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OFFICIAL JUNLo FACIETIC
7I12 L .0
Edwin T. Reeder
Prominent civic leaders, architects, and friends of Edwin T.
Reeder, FAIA, mourn his untimely death as a loss to both the
community and profession. He is survived by his gracious wife
Ruth, teenage son Edwin S. Reeder, and business partner
Everett M. Eignus.
On December 14, 1908 he was born to Algenore and Edwin
C. Reeder at Laurium, Michigan. He graduated in the class
of 1931 as a Bachelor of Science in Architecture from the Uni-
versity of Illinois.
Later he worked his way from draftsman in 1935 to the
position of partner ('39-'41) in the firm of Weed and Reeder
Architects. During the early phase of World War II Reeder
served the Civil Engineer Corps U. S. Navy in helping to
establish the original requirements for "Seabees". Following a
tour of duty in charge of "Seabee" recruiting within the area of
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast, he served overseas
with the 19th Construction Regiment and 75th Naval Construc-
tion Battalion in the South Pacific as Executive Officer in
charge of a unit of 1200 construction specialists. Later he com-
manded the U. S. Naval Reserve Construction Company 6-12 at
Miami and advanced to the rank of Captain, CEC, USNR.
From 1946 to the present, he and partner Everett M. Eignus
have guided the firm of EDWIN T. REEDER ASSOCIATES,
ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS, in the completion of
many projects including civic buildings, financial institutions,
Army-Navy-Air Force Facilities, hospitals, Commercial buildings,
As a partner in CODA (County of Dade Architects),
Reeder designed the handsome new Metropolitan Dade County
Justice Building and Jail in the Civic Center.
The firm of Edwin T. Reeder Associates has received recog-
nition in the form of the following awards: Industrial National
Bank, ALCOA Achievement Award; Central National Bank,
Award of Honor FAA Convention 1958; Dade Federal Savings
& Loan Association, Edison Center Branch, Award of Merit for
Architectural Excellence, South Atlantic Region AIA; South
Florida State Mental Hospital, Award of the "Modern Hospital
of the Month" plaque by Modern Hospital Publishing Company;
Designer's and Decorator's Guild Honorary Membership Award
in recognition of substantial and continuous contributions to the
interest of good design and attractive living.
His work has been published in national magazines includ-
ing: TIME, FORTUNE, INTERIORS, BRICK AND TILE
(Structural Clay Products), and HOUSE AND GARDEN.
Reeder's dedicated service to the Institute is well known among
his fellow architects. Chief offices which he held in the AIA
include the following:
President, South Florida Chapter AIA 1954; Director, South
Florida Chapter AIA 1955, '56, '57; Member National Commit-
tee on Publications AIA 1956; Chairman Budget Committee
Florida Association of Architects 1956, '57, '58; Chairman South
Atlantic Region AIA Convention Committee 1952; and Chair-
man of numerous Chapter committees since 1943.
Reeder generously gave his time and worked in a leadership
capacity on the following civic and other professional groups:
Dade County Contractor's Examining Board Chairman 1947
thru '57; Combined Examining Boards (Miami, Miami Beach,
Dade County) Chairman 1954 thru '57; NCARB Examining
Board Georgia Institute of Technology 1955; Technical Com-
mittee member writing new South Fla. Building Code 1956-57;
Director, The Cancer Institute at Miami, 1954 thru '58; Mem-
ber Extension Committee, National Council of Christians and
Jews 1953 to present; Member Kiwanis International Scholarship
Committee 1955 until death; Chairman Dade County Metropoli-
tan Planning Board; Chairman Dade County Architectural Com-
mittee for Civic Center Development; Director Miami Chamber
of Commerce 1950 to present; Chairman Fine Arts Committtee,
Inter-American Cultural & Trade Center 1956-57; Member Archi-
tectural & Engineering Control Committee for Inter-American
Cultural & Trade Center 1956-57; Member Exhibition Commit-
tee, "Design Derby", sponsored by Designer's and Decorator's
Guild 1958 to present; Member Florida State Board of Archi-
tecture from 1961 to present.
The profession and the entire Florida community has indeed
lost a most valuable citizen.
-Murray Blair Wright
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MARCH, 1963 1
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECT
n e 7&4 I4sce--
Edwin T. Reeder, FAIA . 1908 1963 .
Current Highlights ........
Aluminum . Color and Finishes .
By Robert E. Fisher
A Venture Toward Verity . . .
By Dr. Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA
The 1963 Legislative Program . .
By Roy M. Pooley
Advertisers' Index . . . .
. 2nd Cover
. 2 6
FAA OFFICERS 1963 THE FLC
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., President, 233 E. Bay St., Jacksonville the Flor
William F. Bigoney, Jr., First V.-Pres., 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale Athmerica
William T. Arnett, Second V.-President, University of Florida, Gainesville Florida I
Richard B. Rogers, Third V.-President, 511 N. Mills St., Orlando wished
Jefferson N. Powell, Secretary, 361 S. County Road, Palm Beach Editorial
James Deen, Treasurer, 7500 Red Road, South Miami photogra
Robert H. Levison, Immediate Past President, 425 S. Garden Ave., Clearwater but publ
DIRECTORS of Archi
BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hansen, Robert G. Jahelka; DAYTONA provided
BEACH: Francis R. Walton, Carl Gerken; FLORIDA CENTRAL: A. Wynn and toT
Howell, Richard E. Jessen, Frank F. Smith, Jr.; FLORIDA NORTH: James T. services
Lendrum, Lester N. May; FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; come, b
FLORIDA NORTHWEST: Barnard W. Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: C. either ec
Robert Abele, John 0. Grimshaw, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: John constitute
R. Graveley, Walter B. Schultz, A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr.; MID-FLORIDA: Fred ation of
G. Owles, Jr., Donald 0. Phelps; PALM BEACH: Donald Edge, Harold A. Obst, the right
Hilliard T. Smith, Jr. cause o
Director, Florida Region, AIA scription
Robert M. Little, FAIA, 2180 Brickell Avenue, Miami $2.00 .
Executive Secretary, FAA
Verna Shaub Sherman, Douglas Entrance Bldg., Coral Gables, Fla. PL
THE COVER ... H. S
The first conclusive research in well over three hundred years has resulted B. W
in the achievement of Dr. Turpin C. Bannister, F.A.I.A., Dean of the College
of Architecture and Fine Arts, University of Florida, which establishes defi-
nitely facts regarding the basic planning and design of Old Saint Peter's at
Rome. The cover drawing by Dr. Bannister Transept interior reconstruc-
tion, looking north is one evidence of his scholarly conclusion to a problem
of architectural detection that has no counterpart. In the drawing and the sub-
stance of the article which starts on page 10, Dr. Banniser has developed a VOLUME
significant archaeological conclusion to a problem which has baffled scholars
ever since the destruction of the magnificent monument which has been the NUMB E
focus of his untiring attention for almost half a decade. NUMBER
)RIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
ida Association of Architects of the
n Institute of Architects, is owned by
ida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
nonthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
3, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
contributions, including plans and
iphs of architects' work, are welcomed
ication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
d by contributors are not necessarily
the Editor or the Florida Association
tects. Editorial material may be freely
I by other official AIA publications,
full credit is given to the author
he FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
vertisements of products, materials and
adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
ut mention of names or use of illus-
of such materials and products in
litorial or advertising columns does not
e endorsement by the Florida Associ-
Architects. Advertising material must
to standards of this publication; and
is reserved to reject such material be-
f arrangement, copy or illustrations.
controlled circulation postage paid at
Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
, $5.00 per year; January Roster Issue,
. Printed by McMurray Printers.
amuel Krus6, FAIA, Chairman
T. Arnett, Fred W. Bucky Jr.
. Hartman Jr., Dana B. Johannes
OGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
4. . ~ .
* ,4 4 .. 4-
Em m a, Vcd b a ?
Soft earth tones of red and brown give Merry's Stratford Blend Face Brick almost a
velvet appearance. The effect is enhanced by deep impregnation of the sand
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For more information ask the Merry Brick representative who calls on you or contact
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* THE ECONOMY IS STILL ONLY AMBLING ALONG these days moving up fairly slow-
ly. There are bright spots . which get most of the attention . but the over-all
picture has shown little net gain for many months now. Not even President Ken-
nedy's tax proposals ... if approved by Congress as submitted . are expected to
bring much stimulation to business before the end of 1963.
.. The key indicators are still a mixed bag of bouncy gains and disap-
pointing dips. If retail sales rise, then new orders slip. The advance on a
wide front that is characteristic of a vigorous expansion still has not de-
veloped. Instead, the impressive pluses are so far only exceptions
to the rule.
.. After making allowances for purely seasonal changes, many econo-
mists conclude that the economy hasn't done much since July. What net
increases there have been are regarded as largely unsatisfactory. These
analysts are hoping that improved psychology will operate to speed
things up. But, up to now, there is little evidence of such improvement.
* SOME OF THE STATISTICS HAVE BEEN SURPRISINGLY WEAK. For example, unemploy-
ment has not really declined. It is still 51/2% of the labor force. Or take industrial
output: The index read 119 in July but is only a point or so above this level now.
And surveys suggest that the expenditures of business for new plant and equip-
ment may be in a dip if only temporary.
