• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Current highlights
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Officers elected
 Junior college facilities...
 To meet the needs of quality
 Needed: Architects of matter
 News and notes
 Shall we pre-qualify bidders on...
 Fort Lauderdale competition
 Advertisers' index
 Back Cover






Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00114
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: December 1963
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00114
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
    Current highlights
        Front Cover 2
    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Officers elected
        Page 7
    Junior college facilities conference
        Page 8
    To meet the needs of quality
        Page 9
    Needed: Architects of matter
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    News and notes
        Page 16
    Shall we pre-qualify bidders on school construction projects
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Fort Lauderdale competition
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Advertisers' index
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text

A A FSgo


This- publication- is. copyrighted- by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the.
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available-has-been granted by-the Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.










Current Highlights...

* THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK FOR 1964 REMAINS BRIGHT ... tax cut or no tax cut. That's the
view of most government economists, as well as those in industry. They don't buy
the official line that cuts are needed to avoid a recession, or to make what
allegedly would be only a so-so year a really bang-up one. Most experts still
support Kennedy's reductions as a good long-range reform. And they expect the
bill now pending before the Senate to be voted into law. It is now only a question
of timing probably early 1964, rather than 1963.
There are three main reasons for this unqualified optimism:
... Present momentum is strong. Neither consumer nor government spend-
ing shows signs of slackening its recent robust pace.
... There are few weaknesses serious enough to cause trouble. Certainly, busi-
ness inventories can't be called excessive.
... Investment in new plant is rising and will keep on rising in 1964. The
good business prospects encourage new outlays.
Tax cuts can make a good outlook even better, the economists believe. Re-
ductions would add to the gains industry would be showing anyway.
More importantly, substantial cuts would provide some extra insurance for a
rattling good year.
* SOME EXPERTS ARE BEGINNING TO WORRY ABOUT THE OPTIMISM that is now so gen-
eral. They recall that when forecasters become as nearly unanimous about the
outlook as they are today, they seldom prove to be very accurate. The "crowd"
didn't do very well in 1960 . or again in 1962, until the fall. And don't forget
that many were wrong in saying there'd be a slide in 1963.
Sometimes things go wrong precisely because opinion was so unanimous.
Over-confidence can lead to overlooking of some weaknesses. And if every-
one rushed to act on the uniformly high expectations, excesses could develop
fairly quickly.
* SPENDING WON'T RISE MUCH IN THE NEW U.S. BUDGET now in preparation for sub-
mission to Congress in January. The President has dropped plans for new pro-
grams and is even paring some projects already begun but scheduled to expand.
Officials are doing their darndest to keep outlays below $100 billion. This year,
the total will be $98 billion. Next year, without the President's hold-down, the fig-
ure could easily reach or top $102 billion.
This is a switch from the New Frontier line. And it isn't sitting well with
liberal Democrats in Congress. But the President feels it's needed to get tax
cuts past Congress.
* THERE IS A LITTLE CONCERN ABOUT PRICE INCREASES in Washington these days. Offi-
cials are still watching developments closely. They are prepared to act by tight-
ening money, for example if that should prove to be necessary to check a new
round of inflation. But, for the time being, the upward thrust of prices seems to
have dissipated some of its momentum.
For a while, officials were really worried. That's when the hikes in steel
seemed to have given a green light to other industries; a psychological bar-
rier seemed to have come down. But now it doesn't look as if a new price-
wage spiral is about to begin. And motives behind the hikes are clearer.
* AN EFFORT TO RESTORE PROFIT MARGINS IS THE KEY REASON for the rash of price in-
creases of recent months. Prices had drifted down during the past five years,
despite expanding sales. Now that demand for goods has perked up, many com-
panies are understandably trying to regain lost ground. If businessmen can't do
it now, when things are favorable, when can they?
The trend to higher prices is now expected to have a more limited impact
on the economy for these basic reasons: (Continued on 3rd Cover)











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DECEMBER, 1963

























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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






























iO L 'i


Canyon colors transmuted to building material: Another way of say-
ing, "Canyon Pink Face Brick by Merry."
Canyon Pink contrasts softly with green Florida building sites; specify
Canyon Pink for your next job where you envision a light, yet delicately
warm tone.
For more information ask the Merry representative who calls on you,
or contact Merry Brick direct.


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74




Florida Architect
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS



In 74h I44Ce ---


Current Highlights .


. . . . . 2nd and 3rd Covers


Officers Elected . Executive Director Named ..

Junior College Facilities Conference . . . . .

To Meet The Needs of Quality . . . . . .
By Robert H. Levison, A.I.A., Regional Director
Needed: Architects of Matter . . . . . .
By W. D. Robertson
Reprinted with permission of the American Society
for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, Penna.


S9


. 10


News and Notes . Jacksonville Chapter Awards . . . . 16
Florida South Chapter Awards

Shall We Pre-Qualify Bidders on School Construction Projects . . 17
By Dr. C. W. McGuffey


Fort Lauderdale Competition . .
By George M. Polk, AIA

Advertisers' Index . . . .


FAA OFFICERS 1963
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President, 233 E. Bay St., Jacksonville
William F. Bigoney, Jr., First V.-Pres., 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale
William T. Arnett, Second V.-President, University of Florida, Gainesville
Richard B. Rogers, Third V.-President, 511 N. Mills St., Orlando
Jefferson N. Powell, Secretary, 361 S. County Road, Palm Beach
James Deen, Treasurer, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
DIRECTORS
BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hansen, Robert G. Jahelka; DAYTONA
BEACH: Francis R. Walton; FLORIDA CENTRAL: A. Wynn Howell, Richard
E. Jessen, Frank F. Smith, Jr.; FLORIDA NORTH: James T. Lendrum, Lester
N. May; FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA NORTH-
WEST: Barnard W. Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: C. Robert Abele, John
O. Grimshaw, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: John R. Graveley, Walter
B. Schultz, A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr.; MID-FLORIDA: Fred G. Owles, Jr.,
Donald O. Phelps; PALM BEACH: Donald Edge, Harold A. Obst, Hilliard T.
Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region American Institute of Architects
Robert H. Levison, 425 South Garden Avenue, Clearwater, Florida
Executive Secretary, Florida Association of Architects
Verna Shaub Sherman, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables, Florida
PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA, Chairman; Wm. T. Arnett, Fred W. Bucky, Jr.,
B. W. Hartman Jr., Dana B. Johannes.


. 19


. 23


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Inisitute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida
Corporation not for profit. It is published
monthly at the Executive Office of the Asso-
ciation, 3730 S. W. 8th Street, Coral Gables
34, Florida; telephone, 448-7453.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year; January Roster Issue,
$2.00 ... Printed by McMurray Printers.
THIS ISSUE . .
VERNA SHAUB SHERMAN
Acting Editor
H. P. ARRINGTON
Acting Advertising Manager


VOLUME 131

NUMBER 121 9
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





























































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1612 East Colonial Drive, Orlando, Florida 32803
PORTLAND CEME NT ASSOCIATION An organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete
DECEMBER, 1963


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3 A Report From Key Biscayne


INSPIRATIONAL DESIGNS WITH


-- UNIT LAMINATED WOOD


rIlnul.; JUpll nI1, oInl.l wIn siri ;. u . wnauSuuLIV w III Wy
Consulting Engineer: Carr Smith and Associates

beauty, dignity, economy at Key Biscayne Pres-
byterian Church is achieved with designs of UNIT
glued laminated wood. Sixteen reverse-curved
laminated frames form the sanctuary-and basic
shape of the structure. These high-rising one-
piece members meet at a center compression
ring that supports laminated steeple members
which rise an additional 32 feet above the arch
tops. Forty-eight straight laminated beams form
a low roof around the perimeter of the sanctuary
to cover additional facilities. A finished roof of
Southern Pine UNIT-Deck spans directly over all
laminated members. The seemingly complex
framing of this church was resolved quickly and
economically with UNIT laminated members.
Substantial additional savings were realized since
the laminated members were furnished pre-
stained and varnished at the factory. Take a closer
look at UNIT. Mail coupon for more details.


