W A A Flo
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Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.
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* INDUSTRY IS LIFTING ITS CAPITAL SPENDING PLANS for 1963. This could be the best
news in months as far as the business outlook is concerned if the planned in-
creases turn out to be large enough. That's because investment in new plant and
equipment is one of the most powerful of all the forces for expansion. Indeed, the
lack of bounce in such spending is widely considered to be one of the chief
causes of today's sluggishness in business activity.
. But the latest spending plans reported in government surveys leave a
lot to be desired. The companies questioned plan to lift outlays over last
year by at least twice as much as they were projecting a few months ago.
This reduces chances of a recession. But it isn't enough to quicken the
... There's still a chance that capital spending programs -and business
activity may be beefed up by more than the surveys show. The record
shows that once investment starts to rise, businessmen tend to keep revis-
ing plans upward and usually exceed early estimates. The new tax credit
and depreciation rules will be helping. The key question is-how much?
* THERE ARE SOME QUITE OPTIMISTIC VIEWS ABOUT BUSINESS in Washington these
days views worth knowing about. They are only a minority opinion. But those
who feel this way-few as they are-deserve a respectful hearing. They include
some fairly high-placed officials with fine forecast records. Of course, most eco-
nomists expect 1963 to be merely another year like 1962 -showing neither a
slowdown nor a spurt. They see little new lift from business, consumer, or gov-
ernment spending. But the optimists don't agree.
... They are counting on improved psychology to get business really
moving again. They believe that the Cuban showdown in October gave
confidence a large boost witness the stock market and auto sales.
They're guessing that consumers and businessmen will be stepping up
spending and, as they see it, only a bit more outlay is needed to get
SUBSTANTIAL INVENTORY-BUILDING WOULD RESULT before long from this stepped-up
buying; present stocks are low and would soon become inadequate. New orders
would increase and production-which has been riding along on a plateau since
last summer-would begin to climb. Then the work-week would be lengthened
.. workers would be rehired ... and long-idle plants reopened. The last step would
be building new capacity that potentially big force for expansion which has
been largely lying dormant for the past several years.
... As a result, the economy could expand by 6 % or 7 % or more during
1963. (The President has forecast only 4'/4 %.) And business activity
would finally be on its way toward full employment something the
U.S. hasn't experienced since 1956.
. Note, again, that all this is still only a minority view. So far, the busi-
ness indicators show no quickening of pace. The gains are still being
offset by declines. Inventories, however, have begun to rise a bit, and
that's how the turn would come. They should be watched closely in
weeks ahead for evidence that this bullish minority is right or wrong.
(Continrud on 3rd Cove'r)
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APRIL, 1963 1
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
rc 7This Isu ---
Current Highlights . . . . . .
Letter from Secretary of State Tom Adams
Building Techniques in Total Perspective . .
By William H. Scheick, AIA A.I.A.
It is Well to Know .....
By Archie G. Parish, F.A.I.A.
. 2nd & 3rd Covers
. . . . 8
National School Fallout Shelter Design Award . .
To Francis E. Telesca, A.I.A.
News and Notes
Design Award . .
New Registrations .
A.I.A. Convention .
. . 40th Annual Golf Tournament .
. . F.A.A. Committees .
President Addresses Chapters
Advertisers' Index ......
FAA OFFICERS 1963
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President, 233 E. Bay St., Jacksonville
William F. Bigoney, Jr., First V.-Pres., 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale
William T. Arnett, Second V.-President, University of Florida, Gainesville
Richard B. Rogers, Third V.-President, 511 N. Mills St., Orlando
Jefferson N. Powell, Secretary, 361 S. County Road, Palm Beach
James Deen, Treasurer, 7500 Red Road, South Miami
Robert H. Levison, Immediate Past President, 425 S. Garden Ave., Clearwater
BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hansen, Robert G. Jahelka; DAYTONA
BEACH: Francis R. Walton, Carl Gerken; FLORIDA CENTRAL: A. Wynn
Howell, Richard E. Jessen, Frank F. Smith, Jr.; FLORIDA NORTH: James T.
Lendrum, Lester N. May; FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen;
FLORIDA NORTHWEST: Barnard W. Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: C.
Robert Abele, John O. Grimshaw, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: John
R. Graveley, Walter B. Schultz, A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr.; MID-FLORIDA: Fred
G. Owles, Jr., Donald O. Phelps; PALM BEACH: Donald Edge, Harold A. Obst,
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Director, Florida Region, AIA
Robert M. Little, FAIA, 2180 Brickell Avenue, Miami
Executive Secretary, FAA
Verna Shaub Sherman, Douglas Entrance Bldg., Coral Gables, Fla.
Student Awards .
. . . . . . . 24
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. . Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year; January Roster Issue,
$2.00 . . Printed by McMurray Printers.
H. Samuel Krus6, FAIA, Chairman
Wm. T. Arnett, Fred W. Bucky Jr.
B. W. Hartman Jr., Dana B. Johannes
ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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APRIL, 1963 3
Lett rs -- "_-_ .
Mr. Roger W. Sherman, AIA
The Florida Architect
7225 S. W. 82nd Court
Miami 43, Florida
The December issue of The Florida Architect has just recently come to my
attention. Permit me this opportunity to thank you for publishing my speech
presented to your 48th Annual Convention. Also, I would like to thank you for
your open letter, "Dear Mr. Secretary."
After reading your editorial comment, it seemed to me that there is a mis-
understanding concerning the points I attempted to convey in the speech. This is
especially obvious since I find myself in agreement with your editorial.
When I stated that buildings in the Capitol Center should be designed con-
sistent with those already built, I did not mean to infer that each and every build-
ing should be something of a replica of the Capitol or the Supreme Court
Building. Rather, I was attempting to develop the concept that it would not be
proper to destroy the tradition that already is here. What I hoped to convey was
that there should be a "transitional" zone separating the Capitol and the Supreme
Court building from buildings of contemporary design. Thus any new building
immediately adjacent to "traditional" buildings would not offend tradition. How-
ever, new buildings on the present perimeter should be of contemporary design.
