service
also have been installed for the vault
area.


Page eighteen . View looking North
Page nineteen . Above, showing customers lounge. Belief, view of free
standing terrazo stairway
This page . . Showing spacious lobby.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT











































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MARCH, 1964 21






Architectural Design...
(Continued from Page 16)
magic number diagrams which appear
on a bronze incense burner which I
bought in China many years ago and
had never been able to decipher. The
first was a magic square with three
rows of three figures. Each row and
each diagonal add up to the same sum,
fifteen. The other was a magic cross.
The even numbers and the odd ones
in the arms of the cross both add up
to twenty. The earliest text in which
Needham finds a reference to these
diagrams is dated about 80 A.D.
The Greeks enjoyed geometric
games. The result was that they took
a primitive wooden structure sur-
rounded by log posts and developed
it into the stone temple with all its
complex modular relations and its
added refinments. These latter were
introduced in defiance of pure ge-
ometry in order to please the eye.
When we gave up drawing the classic
orders, we lost a lot of fun in tracing
the geometry back of good proportion.
The spacial relations in architecture
all have a mathematical aspect. These
ratios rationalize design decisions.
Unlike many of its sister arts, ar-
chitecture requires very precise expres-
sion, first on paper, and then in ma-
terials. There is no place for vague
ideas or impressions that have not yet
crystallized. Drawings at small scale
have to be developed full size. The
supplier of components will detail
shop drawings according to stock
models, but anything different or
original the draftsman must delineate.
A great deal of architectural think-
ing is geometrical or mathematical
but the superior designer will not let
numbers dominate him to the extent
of numbing his personal sense of
proportion. To ward against this I
have suggested "fun with figures". It
is a mistake to take mathematics too
seriously. It is a powerful tool in many
applications, far more potent than
words, but it is well to remember
that it is no more valid than its as-
sumptions. Mathematical descriptions,
whether of nature or of culture, are
always abstractions that summarize
but do not duplicate reality.
Playing with figures leaves the mind
supple and relaxed. Equally impor-
tant, it introduces one to quantita-
tive thinking so that structural and
mechanical calculations involve fam-
iliar entities and operations. Accur-
acy somes naturally if numbers are


acquaintances, not strangers. And if
figures are associated with games or
similar pleasurable activity, it is not
likely one will "hate mathematics."
Actually the abacus and adding
machine, the slide rule and electronic
computer, have eliminated most of
the drudgery in manipulating figures.
These machines are the next step to
applying automation to the brain. As
fast as you can state the problem
they produce the answer. They mul-
tiply the potency of human thinking
many fold, accomplishing work in
hours that might take a man, if he
had the power of concentration, years.
I don't think we shall have trouble
persuading the designers of the future
that figures are fun because at long
last there is a revolution taking place
in the teaching of mathematics. Chil-
dren delight in the classes and adults
are horrified, which seems to indicate
that the new instruction is successful.
It presents the sacred categories of
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigo-
nometry, analytical geometry and cal-
culus in a kind of smorgasbord that
is said to be delectable. If this is so,
the games which I have been suggest-
ing may be played for fun without
looking to any ulterior rewards.
Structure
The fourth source for architectural
design is structure. My argument is
needed to support this statement be-
cause architects generally subscribe to
it. But the influence of structure to-
day is vastly different from what it
was before the turn of the century.
Our new materials and modern engi-
neering release the architect from his
former limitations. Any building that
lies within the range of economic
feasibility now can be constructed.
Almost any span that is likely to be
needed can be achieved. Consequent-
ly a good deal of the adventure that
attended erecting a building of un-
usual size or novel requirements has
disappeared. The designer is free to
undertake almost any type of struc-
ture he thinks suits his purpose. He is
no longer challenged by the perplexi-
ties and uncertainties of an unknown
architectural system. Today there are
prototypes of almost any kind of
building he can imagine.
The list of new systems of con-
struction and newly introduced ma-
terials is short. Structural steel frames
with wide flange long span compon-
ents and connections made with high
strength bolts or by welding, rein-