The beautiful sanctuary of Key Biscayne Presbyterian
Church is readily accessible to surrounding classrooms,
nursery, offices, kitchen, lavatories.
For more information call or write (in Northern Florida)
Chuck Hamilton, P. O. Box 181, Mableton, Ga. Tele-
phone 948-8600, Area Code 404 . (In Southern
Florida) Fred Omundson, P. O. Box A-856, Fort Lauder.
dale, Fla. Telephone 564-6114, Area Code 305.
UNIT STRUCTURESe""--
FKORS FOREST PRODUCTS DIVISION AT
KOPPERS COMPANY, INC. I AII
.. .. .I Code 5)
Mo riil, I.C. Phoae: 467-9391 (Ara Code 919)
S-IBA
UNIT STRUCTURES
FOREST PRODUCTS DIVISION, KOPPERS CO., INC.
750 Koppers Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219
O At no obligation, please have representative call
O Send copy of UNIT'S 1963 Design Manual


ORGANIZATION


ADDRESS
CITY ZONE STATE


NAME TITLE__


Ni&M


TIT LE








Ofices Eteeed for 1964...


H. LESLIE WALKER
Secretary


Officers re-elected at the Annual
Meeting to serve a second term were
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President and
James Deen, Treasurer.
C. Robert Abele,. Florida South
Chapter, was elected Third Vice Pres-
ident, South Florida Area. William


T. Arnett, will as of January first,
automatically become the FAA's First
Vice President, North Florida Area
and Richard Boone Rogers, Second
Vice President representing the Cen-
tral Florida Area.
The newly elected Secretary, H.
Leslie Walker, has just completed a
two year term as President of Florida
Central Chapter.
Elected by unanimous vote on the
Convention floor as the three year
member of the Regional Judiciary
Committee is Donald Jack West a
member of Florida Central Chapter.
Alternates named are Lester N. May,
Florida North Chapter and William
Stewart Morrison, Florida North West
Chapter.
Clinton Gamble, FAIA, a member
of the Broward County Chapter and
former President of the Florida Asso-
ciation of Architects now serving his
second term as Secretary of The
American Institute of Architects, was


unanimously nominated by the Asso-
ciation's members and delegates for
the office of Vice President of The
American Institute of Architects.


photo-Pilkington
C. ROBERT ABELE
Third Vice President


Seecet(e Viaeetd4 lt4med..


photo-Chase, Ltd.
FOTIS N. KAROUSATOS

The Florida Association of Archi-
tects announces the appointment of
Fotis Nicholas Karousatos as Execu-
tive Director and Editor of its publi-
oation, THE FLORIDA ARCHI-
TECT, as of January 1964.
DECEMBER, 1963


Born in Washington, D. C. in
1929, he received his B.A. in Business
Administration from George Wash-
ington University and completed
graduate work in the field of Man-
agement at the same University. He
is well prepared for the tasks he will
assume for the Association, for not
only his fields of study but also his
experience embraces management,
business policy, personnel manage-
ment, marketing and controllership.
Mr. Karousatos has held varying
positions in National Associations
ranging in size from 120 to 3500
members with annual budgets from
$60,000 to $350,000., has worked
closely with governmental agencies,
written and edited bulletins of all
types, training manuals and technical
publications and has prepared articles
for weekly newsletters and annual
marketing guides. In addition has
planned, promoted and directed con-
ventions; regional meetings, educa-


tional seminars and social events for
groups ranging in size to 1000. He
has organized and conducted mem-
bership and public relations cam-
paigns, statistical reporting programs
and other types of surveys.
His background includes responsi-
bility and direction of all aspects of
association office procedures, includ-
ing supervision of personnel, pur-
chasing and all phases of accounting.
In addition he is an accomplished
public speaker.
His position immediately prior to
joining the Association has been As-
sistant Executive Vice President of a
National Manufacturers Association.
Accordingly, he is well prepared to
assume the responsibilities as Execu-
tive Directors for The Association.
Mr. Karousatos is married to a New
Yorker named Anne and is the father
of two boys and two girls-the young-
est child, a daughter, was born Sep-
tember 28, 1963.







9pieot emeege...


Facilities


Conference


The Junior College Division and
the School Plant Section of the State
Department of Education are co-
ordinating efforts with the National
School Facilities Council in planning
for the Junior College Conference
scheduled to be held in Tampa, Janu-
ary 23rd. through the 25th, at The
Causeway Inn.
An exhibit of existing college facili-
ties in the State of Florida is planned
as an important segment of the Con-
ference. Adequate space will be avail-
able for the Exhibit and all architects
are invited to participate in exhibiting
models, photographs and drawings.
There will not be a fee for exhibit
participation however, it is suggested
that all architects who plan to submit
material write for complete informa-
tion to: Dr. H. L. Cramer, Depart-


ment of Education, School Plants
Division, Tallahassee, Florida.
Co-Chairmen for the Conference
are Dr. C. W. McGuffey and Dr.
James L. Wattenbarger. Assistants are
Dr. Lee Henderson and Dr. H. L.
Cramer.
The Conference will explore the
present relationship of curricular ac-
tivities and facilities, and attempt to
describe the teaching methods of the
next decade.

PROGRAM
THURSDAY, JANUARY 23
11:00 A. M.-Registration
Afternoon Session
Dr. J. L. Wattenbarger, Presiding
2:00 P.M.-Purpose of Conference
Hon. Thomas D. Bailey, State
Superintendent of Public In-


struction.
2:15 P.M.-Educational Specifica-
tions. Dr. H. L. Cramer, Con-
sultant Plant Planning, Florida
State Department of Education
3:00 P.M.-Curricular and Facilities
Changes. Dr. Kenneth Wil-
liams, President Florida-Atlan-
tic University.
4:00 P.M.-Planning Facilities and
Curricula. Dr. Maurice Roney,
Director School of Industrial
Education, Oklahoma State
University.
Evening Session
Dr. C. W. McGuffey, Presiding
6:30 P.M.-Dinner Meeting. The
Materials Center as the Heart of
the College. William Brubaker,
AIA, Perkins and Will, Chi-
cago.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 24
Morning Session
K. G. Skaggs, Presiding
8:35 A.M.-Southern Technical In-
stitute Programs and Facilities.
H. L. McClure, Director,
Southern Technical Institute.
(Continued on Page 21)


* MEDALLION standards: (1) All-
Electric kitchen with electric range,
water heater and at least 2 other
major appliances. (2) Full House-
power-100-200 amp-with plenty
of switches and outlets. (3) Light-
for-Living for eye comfort and
decorative beauty. %


14L
zi
Wz1


this


MEDALLION*

Does it!

More and more home buyers are be-
coming convinced that flameless elec-
tric living is the better way. Florida
builders have found the MEDALLION
a valuable selling aid, because customers know
it is the hallmark of electrical excellence.
That's why in the highly competitive home
building market, 87% more Medallion living
units were certified by FPL in 1962 than in
1961. Help your clients enjoy modern Florida
living by recommending "Medallion" standards.


flameless


FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY
HELPING BUILD FLORIDA
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT








7T MNeet 74e eeds of ualty...




Improved Communications



Undivided Responsibilities

m.-.i.mm i: By ROBERT H. LEVISON ..,-.......n
Director, Florida Region AIA


At a dinner meeting of the Flor-
ida West Coast Chapter of The
Producers' Council, Incorporated
held late October in Tampa . .
the Director of the Florida Re-
gion, AIA, surveyed the current
need for Quality . and urged
material suppliers to join with
the members of the architectural
profession in an effort to create
more efficient and beautiful
structures. His address is repro-
duced in it's entirety here.