By doing this, we could show clearly the evolution from the original-the tradi-
tional-to the contemporary, which tomorrow will be the traditional. It is my
hope that new buildings on sites not immediately adjacent to the old, will reflect
the finest of modern design that our architects can create.
Let me hasten to add that I am but one member of the Board of Commission-
ers of State Institutions, and am speaking only as such.
Naturally, I regret that the obvious limitations of a short speech made it
virtually impossible to go into detail relative to the concepts that I had wanted
Trusting that this letter will clarify my position, and with kindest personal
regards, I remain
i Secretary of State
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
SympoiU m T7echdnc and Teca4iques...
in total perspective
By WILLIAM H. SCHEICK
Executive Director, The American Institute of Architects
The A.I.A.'s Executive Director summarized the final symposium in a
series of three conducted by the Department of Architecture, Univer-
sity of Florida on March fourteen. His address to architects, engi-
neers, artists, scientists, students and the Faculty is presented here.
The concepts of the design of a
building, an airplane, and a space-
craft are compared and translated into
the research process necessary to mod-
ern design. The major fields of envi-
ronmental research are defined and
the deficiencies of building research
are noted in order to give perspective
to the subject of building techniques.
An example of research in warm
air heating is described to show the
chain reaction effect upon structure,
planning and service systems.
The building is shown to be an
integration of structural and service
systems which have changed archi-
tecture from its classical concern with
the shell of the building to the design
of a complex mechanism for environ-
ment. Investigation of recent develop-
ments in the structure touches upon
the frame and components of the
The goals for environmental design
include the creation of ideal psycho-
physical surroundings for the human
being, provisions for the most effec-
tive performance of human tasks and
conveniences for an affluent society.
At this point, the problems of eco-
nomics are introduced. These prob-
lems are divided into those of in-place
cost and the life of the building. On
this basis, recent developments in the
techniques of the building shell are
examined in some detail in respect to
the search for assembling line produc-
tion, the reduction of the number of
parts, increase in the size of parts,
time of assembly. Attention is given
to the problems related to assembly
on specific sites.
This leads into an examination of
the principle of components and es-
pecially complete wall components.
The handicaps to satisfactory solu-
tions are described.
There is not time to examine ser-
vice systems in as much detail, but
the major technical and economic
principles are noted as well as the
difference in the owners attitude to-
ward service systems.
Then the entire building is related
to economics-economic life of the
building, the effects of taxation on
building finance, and the general eco-
nomic formula which confronts the
architect and motivates technical re-
search. A suggestion is made for two
different approaches to the design of
buildings for predetermined life and
Finally, the effects of techniques
and economics upon the architect's
education and practice are identified.
We will compare three problems:
1. to design a building
2. to design an airplane
3. to design a space craft with a
The Spacecraft is a concept so re-
cent that the problem was approached
with full understanding of the com-
plexity of the end result, and the
scientific teamwork necessary to ac-
complish the result. The approach is
a crash program, cost no object.
The airplane is an evolutionary de-
velopment within a span of 60 years.
Except for military aircraft, economics
is of great importance. It had to pay
The Building has been an evolu-
tionary development through centu-
ries. Concepts and purposes which
remained virtually unchanged for cen-
turies were suddenly replaced with
completely new concepts in the 20th
What if mankind could have stop-
ped for a decade, disassociated him-
self with all previous concepts and
attacked building problems with a
comprehensive crash research pro-
gram? Then we might have under-
stood building research and might
have defined its problems. As it is,
disassociation with the past is impos-
The building industry is so complex
and fragmented that even the rate of
evolution in its thinking is a handi-
cap. Some parts of the building in-
dustry don't want building to change
The building is by far the most
complicated of our three examples,
though each is the summation of a
maze of systems and techniques of
assembly. The difference between
them lie in their purposes and func-
tions, and in economics.
The purpose of the plane is to carry
a pay load as fast and cheaply as pos-
sible and its function is flying.
It may sound equally simple to say
that the purpose of the building is to
provide human environment to the
optimum of human needs at a cost
people can afford. But the building's
functions may be as many and varied
as the range of human activities.
In addition, some humans are not
satisfied with their buildings unless
they make an esthetic contribution
to society (fortunately for architects).
Now return to the phrase "provide
human environment" and consider its
complexities. Once upon a time this
meant merely protection from the ele-
ments, and in some buildings the cre-
ation of an atmosphere of worship, or
grandeur or permanence.
(Continued on Page 10)
It Is Well To Know...
By ARCHIE G. PARISH, FAIA
President, Florida State Board of Architecture
The second in a series of articles dealing with the
problems facing the State Board of Architecture. It
is hoped that through the series planned for presentation
to you some of the present trouble spots of enforcement
will be eliminated.
From time to time projects are
brought to the attention of the Flor-
ida State Board of Architecture, in
which the complaint is made, that an
architect has permitted himself to be
identified with a project not handled
by him in full compliance with Chap-
ter 467, Florida Statutes.
In such instances, copies of plans,
drawings or other pertinent material,
are furnished showing notations such
as the following:
REVIEWED AND APPROVED
by John Doe, Architect.
DETAILED by Richard Roe, Arch-
REVIEWED AND MEETS LO-
CAL CODES AND ORDINANCES
by Jane Doe, Architect.
In the majority of instances when
such notations are shown on plans
and/or drawings, it is found that it
is necessary that such plans or draw-
ings must bear the signature and seal
of an architect, so that a permit may
Attention is invited to Section
467.15 of the Law, regarding the use
of the Architect's Seal-specific refer-
ence being made to the second para-
graph thereof, wherein the following
"No Architect shall affix or per-
mit to be affixed his seal or his
name to any plan, specification,
drawing or other related document
which was not prepared by him or
under his responsible supervising
Every architect must be continually
alert to insure that he does not per-
mit himself and/or the Seal of his
profession, to be utilized as a matter
of convenience to approve plans, spe-
cifications, drawings or other related
documents for others, who, under the
law, are not legally qualified to pre-
pare them. NO ARCHITECT
SHOULD PLACE OR PERMIT TO
BE PLACED HIS SEAL and/or HIS
SIGNATURE ON ANY PLAN,
SPECIFICATION, DRAWING OR
OTHER RELATED DOCUMENT
WHICH WAS NOT PREPARED
BY HIM OR UNDER HIS RE-
SPONSIBLE SUPERVISING CON-
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(Continued from Page 7)
Now our concept of man's relation-
ship to his environment comprehends
the relationship between his well-be-
ing and heat, humidity, light, sound,
sanitation and security. We examine
these relationships not only with re-
gard to his physical senses, but to his
psychology as well. We must under-
stand what he wants to do in a given
environment and arrange spaces, facil-
ities and communications to enable
him to do it as well as possible.