forced concrete frames, high strength
concrete and high strength preten-
sioned reinforcing, flat slab floor sys-
tems, reinforced concrete arches and
domes, prefabricated concrete com-
ponents, and, finally, thin shells, al-
most sum up the innovations. Re-
cently welded box stiffeners have been
used so that air conditioning ducts
can pass through the webs of long
span girders. The new materials are
laminated wood, aluminum, plastics,
especially for gaskets and flooring,
panels of concrete withdi- surfaces of
attractive aggregates, fiber glass and
other mineral insulation, and fireproof
acoustic tile. The uses of glass have
been greatly extended. Some success
has been achieved with flexible plas-
tic pipe. Perhaps we should add thin
sawed panels of granite and marble
for exterior walls but this use of stone
veneer was known to the Romans.
Many other modern materials might
be cited but they are too familiar to
stimulate the designer to work in new
directions.
The structures which have inspired
the imagination of architects all over
the world are the precast domes and
vaults of Nervi, the bold cantilevers
of Torroja, and the thin shells of Can-
dela. These men have used reinforced
concrete in a daring and revolution-
ary way. Lift slab reduced buildings
to their architectural essence, floors
and columns, thin horizontal
planes floating on slender steel sup-
ports. As Wright, Saarinen, Yama-
saki, Corbusier, and Niemeyer dis-
covered, concrete was the one material
left which the designer could mold to
his vision. Miles van der Rohe shap-
ed his forms in naked steel. In all
these examples we are impressed by
the designer's ability to metamorphose
familiar materials into structures that
inspire wonder.
I have not mentioned suspended
structures because they are still to
an extent experimental. The Cow Pal-
ace designed and erected by Nowiki,
Dietrick and Severud uses the
strength of materials in ideal relation-
ship, concrete in compression and
steel in tension. Saarinen's athletic
building at Yale also exploits the phy-
sical characteristics of materials but,
in this case, the long concrete arch
seems a tour de force. Probably sus-
pended structures will suggest more
daydreams to the young designer
than any of the orthodox manifesta-
tions of steel and concrete.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





Physics

The fifth source for the designer
of buildings is physics. Architecture
is a science based profession. It draws
on many disciplines including the
social, biological and physical sciences.
But as far as problems related to
materials and structures and mechani-
cal services are concerned, physics
supplies the theory which guides the
architect in drawing up his working
plans. This science deals with me-
chanics, properties of matter, sound,
light, electricity, atomic physics, elec-
tronics, quantum optics, and nuclear
physics, to quote the table of contents
of a recent textbook.
You would probably prefer to have
me talk of the rough texture of ashlar
masonry, the warmth of waxed wood,
the crispness of wrought iron work,
the rainbow tints of old fashioned
glass, or the shadows cast by candle-
light. This language reflects the val-
ues which the architect attaches to
the materials with which he works.
He is a hylozoist who believes that
all matter is alive. His relation to
brick and slate and tile is personal.
He has an affection for materials that
are our familiar surroundings and
which protect us from the rain and
snow.
If you are talking to a sympathetic
client, this language of a handcraft
period may charm him. But if he
wishes you to erect a serviceable
building, a home or office or institu-
tion, you had better be sure you
know your applied physics. You may
respect materials but if you want
them to respect you, then learn how
they behave. Actually most of the
old craft practices in stone cutting
and wood joinery are based on prin-
ciples of science. In suggesting that
physics is a good source for the de-
signer, you are simply proposing that
"sciences sense" be substituted for
"common sense". Physics does not
destroy the old values. It enables you
to handle materials expertly.
The mechanical equipment of a
modern building absorbs thirty or
forty percent of the cost. The client
expects the architect to understand
how it works or, as is too often the
case, why it fails in its magic. If the
architect has to consult the manufac-
turer or the engineer, he not only
loses face but he is neglecting his
professional duty to his client. I am
not suggesting that the architect be-
come a mechanic or an engineer but
MARCH, 1964


that he be knowledgeable about his
total building. It is important that
he knows the competitive advantages
of the different mechanical products
which he specifies and shows on his
plans.
The market is full of new compon-
ents and equipment. To the man
well grounded in physics, it is an ab-
sorbing game to see how manufac-
turers meet the problems of lighting,
acoustics, air conditioning and sani-
tation. A little connoisseurship yields
as much entertainment and satisfac-
tion as an engineer derives from an
auto show. The love of gadgets de-
velops early in the evolutionary line.
My pet monkeys always preferred
mechanical toys to food. The archi-
tectural esthete often fears mechan-
ical things because he doesn't under-
stand them. A good cure for this ner-
vous condition is to read books on the
history of invention. At the begin-
ning stages nothing is very compli-
cated. Once early principles are clear,
it is easier to analyze contemporary
developments.
Perhaps the most important reason
of all for introducing architects to
physics is that physicists are constant-
ly working on new schemes and rela-
tionships. The mental processes
involved in devising a fresh concept
in architecture closely parallels the
task of solving a scientific problem.
Both scientist and architect should
have highly fertile imaginations. And
both need thorough training in their
respective fields. In addition to this
base for comradeship, the designer
will find the discoveries which phy-
sicists are constantly making are fas-
cinating reading. I prescribe the new
cosmology to the harassed architect.
Fabrication and Site
The sixth source for designers is
the strong tend toward factory fabri-
cation and site assembly. This change
has been going on at an accelerating
pace since the turn of the century.
One has only to turn the pages
of Sweet's Catalogue to realize that
the architect designed custom made
building, fabricated by skilled crafts-
men from raw materials, is becoming
very rare. This technical change
greatly alters the task of the designer.
More time can be devoted to refine-
ment of the plan and the outward
expression of space and less hours ex-
pended on detailing and on coordi-
nating the work of different trades.
(Continued on Page 24)