"QUALITY is a word which is be-
ing given considerable attention this
year. The quest for quality was the
theme of the 1963 convention of The
American Institute of Architects
where architects, physicians and
journalists discussed the problems of
a physical environment of excellence
for a society changing rapidly.
Quality, indeed, was the preoccupa-
tion of the architects, engineers, con-
tractors, and manufacturers who at-
tended your recent annual meeting
in Washington. There, independent-
ly of one another, each of the speak-
ers touched on the need for further
industrialization of building, the inte-
gration of building products into
larger elements of design-and par-
ticularly-the great need for better
communication among all of the prin-
cipals of today's building team.
The time has come when we can
no longer assume that each of us has
his own private compartment in
which he works alone and to which
his contribution should be limited,
and although we have been building
in our nation for nearly two centuries,
technology has been limited and the
supply of land has been unlimited.
NOW these two positions are re-
versed, population mounts, our urban
centers decay, ugliness spreads, and
time will not, and cannot wait for us
to fumble and adjust. Many major
decisions of our age have been made
for us and we find a new America
being built within the span of a few
decades. We have called it the second
United States, since, to meet the
need, we are told we must duplicate
every single structure in our nation
before the end of this century. Meet-
ing the needs of quantity alone im-
poses a tremendous burden upon our
building industry. Whether this re-
sult will be one of quality is a ques-


tion and I am not sure we yet have a
clear cut answer. However, one thing
is clear, if we are to have quality in
our new environment, our responsi-
bilities cannot be divided from one
another's.
Your programs many times include
sessions on "selling" the architect.
Indeed your chairman suggested that
this responsibility on this program, in
error I trust, be assigned to me. I
felt unqualified, but-a brief word of
advice. There is really no great mys-
tery to selling an architect if you rec-
ognize one salient thing-He is re-
sponsible for the quality of his build-
ings, and what he needs most from
you is honest, accurate, and detailed
information. He needs to know what
your product will do and, equally im-
portant, what it will not do.
On the landing of the steps which
lead up to the Lincoln Memorial, but
some distance from the building it-
self, there is a wooden pedestal sup-
porting a wooden sign which carries
the improbable admonition "No
Smoking." To the casual observer
this sign is obviously misplaced, stand-
ing as it does under God's blue sky
on a platform of stone, but it is not.
The real purpose of the sign is to pre-
vent the staining of the platform by
those who may drop a lighted cigar-
ette and grind it under a heel. These
stains, I learned, can be removed from
the stone only by special equipment
and chemicals. Was that particular
stone appropriate? Remember, what
your product will not do is important.
In addition, you should be able to tell
the architects costs, delivery schedules
and to what degree you and your
company will stand behind what you
are trying to sell.
I would like you to share with me
a few of the major and current con-
(Continued on Page 22)


DECEMBER, 1963










Needed: Architects of Matter*
By W. D. ROBERTSON


Progress in the use of materials, as in many other
areas, is impeded by a synthesis gap-the dis-
crepancy between our ability to analyze complexity
and our inability to deal with it. The great need
today is not for more facts but for greater under-
standing of the facts already known. Only then can
matter be truly shaped and designed to serve the
needs of man.


This article published by permission of the American Society for
Testing and Materials first appeared in their publication
MATERIALS RESEARCH & STANDARDS.


A T SOME RISK Of sound-
ing like an "elder statesman" of sci-
ence, a role I hasten to disclaim, I
should like to explore the question:
"What is the significance of the re-
search to which so many of our sci-
entists and engineers are now devoting
so much of their time and energy?"
In particular, are they fulfilling what
must be one of their most important
functions, namely, to identify and to
study the really significant problems?
Or are they, instead, subdividing prob-
lems into growing numbers of smaller
and smaller units to satisfy a form of
Parkinson's Law to the effect that re-
search expands to fill the available
time, to occupy the available man-
power, and to spend the available
money?
I should like to explore this ques-
tion in light of the magnitude, rate of
growth, and direction of science and
technology and to suggest a perspec-
tive, which, while it capitalizes on
the knowledge we have accumulated,
would direct more of our efforts into
what may become the main stream of
developments.

The Magnitude of Science
Numbers indicating the magnitude
of science and technology and the di-

Presented as the Fifth William B. Cole-
man Lecture at the Franklin Inst., Philadel-
phia, Pa., Feb. 20, 1963.
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer
to the list of references appended to this
paper.
10


reaction in which we are heading have
been compiled by Derek Price (1,2).1
For example, consider the growth in
the number of scientific journals
(Fig. 1) that have appeared since
1665, when the first volume of the
Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society of London was pub-
lished. Clearly, after the first ten jour-
nals were established during a century
of uncertain beginnings, the growth
rate is an exponential function of time
to an astonishing degree of accuracy
throughout the succeeding 200 years.
During this period the time required
to double the number of journals has
remained substantially constant at 15
years, or about three such doubling
periods in an individual's professional
lifetime of about 45 years. Conse-
quently, there is eight times as much
to read at the end of one's career as
at the beginning. The next time you
contemplate the library shelves and
despair of keeping up with your field,
you may find some justification, if not
comfort, in this factor of eight.
There is, of course, a corresponding
growth in the number of people en-


gaged in some form of scientific activ-
ity. A head count of professional sci-
entists and engineers, as defined by
the National Science Foundation (3),
indicates that their rate of growth in
the United States is considerably
greater than the growth rate of the
total labor force-the respective doub-
ling periods being 12 and 55 years.
Thus the professional population in-
ceases by a factor of 23 while the
working population increases by a
factor of two. Soon it will be very
difficult to find anyone willing to
use something as mundane as a ham-
mer.
Unfortunately, it seems that high-
quality science does not proliferate as
fast as science as a whole. A recent
study by Derek Price (2) indicates
that "good" science increases much
more slowly than all science and, in
fact, is proportional to the square root
of the total activity. To double the
output of "good science" we must
increase the total effort fourfold, car-
rying along a large burden of indi-
viduals whose productivity is not in
the category of "good" science. Since


W. D. ROBERTON received a B.Sc. (1942) and a D.Sc. (1948)
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he studied
chemical and physical properties of intermetallic compounds and
discovered the first intermetallic compound semiconductor (MgsSn).
From 1948 to 1950, he was research associate at the Institute for the
Study of Metals at the University of Chicago.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







the cost increases as the square of
the total number engaged, it is neces-
sary to multiply the cost by 16 to
obtain twice the current output of
"good" science-surely an expensive
undertaking.
The Cost of Science
It is no surprise that the expendi-
ture of money on research and devel-
opment also grows exponentially with
time. The significant feature is the
rate of growth-about 10 per cent per
year, corresponding to a doubling time
of seven years. Since the gross na-
tional product doubles only once every
20 years, we shall, unless something
changes radically, be spending all our
money on science and technology in
about 65 years (4). Indeed, at the
present rate of expenditure on high-
energy physics, most of this money
could be used to build and operate
the accelerators that doubtless will
supersede the Stanford linear accelera-
tor, which will be 2 miles long and
cost $200 million to build and $20
million to operate each year. Of course
these numbers are relatively insigni-
ficant when compared with the esti-
mated cost of landing a man on the
moon-$20 to $40 billion.
The Research Climate
Just as the Olympic games have
taken on political overtones that can-
not be ignored in the training of ath-
letes, it would be unrealistic and futile
to ignore the political implications
attached to science and engineering
and the corresponding problem of
training competent scientists and en-
gineers in sufficient numbers. As Alvin
Weinberg (4) has observed, we are
inevitably committed to the "Scien-
tific Olympics" in space technology,
high-energy physics, and, of course,
nuclear devices of all kinds. On the
other hand, Weinberg concludes that
it is a reasonably safe prediction that
relatively few new principles will
emerge from this massive effort-ex-
cept possibly from particle physics-
and that even fewer will find applica-
tion on our planet.
There is at least one other field of
endeavor in which the potential bene-
fits far exceed the probable capital
investment, namely, the development
of systematic methods of controlling
the properties of a terrestrial matter.