As complicated as this may be, the
achievement of the desired results
would be much simpler if cost were
no object. Buildings are tied to land
and real estate is the base for an ex-
tremely complex economy in the USA
and elsewhere. Real estate is also tied
up with taxation which leads into the
area of political science. When you
become mature in your knowledge of
building economics you will realize
that technology alone cannot solve
the problems of reducing building
costs to a point where even less-than-
optimum environment can be built
without subsidy for certain building
types like low-cost housing.
No such complications exist with
the airplane with which we have been
comparing the building. Economics
are indeed a factor in airplane design,
but they are the economics of operat-
ing a machine detached from land.
The modern approach to solving all
sorts of difficult problems is through
research. We are witnessing this pro-
cess in its most dramatic and potential
form to solve the problems of the
space age. This is a crash program
with billions of dollars available. No
one doubts that interplanetary travel
will ultimately be a possibility.
Even prior to this effort research
had become a household word, though
only vaguely understood by the lay-
man. Research in medicine, agricul-
ture and chemically based consumer
products had demonstrated the effec-
tiveness of rubbing this modern Allad-
One may ask then why building
research is not being pursued as dili-
gently, especially when the building
economy (all types of construction)
runs nearly 80 billion a year. The
answer lies in the fragmentation of
the mammoth building industry and
the primary concern of most of it
with technology only.
Earlier the thought was expressed
that building research might be com-
prehended in its entirety and imple-
mented in its entirety if a new ap-
proach could be undertaken, com-
pletely disassociated with the past. A
super-team of researchers might then
operate like the space-age researchers
who were blessed with the necessity
of starting from scratch. Under these
circumstances a total concept of a
research field is possible and necessary.
Building research is not the prime
subject-only one of its fields and by-
products technics and techniques.
With a superficial look at the broad
generalities of building research, we
may better locate our subject with ref-
erence to other disciplines which in-
fluence it extensively. An architect (or
any other building expert) should
think of environmental research rather
than "building" research in order to
identify the major subject headings.
These will be in broadest terms:
Human Studies-research into the
physical, psychological and social re-
quirements of man which establish
the basic problems and goals for all
other building research.
Design Studies-research (which is
predominantly architectural but in-
volves the disciplines of human stud-
ies) into the size, use and arrangement
of building spaces for optimum per-
formance as human environment.
Studies of Interior Physical Envi-
ronment-research (inextricably relat-
ed to design studies) into the problems
of light, heat, humidity, sound, color
and other factors integrated with space
itself in the fulfillment of human re-
Structures Studies-research which
develops the engineering science and
technology of building structures and
their component parts.
Service Systems Studies-research
which develops all of the service sys-
tems required to create the environ-
mental climate and environmental
Studies of the Economics and Pro-
cesses of Building Construction and
Socio-economic Studies research
into the overall social, economic and
political problems of buildings as real
Urban Design Studies-research in-
to the total concept or summation of
environmental science as expressed in
the urban complex.
Within this great scheme we are
concerned here primarily with Struc-
tures Studies, Service Systems Studies
and Economics of Construction. As
a matter of fact, only Structures and
Service Systems have seen much re-
search activity because (a) they are
most rewarding and best understood
by the manufacturers of building prod-
ucts who have the money to spend
on research, and (b) there is no ade-
quate support for any research in any
The Building Research Advisory
Board, in its report "A Program of
Building Research for the United
States" has presented an outline for
environmental research similar to the
preceding. It proposes that research in
fields other than structures and service
systems can be made significant by a
National Institute of Building Re-
search, founded and operated by the
Government and operated with the
collaboration of research institutions.
At least this Report recognizes the
magnitude of the task.
All of the foregoing is not intended
to depreciate building research by pri-
vate enterprise, but rather to put it
in perspective. In addition to manu-
facturers research on structures, mate-
rials, and service systems, the archi-
tectural and engineering professions
have been a party to significant studies
which have advanced building tech-
The trail was blazed in heating sys-
tems research with one of the most
significant beginnings taking place at
the University of Illinois about 1930.
Warm air heating was then a system
originating in an octopus-like gravity
furnace in the basement of a house,
and even the most compact house
was likely to have a "room that would
not heat," usually on the northwest
side. The incentive for the sponsor-
ing industry was to get some of the
house heating market belonging to
the radiator industry.
Let's run quickly through the series
of developments which followed as an
example of the chain reactions set off
by a simple beginning of this kind.
Forced warm air systems were de-
veloped which distributed heated air
more evenly and effectively. Ductwork
was smaller, horizontal, and longer.
A house of the "rambler" type plan
could be heated.
Coal was eliminated as a fuel to-
gether with its storage and dust prob-
lems. Gas and oil fired heaters were
(Continued on Page 14)
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P. 0. BOX 364 CLINTON, S. C.
FRANCIS E. TELESCA, AIA
The first award in Region
three which included Tennes-
see, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi and Florida; was
made to Francis E. Telesca, a
member of The Florida South
Chapter since 1954.
Objectives of a competition con-
ducted by the American Institute of
Architects for the Department of De-
fense were to serve the national inter-
est by encouraging the creation of
shelter designs which would: conserve
materials, manpower and money; cre-
ate fallout protection in the maximum
area of the school; incorporate attrac-
tive features; and produce structures
of aesthetic appeal.
Awards were offered in each of the
eight regions of the Office of Civil
Defense to develop and promote in-
genuity, originality, economy and ad-
vancement in the field of dual pur-
pose fallout shelter design for ele-
mentary school shelters. The plans
developed will serve as general sugges-
tive guidance to school planners and
designers throughout the Country.