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Architectural Design...
(Continued from Page 23)
To date the architect has done
very little about designing prefabri-
cated components. Yet if he doesn't
share in this task, his responsibility
will soon be limited to assembly
drawings for other people's designs.
Standardization of window units and
window panels speeds up erection and
saves costs for the client. It also re-
duces drafting room time. But it di-
minishes the designer's control of the
project. It makes architecture an im-
personal factory product without the
warmth and appeal of buildings that
express the sensitivity of the designer.
Some offices are working out sets
of similar units which can be modified
in minor ways to adapt them to a suc-
cession of different buildings. These
units thus become a trade mark of a
particular office or architect, but un-
fortunately without the protection
that registration is supposed to pro-
vide. Such special components are
a halfway step toward uniformity. But
the factory prefers completely stand-
ardized models that can be turned
out by the millions and which are
totally lacking in individuality.
The international style has been
widely criticized because of the mo-
notony of its shapes. But something
very like a miracle has occurred. The
organization of uniform windows
throughout a building produces a new
geometry that is perceived as a unit
and is enjoyed by the observer. A
little monotony is boring but more of
it can produce order and harmony!
Examples such as Bunshaft's Lever
Building, Mies's Seagram Building,
and Pei's Municipal Art Center in
Montreal, all show the cumulative ef-
fect of repetition.
Without standardization, contem-
porary construction and design would
be impossible. It is born of the ma-
chine age introduced by science. Per-
sonally, I find this new synthesis in
architecture restful. Just to check on
earlier impressions I recently strolled
through City Hall park in New York
to look at the Woolworth Building
and then came up town and hunted
up the Flat Iron Building which was
the original skyscraper. The Wool-
worth Building had a certain unity
but its eclectic appropriation of the
Gothic style was unconvincing and
false. The tortured surfaces of the
prototype of all steel structures was
amusing but inappropriate. It may be


of incidental interest to know that
the engineer of the Flat Iron Build-
ing was a woman.
Prefabrication has produced much
ugliness but gradually the designer is
regulating and sensitizing its prod-
ucts. The new architecture is honest,
strong and stark. These character-
istics are those of our age. I think
we have used too much glass in our
passion for openness and light, but
when our skyscraper greenhouses
have weathered their first clyclone, no
doubt we will be less insistent on
transparent curtain walls. A few years
ago a storm did blow out most of the
glass from one floor in one of New
York's tall buildings. For some reason
not easy to explain the occupants and
furnishings were not scattered in the
streets at the same time.
My objection to the prefabricated
house is that it is predesign. If the
producer would build components and
allow the architect to place the build-
ing on its site and introduce a variety
of assemblies, we might attain some-
thing quite attractive. Years ago the
Architectural School at Ann Arbor
built a Youts Unit House and it
proved not unattractive, perhaps be-
cause it was the only one of its kind!
City Planning
The seventh source for the archi-
tectural designer is city planning.
William Penn laid out Philadelphia
between the Schuykill and the Dela-
ware rivers. His foresight was shown
by his pattern of five public squares,
one in the center and four placed sym-
metrically around this. Major L'En-
fant worked out the magnificent cen-
tral mall of Washington and intro-
duced diagonal avenues and traffic
circles. A few other American cities
such as Detroit started with ambitious
plans but failed to carry them to com-
pletion. Most urban centers grew up
haphazardly. They are monuments to
free enterprise, real estate specula-
tion, and public indifference.
But within the last few decades,
nearly every urban community has de-
veloped a master plan and undertaken
a program of urban renewal. This rep-
resents an expansion of architectural
thinking. Instead of limiting design
to a single building, the architect-
planner thinks in terms of interre-
lated structures. He is concerned with
the whole central core of a city, or an
entire suburban satellite, or an entire
campus, or with extended parkways.
His design may embrace many square