Research in the Structure and
Properties of Matter
In the title I have used the expres-
DECEMBER, 1963


Number of Journalt
-1.000,000


1700 1800 1900 2000
DATE
Courtesy Yale University Press
Fig. 1.-The growth in number of
all scientific journals since publication
of the Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society of London (1).

sion "Architect of Matter" in the very
literal sense of master builder-one
who designs predetermined form and
function into a material. I should like
to explore this concept in terms of the
properties of matter and its relation to
various perspectives in research. How-
ever, before jumping to the conclu-
sion that we are already engaged in
precisely this endeavor, let me submit
one of Escher's pictures (Fig. 2) in
which the architect has discovered
that it is possible to make connections
in various ways and that some of the
less obvious choices have interesting
possibilities. Note that the gentleman
on the ladder began his ascent inside
the building and that he has stopped
to rest at the turning point between
the two worlds of inside and outside.


Seriously, we are engaged in design-
ing materials, but let us examine our
methods and then ask if they are
ideally suited to the purpose and
whether significant contributions lie
ahead on the road we are traveling
now.
Although the number of technical
journals and the number of papers in
the journals grow exponentially in
time, even a brief examination of their
contents shows that very few prob-
lems are being solved; instead, it ap-
pears that problems are being gener-
ated by a kind of fission process. At
exponential rates, to quote Price again
(1), the number of problems per
square head will very shortly exceed
the number of men, women and chil-
dren, and dogs available to work on
them." Thus, one of our accomplish-
ments seems to have been the creation
of an efficient device for the manu-
facture of problems!
In the field of the properties of
materials, one of our tasks surely must
be to develop stronger and more re-
liable (more ductile) materials for
structures. Examination of the state
of the art indicates that progress is
indeed being made, but this progress
is principally in the direction of learn-
ing more about the reasons why
materials are weak, rather than prog-
ress in designing stronger materials by
using newly acquired principles.
The dislocation, as depicted by L.
S. Darken in Fig. 3, is one of these
newer principles and one that seems
to be an inexhaustible source of new
and fascinating problems in the field
of mechanical properties. In the best
tradition of analytical science, dislo-
cations were considered first in the
nonexistent, simple cubic structure,
and in recent years we have progress-
(Continued on Page 12)


"We have more than enough of the bits and pieces that are required to
build a culture and a society of majestic dimensions guided and inspired by
knowledge, conscious and confident of its strength, and with ability to guide
and reshape its conditions and its goals as understanding deepens and broadens.
We have enough knowledge when properly applied and integrated for men to
have a much deeper understanding of themselves, and to use the knowledge
for transcendent human purposes. Yet the real possessors of this knowledge
are in their studies, in their laboratories, seeking more and more information,
more knowledge, and living apart from their fellowmen while their destiny is
being shaped by people who have little realization of the power of the tools at
our command."
I. I. RABI, at a University of Roch-
ester convocation, as quoted in
Battelle Technical Review, Vol. 12,
No. 3, March, 1963.







Architects of Matter
(Continued from Page 11)

ed to the hexagonal structure. This-. .
state of knowledge leaves quite a large
field to be explored among the re- "a y
mainder of the 14 Bravais lattices, not
to mention the possibilities for re-
search provided by the delightfully
large number of ways in which dislo-
cations may dissociate and recombine
in new configurations.
Stronger and more reliable materials
are certainly being developed con-
stantly, but the method used is that
well-known and justly famous proced-
ure of more-or-less educated cut-and-
try. Furthermore, each new accom-
plishment of this kind immediately
causes a stampede into the laboratory
-more facts about the new develop-
ment are uncovered, more papers are
published-but, somehow, these facts
seldom seem to be very useful in giv-
ing birth to succeeding developments
in the same field. For example, stain-
less steel was not developed out of
corrosion research. The first materials
with properties approaching the re-
quirements for high-temperature gas
turbines, together with their method
of fabrication, were adopted from a
material (vitallium) developed for

ly, the newest high-strength steels,
the managing steels, do not appear to
owe very much to several generations .... 'i
of intensive and sophisticated study of ,
the martensite transformation. Each
of us could supply a long list of such
examples.
Perhaps I have said enough to in- Courtesy Duell, Sloan & Pearce
dicate that we are very good at analyz-
ing the behavior of materials and pro-
viding ex post facto explanations (usu-
ally not including both necessary and
sufficient conditions). With a few
notable exceptions, such as the tran-
sistor and its relatives in the field that
Von Hipple calls molecular engineer-
ing, in which almost all the credit
goes to quantum mechanics, we can-
not claim to be very successful in
using the results of our investigations
to build predetermined form and
function into materials. I should add
that good and perhaps sufficient rea-
sons may be given for the existence
of this state of affairs; nevertheless,
it is not equally clear that we should
continue indefinitely in the same di-
rection without pausing to consider Courtesy L. S. Darken
the alternatives. Fig. 3-The edge dislocation, as depicted by L. S. Darken.
12 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT









2000


1960


1920


1880


YEAR
Fig. 4-The time between conception and application of ideas.
After K. B. McEachron (5).


The Significance of Complexity
Most of our difficulties seem to
originate in the complexity of the
combinations of units of structure
which, individually, may be under-
stood in great detail. However, it is
precisely the combination that consti-
tutes the final form and provides the
ability to function according to some
preconceived plan.
And here we reach the heart of the
matter, and I am indebted to Cyril
Stanley Smith for pointing out the
significance of the discrepancy be-
tween our ability to analyze complex
problems and our relative inability to
deal with complexity itself. We do
not seem to possess either the prin-
ciples or the techniques necessary to
deal with the operation of complex
combinations of phenomena as a
whole except by the process of trial
and error, which has become prohibi-
tively expensive in time and money
and natural resources.
I venture to suggest that the truly
effective engineers of the future will
be those who learn how to deal with
complexity by systematic and quanti-
tative methods and that engineers to-
day might turn their attention to the
development of these methods, before
we are completely swamped by facts
that we are unable to assemble into
larger aggregations with any assurance
of reliability.
Notwithstanding our ability to dis-
sect problems into neatly packaged
units-a procedure known as the
"scientific method" which has been
fantastically successful for the last 300
years-the direction in which we
might look for help in dealing syste-
DECEMBER, 1963


matically with complexity is not obvi-
ous, and the problem doesn't yield
readily to the classic scientific meth-
od. We might, however, turn to the
master of infinite, organized complex-
ity-nature-to find analogs of gen-
eral classes of problems and solutions.
It might be that we could, with the
techniques available to us now, dis-
cover something of the principles
underlying the organization of the
harmonious relationships that ensure
reliable functioning of complex aggre-
gation of units.

Nature-Organized Complexity
Turning to nature as a guide, we
are not surprised to find that our
effective, but time-consuming proced-
ure of cut-and-try in technology has
its counterpart in evolution. It works
equally well in both realms, but we
have reduced the time scale in science
and technology to the vanishing point.
Thus, as shown in Fig. 4, after K. B.
McEachron (5), the 70 years re-
quired to produce a significant num-
ber of electric motors from Faraday's
principle of electro-magnetic induc-
tion has shrunk to a few years be-
tween the conception of the transistor
and the appearance of a billion-dollar
industry; artificial diamonds, high-
field superconducting magnetic mater-
ials, and the later are examples of the
same phenomenon. Following the
linear extrapolation in Fig. 4, instead
of an asymptotic approach to a neg-
ligible difference in time between
conception and application, it almost
seems as if application will be pre-
ceded in future crash programs by
some form of immaculate conception.


Courtesy Pacific Science Center Foundation
Fig. 5-The DNA molecule and the
genetic code (10).