.. The economy has its positive side, of course the things that have
sparked today's business optimism. Big auto sales are lifting activity in
steel, auto parts, rubber, and textiles. Other retail sales are up. And
home-building stays strong.
* BUT THE PLUSES AREN'T ENOUGH TO SPUR THE ECONOMY into moving faster. Indeed,
the early months of 1963 have witnessed some usual seasonal easing. Even the
President's economic advisers aren't being very optimistic about the rest of 1963.
They are assuming a rise of only 4.3% in total output. (By contrast, the gain was
6.7% in '62.) Price rises could cut this to 3%.
.. And even this modest appraisal assumes that taxes will come down a
notch in July. Actually, the monumental complexity of the President's
tax program makes October more likely.
* HOPE FOR AN EARLY SPEED-UP IN BUSINESS ACTIVITY rests primarily on the advance
psychological impact that the recommended tax cuts may have. At this time,
government expenditures are the main expansionary factor in the picture. Fed-
eral outlays are expected to rise by $5 billion in 1963; spending by states and
localities will rise by $3 or $4 billion. But the other two key determinants of busi-
ness trend consumer buying and outlays by business for inventory and plant -
can still use substantial stimulation.
... If the prospect of tax cuts makes families and businessmen feel a
little better off, they may loosen the pursestrings and pep up these lag-
ging areas. Consumers may feel able to buy autos, appliances, etc. more
freely. And industry may be moved to add to plant, to be ready for
larger sales. But if Congress delays, the psychological effect may be nil.
* THE ECONOMY WON'T RETURN TO A FULL EMPLOYMENT LEVEL till '65 or '66, accord-
ing to projections of Kenendy's economic advisers. (Full employment is a level
of activity in which 4% of the labor force or less is jobless.) This is when Ken-
nedy's entire tax package will finally have taken effect. But the Budget won't
come into balance until later than this until 1967. (Continued on Page 6)
.4 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
dsonite ... a solid-core door that's
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resisting Fibron, edge-sealed to solid white
fir stiles and rails and face-bonded on each
side to three layers of cross-banded veneers to
produce the 7-ply construction for which
Thompson doors are famed.
Guaranteed as to production . Pre-
cision controlled at every step, with every
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E dsonxite .. WITH THE DIFFERENCE THAT MAKES IT BETTER . .
MARCH, 1963 5
Current Hiiglights ...
(Continued from Page 4)
... Some analysts don't think you'll see full employment before 1970.
For one thing, they feel that automation and improved efficiency will
erase jobs faster than expansion can create them. For another thing, the
post-war baby crop, which is already swelling the labor force, will swamp
it by 1965-66.
* KENNEDY SEEMS LIKELY TO GET A TAX BILL this year, to judge from the progress that
has been made to date. But the word from Capitol Hill still is that there'll be dras-
tic changes in the specifics of the proposals that were made. There's still opposition
to the "reforms"- at least in their original version. And the amount of revenue
to be lost may be pared down.
* UNEMPLOYMENT SEEMS MORE LIKELY TO INCREASE in 1963 than to decline. That's
because population growth keeps adding new young workers each year. Indeed,
the net amount added annually ranges between 800,000 to 1,200,000. If business
does not pick up, this additional manpower cannot be absorbed. And, as noted,
business is not expected to spurt... even if taxes are cut. What's more, increasing
output per man-hour means that any extra production can be turned out with
little . if any . rise in the number on payrolls.
... So the number of unemployed may climb by 500,000 or so, for 1963
as a whole. The jobless could exceed 6% of the labor force -giving
Washington new cause for concern. But rising unemployment may mean
new support in Congress for tax cuts.
Look to the Chefs for yoi
Natural Gas is the unanimous choice of Florida'
leading chefs. In recent Holiday Magazine awards t
Florida eating places for dining distinction, ,ever
single recipient used gas for cooking . natural gs
where it was available! This in a state where other
cooking methods were firmly entrenched before nature
gas ever came into the picture! Surely the lesson :
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
* THE RECENT RASH OF STRIKES IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE through the spring and sum-
mer. Negotiations involving more than 3 million workers are coming up in such
fields as steel . aluminum . railroads . rubber . utilities . and electrical
equipment. Labor experts detect a new toughness on the part of both labor and
industry. This, alone, is expected to produce 50% more strikes in 1963 than last
year's 3,500, which involved 1,250,000 workers. And where strikes can be averted,
the negotiations may be long and bitter.
... What's behind the upsurge in labor unrest?
. The unions will be gunning for big packages of wages and fringe ben-
efits. But their biggest concern not always shown on the surface -
is to protect the jobs of members from alleged ravages of automation and
.. Management, however, has been stiffening its resistance, more and
more. Competition makes it hard to pass on cost increases to consum-
ers. So new labor costs only add to the pressure on already hard-
pressed margin of profit.
... One result of the strike activity may be Congressional action to give
the government a bigger voice in collective bargaining. This doesn't
necessarily mean compulsory arbitration. But it may lead to some in-
creased authority for fact-finding boards to recommend settlements ... to
be enforced by public opinion
.. It's going to be harder to resist Union demands as a result of the settlement
in the longshoremen's strike in January. The way some labor experts see it,
the President's interference with Senator Morse carrying the ball meant
a 5 o/o increase in business costs. Hereafter, union chiefs will refuse to settle
under Presidential guidelines . as some did in '62.
- natural gas is a better way to cook food, and
,ns designed with gas in mind will be better
;ns. If you haven't checked on the new gas
.nces and commercial kitchen equipment, even
past few months, you're in for some pleasant
ses. Check with your local natural gas utility
te direct to us for further information.
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Aluminum... Color and Finishes
By ROBERT E. FISHER
This is the second part of an article by an expert on the character-
istics and uses of aluminum. The first part which appeared in the
November 1962 issue of The Florida Architect, dealt with a clari-
fication of the general limitations and potentialities of aluminum,
as a material for architectural design. This one is concerned with
an equally important subject.
Our proceeding article was re-
stricted to the study of basic alumi-
num and its fabrication. In this arti-
cle we shall discuss the various
mnuthods of finishing and their respec-
tive merits. It is in this area that
aluminum has become most confus-
ing to the designer. A certain amount
of this confusion has been caused by
misinformation in the past and the
introduction of a maze of processes
during recent years.
No attempt shall be made to delve
deeply into the metallurgical or chem-
ical processes involved except as is
deemed necessary to more fully ex-
plain the resultant finish. Certain
technical aspects and compounds of
some processes are trade secrets and
are treated only in general terms.
Pricing varies greatly between and
within the various processes and is
usually governed by such variables as
time, size and shape of the work,
quantities involved, etc. Therefore we
must restrict our discussion again to
rather general comparisons. Detailed
information on these matters can be
obtained from manufacturers or firms
specializing in finishing.
As we all know, one of the inherent
values of aluminum is the "built in"
protective exide coating which forms
naturally on the surface of the metal.
This coating is both an advantage and
and problem. If the aluminum is to
be used in the natural "as rolled" or
"as extruded" condition, the coating
offers a degree of protection from at
least a portion of the corrosive and
abrasive elements that will normally
attack the metal. If the fabricated
product is to be painted, soldered, or
welded, the oxide coating must be
removed and the. finishing or joinery
operations carried out within a rela-
tively short time. With the exception
of a few products such as low cost
residential windows, flashings, indus-
trial roofing and siding, or unexposed
metal, the products used in the archi-
tectural market are subjected to some
form of finishing operation.
First we shall consider the mechan-
ical finishes. These can be used as the
.ultimate final finish or may be com-
bined with one of the other processes
to achieve a specialized finish. These
operations range from highly polished
and buffed to rough shot blasted sur-
faces. In between we have a range of
belt sanded, hand rubbed, wire wheel,
and sand blast finishes used either
singly or in combination to achieve
the desired effect. Within each cate-
gory there are a variety of grits and
meshes to create additional variations.
Pricewise it can be assumed that
the more highly polished the surface
the more expensive the finishing costs
will be. It should also be pointed out
that belt operations can become quite
difficult and expensive to perform on
offset or uneven surfaces. If the fin-
ishes achieved by these methods are
to be used as the final surface treat-
ment they should be protected by
clear lacquer or plastic coatings. If
not, the oxide coating which has been
removed will soon re-form and cause
the product to take on rather dull ap-
pearance. In some cases this may be
desirable from an esthetic standpoint.
Another type of finish which has
become increasingly popular during
the past few years is the organic or
paint finish. Early organic finishes
left much to be desired; however with
the advent of the synthetic resins ap-
plied over a primer or conversion
coating (to be discussed later) this
type of finish provides a very satis-
factory and moderately priced surface.
The materials in general use are
the alkyds, acrylics, polyesters, vinyls,
epoxies, melamines, and butyrates, to
name but a few. The most com-
monly used have been the alkyds;
however the acrylics and epoxies have
recently become very popular. The
vinyls offer excellent flexibility but,
sometimes suffer from poor color re-
tention in outdoor exposures. Paint
finishes find their greatest use in such
items as aluminum panels and resi-
dential as well as commercial siding.
Such mass markets make ideal appli-
cations as the material can be roller
coated at the mill, baked and sent in
roll or sheet form to the fabricator.