Ir"" ; l : p
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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Te Fidfings of the fury, ..
The fallout protection concept developed in this school
is possibly the most intriguing of the competition. The
entire building, which uses glass extensively, becomes
shelter area. The intermediate classroom area com-
bines high window sills with an exterior planter box and
deep overhang, thus screen out both "ground direct"
radiation and skyshine. The primary classrooms are
similarly shielded by an exterior screen wall, a planter
wall and a covered play area. Cleastory windows, light-
ing the central area of the building, are shielded by a
deep overhang. The building is a very light, airy, open
structure which always has a view to the outdoors.
In addition to making an efficient, high capacity shel-
ter, this scheme is not heavily dependent on mechanical
ventilation and could serve well even if power were not
i HI C j .. .
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(Continued from Page 10)
much more compact, and together
with the new duct systems, could be
placed on the first floor rather than
in the basement.
Gas was a more expensive fuel, but,
because it provided a completely auto-
matic heat, the public wanted it for a
convenience. To reduce cost insulation
for house structure was developed.
The first uses of insulation and a
general "tightening up" of the house
resulted in condensation problems.
Research produced vapor barriers.
Heating controls were refined, the
distribution of air was "engineered"
more scientifically, and warm air heat-
ing was greatly improved.
Basementless houses were intro-
duced after the war bringing problems
of cold floors and ground water prob-
lems. These were solved by research
and in the process underground peri-
meter warm air distribution was de-
The market became ready for air-
conditioning. All of the foregoing re-
search made it comparatively easy to
combine air-conditioning and heating
systems the public could afford.
In review we see that an original
incentive to improve a heating system
affected the structure, the plan (and
concurrently the design) of the house,
and led the public to expect a com-
pletely different standard of indoor
climate and convenience provided by
a mechanical system. The gravity
warm-air system and the house design
required to make it work were both
rendered obsolete within two decades.
One might follow other paths of de-
velopment in building research and
discover similar chains of results.
Developments in the structure of
the building itself (rather than its
service systems) have not been as
clearly tied to planned or organized
research. Actually many of the most
significant developments were not in-
dustry sponsored, but were born in the
imagination of architects and engin-
eers seeking new solutions to the en-
closure of space. Chicago architects
who wanted to build higher buildings
originated the steel frame and com-
pletely revolutionized the concepts of
building structure. The search for
means to enclose space free of columns
has produced new methods of con-
struction such as thin shell concrete
and new building forms like the hy-
The design professions are quick
to copy and adapt. When a new struc-
tural system like the steel frame ap-
pears, the design professions use it
thousands and thousands of times.
Inevitably there are some designers
who improve, refine and invent modi-
fications-secking either economies or
new design expressions and the
structural system evolves toward its
maximum potential. In this respect
we may not be so different from the
ancient Greeks who modified their
temples through subtle refinements of
proportions toward esthetic perfection.
Except that the modern refining pro-
cess is not basically esthetic.
The most recent example of this
process is the metal curtain wall.
When this form of construction first
began to achieve popularity-as late
as the 1950 decade-one might think
that designers had forgotten every-
thing they knew. The new building
skins leaked, some of the components
buckled or otherwise performed badly.
Designers had not forgotten how
much buildings move. Or they had
neglected their laws of physics to the
point of ignoring the thermal move-
ment of metals and other lightweight
materials. Perhaps this might have
been expected of a profession used to
designing with more massive materi-
als. In any event, the curtain wall has
been subjected to a tremendous
amount of trial and error, deliberate
research and exchange of knowledge.
The technical bugs are being ironed
out, and the remaining problems are
In retrospect we find ourselves talk-
ing about techniques of building. We
have not been discussing the better
design of hospitals for remedial envi-
ronment or the design of schools for
educational environment. Either of
these subjects in itself has received a
great deal of study by architects and
others and could be the basis for a
long design conference. If we were
engaged in such a conference on reme-
dial environment we would find that
a great part of it would be devoted
to techniques rather than architectural
The answer lies in what is required
in a building to make it perform an
environmental function by today's
standards. What was called a "build-
ing" fifty years ago we now call the
"shell." "Architecture" was once little
more than the design of the shell.
The complete building has become
a most complex integration of struc-
tural systems and service systems. The
intended environmental function can-
not be performed without the success-
ful design of the complex. Architec-
ture has become this kind of design,
much of which requires engineering
skills. Later we must examine why the
architect must not abdicate his re-
sponsibility for the total design.
Some building types are most easily
recognized as a complex system of
systems. The hospital is one in which
less than 40 per cent of the cost may
be attributed to the shell. Labora-
tories and industrial buildings repre-
sent an even greater preponderance
of service systems. By comparison,
office buildings are simpler: churches,
schools and houses even more so. But
any one of these is complex by stand-
ards of fifty years ago.
What caused this revolutionary
change in such a brief span of build-
ing history? In general there are two
major causes (a) improvement of en-
vironment and (b) economy. Both
important to the architect.
The improvement of man-made in-
terior environment stems from several
objectives. One is the goal to create
the ideal psycho-physiological sur-
roundings for the human being. In
the hospital the first consideration is
the patient; in the school it is the
Another goal is to provide for the
most effective performance of human
tasks. In the hospital this considers
the tasks of hospital staff and the
doctors. In a factory most attention
may be given to the flow of produc-
tion and the use of machines, but the
human equation is present in the
worker who becomes a useful part in
the production process to the extent
that his psycho-physiological require-
ments are solved by design.
Frequently in this affluent society
of ours, a goal in design is conveni-
ence. This is nowhere more apparent
than in a residence as witnessed by
the numerous gadgets which are on
display at a homebuilders convention.
Such goals as these might be rela-
tively simple for the design professions
if cost were no object. But building
cost may be a downright obstacle in
today's economy. How many times
must the architect settle for some-
thing less than the best he can do be-
cause there is not enough money?
How many drawings go into the file
(Continued on Page 16)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
... of a property
of glass that can help you design better buildings
Is there any limit to the designs you can create with glass? For color, it
offers you the spectrum. Many textures. It can be transparent, trans-
lucent, opaque... or reflective. Glass frees your imagination to create
structures of dramatic beauty.