It is just this compression of the time
scale that has almost eliminated the
previously clear distinction between
science and engineering.
Pursuing the analogy with nature,
we note that the virtual elimination
of the time interval between concep-
tion and application means either
that we have increased the rate of
growth correspondingly or that we
have almost eliminated growth as a
process connecting conception and
the final development of an idea. In
(Continued on Page 14)


I I I I I I I I /1/
/ ,
S/ -

SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS
---ARTIFICIAL DIAMONDS
TRANSISTORS-
RADAR--





SELECTRICAL POWER
GENERATION

1840 1880 1920 1960 2000







Architects of Matter
(Continued from Page 13)
the latter case, development of more
or less complex aggregations of units
takes on the character of a random,
statistical process in which more or
less equal weight is given to all con-
tributions, in contrast with selective
processes in which actions are prede-
termined by the boundary conditions
of the final product. In short, nature
does not depend on raw statistics to
solve its complex problems, and when
the science, or engineering, of com-
plexity is defined, it will involve much
more than statistics-thought it may
be that the idea of random processes
in communication theory is relevant
here.
Probably the best example of or-
ganized complexity is the DNA mole-
cule. Furthermore, the research that
led to the unraveling of its structure
(see Fig. 5) and the interpretation of
the structure in terms of a genetic
code by Wilkins et al, are equally
good examples of operationally signi-
ficant research. A detailed model of
the DNA molecule was constructed
in which the significant features of
this infinitely complex structure were
reduced to ordered arrangements of
four units, represented by the four
suits of cards in Fig. 5. One could
speculate on the number of research
papers, all containing insufficient or
unnecessary hypotheses concerning
the genetic code, that were swept
away by this one structural model.
However, it is more useful to learn
the positive lesson that research in
fields that do not involve the uncer-
tainty principle is not finished, and
not operational, until one can build
a model of the phenomenon.


Courtesy R. Buckminster Fuller
Fig. 7-A "geodesic dome" over the headquarters building of the American
Society for Metals (11).


courtesy Uamornage
Fig. 8-Bone from a vulture's wing (7, p. 981).


In some instances the models we
seek are already available in nature
on a scale that doesn't require an
electron microscope or the detailed
analysis of X-ray intensity data that
produced the DNA structure. For ex-
ample, a general structural problem
in architecture is that of enclosing
space without internal support so
that, say, when man arrives on the
moon, he will be able to tramp around
collecting dust. Nature discovered
how to solve this design problem
when she enclosed micro-organisms
(radiolaria) in a cage of siliceous
material (Fig. 6) (6), which satisfies
all mechanical and topological re-
quimements (note that nature has
smuggled in an occasional pentagon)


and is immune to corrosion by sea
water. Buckminster Fuller, the origi-
nator of the "geodesic dome," reach-
ed a similar solution. Among other
and more functional things like ra-
dar domes, the headquarters building
of the American Society for Metals
(Fig. 7) was enclosed in a cage of
aluminum hexagons. However, it is
not clear that the topological problem
was solved, since space cannot be
completely enclosed by regular hexa-
gons, as Euler proved, and the corro-
sion problem certainly was not solved,
as the ASM headquarters building
will probably demonstrate in due
course.
Many other examples of nature as
a designing engineer can be found


Fig. 6-The dwelling of the micro-
scopic Radiolarian, Aulonia hexagona
(6).


TABLE 1-RATIO OF TENSILE STRENGTH TO DENSITY FOR A
SPIDER'S WEB, NYLON, AND A HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL
(AT ROOM TEMPERATURE).
Tensile Strength, Elongation, Density, g Strength-Density
psi per cent per cc Ratio
Spider's weba -____. 26 200 20 0.66 2.7 x 106
Nylon 100 000 20 1.15 6.1
Steel 300 000 10 80 2


a J. R. Benton, American Journal of Science, Vol. 24, 1907, p. 75.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


.'







without much trouble. For example,
the problem of supporting wings in
airplanes was solved long ago in the
vulture, whose wing structure is
shown in Fig. 8 (7). Perhaps some-
one has done it already, but it might
be instructive to examine a colony
of ants for possible solutions to our
traffic problems. Of course, the bees
"solved" the minimum wax problem,
not only in two dimensions but also
in joining two hexagonal arrays in a
honeycomb, back to back, via rhom-
bic dodecahedra. I wonder if the
packaging industry has consulted the
bees?
Returning to the field of structure
and mechanical properties of materi-
als (strength, strength-to-density ratio,
stiffness, and the factor of reliability)
nature and the polymer chemist both
have done, and are now doing, an
outstanding job of design in fibrous
materials. The relative strength-to-
density ratios of a spider's web, nylon,
and a high-strength steel at room
temperature (Table 1) show that na-
ture long ago did as well as the most
recently developed steels, and the
polymer chemist has surpassed both.
Of course it is true that metallurgy
has made significant contributions to
strength at elevated temperatures-
one of our best efforts to date.
When stiffness is necessary in a
reed or palm tree, nature arranges the
fibers to take the tensile stresses and
disposes them in such a way as to
prevent buckling-all with due atten-
tion to space for internal mechanisms
to transmit nutrients. These essential
features of the problem of mechani-
cal stability in a palm tree are also
those of a rocket. In both cases the
primary geometrical characteristics
are the ratio of length to diameter
and a honeycomb cell structure, the
particular virtues of the latter con-
struction we are just beginning to ap-
preciate and learn how to build.

Concluding Suggestions
Instead of multiplying these ex-
amples of nature as an archtiect and
designing engineer I should like to
summarize with a few very tentative
observations and suggestions.
1. Essentially all the elemental
materials of nature (75 per cent of
them metallic) are now available, or
can be made available, in the forms
and amounts required for most pur-
poses, a significant contribution of
the metallurgist. Furthermore, the
DECEMBER, 1963


modes of operation of many of the
physical and chemical principles gov-
erning the properties of matter are
known in broad terms. Thus, we have
available all the essential components
for the development of technology in
the era of The Scientific Revolution.
2. We do not need more isolated
facts. We already have more facts and
principles than we can at this moment
combine into socially useful, function-
ing units.
3. We do need to devote a signifi-
cantly larger fraction of research time
and money to the problem of under-
standing the interrelationships of phe-
nomena and principles that determine
the behavior of the whole process,
device, structure, or function. New
facts are important only if they are
necessary to the primary purpose of
defining the behavior of the whole,
and if they are so related. The period
of gathering interesting but often un-
related facts, through which much of
science necessarily passed, is now over.
4. In designing materials for pre-
determined functions we are seldom,
(Continued on Page 23)


REFERENCES
(1) D. J. de S. Price, Science Since
Babylon, Yale University Press,
New Haven, Conn., 1961, pp. 93 ff.
(2) D. J. de S. Price, Big Science, Little
Science, Columbia University Press,
New York, N. Y., 1963.
(3) Investing in Scientific Progress, Na-
tional Science Foundation Report
No. 61-27, Washington, D. C., 1961,
p. 14.
(4) A. M. Weinberg, Science, July 21,
1961, p. 161.
(5) K. B. McEachron, Case Alumnus,
April, 1958, p. 18.
(6) Ernst Haeckel, Challenger Mono-
graph: Report on the Scientific Re-
sults of the Voyage of H.M.S.
Challenger, Vol. 28, H. M. S. 0.,
1887.
(7) D'Arcy Thompson, On Growth and
Form, Cambridge University Press,
New York, N. Y., 1959, Vols. 1
and 2, p. 981.
(8) A. W. Watts, The Joyous Cosmol-
ogy, Random House, New York,
N, Y., 1962, p. xix.
(9) The Graphic Work of M. C. Es-
cher, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, New
York, N. Y., 1961.
(10) American Scientist, Vol. 50, 1962,
p. 640.
(11) John McHale, Makers of Contem-
porary Architecture-R. Buckmaster
Fuller, Geo. Braziller Inc., New
York, N. Y., 1962.


Fig. 9-The dwellings of radiolarians (6).








News & Notes


Jacksonville Chapter Awards ...

UI $` l-


photo-Joe A. Hernandez
Shown above, left to right, Theodore C. Poulos, President of the Jacksonville
Chapter; Alfred Browning Parker, F.A.I.A., Guest Speaker and Robert H. Levison,
Director Florida Region American Institute of Architects.


Jacksonville carpenter Raymond R.
Caddis was selected Craftsman of the
Year for his work in erecting hard-
wood paneling, by a Jury of the Jack-


sonville Chapter chairmanned by Mel-
len C. Greeley, FAIA.
Theodore C. Poulos, Chapter Pres-
ident, presided at the ceremonies held


Planning an apartment? motel? hotel?