miles. His drawings and models trace
the visual and functional integration
of metropolitan complexes that origi-
nally were a group of widely separated
villages.
I still remember my excitement
when the regional plan association
was founded, or perhaps when it first
came to my attention. The idea of
bringing order and beauty and con-
venience to the spot where New York
State, New Jersey, and Connecticut
met struck me as inspiring but vis-
ionary. Through the years it seems to
me little short of miraculous that so
much of the plan has been realized.
Slum conditions and congestion which
reduced the value of property no
doubt were a negative stimulus to
this progress. But the accomplish-
ment is also the result of imaginative
designing. Architect-planners were
able to show in drawings and models
how the city could be transformed
and far sighted civic leaders were able
to carry out these proposals.
I think all architecture is social in
its implications, the isolated building
as well as the carefully planned inter-
related community. But the archi-
tect-planner is probably the most so-
cially conscious of any visual designer.
His clients are corporate groups, not
individuals. His studies show how
people flow from their homes to their
places of work, from restaurants to
shops at noontime and from heavy
traffic to open parks. The city is a
stage across which passes a never end-
ing stream of actors.
Urban planning has made phenom-
enal progress since the era of the city
beautiful movement. In those days
there were parks without people, in-
accessible public buildings, highways
that led nowhere and municipal stat-
uary that was not sculpture in the
aesthetic sense. The contemporary
designer has learned that beauty and
utility must be judiciously blended.
Careful engineering and sensitive de-
sign are no longer considered incom-
patible. Ornament has ceased to be
employed to conceal a lack of imagi-
nation.
The great lesson of planning for
the designer is the opportunity to
study and utilize large scale compo-
sitions. Too many architects think in
terms of intimate design and fail to
humanize their larger structures and
their urban centers. Apparently it is
harder to endow a Colossus with liv-
(Continued on Page 26)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






News & Notes


New Registrations
Twenty-five more persons have
been registered to practice Architec-
ture in Florida. Of the total, 23 reg-
istrations were granted to residents of
Florida. The remaining two were
granted on the basis of the applicants
having been already registered and
practicing in another State.
Those passing the examination for
registration are:
BROWARD COUNTY CHAPTER:
Richard E. Cole
Ernest N. Green
Robert E. Washington
FLORIDA CENTRAL CHAPTER:
Victor E. Brodeur
Richard A. Kimbrough
Donald G. Parish
Ralph E. Ricks
FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER:
John P. Christoff
FLORIDA SOUTH CHAPTER:
Arthur Breakstone
Welmer C. Owens, Jr.
Arthur Perrin
Wilbert S. Schafcr
Ronald H. Smith
Carson B. Wright
JACKSONVILLE CHAPTER:
Peter J. Aranco
Ronald J. Masters
Ted P. Pappas
James F. Price
George E. Shafer
Frank D. Shumcr
PALM BEACH CHAPTER:
Donald J. Della Valle
O. D. Marvin
Joseph J. Palluga
The following were registered to
practice in Florida from out-of-State:
OUT OF STATE:
Robert J. Cloud, Jr. Perry, Ga.
James B. Tune-Atlanta 5, Ga.

Peace Corp Achitects
The Government of Tunisia has
requested that the Peace Corps send
40 architects and city planners to
assist in Tunisia's high priority hous-
ing program. Volunteers for the proj-
ect will enter training in June. The
American Institute of Architects will
administer the program and provide
"on the spot" technical advice and
support. The AIA also will assist the
MARCH, 1964


Volunteers in obtaining professional
credit for their work.
Volunteer architects and city plan-
ners have been serving in Tunisia
since the fall of 1962 and they are
scheduled to return to the United
States in the summer. Their signifi-
cant contributions to the housing pro-
gram caused the new request.
The Peace Corps Volunteers will
be provided with office space and all
the necessary supplies, equipment and
transportation needed for the job.
They will be used on a wide range
of projects: town and city planning
and the design of all types of struc-
tures from development housing to
multi-story public buildings.
Because of the amount and variety
of the projects under way, individual
assignments can be made with refer-
ence to the special training or experi-
ence that the Peace Corps Volunteer
might have. The Chief Engineer of
the Housing Section has stressed that
in no case will an architect or city
planner be assigned to a job for which
he is not properly prepared. There is
such a demand for a wide range of
skills that useful employment is as-
sured.
Training for Peace Corps Volun-
teers will include a technical refresher
and courses in the language and cul-
ture of Tunisia.
Peace Corps Volunteers receive an
adequate cash allowance for food,
clothing, housing, medical care and
pocket expenses. They also accumul-
ate $75 a month which is payable on
completion of service. Two years' serv-
ice brings this amount to $1800.
Applications should be submitted
no later than April 1. They can be
obtained by writing: Architects, Divi-
sion of Recruiting, Peace Corps,
Washington, D. C. 20525, or from
your Post Office or the Peace Corps
Liaison Office on college campuses.