Because of the flexibility of the coat-
ings they can be roll formed in the
painted state. Organic finishes can
also be readily applied to extruded
shapes. Lacquers have been generally
losing out to the more exotic resins;
however they are still used in some
cases where special effects such as
copper and gold tones are required.
When specifying paint finishes it
is well to consult a fabricator to select
proper paint for the application.
One of the lesser known but excel-
lent finishes for aluminum is porce-
lain enamel. For many years it was
felt that this process was not adapt-
able to aluminum because of the high
firing temperature required. However
E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Com-
pany along with Ferro Corporation
and Pemco Corporation developed
low-fire frits which were ideal for ap-
plication on aluminum. The process
requires only three basic steps; clean-
ing, pre-treatment, and enameling.
After cleaning, the metal is pre-fired
to "fix" the oxide. Following this op-
eration the frit is applied by spraying
and the work is fired at a temperature
range of 9700 to 10000 F. The result-
(Continued on Page 20)
By TURPIN C. BANNISTER, FAIA
Dean College of Architecture and Fine Arts
University of Florida
. . The results of a three year research into the
Metrology, Geometry, and Symbolism of the Con-
stantinian Basilica of Saint Peter at Rome . .
During the second quarter of the
fourth century there arose on the
eastern slope of the Vatican hill in
Rome a magnificent basilica initiated
by Constantine the Great to enshrine
the grave of Peter, the preeminent
apostle, first bishop of the capital,
and its most revered martyr. The fame
of Peter soon made his shrine the
outstanding goal of western pilgrims
and his basilica the best known medi-
eval church. In the sixteenth and early
seventeenth centuries the venerable
structure was replaced by its present
resplendent successor, but now, even
after three hundred years, this substi-
tute still lacks a whole millennium of
equaling the eloquent associations
that once radiated from Constantin-
ian walls. (Fig. 1)
The form of Old St. Peter's is
well known, but curiously it has
received no convincing graphic recon-
struction of the interior. The recovery
of new data in the 1940's suggests
that the time is ripe for a new effort.
In the course of preparing such draw-
ings, certain discoveries have emerged
regarding the metrology, geometry,
and symbolism of the design. This
paper summarizes these findings.
The plan, published in 1590 by the
Vatican cleric Tiberio Alpharano, re-
veals the elements of the basilica.
(Fig. 2) On the east, broad steps
mount to the terrace and gatehouse.
Beyond lies the atrium. Although side
arcades are shown, it now seems cer-
tain that they had never been built.
On the west beckons the arcaded nar-
thex accented at the center by a single
projecting bay. Entering the portals,
we see the long nave lined on each
side by a file of twenty-one columns
outside which lie pairs of aisles sep-
arated by arcades. Westward, nave
and aisles open into a great transverse
hall, the transept, the first ecclesiasti-
cal example of its kind. Opposite the
-7.. *- -* .
--. ", ...
.- -- a. ~. ., .
Figure One. St. Peter's: View from north, c 1539, by Marten van Heemskerck.
At the left stands the eastern half of Constantine's nave made usable by the
temporary wall of 1538. At the right rise Bramante's piers and arches of the
new basilica begun in 1506. Beneath the northern arch stand the remains of
triumphal arch joining nave and trans-
ept, stands the semi-circular apse
framing the focal shrine, which en-
cased the small trophy (martyr shrine)
that since the mid-second century had
marked the apostle's grave.
In addition to numerous topogra-
phical sketches showing elements of
the design, other sources add the di-
mensions required for accurate recon-
struction. First is the official report
of the archaeological investigations of
the 1940's. Its most important contri-
bution is the exact transverse dimen-
sions of the northern half of the nave.
These were obtainable because in sur-
viving portions of a temporary wall,
erected in 1538 to allow use of the
eastern half of the nave during con-
struction of the new church, are em-
bedded a piece of the northern aisle
wall, one column base of both arcade
and colonnade, and a portal which
fixes very accurately the central axis
of the nave. (Fig. 3)
Second is the manuscript written
by Alpharano around 1571 which rec-
ords many dimensions. Alpharano's
accuracy was generally confirmed by
the investigations of the 1940's, but
individual quantities must still be
viewed with caution because it is often
difficult .to determine to which points
he worked, and because he usually
rounded off his readings to the near-
est whole number of sixteenth-century
Third is a sketch plan ascribed to
Baldassare Peruzzi. It presents in
palms component dimensions from
the approximate center of the old
nave east to the outer edge of the
entrance terrace. Beneath the inked
drawing is a pencil substratum repeat-
ing the same plan with slight differ-
ences in amounts.
Correlation of sources produces a
very complete array of critical dimen-
sions. (Fig. 4) These give an over-all
interior width of 63.00 m. and an
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
overall outer width of 65.98 m. It is J I .- .. ;.
natural to suppose that Roman archi-
tects would have used Roman feet in j..?2"
laying out their designs and at St.
Peter's the over-all interior width does
produce exactly 213 Roman feet of 9
295.77 m., the aisle walls are 5.03
feet, and the outer over-all width
223.06 feet. It should be noted that
the ratio 223:213 is exactly one-third
of 3 10/71, the lower limit of r enun-
ciated by Archimedes about 225 B. C. .
It is surprising that all other trans- u...
verse dimensions involve quantities. :
with complex fractions of Roman feet i
that seem to deny any rational use of -
this unit. .
Tests of other units led to the dis-
covery that the 63-meter interior
width is exactly 120 Egyptian royal -
cubits of 525 mm. or 180 Egyptian
feet of 350 mm. (Fig. 5) Late Roman
metrologists termed the latter a Ptole- .-P ,v" *tt
maic foot. These units, with only
slight variations of a few millimeters, 6
had been the standard for Egyptian" "
building since the Old Kingdom. -.. *
Egyptian commerce and conquest *
spread their use throughout the Near
East. The royal cubit of seven palms,
in contrast to the common cubit of
six, is recognized as "the cubit and a
hand breadth" used by Ezekiel in his .
ecstatic vision of the restored Hebrew
Temple. By extension it is also as-
sumed to be the cubit employed for
Moses' Tabernacle and Solomon's n., anxB-s V wx....ms .
Temple. Figure Two. Old St. Peter's: Plan, 1590, by Tiberio Alpharno. The side arcades
The conscious use of these Egyp- of the atrium were never built. The chapels along the aisle walls are late addi-
tian units at the Vatican is established tions. The western round tomb was connected with the transept probably in
the 8h century. The apse shows its arrangement as remodeled by Gregory the
(Continued on Page 12) Great c 590. The interior indicates the clutter of added shrines and papal tombs.
,.Figure Three. Old St. Peter's: East
half of nave, looking west to tem-
porary wall of 1538. Fresco of c
"1520 in a chapel of the Vatican
grotto. Despite distorted propor-
Stions, this painting is an important
source for the roof framing and the
cycle of biblical frescoes added
c 895. About 1460 Plus II intro-
duced the shrine in the end of the
south aisle (left) to receive the
head of St. Andrew, brother of
Peter. The decorative canopy over
it has often been misinterpreted as
indicating that the outer aisles were
A Venture Toward Verity
,' A78 1743
Es72"m)75- -175" A40690.70'
P Peruzzi: Uffi
P Peruzzi:.ff z
by a comparison with the cathedral of
Rome, St. John Lateran. The discov-
ery in 1957 of the Constantinian
foundations and fragments of aisle
walls revealed an outer width of 189
Roman feet. Assuming 4.5-foot walls,
the inner width is thus 180 Roman
feet. This correspondence with the
Vatican's 180 Ptolemaic feet cannot
be chance. Similarly the distances be-
(Continued from Page 11)
F63141' A256' 5719'
p7331 64' P57' 2l.70 PZ60' 5808" AiTlo9W0" F77601755'
40- f 5675PZ 6&m P258 675779" PI.67/824' ?77' 720.
. -12.85 577 I t "
79- -1 4'
tween the centers of the outer arcades
both have 127 of their respective
units. When the two plans are drawn
at scales with the same number of
their respective units, their congruity
The Vatican aisle walls are 4.25
Ptolemaic feet in thickness and the
over-all outer width becomes 188.50.
Far from vitiating, the 223 : 213 value
of 7r/3 previously observed, the ratio
188.50 : 180 produces the exact value
of 7r stated in the second century A.D.
by Ptolemy, the celebrated mathema-
tician, astronomer, and geographer of
Alexandria. Expressed in sexagesimal
fractions, Ptolemy's value was 3 parts
8 minutes and 30 seconds, the
equivalent in Roman fractions of
3 + 1/8 + 1/60 and in modern deci-
mals 3.14167. This was antiquity's
closest approximation of this famous
With the fixing of precise units
and dimensions, it is possible to ex-
plore with unusual confidence the
geometry of the Vatican plan. (Fig. 6)
The starting point is the apse with its
outer diameter of 60 Ptolemaic feet
and its inner diameter of 50 (I). Step
II shows that the apse projection of 28
feet multiplied by 7r gives the 88-foot
combined width of apse and transept,
and that three 60-foot squares define
the transept to its inner end walls.