Or an office, school or institutional building?
Specify the Dwyer Compact Kitchen in the
size and capacity required for the applica-
tion. There's a full line of Dwyers Irom 39 to
72 in length, for conventional or recess in-
stallation. Include refrigerator, gas or elec- --*
tric range and bake/broil oven, deep sink and '
storage. Heavy-duty construction and vit-
reous porcelain finish assure lasting dura-
bility and beauty. I_-J I
Write or phone today for L.
r Architect's Data Fle.
Wjei' Dwyer Products of Florida, Inc., Suite 621, DuPont Plaza Center
300 Biscayne Boulevard Way, Miami 32, Phone FRanklin 1-4344


early in November at the Florida
Yacht Club attended by persons
prominent in building construction in-
dustry.
Guest Speaker was Alfred Brown-
ing Parker, FAIA, who stated in part
"Craftsmanship is one of the yard-
sticks by which architecture can be
measured, it is pride in one's work.
A true craftsman is aware of his
materials; of their limitations and
capabilities and is able to bring forth
the best from the 'sticks and stones'
with which he works".

Florida South Awards ...
The annual Awards Banquet of The
Florida South Chapter, American In-
stitute of Architects was held at the
Dupont Plaza Hotel on November 5.
Awards were given to four Craftsmen
of the Year: Albert Hallquist, carpen-
ter; Carl Strandberg, stonemason;
Charles Wilcox, carpenter; and Mur-
ray Jones, painter. A special award
was given to Stanley Tupler, art di-
rector at Miami Springs Junior High,
and his students, for their creation of
a mosaic mural for the cafeteria of
their school.
Architect Guillermo, Gutirrez Es-
quivel, representing the Mexican So-
ciety of Architects, spoke on Crafts-
manship in Mexico, and illustrated
his talk with slides of hand-crafted
objects from prehistoric times to the
present. Senora Gutierrez was trans-
lator for her husband.
Guests of the Chapter included
Senor and Senora Rafael Reyes Spin-
dola, Mexican Consul in Miami; Mr.
Robert Levison, A.I.A., Director Flor-
ida Region, AIA, and Mrs. Levison;
and Mr. Roy M. Pooley, President,
Florida Association of Architects.
Members of the Awards Commit-
tee were Geoffrey Lynch, Chairman,
Jorge Arango, Edward Crain and Don-
ald Rider.

Correction . .
Inadvertently we failed to give
credit to THE CARRELL, the Jour-
nal of the Friends of the University
of Miami Library, for permission to
publish an article originally written
for them by Frank E. Watson, FAIA,
entitled "The Sun Is Seeking Some-
thing Bright To Shine On" which
appears on page seventeen of our No-
vember Issue.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT













SCHOOL



CONSTRUCTION



PROJECTS?


By DR. C. W. McGUFFEY
Assistant Director, School Plant Administration
State of Florida, Department of Education


At the last session of the Florida
Legislature a bill was passed permit-
ting county boards of public instruc-
tion the option of pre-qualifying bid-
ders on school construction projects.
The bill received overwhelming ap-
proval by the Legislature- passing
the Senate 42 to 2, and the House 79
to 17. The general opinion regarding
the bill was that if properly imple-
mented and administered the general
quality of school construction in the
State of Florida could be improved
through the more selective bidding
process possible under this law.
Post Qualification Inadequate
Until this Act was passed school
boards had the single alternative of
accepting all bids from contractors
who were financially capable of post-
ing a bond. The competitive bid laws
of the state require that school boards
accept the lowest and best bid. On all
projects financed from state sources,
a school board is required to accept
the lowest dollar bid unless approval
is obtained from the State Board of
Education to reject the low bidder
and award the contract to the second
low bidder.
Several questionable practices have
grown out of the legal and regulatory
requirements imposed on school
boards. A common practice has been
to reject all bids if the school board
was skeptical of a low bidder. This
practice costs both time and money
due to delay in the bidding process.
Another practice, over which a
number of complaints have been
raised, was the refusal on the part of
some school boards to distribute the
drawings and specifications to all con-
DECEMBER, 1963


tractors requesting them. This prac-
tice tended to restrict bidding and in-
volved the questionable use of discre-
tion on the part of the school board.
Still a third, and most undesirable
practice of post-qualification has been
the acceptance of the lowest dollar
bid submitted to the school board.
Many boards have felt that the
process of disqualifying a bidder after
the opening of bids was too involved
and too hazardous legally to attempt
it. The State Board of Education has
acted on one case only during the
past five years in which it approved
the action of a school board to dis-
qualify a low bidder. Yet, contractors
with records of default and incompe-
tency continue to bid on school con-
struction jobs and are awarded the
contracts. Generally speaking there
has been little or no choice but to
accept the lowest bidder regardless of
his integrity, financial responsibility
or competence.
The Practice of Pre-Qualification
Pre-qualifying a bidder refers to the
process of determining and evaluating
a bidder's qualifications before the
issuance of drawings and specifica-
tions and before a bid proposal is sub-
mitted. The practice involves a deter-
mination that a bidder is qualified to
do a job before he is permitted to bid
on it. This is contrasted to the usual
practice of qualifying a bidder after
he has bid the latter practice is
known as post-qualification.
The practices of pre-qualification
and post-qualification are followed in
the various states. Many states have
pre-qualification requirements on
highway construction. Utah, Oregon,


New Hampshire, New Jersey and
California have requirements for pre-
qualifying bidders on all public work.
The advantages of the two methods
have been debated for many years.
Some of the advantages favoring pre-
qualification that have been demon-
strated in the experience of those who
have tried it are as follows:
1. Helps insure that all bidders
who submit proposals are com-
petent to perform the work re-
quired.
2. Helps to avoid unnecessary de-
lays in making contract awards
and avoid legal battles over who
is the lowest responsible bidder.
3. Removes the temptation of
awarding officials to qualify ir-
responsible bidders who would
not deliver the desired quality
of work.
4. Encourages more responsible
and competent contractors to
bid on school projects who do
not now bid because of irre-
sponsible competition.
Pre-qualification will not cure all evils
in the process of bidder selection and
contract awards. It does promise some
improvement in the general quality of
work, however, despite the disad-
vantages claimed by those who oppose
the procedure.
Florida's Pre-Qualification Law
Chapter 63-500 authorizes the de-
velopment and adoption of regula-
tions for the pre-qualification of bid-
ders on school construction projects.
The regulations are to be prepared by
the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, after consulting with a
(Continued on Page 18)


Sa"& We PrW-2ualif Bdders Oft...







Pre-Qualify...
(Continued from Page 17)
technical advisory committee which
includes representatives of recognized
contractor's associations. The recom-
mendations of the State Superintend-
ent are to be submitted to the State
Board of Education for their approval
and adoption. Such regulations are to
be applicable only to those school dis-
tricts where the county board of pub-
lic instruction elects the option to
come under them.
County boards electing to come
under the pre-qualification option are
required to give thirty days public
notice of their intent and at the end
of the advertising period to hold a
public hearing. Upon exercising their
option the school board is required to
adopt local policies, procedures, and
practices to implement the state law
and applicable State Board of Educa-
tion regulations. Both state and local
regulations and policies are to be
drawn so that competition shall be
limited only to the extent that parties
able to promptly perform the condi-
tions of the contract and to respond
in damages in case of default are al-
lowed to bid. Local policies and pro-
cedures implementing the pre-qualifi-


cation option are to be approved by
the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction before becoming effective.
Following adoption of the option
to pre-qualify and the approval by the
State Superintendent of local policies
and procedures, the county board of
public instruction can certify those
contractors who are qualified to bid
on school construction projects. Con-
tractors who fail to qualify and are
aggrieved by the action of a school
board are provided an appeal for
reconsideration of their applications
with ultimate relief available through
the courts.
Follow-Up of Legislative Action
The State Superintendent has sub-
sequently appointed the members of
the Technical Advisory Committee to
consult with him on the preparation
of the regulations for State Board of
Education approval. Representatives
have been appointed from several
groups having interest in, and con-
cern for the planning and construc-
tion of school buildings in the State
of Florida. These groups are:
The Florida Association of
Architects
Florida School Boards Associa-
tion