Is glass helping you in all the ways it can? Look through Sweet's
Architectural File, sections 3e, 7a, 13e, 16a, 16e, 19e, 21. And talk to
your local PPG Architectural Representative. He knows modern glass.
Just get in touch with the PPG office nearest you.
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
Paints Glass Chemicals Fiber Glass In Canada: Canadian Pittsburgh Industries Limited
We can fill all your design needs
for any type, size or shape of
cast bronze or aluminum
plaques, name panels or dec-
& PATTERN WORKS
3737 N. W. 43rd Street, Miami
433 W. Bay St.
(Continued from Page 14)
because a building cannot be erected
at all? Because of the importance of
economy, a great deal of the ingenuity
that goes into building design and
technology is stimulated by the hard
facts of economics.
With these generalizations in mind,
let us examine structural systems and
service systems in more detail.
The structural systems of a building
are entirely the responsibility of the
architect who combines them into the
shells for various building types. He
may use an extensive vocabulary of
materials and building components to
achieve and create the desired envi-
ronmental objectives. The sizes and
shapes of enclosed spaces determine
his selection of structural principles.
The thermal value of the wall is a
factor in producing physical comfort.
The size and placement of glass areas
relates to physical comfort and psy-
chological and esthetic satisfaction.
The physical characteristics of finish-
ing materials may be a factor in con-
venience for the user.
But economics assumes major im-
portance in this area of design. There
is a constant search for savings in the
shell. A more expensive but light-
weight skin may produce savings in
the frame and the foundations which
more than offsets the extra cost of
the skin. This is an example of econ-
omy in original cost. Many choices
may be made by comparing the cost
of one material with aonther.
Most decisions are not this simple,
however. As a rule, two other consid-
erations enter into the picture: (a)
the in-place cost of the material or
component, and (b) its cost for the
life of the building.
The simple phrase "in-place cost"
is packed with meaning for the archi-
tect and contractor. Obviously it al-
ways involves labor, usually skilled
labor, and, in this century, continu-
ally higher priced skilled labor. The
erection of the building is an assem-
bly process with many different stages
involving a wide variety of skills. As
the building trades became unionized
they began to jealously guard their
rights to handle certain phases of the
construction process and greeted a
new material or method with jurisdic-
tional disputes over who should do
In the last two decades probably
more study has been given to in-place
cost and hence to building techniques
than to any other aspect of building.
The motivation has been to reduce
the cost of the shell.
An important factor in this prob-
lem is the locale of the assembly (erec-
tion process). Because the building
is located on a piece of land it seemed
impossible to develop the mass-pro-
duction techniques that have reduced
the cost of most consumer goods.
Since 1945 the large merchant
homebuilders have done a good job
of creating something resembling an
assembly line on the site. An overall
view of a large residential subdivision
reveals what has happened. At various
points, foundations are being staked
out and dug, footings and slabs laid,
frames going up, exterior walls and
roofs going on, interior work under-
way. The work force is divided into
special teams which move along a
stationary assembly line. The builder
has also organized his logistics of ma-
terials supply from an efficiently oper-
ating warehouse and materials yard.
Factory prefabrication of houses was
once thought to be the answer for
putting the house on an assembly line.
But costs, shipping problems and the
large amount of work still to be done
at the site prevented the idea from
being any more successful than the
on-site assembly line technique for
Unfortunately, no other building
type is subject to the same treatment,
simply because most building types
are built one by one. The location
presenting the toughest problems of
assembly is the central city site where
the construction process must proceed
with no surrounding land and in the
midst of the city's daily life.
The nature of all the problems of
assembly is leading to a great search
for larger building units-now gen-
erally called components. This search
began more because of labor cost than
because of site problems, now em-
braces all problems of erection.
Consider the state of frame and
masonry house construction about
1940. A frame wall comprised fifteen
different assembly operations: three
coats of exterior paint, wood siding,
building paper, sheathing, stud frame,
insulation, vapor barrier, two coats of
plaster wood trim, three coats of inte-
rior paint. Just too many parts, too
many operations, too much time to do
(Continued on Page 18)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
- economy's a bonus
in Florida schools
Fire protection should certainly be one of the most
important considerations when building a new
school. Concrete provides this protection-and at
exceptionally low cost. Concrete can't burn. It
stays solid and safe .. never wears out.
Concrete helps keep classrooms quiet, too. It
reduces sound entry into rooms-decreases the
need for sound-proofing within rooms. And
concrete is one of today's most attractive building
materials. New design and construction methods
provide interesting surface textures and colors,
new shapes and styles for walls and roofs.
Concrete saves on upkeep expense. There is no
need for painting. It is easy to see why concrete
with its long life, low cost and upkeep is the first
choice of so many communities for their newest
schools of every size.
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION
1612 E. Colonial Dr., Orlando, Florida
A national organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete
(Continued from Page 16)
them all. Of course time is a factor
in this cost picture: labor time, con-
struction mortgage time, time that
capital is tied up.
The masonry wall could be simple.
A course of brick, a course of cement,
blocks, plastered and painted. But this
wall is poor thermally and had to have
wood furring and insulation. A good
masonry wall required about as many
assembly operations as the frame wall,
except for exterior paint. Designers
began to look at the masonry unit it-
self in terms of its size. Why build
with such small units especially
when labor wanted to limit the num-
ber to be laid in one day? A noted
architect, speaking at a research con-
ference in 1953, called for a "big
brick" for multistoried buildings.
What he meant was a wall unit equal
to the height of one story, about 8
feet wide, including a built-in window.
Since that time we have seen a
great surge of developmental work in
components of all kinds: exterior and
interior wall panels for houses, facto-
ries, office buildings, schools and
other building types. The ultimate
objective is to produce a wall con-
ponent that is as complete as possible
including the exterior skin or finish-
ing material, a core with structural
strength and insulating quality, and
an interior finish service. These so-
called "sandwich panels" have been
tried with all kinds of materials-
metal, glass, ceramic, and plastic skins,
foamed plastic, etc.
The problems preventing complete
success have been vexing indeed.