Step III shows that the diagonal of
the 50-foot inner square of the tran-
sept produces 70.71 feet, half an inch
short of the 70.75 foot width ob-
served between the center lines of the
The determination of the aisle
walls by the factor of 7r/3 has been
......... ........... ...... .. ...... ...... .... 660OO 440.00 781.00 23100
610.50"40Z700c 72243 213.67m
582.50"38&533c 68929 203."
39900"266.00"4715' 1395............ +
........ ...... .... .... .. 388.00"25867c459.13' 13580m ... 27
371.00"247.33c43902" 985m .......... .... ..
.... .. ........... 360.00" 24000Ec426.00 2600 ... ....... ... . 22
. ... . ... 323.00 215..3c 382.22" 113.05m + 25
7 0413 08 + ..................... 30000"20000" 355.00 05.00 ....... ............ .... 16
60.00 -+ ................... 263.00"17533 311.22' 92.05". + 3700" -/1)
5000" 4 259.00" 172 67 306.48' 90.65" ....' ,- 15
200" /8.33Ec 32/87' 9520O
2.50"14833" 26329' 7788m .
9.580TO7300O 30708' 908
5.00"11000c 19525 5775m
P+ = Ptolemaic Feet of 350mm
EC = Egyptian Royal Cubi+s
of 525 mm
R = Roman Feet of 295.77 mm
m = 4Meters
52.003467 61.53' 1&20m 3450"2M0`40.3 12.05"m 2500"'1667' 29.56'8"75r" 4225" 835.03 1.49"
OTHER-DIMENSIONAL 5000 33.33 59.16 1750 3025 2017 35.80 10.59 1400 933 16.57 490 400 2.67 473 1.40 7.
EQUIVALENTS 4950 33.00 5858 1733 3000 20.00 3550 1050 13.50 900 15.98 473 3.25 2.17 3.85 1.14
4800 3200 56.80 1680 2800 1867 33.13 9.80 1(00 733 13.02 385 300 200 355 105
6000"4000c71.00"2100 37.00 2467 4378 12.95 26.50 1767 31.36 928 8.50 567 1006 298 250 167 296 .88 .
5750 38.33 68.04 2013 35.25 23.50 41.71 1234 25.25 16.8 2988 884 5.00 333 5.92 1.75 200 /.33 2.37 .7Q
Figure 5. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing dimensions accepted in this study.
....... Clerestory width AI45 3.24" 3.27"
Windows height AZZ" 491"m 4.90' TCB 62
Apse w All" 2.46" 2.45
Ed dimensions Windows h A 16 3.57" 3.68"
Doors I w A16' 557"
RomanPalms P16.17 3.6!"
nm PI6. 3.65" 36' ..8+!5 |. /
h AZ9g 6.48" 6.48" & : .
ziaArDesJV' 1i w A14r 3. 13m 3. 5 1 5 ".
(substratum) h A281 626" 630" | n
iArDesi20A X w AIO" / 3" 228" I- -
h A 16" 3.57" 359" -
Figure 4. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing sources of dimensions.
+ .... .
; + ....
+ 280 .....
00... .......... -
4. ,57.50" +
-4. 5200" ..-
- t" ,--
r o '50'
N ** tO..
-s t ~'
. . I
noted. Step IV shows that the same
factor gives the outer width of both
the major and minor colonnades, and
thus establishes the radii and diamet-
ers of their shafts. Step V fixes the
360-fot length of transept, nave, and
narthex as twice the 180-foot inner
width, and the 259-foot inner length
of the nave as twice the outer width
of the minor arcades. Finally, Step VI
demonstrates that the 222.50-foot dis-
tance between the eastern faces of
narthex and gatehouse is to the 360-
foot basilican length as the latter is to
their total of 582.50 feet. This is
Euclid's familiar extreme and mean
Thus, given the apse, a series of
simple geometric constructions and
ratios locate every major element of
(Continued on Page 14)
... z.. ....
S. .......................... ......... .......
7 i :: ................... ... .................. ...............
+28 "+ ...-.... -* ...... .....
+ ... ..... .. ...................... 4 02 .50 "
..... ... .. ............... ... .... 3 6 0 .0 0 "
+ ... ....................... 3 2 2 .0 0 ............
582.50 + 49.50" +
.......... .. .... .. ......... .. ... ... .... .. ... 0 .0 0 +
............... +3 00 42 50 + 229.50 ........... ...... .... .... .............. +
AG = 5= = = = 1.618034... = Extreme and Mean Ratio
A = N-6 =5 7-0 -2_225 -Lf~.r u~
-6 _____PsR"Ic--- c-s---
- m --- -I~ a--
..... .. 660.00 (1/ x 60) - .
Figure 6. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing geometrical development.
S invdel 1962
A Venture Toward Verity
(Continued from Page 13)
the plan so precisely that, with only
two errors, the greater is 1 3/16 in-
ches. The suggestion of such precision
will naturally raise scepticism as to
the ability of Roman builders to
maintain a standard matching all but
the most costly modern methods.
Nevertheless, the dimensions here ac-
cepted agree closely with the available
sources and are remarkably consistent.
The use of dimensional units asso-
ciated with Moses' Tabernacle and
Solomon's Temple suggests the possi-
bility that these models may have
given further inspiration to Constan-
tine's design. In the sixth chapter of
I Kings, the temple porch is described
as 10 by 20 cubits, "the holy place"
or cella, as a double-square 20 by 40
cubits, and 30 high, and "the Holy
of Holies," or sanctuary, as a cube of
20 cubits (Fig. 7-1). Squares and
double-squares were too common in
antiquity to serve as trustworthy evi-
dence of influence, but proportions of
1 : 3 (cella and sanctuary) and 1:3.5
(adding the porch) would be suffi-
ciently unusual to warrant an assump-
tion of direct borrowing.
Rectangle II-B shows the 1 : 3 pro-
portion of the Vatican transept al-
ready noted and this ratio is rein-
forced by the fact that its 40-cubit
outer width and 120-cubit inner
length are exactly double the specific
dimensions of the Temple reported
in I Kings. Furthermore, the 40 by
20.17-cubit alcoves differ only slightly
from the proportion and doubled size
of the Temple porch. Rectangle III-E
reveals that the 259-foot inner length
of the nave is exactly 3.5 times its 74-
foot outer width. Rectangle IV-H
shows the same ratio between the
188.5-foot over-all outer width and
the 660-foot total length, although
the multiplication of fractions creates
an arithmetical shortage of a quarter-
foot. Rectangle III-N demonstrates
that the 630-foot length from the
eastern end to the apse center is ex-
actly 3.5 times the 180-foot inner
width. In Rectangle IV-L the 182-
foot inner length of the gatehouse is
precisely 3.5 times its 52-foot inner
width. Rectangle II-D shows the 294-
foot inner length of the transept as
exactly three times the 83-foot sum
of the transept width and inner radius
of th? apse.
The observation of one or two ex-
amples of a certain ratio in a plan
can easily be rejected as fortuitous.
Ratios involving arbitrary or imagi-
nary lines, or slipshod approximations
can be attributed to irresponsible
naivete. Here, however, are twelve
precise uses of relatively uncommon
1:3 and 1:3.5 ratios all involving
major building lines. It seems exces-
sively conservative to deny their cum-
ulative testimony. Because many in-
volve inner and outer dimensions,
they were intended, not for esthetic
control of visible proportions, but to
transfuse the abstract geometry of the
plan with an appropriate and mean-
The principal heights also reflect
Temple influence. The top of the
walls of nave and transept is 60 cubits
above the pavement, and thus, like
the Temple cella, is one-and-a-half
times the transept width. The nave
ridge was 111 feet above the floor,
and was one-and-a-half times the
nave's 74-foot outer width.
The combination in the Vatican
transept of Temple proportions and
exactly doubled dimensions in Egypt-
ian royal cubits raises the question
whether the nave with its 1:3.5:1.5
ratios and its dimensions of 74, 259,
and 111 Ptolemaic feet might have
been conceived in some other unit
that would produce more symbolic
quantities. Inspection does indeed re-
veal that a cubit of 647.5 mm. gives
dimensions of 40, 140, and 60 units,
quantities exactly double those of
Solomon's Temple (Fig. 8). This is
the royal cubit instituted by the Per-
sian king, Darius the Great, and men-
tioned by Herodotus. It survived as
the 648 mm. Hashimite cubit of
Abbaside Baghdad. A standard of this
length was among the gifts which
Harun-al-Rashid sent in 801 to Char-
lemagne who adopted half of it as the
Carolingian foot of 324 mm. The
use of Darius' cubit in the Vatican
nave becomes significant when con-
sidered in relation to Ezra VI which
recounts Darius' protection and gifts
for the building of the second Temple
at Jerusalem after the return of the
Jews from Babylon.