Jr. College Conference
An estimated 125 persons recently
attended the important Junior College
Facilities Conference in Tampa, Flor-
ida. Of those in attendance, there
were 41 Architects present. The Con-
ference was sponsored by the School
Facilities Council and the Florida
State Department of Education.
The first Facilities Conference was
held in 1959 and at that time the


Conference was directed at the prob-
lems involved in planning a new cam-
pus. Five years ago only five Junior
Colleges were in permanent facilities.
Today, there are twenty-eight Jun-
ior Colleges with many of those
which are in operation being in per-
manent facilities. Therefore, this sec-
ond Conference explored the present
relationship of curricular activities
and attempted to describe the teach-
ing methods of the next decade.
The State School Superintendent
Thomas D. Bailey who gave the open-
ing address at the Conference said the
Junior College program would, in
years to come, provide the majority
of Florida's professional people.
"In the past seven years Florida
spent $22 million for Junior College
Construction and soon would spend
$30 million more under the Univer-
sity Construction Bond Program,"
Bailey said.
We must all agree that the Archi-
tects of Florida have a major role
ahead to ensure that the facilities will
provide the exact educational services
to its students. Certainly our descend-
ants will judge us by our accomplish-
ments.
Editor's Note: A late summer issue
of THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
will provide special emphasis to the
subject of Junior College Facilities.


AIA-PS Competition
Maintenance literature will rate a
separate classification in the 1964
Building Products Literature Compe-
tition, sponsored by The American
Institute of Architects and the Pro-
ducers' Council.
Also to be given extra emphasis will
be literature that gives recommended
uses of the product and the limitation
of use.
Both of these changes were recom-
mended by the AIA-PC Liaison Com-
mittee and reflect the changing needs
of today's architect.
Serving on the Jury of Awards will
be: Dean D. Kenneth Sargent, FAIA,
Syracuse University; LaVern J. Ncl-
sen, Detroit, Michigan; I. Lloyd
Roark, Jr., FAIA, Kansas City, Mis-
souri; Marcellus Wright, Jr., FAIA,
Richmond, Virginia; R. Lloyd Sned-
aker, Salt Lake City, Utah; Edgar H.
(Continued on Page 26)





News & Notes
(Continued from Page 25)
Berners, FAIA, Green Bay, Wiscon-
sin; and Lyle F. Boulware, Philadel-
phia, Pennsylvania.
Eligible for the Competition are
all manufacturers of building prod-
ucts and equipment and associations
of such manufacturers whose product
literature is directed to the architect.
Entries are being received now and
should be sent to the Publications
Department, Producers' Council,
2029 K. Street, N.W. Washington,
D.C. 20006.


Architectural Design...
(Continued from Page 24)
ing quality than a normal sized work
of architecture. The reason so many
large buildings are vulgar and oppress-
ing is that they are miniature and in-
significant forms blown up to sky-
scraper size.
Automation
The eighth source of inspiration for
the designer is automation which now
is being applied to modern architec-
ture. Plumbing fixtures seem to have
pioneered this trend by supplying hot
and cold water. Today the tempera-
ture of rooms is governed by a well
trained thermostat. Humidity may be
similarly controlled. Light can be reg-
ulated to a given number of foot
candles. Window louvers have been
designed to open or close automati-
cally so as to admit a uniform amount
of sunlight. Elevators are now po-
lite mechanical servants that move
swiftly to their destinations without
benefit of any human agent but the
essential repairman. Outdoor doors
spring open as deferentially as if for
royalty. Some mechanical garages
have been nearly successful.
If a building has a gymnasium, one
may gallop on a mechanical horse or
roll about on top of a pseudo camel.
If one finds his girth too ample, there
are mechanical masseurs which vi-
brate away excess weight. The female
equivalent is a vibrating couch which
reduces hips to slender lines. One may
lunch,-I do not say dine,-at an
automat. One rings up a friend for a
chat and if he is out of town a re-
corded voice tells you so and the hour
when he is expected back.
I mention this development be-
cause I think it has implications for
the architectural designer. Buildings
26