For house construction the old-
fashioned stud frame and its applied
skins are very hard to beat from a cost
standpoint-even in place with all
For other types of buildings the re-
quirements of codes for fire-resistance
may require back-up materials behind
the sandwich panel which defeat its
Some of the sandwiches prove to
have unexpected deficiencies such as
warping or deflection due to humid-
ity variations, or excessive dimensional
instability due to thermal variations.
Adhesives are often an important ele-
ment of the design and there may be
doubts about adhesive life. A light-
weight sandwich may test out well for
thermal conductivity but transmits
too much radiant heat or needs more
mass to absorb thermal units. A light-
weight panel may be poor acoustically.
The researchers are learning a great
deal about the laws of physics and
their effect upon building materials
-effects which were not noticeable
with the old methods of heavy-weight
Still another kind of problem con-
fronts the designer who wants to
make finished components. What will
happen to a good factory-applied
exterior or interior finish during con-
struction? The traditional construc-
tion processes have been rough, dirty
and careless, to say the least. Mate-
rials are handled by workers with dirty
hands. Before a wall is finished other
trades cut it, bump into it, drop mor-
tar or other building process litter
onto it from above.
The handling on finished building
components will have to be like han-
dling prefinished cabinets or appli-
ances. Obviously it can be done, but
the construction industry's work force
would have to be retained to do it.
Another bugaboo for prefinishing
is how to satisfy the owners' desire
for choice of a wide range of colors
or textures. This is more psychological
than real. The owner who selects a
specific granite sample should be able
to make a similar selection from a
similar range of finishes available in
metal or plastic. But he may be harder
to please when he looks at a new and
unfamiliar finishing material.
In spite of all these handicaps we
can be certain that the drive to create
large building units will continue and
that architects will use them more and
The development service systems in
the building is not receiving the same
kind of publicity as the shell, but
much is being done. The systems in-
clude the indoor-climate system, light-
ing, vertical transportation, commun-
ications, and sanitation system for
every type of building. Certain build-
ing types require still others, often
highly specialized, such as the food
service system for a hospital, the dis-
posal of radio-active wastes for a la-
boratory, the production line for a
factory, or the arena changes for a
The attitude of the owner towards
a service system is different than to-
ward the shell. It represents a service
he must have either to rent the build-
ing he owns or conduct his business
in it. He may see a more direct rela-
tionship between cost of the system
and real value of its benefits than he
can recognize in the structure. He
understands from the start that serv-
ice systems using machinery, motors
and moving parts will wear out and
need replacement. The housewife ex-
pects her washing machine to wear
out but she can't comprehend why
this should happen to a roof. All of
which is to say that the economics
problems of service systems may be
simpler than those of the shell.
The tough design problems have to
do with integrating the service sys-
tems with the structure and the shell.
The ducts, wires, pipes, conduits and
tubes of modern service systems re-
quire fantastic flexibility which de-
mand horizontal layers or vertical
shafts of building space at the cubic
foot cost of the shell. The installation
work must take place on the job be-
fore and after building components
are in place.
Students of this area of technology
keep seeking ways to integrate the
components of the structure and parts
of the service systems in the hope of
cutting down on-site labor and saving
space. Radiant heated floor and ceil-
ing panels and luminous ceilings are
examples. We are hardly far enough
along in these fields to see where we
The whole building structure, shell
and service systems combined, is sub-
ject to overall economic problems.
What is the economic life of a build-
ing? Its frame might last 1,000 years
or more, its shell anywhere from 1,000
to 50 years for the exterior skin to 20
years for the roof. Parts of service
systems may last 100 years, wear out
in 30 years or be obsolete in 10 years.
Today the financing of an office
building or apartment house may be
feasible or not depending upon the
tax-laws. The allowable write-off on
taxes for depreciation may be the
difference between a profitable ven-
ture and one that is not. The more
conservative approach to building fi-
nance is 100% depreciation in 20
years. The intricacies of building fi-
nancing include land cost, original
building cost, appraised value, oper-
ating cost, depreciation and taxes
balanced out against rental income.
If the architects design results in a
building cost of $22.00 per sq. ft.,
this one figure introduced into the
(Continued on Page 20)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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(Continued from Page 18)
formula may require a rental income
of $6.50 per sq. ft. when the going
market price for rental is $5.50. Result
- no building.
In the process of solving this form-
ula the arcihtect must examine every
aspect of his design, every detail of
the structure, the materials and the
service systems with respect to their
in-place cost, expected life, operating
and replacement costs in order to find
what combination can be built.
Our concepts of complete buildings
may begin to fall into two categories:
(a) a building of predetermined lim-
ited life and (b) a building called
permanent. The first will be designed
with the expectancy that it will be
torn down and replaced in say 50
years. For simpler types of structures
such as houses, or one story small
schools, they may be designed to be
demountable and removable from a
site of appreciated value and sold on
a used-building market like used cars.
The more complex structures would
simply be removed, their economic
life having been completed and their
A permanent building might be
actually only a permanent frame de-
signed to produce permanently desir-
able space. Its skins might be changed
from time to time to keep up to date.
Its service systems would be "get-at-
able" so that obsolete air-condi-
tioning systems could be easily re-
placed. The economics of the structure
would favor this kind of "renewal"
rather than complete replacement. We
might visualize the application of this
principle to a shopping center. Being
commercial and being involved with
sales appeal, such a structure might
well get new skins and new interior
fittings every ten years or so.
We have dealt with a subject of
extreme depth and breadth in relative-
ly broad generalities which I believe
are reasonably sound in principle. My
last observation is the significance of
this subject matter to the modern
architect. Architecture is no longer
the building shell, nor is the practice
of architecture the design of the shell.
The architect must be able to con-
ceive, design and execute the complete
building as a system of systems.
Though many parts of these systems
are primarily problems of engineering
design, the architect must not dele-
(Continued on Page 24)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
News & Notes
aDesign A4war d...
Tampa Medical Clinic Building wins
National Architectural Award . .