Like Solomon's Temple, St. Peter's
faced east and both exhibited an en-
trance sequence of steps, gate, and
courtyard. It follows that the two
columns of the central projecting bay
of the Vatican narthex reflect the two
great pillars, Jachin and Boaz, that
flanked the portal of the Temple it-
self. Further, the twenty-two shafts
of each nave colonnade and the
double-square formed by the outer
colonnades conform precisely with
the twenty-two posts along the sides
of the double-square courtyard of
Moses' Tabernacle as described in
The culminating reference to the
Temple occurs appropriately in the
focal shrine marking the apostle's
grave (Fig. 9). Here, the investiga-
tions of the 1940's revealed that the
trophy had been encased in marble
and this, in turn, was emphasized by
a ciborium of four spiral columns,
joined by architraves, and capped by
two segmental, intersecting ribs. The
diagonals of the square formed by the
four columns measured 20 Egyptian
royal cubits, and, if the height of the
ribs has been correctly reconstructed,
the vertical distance from their inter-
section to the bottom of the pit
below the shrine in which a deposit
of human bones was found was also
20 cubits. Thus, ciborium, shrine, and
pit were designed within a cube, set
diagonally, each side of which was 20
cubits. This is exactly the size and
shape given in I Kings for the Holy of
Holies of Solomon's Temple.
Two types of numerological sym-
bolism unrelated to the Temple must
be noted. In the double square form-
ed by the minor arcades of the Vati-
can nave, the transverse width con-
verts to 153.24 Roman feet (Fig. 10).
The number 153 is frequently recog-
nized by Early Christian writers as
possessing mystical meaning because
John XXI relates that the resurrected
Christ appeared to the apostles, who
had been fishing without success, and
directed them to recast their net,
whereupon "Peter drew the net to
land full of great fishes, an hundred
and fifty and three." Multiples of 153
produce several major dimensions of
the plan. Two such units comprise
the inner length of the nave and the
outer length of the transept.
Finally there is the mystical system
based on the Greek and Hebrew use
of letters to express numbers (Fig.
11). Alpha represented one, beta two,
and so on to omega 800. The sum of
the letters in a word formed a gema-
tria, the numerical symbol of that
word. The book of Revelation (XIII,
18) contains a famous example, "the
number of the beast," 666, which is
usually taken as referring to Nero be-
(Continued on Page 18)
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A Venture Toward Verity
(Continued from Page 14)
cause "Neron Caesar" in Hebrew pro-
duces that total.
Several gematriot appear in the
Vatican plan. The perimeter of the
- r - -=
- - -_- -- .
transept is 755 Roman feet which is
the sum of ITETPOZ (Peters). The
over-all length of 781 Roman feet is
exactly TTAlqAOX (Paul), who ap-
peared with Peter in the apse mosaic.
The perimeter of the nave comes to
666 Ptolemaic feet and thus seems to
confirm the beast of Revelation as
Nero who instituted the persecution
in which Peter was crucified. Other
gematroit have been recognized and
perhaps many more remain hidden.
The currency of all of these sym-
bolic systems is well established
TEMPLE OF SOLOMON PROPORTIONS
Holy of HoHies ZOx20
Great Chamber 20x 40
Porch 20 x I0
BANNISTER-INV e DEL 1962
-~~~~ -_ 7 --~.- -~-_41~-
i ,. .
S- .. .
*^ -- -;-.-----_--------.-- ------------,---------.---
Figure 7. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing use of 1:3 and 1:3.5 proportions of Solomon's Temple.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
A :'- -3.25
'- 0.' = 30 - = 4
All rain dimenionc in Ponlemaic fefe of 350mm
iT-~-.~ ~ ~-r~_ .;~-__~.~_-~- _'-;~._1 -- ~;;-l---i;.-l_ _ _--u-- --f.
: '; 'ij:~:::,;ij:.
among Early Christian writers from
the second century on. The multipli-
city, aptness, and interlocking char-
acter of the Vatican applications sup-
ply such mutual reinforcement that
it is far more plausible to accept their
reality than to reject them as mere
accidents. Nevertheless, their presence
raises the question as to what kind of
mind was responsible for them. No
doubt Constantine assigned to the
Vatican project the best talent of the
imperial building staff, but, though
Vitruvius stresses the study of geom-
etry, music, and liberal arts by archi-
tects, the symbolism of the Vatican
design seems to demand a clerical
rather than a technical background.
It is tempting, therefore, to see at
the Vatican the influence of Constan-
tine's chief theological counsellor,
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea on the
Palestinian coast. Eusebius' fame rests
primarily on his Ecclesiastical His-
tory. Book X includes the author's
oration delivered in 315 at the dedi-
cation of the Cathedral of Tyre. In
the final climax he traces a moving
analogy between the physical struc-
ture of the new edifice and the
Saviour's construction of the spiritual
church with the souls of true be-
lievers. Throughout are sprinkled apt
allusions to Solomon and his Temple.
Eusebius' keen sense of history in-
spired a lively interest in scriptural
topography and archaeology. His On-
omasticon is still the fundamental ac-
count of biblical place names. Un-
fortunately, his Description of Judea
has been lost. As part of these works
or as an independent study he pre-
pared a plan of Jerusalem and a re-
constructed plan of Solomon's Tem-
ple. It was probably Eusebius who at
Nicaea awakened Constantine's con-
cern for the desolated Christian sites
of Palestine and induced the emperor
to dispatch his mother, Helena, on
her famous pilgrimage. And, finally,
since Eusebius doubtless participated
in the programs of the new Pales-
tinian basilicas, the functional simi-
larities between them and the Vati-
can reinforces the suspicion of his in-
fluence on the western design.
Whoever initiated it, the choice of
Temple symbolism for St. Peter's was
singularly appropriate. It not only re-
called the most famous structure of
biblical history, it not only justified
an impressive monumental design, it
not only evoked Palestinian connota-
(Continued on Page 28)
zik, 20.00- -+
Soo . e C o C C o o o
so...... 0000 0
* * * * * * * *
Figure 8. Old St. Peter's: Nave plan showing dimensions in Persian royal cubits.
+ "-:"1"5304 *.
...... 153.18 R ........ ......... 155 17 R ........... +
-+ 54.Q O +
.......... ..4.00. .... ...-
i .-,z 54R. .. ....... + .......... 15554B ............ 4r
Figure 10. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing dimensions of 153 Roman feet.
.................... 78 TTA Y A O ( Pa u l) ....... ..... .. ... ..........................
..................... 610.5 IX (610) .HZOYZ XPIZTOZ
. ...................... 582.5 5822I=1164 OEOY YIOZ (Son of God)
....... 300+ T (Cross) +
I f. ,- ,, -
-_.. .. . .. ., .
P+ Polemaic Fee of 350mm
R Roman Feet of 295.77mm
....... ................ .......... -
PrC = Persian Royal Cubits of 6475mm = "Cubit of Darius"
p :' R .+ ... .... 155 7R ............+ .
+ ........ 53.04 R ............ ..... .. 153.04R ..
15324R... +........ 153.4' A P
A B FA E FZ HO
I2 3 4 5 6 7 9
I K AMN = O77 9
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
P Z T Y 0 X P n0 A
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Figure 11. Old St. Peter's: Plan showing gematria dimensions.
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(Continued from Page 9)
ant finish compares quite favorably
to porcelain on steel and in addition
it is extremely resistant to thermal
shock and can be drilled or sawed
without spelling. Because of the
added rigidity of the porcelain
enamel, lighter guages may be used
thus combining hard durable finish
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Porcelain enamel panels are avail-
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ishes and in an almost unlimited
range of colors. Costs vary, of course,
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siderably more than the economical
synthetic resins. Special alloys have
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been found after 480 hours of test
using a 20 per cent salt spray.
This brings us to the highly publi-
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The least complex and lessor
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Chemical finishing has been defined
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temperature controls until the opera-
tion is complete.
Some of the conversion coatings
such as Bonderite, Iridite, and Alo-
dine produce rather delicate translu-
cent green and gold colors and find
limited use as decorative finishes. Un-
fortunately in most cases the color
consistency has proven difficult to
control and falls short of architectural
requirements for matching and uni-
formity. Therefore most chemical
treatments find their greatest use as
pre-treatments for the organic or
(Continued on Page 23)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
4' '' . .'. 'I I 5, & .
Howard Johnson Motor Lodge, Charlotte, N C. Architects 'Snow ahd Associates, Raleigh, North
Carolina, and Rentscher and Associales, Coral Gables, Florida. StructurdA engineers Driver and
Spoonaer. Contaclaors Davidson and Jones, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Spa e provided: administrative quarters and registration area with Covered
.driveway. Structural framing: glulam A-frame buttressed aches, witheaec-
ondar'A-frames supported by the priniary diagonal members. Heavy timber
decking provides vyide overhang, and glulam beans frame the drive.in canopy.
Area. about 1900 square feet. Cost for structural framing. $1.5.5 a,square foot.
This chalet-type building, a common sight to Motorists, has become a
trademark of good motel accommodations offered by the Howard John- .
son Motor Lodges. It is also a trademark for unlimited design possibilities
inherent in glued laminated structural framing. With these adaptable
structural members the architect is permitted maximum latitude in
design, and creative architecture is the normal result.