FEA Department of County
Superintendents
The Associated General Con-
tractors of America, Inc.
Florida Engineering Society, Inc.
Florida Association of School
Planners
This committee will meet at an early
date to consider the preparation of
regulations as required by Chapter
63-500.
Conclusion
This new law makes possible more
complete control of the bidding prob-
lem by the school board but within a
framework of state regulation. Ade-
quate safeguards are provided in the
law to reduce the possibility of abuse
of the competitive bidding principle,
and at the same time, should encour-
age responsible competition among
competent contractors. A degree of
uniformity is possible through State
Board regulations, yet differences in
local conditions are possible through
variations in local policies and pro-
cedures to be followed in the imple-
mentation of state regulations. Ag-
grieved contractors, should there be
any, have an appeal and a means to
seek relief.
(Continued on Page 20)


83 Years

Without

a Vacation

Since 1880, Florida phones have gone
about their business of bringing people
together around the clock, around the
calendar. Because you depend on it,
your telephone never takes a vacation.
Over 1,500,000 Southern Bell phones in
Florida-all dial-operated-work full
time to keep people in touch for any
purpose, day or night, at so little cost.



Southern Bell
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







57Wr aader'dale Cmpetit..in.


Museum of the Arts


By GEORGE M. POLK, A.I.A.



First of all, if you ever get the
chance to conduct a competition, do
it, by all means. You won't get rich
but you will get a look at the archi-
tecture of your community that few
architects get.
When I accepted the job as adviser
for the Museum I thought my biggest
hurdle would be getting approval
from the A.I.A. in Washington. This
turned out to be the least of my
worries and Mr. Pettingill promptly
answered all my letters.
The A.I.A.'s Circular on Architec-
tural Competitions is not the easiest
document to understand but with
perserverance and an old competition
circular it all soon made sense. Later
on I was thankful for some of the
basic paragraphs that held the com-
petition together.
There is, of necessity, much typing
and retyping of the program and un-
less you are careful the time can get


away from you. To add to this, the
printers I had experience with are
not in a position to rush you through
to make up any lost time! They al-
ready have their own problems.
Due to this natural slippage in the
time machine it is good to allow
entrants about half the competition
time to make their registration entry
rather than the two weeks I had origi-
nally thought sufficient. Also the
closing date should state a specific
closing time or you may have to wait
up until midnight to receive a few
entries.
It is a great help to have, as in my
case, a Museum Director who had a
good idea of his space and functional
requirements.
The most enjoyable part of the
whole job was the judging. The ad-
visor is not a judge but he is present
to assist the jury in answering ques-
tions and going after coffee. Our jury
consisted of men, experts in their
fields, who were quick to see and
analyze the good and bad points of
each design. Besides the winners there


will be several designs of good quality
that the jury will want to recognize
so it's a good idea to have several
honorable mentions, or some sort of
recognition of merit.
At last, a few words to the con-
testants. The competition is conduct-
ed to get something special in the way
of a building for the owner. So give
your entry character and charm. This
does not mean it has to be far out or
really gooked up but it should not be
a run of the mill type of solution.
Whatever the design it should be
well presented, get the best rendering
you can, pretty pictures are not archi-
tecture but a good design deserves
the best. Don't think a good render-
ing will cover up any sloppy thinking.
The jury knows the score and will
still notice any weak points even in
a good presentation. There is a time
for questions in the course of the
program and contestants can ask them
then or not at all.
Follow the rules as to size and num-
ber of sheets and get your entry in
early, the advisor will love you.


I
'*'P 11~);1(
' ~'I

i, "' ~ :5


a


S' 'I -




Shown above Award Winning Design . .
First prize of one thousand dollars was awarded to two young Fort Lauderdale architects, Charles Duemmling and Edward R.
Bywaters. The Competition, limited to Broward County Architects, was well supported by them. The Advisor sent out over sixty
programs. There were thirty-three registered entrants and twenty-three design entries.
DECEMBER, 1963 19







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Pre-Qualify...
(Continued from Page 18)
State laws require rigid qualifica-
tions for the architect who prepares
the drawings and specifications for
school buildings. These laws also re-
quire that engineers performing de-
sign services for public building have
certain qualifications. Such laws are
designed for the protection of the
public interest, yet the people who
actually construct school buildings
have no legally prescribed qualifica-
tions. Is this consistent? Chapter
63-500 is at least a beginning in the
direction of safeguarding the public
interest from irresponsible and incom-
petent contractors on school buildings
and should prove to be a valuable
device in expediting contract awards,
in restricting bidders to those com-
petent to do the job, and, most im-
portant of all, in helping school
boards get better quality work for the
taxpayers' dollar spent on school con-
struction.

Book Review...
The Houses of St. Augustine, 1565-
1821 is the first and only comprehen-
sive book covering notes on the archi-
tecture for that period in St. Augus-
tine and hence in Florida.
The book published by the Saint
Augustine Historical Society, 22 Saint
Francis Street, St. Augustine; is au-
thored by Albert Manucy. It is an
important contribution to Floridana,
of interest to all architects and other
professionals in the building fields
and to all students of Florida history.
Albert Manucy is a native of St.
Augustine, whose ancestors came to
the city in 1777. He is a recognized
authority on Spanish colonial history
and has a number of books to his
credit, including Artillery Through
the Ages, The Fort at Frederica and
other historical works.
A graduate of the University of
Florida (BAE 1932; MA 1934) he
has been affiliated with the National
Park Service since 1938 in various
professional capacities. His most re-
cent work embraces the planning and
development of museums at the New
Orleans War of 1812 battlefield and
the early French and English sites in
Florida and Georgia; also restoration
projects at St. Augustine's Castillo de
San Marcos. In 1962 he visited Spain
on a Fulbright Research Scholarship
to delve into Spanish colonial archives.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







Conference...
(Continued from Page 8)
9:45 A.M.-Florida State Depart-
ment Personnel in Vocational
and Technical Division.
11:45 A.M.-Reactor Panel. Moder-
ator-Dr. E. L. Kurth, Assist-
ant Director for Program Plan-
ning and Coordination. Archi-
tect participation invited and
desired.
Afternoon Session
Andrew J. Ferendino, A.I.A, Pre-
siding.
1:30 P.M.-Implications for Campus
Development. John Shaver,
AIA, Salinas, Kansas.
2:00 P.M.-Instructions to the Com-
mittee. Dr. E. L. Kurth, Assist-
ant Director for Program Plan-
ning and Coordination.
2:15 P.M.-Committee Meetings
Evening Session
6:00 P.M.-Dinner Meeting. Speak-
er to be announced.
8:00 P.M.-Committee Meetings
SATURDAY, JANUARY 25
Dr. Roy Bergengren, Presiding
8:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M.-Com-
mittees.
11:00 A.M.-Summary of Confer-
ence. George Meggison, Archi-
tect.
Registration fee is $5.00 per per-
son and does not include meals. Re-
servations should be made direct to
The Causeway Inn, Courtney Camp-
bell Causeway, Tampa, Fla.

Student Chapter . .
The Student Associate Chapter,
FAA., AIA, of the University of Flor-
ida has a total membership of 45
currently. Officers are: President, Ted
Schumy; Vice President, Chris Ben-
ninger; Secretary, Robert A. Morris
and Treasurer, Mallory Crank.


Changes...
Lowell L. Lotspeich announces the
opening of his office for the practice
of architecture at 235 Knowles Av-
enue, Winter Park, Florida.