are supplanting labor. This suggests
that our profession is not engaged in
apportioning space or modeling form
or expressing the qualities of materi-
als, but in specifying and installing a
mechanical staff to wait on our clients
and their guests. The new architec-
ture must compete as service not as
art. Man's aesthetic cravings can be
supplied by television. If one is a bit
lonely in this mechanical environ-
ment, he can turn on the radio and
select a human voice.
Perhaps architects have been too
inclined to view their work as one
would a sculpture or a painting, as
an object of aesthetic appreciation. It
is somewhat of a wrench to find that
people buy homes because of their
dishwashing machines, clothes wash-
ers and dryers, not because they are
beautiful and restful. Perhaps the de-
signer should start thinking up a new
set of values that will fit him for life
in these United States.
I have injected automation into the
discussion to highlight the need to
shape architecture around the require-
ments and responses of people. Build-
ings are too often designed abstract-
ly, as though they were a matter of
individual taste or the development
of some geometric system. Margaret
Mead, during her talk before the
American Institute of Architects at
San Francisco, asked her audience why
it was that architectural photographs
and renderings so frequently showed
buildings without people! In fact,
this was, as I recall the theme of her
speech.
I have had the experience of living
in three houses which I planned and
built myself. Actually this is a test
which every architect should undergo.
If you occupy one of your own build-
ings, you quickly learn a great deal
about its faults and virtues. The ex-
perience creates a sympathetic atti-
tude towards clients and their com-
plaints.
In this connection I should like
to see a confidential survey of the
faults of representative current ex-
amples of architecture. I am sure that
clients' comments would be more re-
vealing than those of the most pen-
etrating critics in architectural publi-
cations. No doubt most owners would
subscribe to the dictum that good
architecture should be oriented around
people and that it should have all the
mechanical services that the project
can afford.


My conclusion is that automation
is here to stay and that the designer
should provide easy access for repairs
and replacement on his working
drawings. Far from destroying good
architecture I think that automation
helps pay the rent.
Transportation
The ninth source for the architec-
tural designer is transportation. Build-
ings today must be linked with the
network of communication which
surrounds them. Pedestrian walks,
automobile access and parking, bus
lines, airports, railroad stations and
helicopter landing places transform
buildings into world ports. Modern
man likes to commute from one con-
tinent to another. He is a confirmed
globe trotter. His home is merely his
point of departure. Modern travel
is breeding a race of nomads.
Rather belatedly, architects now
lay out parking spaces for buildings
that stand on their own grounds. By
dividing up these areas into small
units, designers often succeed in re-
lating them to the architectural
scheme. If partially concealed by
skillful planting the effect may be of
a structure set within its own park.
Occasionally the many colors of the
cars add to the attraction of the
composition. But the design of park-
ing lots leaves much to be desired.
Only a few designers have had the
vsion to develop this utilitarian fea-
ture into an interesting garden.
The worst examples of parking lots
are the acres of black macadam that
surround the shopping centers. These
desert tracts are an eyesore. But they
are not sufficiently repellent to keep
customers from crowding these facili-
ties to overflowing. Car accessibility
is proving of prime importance in
merchandising. Street parking is inad-
equate and the public patronizes the
store with adjacent parking. But open
areas for accommodating cars next to
stores present a dismal prospect. The
random alternation of parking lots
and shops gives the community a rag-
ged appearance. Thus far few design-
ers have been able to meet this
challenge brought about by the ever
increasing number of automobiles.
Parking structures are expensive
and too frequently require subsidies
but the best of them show boldness
in design and offer relief from con-
gested streets. They present a real
opportunity to the designer who will
(Continued on Page 28)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