S//////,,/ / /.' /
The design of Hibbs Medical Clinic
Building, Tampa won the Health
Citation Award in the tenth Annual
Design Awards Program sponsored by
Progressive Architecture. Robert Wei-
lage, AIA, of the Florida Central
Chapter is the award winning archi-
A total of twenty two awards were
made, selected from more than five
The Medical Clinic Building will
house an organization of ten doctors
and psychologists engaged in neuro-
psychiatric practice. Individual out-
patients will visit the building for clin-
ical analysis, neurological examination,
and group therapy. All of the medical
and therapeutic functions are con-
fined to the first floor. Offices, me-
chanical room, and doctors' lounge
are on the second floor.
Construction will be of a simple
two-way concrete slab deck supported
on masonry bearing walls.
40th Annual Golf
The F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS
COMPANY of Atlanta, Georgia will
again play hosts for the Annual Golf
Tournament and Dinner to be held
on June 7th at the East Lake Country
Members of the Association and
Profession who have in the past par-
ticipated in the Tournament will not
want to miss it this year-and for
those able to accept this year's invita-
tion for the first time it will prove to
be a long remembered day. We urge
you to mark your calendar now.
" WAS YOUR COMPANY'S LAST
SBranching out with more offices, more personnel?
Perhaps your communications system isn't keep-
ing pace. New telephone services and equipment
can increase efficiency, cut down on lost time:
Call Directors, Dial TWX Systems, DATA-PHONE
service, Automatic Dialers, and many others. Get
a checkup now by a professional communications
consultant-call your Telephone Company Busi-
ness Office. No obligation, of course.
...w G wu' ui ttb 6e Fu&,
News & Notes
Seventy-two more persons have
been registered to practice architec-
ture in Florida. Of the total, 47
registrations were granted by examina-
tion to residents of Florida. The re-
maining 25 were granted on the basis
of the applicants having been already
registered and practicing in other
Those passing the examinations for
Bradenton-Paul A. Donofr'o,
Harley P. Kinney.
Coconut Grove Thomas Frank
Coral Gables Roberto T. Pin-
tado, Socrates S. Sabater.
Deland-James L. Mitchell.
Eau Gallie-Raymond Russell
Fort Lauderdale-Otto E. Haack,
Herman Hostettler, Donald Ivan
Gainesville William Kendall
Gulf Breeze--Richard Luther
AND DESIGN COSTS
Anchor Lock's greatversa-
tility of design saves time
and money. There's com-
plete freedom in locating
partitions where desired
without adding cost of
heavy bearing partitions.
Anchor Lock gives new
beauty in interior design,
more structural rigidity,
and eliminates sagging
and cracked ceilings.
Hialeah-Reuben S. Schneider.
Jacksonville-Robert Cloud Seals,
Corneil Edward Torbert, Trent Stan-
Keystone Heights-Donald Rich-
Leesburg-Louis Charles George.
Maitland-Mark Schweizer, Jr.
Miami-Philip R. Braden, Leonard
Di Silvestro, Raul Antonio Fumagali,
Lemuel Ramos, Jon A. Renner, Jaime
C. Salles, Richard Joseph Skrip, Vidal
Alfredo Vila, Robert Law Weed,
Robert C. West, Eugene Alex Yaros.
Miami Beach- Richard Allen
North Miami Beach--Donald J.
Frederick, Richard S. Pollack.
North Miami-Henry A. Riccio.
Orlando-Paul Gerard Zelones.
North Orlando-Robert Bruce
Ponte Vedra Beach- Robert D.
St. Petersburg-Richard McClain
Jones, John Warren White.
South Miami-Michael Simonhoff.
Tampa-Carlos E. Alfonso, Joseph
R. Bernardo, Enrique Miguel Marcet,
J. Priede-Rodrigucz, Scrvando J. San-
HIGHEST TOOTH VALUE
IN THE INDUSTRY!
Anchor Lock trusses are
tested, undergo continu-
ous testing for strength
Engineered and field-
tested to meet or exceed
all codes including
B.O.C.A.; Southern Build-
ing Code; U.B.C.; VA and
FHA No. SE-338; Central
Mortgage and Housing Cor-
poration (Ottawa, Canada)
No. 4176, and all local codes.
Winter Park-Lowell L. Lotspeich,
Charles Brandon Wald.
The fololwing were registered to
practice in Florida from other states:
Robert Z. T. Anthony, Memphis,
Tenn.; S. Corman Blumenthal, Chi-
cago, Inn.; Charles Francis Brennan,
Rochester, N.Y.; Harry Rudolph De
Polo, New York, N.Y.; Charles Du-
Bose, Hartford, Conn.; James Walter
Fitzgibbon, Raleigh, North Carolina;
Robert John Hall, Rochester, N.Y.:
Edwin Harris, Jr.; New York, N.Y.;
H. James Hestrup, Oak Brook, Ill.;
Henry Lloyd Hill, Atlanta, Ga.; Joe
William Hiller, Greenville, S.C.; Wil-
liam J. Janusey, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Char-
les James Koulbanis, New York, N.Y.;
Robert A. Lund, Frewsburg, N.Y.;
Leonard John Lundgren, Austin,
Tex.; Edward Joseph Maurer, Jr.,
Austin, Tex.; Thomas Oscar Morin,
Rochester, N.Y.; Ralph I. Parks,
Rochester, N.Y.; Charles Robert Ral-
ston, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Edward John
Ryan, St. Louis, Missouri; John K.
Van Scheltema, Dalton, Ill.; Frederic
A. Schick, Bowie, Md.; Harry E.
Shoemaker, El Monte, Calif.; Whit-
ney Rowland Smith, Pasadena, Calif.;
James Aaon Whitt, Gadsden, Ala.
Thousands of indexed designs in tech-
nical reference manuals for architects
and engineers. Send for your free copy
today on your letterhead.
WE'RE ALWAYS AS NEAR AS YOUR PHONE
ANCHOR LOCK OF FLORIDA, Inc.
1950 N. 30th AVENUE HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA
YU 9-0287 (MIAMI: WI 5-7912)
22 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Ilil~i FL I I
News & Notes
Student Awards . .
Henry N. Wright, adjunct associ-
ate professor of architecture at Colum-
bia University was Guest Speaker at
a luncheon held in conjunction with
the Symposium (to be reported in a
later issue) at the University of Flor-
ida. He addressed the students and
guests present on Environmental Fac-
tors and Architectural Design.