..... *.... :3
A product of experience. Now in the 33rd year of
,* operation, Timber Structures, Inc. has accumulated the
- experience and inventive skill which enable us to assist the
architect convert his imagination into permanent. econom-
ical, and often spectacular structures. Such experience is one
* reason why Timber Structures, Inc. is the nation's largest
* manufacturer of laminated structural timbers. P.O. Box 3782-E
* Portland 8, Oregon
Manufacturing Facilities at
Portland, Oregon and
T IMBER STRUCTURES, IN Greenville, Alabama
Representatives in Birmingham, Alabama; Charlotte, N. C.; Chattanooga, Tenn.; Columbia, S. C.; Hialeah, Florida; Jackson, Miss.; Jacksonville, Florida;
Knoxville, Tenn.; Lexington, Ky.; Little Rock, Ark.; Marietta, Georgia; Memphis, Tenn.; Shreveport, Louisiana; Valley Station, Ky.; Winston-Salem, N. C.
Member AITC and Producers' Council -
ARCH 1963 21
.A RCH 1 ..
-economy's a bonus
in Florida schools
Fire protection should certainly be one of the most
important considerations when building a new
school. Concrete provides this protection-and at
exceptionally low cost. Concrete can't burn. It
stays solid and safe . never wears out.
Concrete helps keep classrooms quiet, too. It
reduces sound entry into rooms-decreases the
need for sound-proofing within rooms. And
concrete is one of today's most attractive building
materials. New design and construction methods
provide interesting surface textures and colors,
new shapes and styles for walls and roofs.
Concrete saves on upkeep expense. There is no
need for painting. It is easy to see why concrete
with its long life, low cost and upkeep is the first
choice of so many communities for their newest
schools of every size.
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION
1612 E. Colonial Dr., Orlando, Florida
A national organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
(Continued from Page 20)
electro-chemical anodic processes. The
one major exception is the caustic
etch which serves not only as an ex-
cellent pre-treatment but produces a
very handsome satin finish widely
used in architectural applications.
Caustic etching removes the natural
oxide coating on aluminum so it is
usually followed by an anodic treat-
ment or the application of lacquers,
enamels, etc. This process also mini-
mizes surface defects.
The electro-chemical anodic coat-
ings (sometimes referred to as "alumi-
liting"-a patented trade name) are
not nearly as mysterious as they seem.
It is only necessary to understand the
Anodizing is an electro-chemical
method of increasing the formation
of the natural oxide coating by im-
mersing the work in a tank contain-
ing an acid solution (usually 15 per
cent sulphuric) and sending an elec-
trical current through the solution.
The aluminum work piece becomes
the anode and the tank or lead cool-
ing coils the cathode. The procedure
is carried out as follows: The work is
first given a pre-treatment which
usually consists of a light caustic etch.
(Surfaces which are to have a high
gloss finish are polished and buffed
before anodizing.) The material is
then rinsed and desmutted in a nitric
acid bath. After a second rinse the
work racked on titanium or aluminum
"work bars" is placed in the anodiz-
ing tank. Oxygen released at the
anode combines with the aluminum
to form aluminum oxide (amorphous
hydrated alumina). The current re-
quirement is about 12 to 15 amperes
per square foot at a voltage of about
15 to 18. The current continues to
decrease steadily until the operation
The tank temperature during ano-
dizing is held to about 720 F except
where a dye operation for inducing
color is to follow. In this case the
temperature may be allowed to go as
high as 850 in order to obtain a more
porous surface to facilitate dye absorb-
tion. It should be noted however that
the more porous surface does decrease
corrosive resistance. Normally about
half an hour in the tank should pro-
duce a coating with an average thick-
ness of 0.0004" and an average
weight of 17 mg/sq. in. After one
hour the average thickness should be
0.0008" and the weight 35 mg/sq.
in. It is possible to load a tank to a
point where the electrolytic action is
sufficiently reduced to the point that
substandard coating thicknesses and
weights result. For this reason it is
strongly recommended that thicknes-
ses and weights rather than time be
used to specify sulphuric acid anodic
coatings. Following the anodic treat-
ment, the work is rinsed and then
sealed in a hot water bath. The action
of the hot water converts the amor-
phous hydrated alumina to chemically
inactive crystalline alumina mono-hy-
drate boehmite. A final rinsing and
drying completes the process.
If the material is to be colored by
the dye method, it is placed in a bath
containing the dye solution while still
in a porous condition. The dye is ab-
sorbed into the porous coating. Fol-
lowing a rinse the work is placed in
a sealing tank containing a nickel
acetate-boric acid solution, held at
about 200'F for two to ten minutes.
Alloying ingredients in the metal
have a definite effect on the final
result. For example, sheet alloy 5005
provides an excellent match with ex-
(Continued on Page 24)
WOULD A COMMUNICATIONS STUDY
SAVE YOUR COMPANY MONEY?
.. Business growing? A thorough study of
your communications system might save
your company money and time For exam-
ple, you may need a Call Director for more
efficient channeling of internal and external
.calls. Or perhaps others of the many mod-
ern services available to business: Dial
S TWX Systems, DATA-PHONE service,
Speakerphones. So, find out now about a
study by a professional communications
consultant. No obligation. Just call your
Telephone Company Business Office.
... 106 b6 FAU-*
(Continued from Page 23)
trusion alloy 6063 after anodizing,
while alclad 3004 sheet results in a
poor match. To obtain the match it is
advisable to refer to charts published
by aluminum producers or consult a
representative of a fabricating firm.
Color matching of dyed anodized
material has sometimes presented a
problem. In addition, sunlight can
cause objectionable fading. New ap-
proaches have therefore been taken
by the industry in order to develop
more satisfactory anodic color sys-
tems. One of these utilizes the pre-
cipitation of inorganic compounds
and is carried out one step after ano-
dizing. The most notable example of
this system is ferric amonium oxi-
late gold. A second approach has been
to take advantage of the color devia-
tions caused by alloying ingredients.
For example, alloys containing higher
percentages of silicon tend to cause
the metal to turn grey during anodiz-
ing. Thus by controlling the amount
of silicon and the anodizing time, a
series of greys from very light to al-
most black can be obtained without
the use of dyes. Here the old bugaboo
of the dye has been eliminated, but
color matching remains a problem.
During World War II hard, abra-
sive-resisting coatings were required
for the aircraft industry. It was
learned that this type of coating could
be produced by drastically reducing
anodic bath temperatures and increas-
ing voltage. This practice, in conjunc-
tion with a modified sulphuric acid
bath not only produced the type of
coating required, but there was a side
effect color. However this process,
known to the trades by the names of
"martin" and "sanford" hardcoat,
had serious drawbacks for architec-
tural applications. First, the colors
which ranged from bronze to black
were difficult to control. Second, the
anodizing procedure required refrig-
erating the bath to around 200 and
using dangerously high voltages.
Third, the coating thicknesses vere
very heavy (up to 5 mils) and thus
were subject to crazing. A fourth dis-
advantage was that this type of coat-
ing was obviously quite expensive. A
more recent version of the hardcoat
process developed by the Aluminum,
Company of America, "Duranodic
100" has been more successful.
The first major break through
for architectural colors in this cate-
gory came about four years ago when
Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Sales
Inc., after years of development and
testing, introduced "Kalcolor". In
this process the acid bath is replaced
by one using a proprietary compound.
Refrigeration is used to hold the bath
temperature to around 700F and volt-
ages are substantially increased over
those of sulphuric acid anodizing.
The resultant colors are a function of
alloy, electrolyte, time, and tempera-
ture. They range from light, subdued
golds, thru greys and bronzes to black.
Inasmuch as controlled alloys are
used, color match can be kept to
much closer tolerances than with dye
processes. The coating is highly re-
sistant to corrosion and abrasive
action and it is light fast.
Recently Alcoa released a similar
process called "Duranodic 300". Both
Kalcolor and Duranodic 300 offer the
architect fade-resistant, durable, well
matched, anodic colors at a price
only slightly above that of dyed color
anodizing. It should be noted coating
(Continued on Page 32)
Thousands of indexed designs in technical
reference manuals for architects and engineers
...the most rigid, economical and versatile
roof construction for custom, project and com-
mercial buildings . cuts cost, saves time,
plus complete versatility in design.
SEND FOR YOUR MANUAL TODAY ON YOUR LETTERHEAD
ANCHOR LOCK OF FLORIDA, INC.
1950 N. 30th AVENUE HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA
REMEMBER, WE'RE ALWAYS AS NEAR AS YOUR PHONE
MIAMI: WI 5-7912 HOLLYWOOD: YU 9-0287
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
BEAUTIFUL SOLITE HOME, Ponte Vedra, Florida. Construction: Solite lightweight masonry units.
FRED C. VAN DUSEN, A.I.A. Architect. STOCKTON-WHATLEY-DAVIN & COMPANY, Developer.
3 YEARS COOLING AND HEATING
INSULATION: Another Dividend From Solite Lightweight Masonry Units
Over the lifetime of the average 30-year mortgage,
this beautiful Solite home will save its owner
approximately three full years of heating and
These amazing savings are documented by an
independent engineering survey* comparing this
home and an identical home of ordinary con-
How can Solite effect such savings? Solite is a
controlled lightweight aggregate which actually
builds tremendous insulative values into every
masonry unit. Had this home had less extensive
areas of glass, costs for heating and air condition-
ing would have been even more sharply reduced!
Another result of Solite's natural insulation: An
extremely low rate of moisture condensation.
Solite walls stay dry in even the dampest, most
And insulation is only one dividend from Solite.