Continue To Sleep...
(Continued from Page 11)
county governments find it conveni-
ent to ignore and even aid in cir-
cumventing these state laws designed
to protect the lives, property and in-
vestments of our citizens.
How utterly ridiculous can we be!
Must we write the need in blood?
Since when has the $15.25 purchase
of a "contractor's" license magically
produced a structural engineer, a cap-
able designer or an unbiased advisor?
If knowledge, judgement and ability
can be purchased so cheaply-why,
oh why do we professionals spend a
lifetime in their pursuit?
Florida needs, and needs desperate-
ly, to meet the challenge of physical
growth realistically. More and more
Architects and their supporting engi-
neering specialists with ever increasing
skills are essential. There must be
some degree of competence in the art
of building required for our builders.
Rigidly enforced statewide building
and safety codes are vital if local
authorities refuse to accept this re-
sponsibility.
And, it seems perfectly obvious
that the Architectural profession must
assume the leadership in attaining
these standards-for the simple reason
that NO OTHER IS MORE QUALIFIED
FOR THE JOB TO BE DONE.
Miss America most likely doesn't
realize that so dull a document as a
building code probably saved her life,
but there can be no question she is
glad to be alive-and knows it! And
surely there must be those who are
grateful not to have been buried
under the rubble of a roof collapse!
The question is- was the alarm
enough to awaken us? Or shall we
sleep awhile yet?


ADVERTISERS' INDEX
Dunan Brick Yards, Inc. 3rd Cover
Florida Gas Transmission . 10
Florida Investor Owned
Electric Utilities .. 14-15
Fla. Natural Gas Association -
Gas Gram . . . 2
Florida Portland Cement
Division . 21
Florida Steel Corporation .23
Harris Standard Paint Co. 5
Merry Brothers Brick
and Tile Company . 3
Solite Corporation . .. 12
Southern Be:l Telephone
& Telegraph Co. ..... 17
Thompson Door . . 6
Weis-Fricker Mahogany Co. .
F. Graham Williams Co. 27

MARCH, 1964


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MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.


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Architectural Design...
(Continued from Page 26)
work within the framework of trans-
portation engineering. As utilitarian
buildings they must be laid out so as
to be accessible during peak loads and
they should present an orderly and
inviting appearance to the customer.
Nearly all of them need better natu-
ral or artificial light. Since the floor
systems are commonly exposed, an
imaginative designer can do a good
deal to make the patterns of beams
or flat slabs and columns expressive.
Elevators for pedestrians safely lo-
cated away from automobile traffic
are essential for structures over two
or three stories high. Careful study
could, I am confident, transform
these ugly amenities of modern life
into architecture.
Another solution to car parking is
to place it underground, under public
squares, under streets and under
buildings. This solution is based on
the premise that cars not in use are
unsightly and impede circulation so
should be kept out of sight and out
of the way. A good many fine old
public squares have been ruined by
turning them into subterranean park-
ing facilities. The access car ramps
and pedestrian stairs or escalators are
neither functional nor beautiful. To
save money most of the soil is re-
moved and there is not enough left
to provide for the root systems of
large trees with the result that we
have the anomaly of parks without
shade, indeed with nothing but sur-
face plants. I see no reason why a
public suqare should not be designed
as a hanging garden with many lev-
els connected by open courts and
reached by serpentine ramps.
Utility lines make under street
parking impractical in many situa-
tions. Under-building parking can be
developed most readily only when
whole blocks are available. But it
costs the owner a considerable in-
vestment to place two or three floors
of parking under his store. He may be
forced to do this to keep his custo-
mers, but unless he receives some
form of subsidy from the city, this
solution is costly. The idea of sub-
basement parking is often feasible in
new urban developments but it is very
expensive when applied to existing
structures. However, the progressive
designer will explore every means of
meeting the challenge of parking
28


which is an aspect of the larger one
of linking architecture with transpor-
tation.

Research
The tenth and last source for the
architectural designer is research. Ev-
ery university today has the obligation
to expand the intellectual horizon as
well as to preserve and disseminate
old knowledge. This orientation tow-
ard the future is new and is the prod-
uct of the science revolution. Indeed
one might say that the laboratory, not
the library, is the focal center of mod-
ern thought. The library itself is more
concerned today with world wide
communication than in storing our
cultural heritage.
Schools of architecture have caught
the new spirit in their emphasis on
contemporary design. But the pace
of technological progress has been so
swift that they have been content to
leave to scientists and manufacturers
the task of discovering new patterns
of living and new components for
construction. The faculties of our pro-
fessional schools should be the lead-
ers, not the followers, in this inquiry
into the future. They should set about
experimenting and testing the new
architectural environment for the
good life.
As a former director of research for
the government, I must add a word
of warning. Very few projects lead
to any illumination or progress. Re-
search requires imagination, focus,
persistence, skill, initiative and luck.
Without all of these ingredients men
grow grey in the laboratory without
achieving any significant result. In-
deed they lose the will to break
through the sound barrier of knowl-
edge. Too often a teacher takes on
a research job to add to an inade-
uate salary and searches earnestly for
the needle in the haystack when
previous studies have established the
fact that there are no needles and no
haystack in which they might be
found. It is very difficult to distin-
guish between creative and routine
research. Perhaps all that a director
of research can do is to make sure
that the man in charge of a project
has the spirit of adventure and some
familiarity with the field of his en-
deavors.
One of the great contributions of a
research program is to acquaint an
architectural faculty with the whole
field of science, social, biological,