January Issue . .
The January Issue of this publica-
tion will be the Annual Presidents Is-
sue and will, in addition report activ-
ities of the Annual Convention in-
cluding the Resolutions Committee
Report.
DECEMBER, 1963


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Quality...
(Continued from Page 9)
cerns of The American Institute of
Architects. Certainly I cannot report
on the work of our fifty-four national
committees, nor the activities of their
counterparts at the local, state and
regional level; nevertheless, I believe
that the members of your council,
both as materials men and as Ameri-
can citizens, will find themselves in-
terested now and affected ultimately
by the way these concerns are finally
resolved.
Strangely enough, in our one hun-
dred and seventh year, we have a
national committee at work prepar-
ing a definition of an architect. There
are quite a number of definitions al-
ready in existence, and I confess I
have heard over drafting boards and
in estimating rooms, and especially
on the job, other definitions of an
architect-some of them unbelievably
colorful and often accurate. The pur-
pose of obtaining a comprehensive
and sound definition of an architect
is to have such a definition form the
basis of a model registration act use-
ful in all states. To be legally accept-
able and effective, the definition of
an architect should describe his aca-
demic training as well as his profes-
sional experience. It does seem ob-
vious, at least to us, that a profes-
sional man should be licensed to do
those things for which he has been
especially trained. The need for this
definition, and the model law which
will follow it, is an immediate, and
basic concern.
In the field of education, a special
commission on Education of AIA has
proposed that we study in depth a
new form for a school of architecture
-or better said, a school for the de-
sign disciplines of the building in-
dustry. More cooperation is de-
manded of the architect, the struct-
ural, mechanical and electrical engi-
neers, and the landscape architect
than ever before. That these men
should be well educated, cultured per-
sons as well as technically able pro-
fessionals is now universally accepted.
So the new school would first of all
require a bachelor or arts degree as
pre-requisite for admission. Within
the school, perhaps during the first
year, studies would be identical for
all of these design professionals in-
cluding architects, engineers, land-
scape architects and city planners.


As each man continues in such a
school, he would accept those courses
designed to develop his particular in-
terest, and hence would ultimately
graduate as an architect, or engineer,
or in one of the other design disci-
plines. A further requirement in the
school would be that from time to
time, men in several of these design
disciplines would work collaboratively
-to the end that each graduate of
this school would learn to under-
stand, respect and collaborate with
others-and so be prepared for similar
cooperation in his private practice.
With such a worthy object in view,
you can understand why this study is
an immediate and major-and very
exciting concern.
Day dreams and castles in the air
are not necessarily bad themes upon
which a talk of this kind might end.
People seek a variety of conveniences
and pleasures in today's complex
urban life and our population is stead-
ily expanding.
If we are to satisfy both the quanta-
tive and qualitative needs of this vast
building program, we must all give
a superior performance-both in our
individual efforts and in greater rap-
port with each other-but, if I may
offer one additional thought, we must
also assume a greater responsibility.
I doubt whether the most efficient
discharge of our respective duties will
produce an environment of quality if
we define these duties in narrow pro-
fessional terms.
We cannot continue to build a
handful of beautiful buildings and
other structures in a sea of ugliness.
J. Roy Carroll, President of the
American Institute of Architects has
said, "Your fine materials, the most
ingenious concepts and our beautiful
structures can do little to enhance a
community blighted by street signs,
billboards, overhead wires, traffic
jams, junk yards, parking lots, and
garish gas stations. We are getting
the reputation of being the ugliest
country in the Western world and,
unfortunately, we deserve it!"
Engineers, contractors and material
suppliers have just as much business
being concerned with the beauty of
our communities as does the archi-
tect. If we can create efficient and
beautiful structures in an efficient and
beautiful America, we will at least
have made a contribution worthy of
the thousands of years of building
tradition that is our legacy."
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT








Architects of Matter
(Continued from Page 15)
or never, limited by the uncertainty
principle, and, therefore, we could and
should make more use of models in-
corporating the primary functions,
which, if we have identified them cor-
rectly, will provide self-evident proof
of the essential validity of the con-
cepts. On the other hand, models in-
corporating many of the characteristics
necessary for particular functions are
already available in nature, and could
be used as analogs to define essential
requirements in form and structural
arrangement.
5. If we, metallurgists and "ma-
terialists," are to take as our province
what I call "the architecture of
matter," the deliberate assembly of
available materials and principles to
perform preconceived functions, then
thought must be given to the princi-
ples of dealing systematically and
quantitatively with the organization
of complex functions and phenomena.
As a preliminary step, we might begin
by-.re-examining the growth processes
that. nature uses to solve its complex
problems in form and function.
6. Since the aspect of form has
not been discussed, I shall conclude
with a final example of the intricate
structures designed to house micro-
organisms in the sea (Fig. 9) (6)
and with a quotation from Alan
Watts: "Without losing their normal
breadth of vision the eyes seem to
become a microscope through which
the mind delves deeper and deeper
into the intricately dancing texture of
our world" (8).

ADVERTISERS' INDEX
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Arketex Ceramic Corp. 21
Dwyer Products of Florida, Inc. 16
Dyfoam Corporation . 20
Florida Foundry and
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Florida Natural Gas. Assn. 2
Florida Power and Light Co.. 8
Florida Steel Corporation 22
Homasote Co. . . 24
Koppers Company, Inc. . 6
Merry Bros. Brick
and Tile Co.... 3
Miami Window Corporation 1
Portland Cement Association 5
Prescolite Manufacturing Corp. 20
Southern Bell Tel. and Tel. Co. 18
F. Graham Williams Company 23

DECEMBER, 1963


JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK. P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.


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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







Current Highlights...

... Competition is keen in many lines. Much capacity is idle.
... Some hikes aren't sticking. They're being shaded here and there by dis-
counts. Some increases were posted, and then were deferred; they still have
not been put into effect.
... There's been cost absorption in many cases, which has kept increases at
wholesale from affecting consumer prices.
.. Price declines are offsetting gains to a limited extent. And the grand jury
investigation of steel pricing, limited though it will be, has dampened ardor
for cuts everywhere.

* TAX-CUT REMINDER: With a little advance planning, you can add a bit to the tax savings
you're likely to enjoy next year, courtesy of Congress. All it requires is a slight
shift in the timing of of financial transactions. If the tax cuts are shelved which
seems most unlikely you are out nothing.
Register as many deductions as you can this year. You will save more, rela-
tively, by incurring a deductible cost while tax rates are still at high levels.
Medical and dental work, which must be taken care of at some point, is one
example.
Put off the receipt of income until after January 1, when lower tax rates will
be taking hold. Professional people and others who are self-employed will
be especially able to take advantage of this by delaying the submission of
bills.

* A SHIFT IN THE FOCUS OF FEDERAL RESEARCH seems to be in the making. For years,
the emphasis of the billions spent annually by the government has been on de-
fense programs. Now Administration policy makers expect to place more empha-
sis on basic research. They are thinking about the areas that should be studied ...
the resources to be devoted to this work . etc.
The shift could have very broad implications for industry. New products and
processes may be developed faster, in as yet untapped fields, when they no
longer must be by-products of defense work. For a time officials will grope
their way.

THERE'S A SUBTLE CHANGE IN ANTITRUST POLICY UNDER WAY in Washington. It stems
from certain conclusions drawn about the so-called "administered" prices. That
they exist no one wants to deny. But it's now felt that they are not as important
as originally thought. The downward drift in major materials until this year dem-
onstrated that the forces of the market may be more important than the price-
setting power of a few dominant corporations.
Implications for policy? That from here out the policing agencies Justice
and Federal Trade will concentrate more on old-fashioned type cases of
monopoly or price-fixing and less on trying to prove that prices are admin-
istered.

PEACE AND PROSPERITY that will be Kennedy's program for next year. He'll hammer
away at this theme no matter who proves to be the GOP nominee. His strategists
feel it will be effective against Goldwater or Rockefeller. "You never had it so
good" has worked well in the past for many Presidents. But to make his slogan
pay off, the economy has to be firmly on an uptrend. That's why Candidate Ken-
nedy will keep on pressing for his tax-cut program.
The Republicans have already opened up on Kennedy ... to slow him down
before he can get his 1964 campaign rolling with unstoppable momentum.
The GOP's big guns have been pounding his foreign and domestic policies
spending . civil rights . balance of payments ... Viet Nam ... Castro
and Cuba . etc.







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