Sound absorbency, beauty, versatility and the in-
herent economies of lightweight construction are
factors well worth your consideration. So-for
your next project-why not consider Solite first?
*Available On Request: Detailed Engineering Survey by Dewey R. Winchester, P.E., Charlotte, N. C.
Florida/i Atlantic Coast Line Building, Jacksonville, Florida
Please Send Technical Publication on Solite Lightweight Masonry Units.
CITY ZONE STATE______
Green Cove Springs, Fla., Leaksville Junction, Va.,
Bremo Bluff, Va., Aquadale, N.C.
Atlantic Coast line Building, Jacksonville, Fla.,
Box 9138, Richmond, Va., Box 1843, Charlotte, N. C.
By ROY M. POOLEY
Florida Association of Architects
For nearly two years the Govern-
ment Relations Committee has la-
bored long and well with problems
concerning the construction industry
and the Legislature of the State of
Florida. A number of general and spe-
cific recommendations have been pre-
sented to the FAA Board for review
and comment and the delegates to the
1962 FAA Convention unanimously
adopted the general program recom-
mended by the Board. Thus, a pro-
gram has been set.
Our first concern is quite naturally
with any legislation which affects di-
rectly the practice of architecture in
Florida. We don't take a casual view
of any proposal which might adversely
affect the profession-nor would any-
one else whose chosen career required
ten to fifteen years 'of education and
experience to mark a point of begin-
ning. On the other hand, we also have
an abiding and emphatic interest in
all other matters which concern man's
environment in general, and the con-
struction industry in particular.
Consequently, we are very much
concerned with such matters of legis-
lative interest as planning and zoning,
building codes, industrial develop-
ment, urban renewal (too bad proper
planning was neglected 'originally),
educational facilities, government
buildings, and many more. We have
continually expressed our interest by
serving in various capacities with study
and action groups such as planning
boards, investigative committees and
advisory groups. Investigation of dam-
age caused by hurricane Donna and
consultation with a sub committee
studying a redevelopment plan for
the State Capitol are specific ex-
amples, as is the appointment last
week of one of our members to a
special Task Group created by Gov-
ernor Bryant to plan for the eventu-
ality of nuclear attack. Yet another
example is the months of diligent work
by our past president on the special
Lay committee attempting to write
a more equitable Lien Law.
Because of their unique position in
the construction industry-as profes-
sionals, thoroughly familiar with its
problems, but more directly represent-
ing the interests of the owners of
buildings (without whom there would
be no industry)-architects afford our
legislators with a far more balanced,
more objective point of view than can
any other segment of the industry.
Our advice has been frequently sought
and we stand always ready to serve
the best interests of our communities,
State and Nation.
Of particular interest to us in the
1963 session of the Florida Legisla-
ture is revising the "Architects' Law."
Landscape architects are greatly in-
terested in obtaining a registration act
(Continued on Page 28)
Institutions, country clubs or private homes-if your plans call for
a tennis court, be sure to check into an installation by Perico. Perico
is a blue grey slag type material which is laid on a bare earth
surface in four packed, graduated layers. The result is a porous, non-
glare surface that is resilient and gives a natural action to the ball.
Preferred by the Pros. The court surface controls the bounce of
the ball. Pros and better players will drive miles to play on a prop-
erly built court. When your client chooses Perico, he is sure to have
the best in Florida. Fast Drying Low Maintenance Non-glare
Finish e Non-Abrasive 0 Resilient Clean Low Cost
Z64 P.O. BOX 330
O Send YOUr e tennis court
Construction hno k "H
for a tennis Court
msti call ton. ave a represents
give free estimates.
Address FL IA RH E
on~e State -
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
a OU ] MARCH, 1963
Good NEWS about Natural Gas...
MIAMI SWITCHEROO! Miami's big downtown Robert Clay Hotel has made major
switchover to natural gas. Central steam heating plant and hot water system in hotel proper
were converted from fuel oil. Two natural gas water heaters also replaced four electrics in
pool-cabana area. Additional installation to heat swimming pool planned. Reports manager
Vernon Slaughter, "Very satisfactory performance. Rumor Adds: Watch for another big
downtown Miami hotel to make natural gas news soon.
PRIZE CUSTOMER. Like the doctor who takes his own medicine, ICED Corporation
of St. Petersburg which specializes in natural gas engine-driven air conditioners, reports
highly satisfactory results (and no complaints) from 50-ton ICED installation in its own plant
at 6501 49th Street, North. Firm will install 30-tons additional in near future. "SE HABLA
ESPANOL" In hospitals where failures can be critical, natural gas dependability speaks a
universal language ... was chosen for cooking, heating and hot water systems in Centro
Asturiano Hospital serving Tampa's Spanish-speaking population.
NATURE'S BEST NOT GOOD ENOUGH. Improving on Clearwater's attractive climate
takes some doing, but city fathers have done just that by installing natural gas air conditioning
in the city's great new Memorial Civic Center and in the advance-design Public Library. In-
stallations are of the ICED (Internal Combustion Engine Driven) type, rated at 55 and 72 tons
respectively, and scoring high on dependability and economy.
ADD OIL-TO-GAS BOILER CONVERSIONS. Velda Cooperative Dairies, Jacksonville,
is latest big dairy to convert boilers from oil to natural gas. Bell Baking, St. Petersburg,
changed over two Fitzgibbon boilers. Reports Plant Engineer Weaver, "We were paying 8<
per gallon for oil. We're showing substantial savings with natural gas and our operation
is cleaner, safer, more efficient. "
WHAT NEXT! Lakeview Manor, new St. Petersburg nursing home is all-gas with a
vengeance! In addition to natural gas cooking, water heating, warm-air furnaces and
laundry dryer, institution eases sanitation problems with specially designed, gas-fired bed-
LIGHTS ACROSS THE BAY. Nobody misses Outrigger Inn, one of the Gulf Coast's
finest restaurant-motel operations. In addition to gas cooking, heating, water heating, the
Outrigger's spectacular gas-fired waterfall fountain display can be seen for miles as
motorists approach across Tampa Bay's Sunshine Skyway.
REAL COOL SUBURB. Amazing Miami oceanfront suburb of Golden Beach has set
all-time percentage record for natural gas air conditioning: Over 20% of all natural gas
customers. Average installation is 5-tons, plus. What's the biggest installation in town?
The Town Hall, of course.
"NO SWEAT". Large-volume air conditioning problem presented by massive drill
floor in North Miami National Guard Armory was easily solved with two 25-ton Arkla
absorption-type natural gas air conditioners.
MORE HEATERS FOR STETSON HATTERS. Five new dormitories at Deland's
Stetson University depend on dependable natural gas for automatic heating and hot water
systems. This expands previous installations at University served by Florida Home Gas,
Reproduction of information contained in this advertisement is authorized without re-
striction by the Florida Natural Gas Association, P.O. Box 11147, St. Petersburg, Fla.
MARCH, 1963 27
A Venture Toward Verity
(Continued from Page 19)
tions intimately linked with both
Christ and Peter. But in celebrating
the new Christian victory it assuaged
symbolically the destruction of
Herod's splendid Temple, whose ac-
tual furnishings Titus had brought to
Rome in 70 A.D. as military tro-
phies. Upon completion of Vespas-
ian's forum, they were deposited in its
Temple of Peace and there they were
still exhibited in Constantine's day.
The appeal of the Vatican sym-
bolism was so intellectual in character
that later generations transmuted it
into the legend that some of its build-
ing materials, particularly the spiral
columns before the apse, had been
brought from the Temple ruins in
Jerusalem. In the sixteenth century,
Alpharano dutifully recorded this at-
tribution. Garbled though it was, it
can now be recognized as preserving
into relatively recent times the resi-
due of an initial truth that trans-
formed inert masonry into a meaning-
ful witness to ancient prophecy and
its triumphant fulfilment.
(Continued from Page 26)
which will provide appropriate recog-
nition of that profession. Their case is
a good one. Men who expend the
time, effort and money required to
achieve professional status as Land-
scape Architects are most certainly
entitled at least the protection af-
forded so many others, and the public
is most certainly entitled to know
that a person offering his services as a
Landscape Architect is, in fact, so
After deep and thoughtful consider-
ation, we have jointly concluded that
the interests of both professions and
the public can best be served by ex-
panding the Architects' Registration
Act to include Landscape Architects.
Because the activities of both pro-
fessions are closely related, it is felt
they can be properly regulated by a
single board and result in greater har-
mony between them, and less cost to
the public. Should this reasoning
prove wrong, it seems likely to be
much easier to create separate boards
later than to combine them later.
There are also other objectives.
When the present statute was en-
acted in 1941, among others, design
of residences costing less than $10,000
and other buildings costing less than
$5,000 were exempted from its pro-
visions. Although these exemptions
were appropriate at the time, inflation
has now made these provisions of the
law both inadequate and unenforce-
able. The result has obviously been
widespread violation of the law, and
a tacit ignoring of the violations.
Such a condition would seem to erode
the strength of all our laws.
We seek to substitute equivalent
building areas for the monetary values
established in 1941.