and physical. Most of us have become
so fascinated with the fair muse of
space relations I cannot identify
her by name because the Greeks had
no Muse of architecture that we
have neglected the other obligations
of our profession. As I have tried to
indicate throughout this paper, I
don't think that art and science are
incompatible. By way of illustration,
Muriel Rukeyser, the poet, wrote the
best biography of Willard Gibbs, one
of our great American scientists, that
has appeared in print. You will recall
that Gibbs' equations demonstrated
the relation between physics and
chemistry in the days when these two
sciences were studied as unrelated
disciplines. It required a poet's in-
sight to grasp the significance of this
unification of knowledge.
As most architects are space men
in the sense of being aware of four
dimensional relationships, I think
that we can be most effective in the
field of research that involves proto-
type models. Every college of archi-
tecture should be engaged in con-
structing and testing an experimental
structure. This undertaking should
involve both students and faculty al-
though in such a task it would be well
to reinforce the working group with
a scientist or two and with a few
skilled mechanics from some one of
the trades involved. Such a balanced
personnel, which includes, designers,
students, scientists and technicians,
is well equipped to adopt an inventive
to a research problem.
To conclude this paper, I believe
that the architectural designer has
vast sources and resources from which
to develop the architecture of this
atomic age. I hope he will not be
content to function as a paper artist,
guided only by aesthetic values, but
will be invigorated by the strong cur-
rents of our total culture. The Vic-
torians attempted to separate and
rarefy art. They expressed this aim
in the slogan, "Art for Art's Sake."
our task is to restore art to its function
of humanizing all the processes of in-
dustrial civilization. Our slogan should
be "Art as a Way of Life." If we suc-
ceed in applying art to our total cul-
tural environment, we can hopefully
create a modern pattern of life that
compares in quality and beauty with
ancient Greek cilization, but which
surpasses classic achievement in our
growing understanding and control of
nature.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







This Is Red River Rubble


It's a hard, fine-grained
sandstone from the now-dry
bed of the Kiamichi River in
Oklahoma. In color it ranges
from a warm umber through a
variety of brownish reds to
warm, light tan . Face
textures are just as varied. Over
thousands of years rushing
water has sculptured each
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striations, swirls and has
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rrr
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74 Sanford W. Goin 4rcCttectural Schdtadipf ,aurd


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by














A realistic seascape done with the style and sensitivity that has mac
the artist one of the most popular marine painters in Ohio and Florid


















He is the son of Henrik Hillbom, an outstanding New England landscaF
painter from the time of the first World War until his death in 1950.
I ......... ,... , I- I l, l,,, ,, ijl \ 11 .,11 1 .h ,.,,Id I., ,,r 1". \N I ,,f,,,,- I ,d ( ..n ,,,


















Now director r of the Florida Gulf Coast Art Center in Belleair, the young


















Hillbom was for 25 years are director for B. F. Goodrich Company in Akro
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Ohio. He also served on the board of Akron Art Institute for many yea
and is the only life-member of the Akron Art Society. In the late 192(
he helped organize and served as first president of the St. Augustine (Fla
Art Association.
Born in Greenwich Village, where his father then had a home and studio


Hillbom was a member of the 1916 class at Yale University, where he major
ed in architecture. He spent six years in France part of the time main mil
tary service with the American expeditionary forces and the remainder
studying art. Since 1959 he has been a permanent of Florida ar



was named art center director three years ago. His work is to be found
many homes in Ohio, Connecticut, California and Florida.
Framed in silver wood, the painting he has donated for the Sanford Go
Archtiectural Scholarship Fund is predominantly in shades of a stormy s<
and lowering skies blue-green water, white waves and purpling-gri
clouds. Its frame size is 31 V2 by 25V14 inches.
Valued at $200, minimum bids will start at $125.
Deadline for entries in bidding is March 20 and all bids should be mail
before that date to Mrs. Edmund MacCollin, 1480 Sunset Point Road, Clea
Water, Florida. It is asked that a bank reference be included with each bi
but no checks are to be sent until the winner is notified. This will be as soc
after the closing date as possible.




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