Presentation was made of four stud-
ent awards. The A.I.A. Silver Medal
was presented by the Institutes' Exec-
utive Director, William H. Scheick to
DAVID BOUBELICK; the recipient
of the Silver Medal Runner-up Award
was JOEL CHANNING and presen-
tation was made by Henry N. Wright;
The Alpha Rho Chi Medal, presented
by James T. Lendrum to LEON
MEYER and the F.A.A. Medal recipi-
ant DAVID BOUBELICK received
it from the FAA's Immediate Past
President, Robert H. Levison.
A.I.A. Convention ...
The reservation deadline for the
AIA Convention to be held in Miami
is April 5th and in all probability the
majority of FAA Members will receive
this issue just about then. If the
Americana cannot take your late reser-
vation there are many other hotels
close by which will be able to accom-
modate you. Tickets for Institute and
Host Chapter functions will be avail-
able at that time, so plan to attend.
Complete Membership of all FAA
Committees will not be published in
The Florida Architect as it has been
in previous years. However, all FAA
Directors and Chapter Presidents will
be furnished a complete roster of all
Committees. They will be available
to any FAA Member specifically re-
questing it from the Executive Secre-
tary without charge.
FAA Chapters . .
President Pooley spoke before three
FAA Chapters on matters pertaining
to the Legislative program of the Asso-
ciation. On March 20th he was with
members of the Mid Florida Chapter
in Orlando and on March 21st at
Delray for a joint meeting with the
Broward County and Palm Beach
Chapters. At the later meeting the
FAA's Secretary, First Vice President
and Executive Secretary also attended.
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretray
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
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(Continued from Page 20)
gate to engineers the full responsibil-
ity for these fields of design.
The architect must always control
the total concept or it will fail as
architecture. He must therefore be the
leader and coordinator of all design
Furthermore, the architect cannot
escape the economics of building. In
the AIA we are developing an exten-
sive program to educate the profession
to what we now call COMPRE-
SERVICES. This deals with new
services expected by today's clients
prior to the traditional design services
in such areas as feasibility studies,
finance and land assembly. The com-
plexity of the modern building affects
the architect not only with its de-
mands for extensive technical knowl-
edge but also with demands for skill
in building economics. Remember all
this is supplementary to his basic edu-
cation and talents for satisfying human
and esthetic requirements which are
the soul of architecture.
Flooring Co. . . 11
Anchor Lock of Florida 22
Arketex Ceramic Corp.. 20
A. R. Cogswell . . 16
Dyfoam Corporation . . 24
& Pattern Works . . 16
Florida Natural Gas Assn. . 9
Florida Power and Light Co.. 8
General Portland Cement . 6
Homosote Company . . 19
Merry Brothers Brick & Tile 3
Miami Window Corporation 1
Pittsburgh Plate Glass
Company . . . 15
Portland Cement Association 17
Prescolite . . . .24
Southern Bell Tel. & Tel. Co. 21
Vogue Kitchens . . 24
Weyerhaeuser Co. . . 5
F. Graham Williams Co. . 23
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Current Highlights ...
* CORPORATE PROFITS WILL REACH $53 OR $54 BILLION in 1963- up 4% or 5%
over last year even if business doesn't spurt as some analysts expect. This
represents an upward revision from what was predicted a few months ago. The
record earnings registered in the fourth quarter of 1962 have prompted many
forecasters to lift their sights. And the gain may actually be even better than it
looks because the faster depreciation now allowed under the Treasury's new rules
will tend to depress the reported net of many firms.
. Main reason for the improvement will be the higher sales due this
year, even if business merely meanders upward. But big gains in pro-
ductivity will help cut costs. Steel, chemical, drug, and oil companies
will show above-average increases. But competition will head off any
really big profits surge.
* INDUSTRY WILL MAKE FURTHER LARGE GAINS IN PRODUCTIVITY during 1963, say
labor economists. They are looking for increases in output per manhour that will
at least match last year's 4.1 % perhaps even exceed it a bit. (This would top
1961's 3.4% . .and would certainly top the postwar average.)
... Here's why output per manhour is expected to stay high:
... Sales will keep on edging up . spreading overhead further.
... Industry is automating steadily .. continuing to cut costs.
... Firms are paring costs by cutting sales and office forces.
* THE BIGGEST LABOR ORGANIZING DRIVE IN YEARS has been launched by the in-
dustrial unions of the AFL-CIO. The effort is expected to last 18 months. The
drive's aim is to halt the erosion of union membership of recent years. The
industries the organizers will be concentrating on include furniture . .textiles
S. professional personnel . and public employment especially teachers.
... The special areas that the unions will attack will include such cities
as Chicago, Greater Boston, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Philadelphia and
the textile towns of South Carolina.
* CONGRESS REALLY MEANS TO CUT SPENDING THIS SESSION and may have a little
more luck than usual. Lawmakers have an especially strong incentive this time.
They want to cut taxes but, with the deficit growing, they fear being tagged
"fiscally irresponsible." If they can point to reductions in federal spending,
however, they can justify a tax vote. This is one reason why even some liberal
Democrats are talking of trimming Kennedy's Budget.
. But cutting is hard. Some 75 % of the Budget goes for such normally
"uncuttable" items as defense, debt interest, and veterans' benefits. But
now there's talk of paring several billions from defense and more from
foreign aid and other programs. Observers think that this time Congress
may just manage to cut $2 or $3 billion . a lot as such cutting goes.
* CORPORATIONS SEEM SURE TO GET MUCH OF THE TAX CUTS Kennedy requests. So
far, this part of the program has raised surprisingly little hostility. The unions
don't like it, of course. But most Congressmen are sympathetic, and if they can
cut spending, they will feel free to vote such reductions. The normal tax -on
the first $25,000 is a good bet to decline 30% to 22%. The top rate ...
now 52% ... is very likely to be reduced to a maximum of 47%. And the
savings to corporations will ultimately reach $2.5 billion a year.
.. .Individual taxpayers will also get tax relief this year-that is still the
word from Capitol Hill. Opposition is strong, but at least some of it is just
oratory for the record not a real threat. Conflicting reports make this