As buildings become more complex,
the demand made on the Architect's
skill and knowledge increases, at least
proportionately. Practical experience
has proven additional study and work
experience are required to adequately
prepare applicants for the Architects
Examination. We therefore wish to
increase the required office experience
for applicants from one year to three,
in line with the recommendations of
the National Council of Architectural
Registration Boards. The practical ef
feet expected of this change will be
to increase the percentage of success-
(Continued on Page 31)
Planning an apartment? motel? hotel?
Or an office, school or institutional building?
Specify the Dwyer Compact Kitchen in the
size and capacity required for the applica- ________
tion. There's a full line of Dwyers from 39" to *
72" in length, for conventional or recess in-
stallation. Include refrigerator, gas or elec- '
trick range and bake/broil oven, deep sink and **_
storage. Heavy-duty construction and vit-
reous porcelain finish assure lasting dura-
bility and beauty. a
Write or phone today for L
Architect's Data File.
noe Dwyer Products of Florida, Inc., Suite 621, DuPont Plaza Center
300 Biscayne Boulevard Way, Miami 32, Phone FRanklin 1-4344
STRONG LIGHTWEIGHT NON-
SHRINKING FEWER JOINTS
LARGER SIZES RESILIENT
LOWER K-FACTOR MOISTURE
INTEGRAL PLASTIC BASE
ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS-WRITE FOR FREE
COMPLETE INFORMATION BROCHURE
ANOTHER PRODUCT OF
DYFOAM CORP. Also Manufactures: DECK-
MATE Roof Insulation & MINIVEIL Air Curtains
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
L ou.a ..to ..
Custom-styled driveways of ready-mixed concrete add value, distinction and
individuality to any home, traditional or contemporary.
Concrete never softens, never needs resealing; its surface stays ripple free with
edges neat and trim, regardless of the weather.
Unlimited design with widest selection of textures and colors are available
GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY
MR. ARCHITECT: Here's what we've been tell-
ing Mr. and Mrs. Florida over and over again. They have
the word! Your clients will welcome your recommendation
of "the comfort team that works for pennies."
-j,. I t,
... i i L
He put in oil home
heating last fall so we'd
be warm in the winter.
Now he's adding electric
air conditioning in plenty
of time to keep us cool
and comfortable this
See Your Air Conditioning Dealer
for a free survey and estimate. Get
set for summer ahead of time . the
clean, efficient, economical way!
To Dads Who Care...and Prepare:
Now's the time to install
electric air conditioning . .
ahead of the hot sticky sum-
mer days to come. You'll be\
ready to beat the heat and
the humidity. You'll shut out
dust, pollen, airborne mildew.
Your family will feel better,
sleep better live better all
b -... .... ive be-----r
FLORIDA HOME HEATING INSTITUTE summer.
2022 N. W. 7TH ST., MIAMI, FLORIDA
For YEAR 'ROUND COMFORT: OIL home heating and ELECTRIC
air conditioning the comfort team that works for pennies!
30 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Legislature Program ...
(Continued from Page 28)
ful examinations, decrease the cost of
examinations, and further improve the
competence of newly registered archi-
Another change necessitated by in-
flation is the requested increase in the
maximum fee which may be charged
for annual renewal of registration. The
present maximum was set in 1941
and renewal charges have been at that
level for several years. Increasing de-
mands made on the Board for exam-
ination, investigation and enforcement
activities, coupled with greatly in-
creased cost of these activities, now
strain the resources of the Board con-
siderably. It is felt the new ceiling
of $50.00 % ili provide adequately for
operations over a period of many
years. An immediate increase in re-
newal fees is not expected to be re-
quired, nor is it expected that they
will ever be increased beyond the ex-
tent necessary to accomplish the re-
quirements of the profession.
Inclusion of Landscape Architects
under the Architects' Registration Act
is, of course, a major revision of the
statute. Otherwise, the revisions
sought are relatively minor, but none-
the-less of considerable importance to
us. These changes will most certainly
not produce the ideal legislation we
would so fervently like to achieve. A
great many architects will not be sat-
isfied with the limited revisions, how-
ever, they do represent a considerable
improvement and there is no apparent
reason for the Legislature not to make
the changes requested. Progress, how-
ever slow, is still progress. .
1fiour Government Relations Com-
m'ittee will be in close contact with
the Legislature throughout the session
and will review all bills of interest to
us. Each Chapter will be kept advised
of the official position of the Associa-
tion on matters of importance to us
and will be requested to cooperate
with the committee when necessary.
A profession united behind its
spokesmen commands the respect of
legislators as well as clients. Our ob-
jectives and policies have been derived
from long study and thoughtful eval-
uation. They have been debated and
reviewed to a point of virtual unani-
mous agreement by your Board of
Directors over a considerable period
of time, and they deserve the full sup-
port of every architect in Florida.
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secrefray
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"
CERAMIC GLAZED BRICK
BRIAR HILL STONE
CRAB ORCHARD FLAGSTONE
CRAB ORCHARD RUBBLE STONE
1690 MONROE DRIVE, N. E.
OFFICES AND YARD
SALT GLAZED TILE
GLAZED SOLAR SCREENS
UNGLAZED FACING TILE
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA
BUCKINGHAM AND VERMONT
SLATE FOR ROOFS AND FLOORS
PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT INSULATING ROOF AND WALL SLABS
We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.
Represented in Florida by
MACK E. PALMER
1780 San Marco Blvd., Apt. 4
Jacksonville 7, Florida Telephone: 398-7255
JAMES C. ("Jamie") GILLESPIE
115 Orangeview Avenue
when TERRAZZO is properly cured,
beautifully finished and correctly
maintained the Hillyard way!
Hillyard Maintaineers are available to serve you in
Florida, with a two-fold counseling service; "job
captain" service for you, and later, maintenance
planning for your client. They offer free job super-
vision, specialized approved products for terrazzo
care, and a client manual for preventive maintenance.
Materials are conveniently warehoused in Florida,
and the Hillyard Maintaineer is
*On DouAt 8 J4 ot QJout cayqtop
LOREN E. ELLIS
P.O. Box 2343
Phone: WAbash 2-8121
DAN K. MINNICK
P.O. Box 2745
-Phone: GArden 3-8208
THE SANITARY CODE
as revised and adopted by
the Florida State Board of
Health (designated rule
Chapters 170B-1 through
-35) and filed with the
Secretary of State June
30, 1963, are now avail-
able in printed form.
Order from NATIONAL
LAW PUBLISHERS, INC.,
220 Center Bldg., Talla-
hassee, Fla. $13.00 per
copy (postpaid and in-
cluding sales tax), in-
cludes looseleaf binder,
supplements through June
30, 1964, and rules for
Hospital and Nursing
Home Facilities (desig-
nated rule Chapters 170D-
1 & -2). Payment with
order, or upon invoice at
Proprietary Chemists Since 1907 1 I
Is Your Kitchen Data Current?
...NEVAMAR Carefree KITCHENS
LU ... MUTSCHLER Hardwood KITCHENS
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(Continued from Page 24)
density is a major factor in the dura-
bility of these finishes. Therefore coat-
ing thicknesses of Kalcolor and Dur-
anodic 300 are somewhat meaningless
when compared to those of conven-
tional sulphuric acid anodizing.
One final word of warning con-
cerning color anodized aluminum.
Before specifying any of the above
color finishes dye or otherwise for use
on castings, consult a representative
of the fabricator or of one of the
major aluminum producers. The por-
osity of castings is quite variable thus
making it difficult to produce uni-
form color coating thicknesses in ano-
dic finishes. This condition does not
however exist in the case of forgings.
They take color very well.
A full discussion of all of the fin-
ishing processes is impossible within
the allowed space thus the material
has been restricted to those most
closely related to architectural appli-
cations, Additional and more detailed
information is available to the archi-
tect on some of the processes de-
Anchor Lock of Florida . 24
Blumcraft of Pittsburgh 15
Dunan Brick Yards, Inc. 3rd Cover
Dwyer Products of Florida, Inc. 28
Dyfoam Corporation . 28
Fla. Home Heating Institute 30
Florida Industries Exposition 20
Florida Gas Transmission 6-7
Florida Natural Gas Assn.. 27
Florida Portland Cement Div. 29
Florida Investor Owner 16-17
Hillyard Sales Co. . . 32
Maule Industries . . 8
Merry Brothers Brick & Tile Co. 3
Miami Window Corp. .. 1
National Law Publishers 32
Tennis Courts by Perico 26
Portland Cement Assn. 22
Solite Corp. . . 25
Southern Bell. Tel. & Tel. Co. 23
Thompson Door Co. . 5
Timber Structures Inc. . 21
Vogue Kitchens . . 32
F. Graham Williams Co. . 31
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
This Is Red River Rubble...
It's a hard, fine-grained
sandstone from the now-dry
bed of the Kiamichi River in
Oklahoma. In color it ranges
from a warm umber through a
variety of brownish reds to
warm, light tan . Face
textures are just as varied. Over
thousands of years rushing
water has sculptured each
individual stone with an infinite
diversity of hollows, ridges,
striations, swirls and has
worn each surface to a soft,
mellow smoothness . The
general character of this
unusual stone suggests its use
in broad, unbroken areas
wherein rugged scale and rich
color are dominating factors
of design . Age and exposure
can do nothing to this stone
except enhance the mellow
richness of its natural beauty...
I rlll I I