W A A Flo
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ARM ,- N
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a carpenter's helper? FRANKLY, WE DON'T THINK EITHER A LITTLE GIRL OR A WINDOW FRAME
SHOULD BE... EVEN ONE AS STRONG AS OUR TUBULAR VENTED AWNING WINDOW. BUT, SINCE WE REALLY DON'T KNOW WHAT KIND OF TREATMENT OUR SERIES
128/130 WILL RECEIVE IN THE FIELD DURING ACTUAL INSTALLATION, WE HAVE DESIGNED THEM FOR YEARS OF USE AND TO WITHSTAND ALMOST ANY ABUSE.
IT'S NOT A MIAMI WINDOW UNLESS IT'S MADE BY
MIAMI WINDOW CORPORATION
P. O. BOX 48-877, INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT BRANCH, MIAMI, FLORIDA
SEPTEMBER, 1962 1
I I Nm !v
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
lot 7&i Ise ---
A Fiddle Is No Firehose . . . . .
Editorial by Roger W. Sherman, AIA
Letters . . . . . . .
F. Graham Williams, 1886-1962 . . . .
Florida Central Adopts Resolution on Advertising .
Urban Destiny and Organized Intent . . .
By Frederick H. Bair, Jr.
House With A Florida Atrium . . . .
Alfred Browning Parker, FAIA, Architect
. 2nd Cover
Tradition and Experiment in Architectural Sculpture
By Joan Gill
News and Notes . . . . . . .
Use and Beauty ............. .
Br. Dr. Burnham Kelly, AIA
Advertisers' Index . .
. . . . . . . . . 28
F.A.A. OFFICERS 1962
Robert H. Levison, President, 425 S. Garden Ave., Clearwater
Robert B. Murphy, First Vice-President, 1210 Edgewater Drive, Orlando
William F. Bigoney, Jr., Second V.-President, 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Laud.
William T. Arnett, Third Vice-President, University of Florida, Gainesville
Verner Johnson, Secretary, 250 N. E. 18th Street, Miami
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Treasurer, Suite 209, 233 E. Bay Street, Jacksonville
BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hansen, Charles F. McAlpine, Jr.; DAYTONA
BEACH: Francis R. Walton; FLORIDA CENTRAL: A. Wynn Howell, Richard
E. Jessen, Frank R. Mudano; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA,
Lester N. May; FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA
NORTHWEST: B. W. Hartman, Jr.; FLORIDA SOUTH: C. Robert Abele, H.
Samuel Kruse, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr.,
Walter B. Schultz, John R. Graveley; MID-FLORIDA: John D. DeLeo, Donald
0. Phelps; PALM BEACH: Harold A. Obst., Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.
Verna M. Sherman, Executive Secretary, 414 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami
THE COVER . .
This is a photograph by Ezra Stoller Associates of a rather remarkable "model"
house in the burgeoning community of Palm Beach Gardens. It is Alfred
Browning Parker's answer to the request, by Popular Mechanics magazine, for
a "low-maintenance home for carefree living". More pictures and description
of the house start on page 15.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida. Single copies, 50 cents; sub-
scription, $5.00 per year . Printed by
Dana B. Johannes, William T. Arnett,
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Bernard W. Hartman
ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
NUMBER 9 I 62
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
a a *. .
45f 4 95eg
Rich-as-cream pastel colors make Merry's light-hued brick
look good enough to eat! Tahitian Buff No. 964, shown
above in Barktex texture, is only one of nine eye-catching
new colors available
54 4 al in Standard, Roman
(shown), Norman, and
modular sizes, Barktex or wirecut textures. Though we
don't literally expect you to try a bite, we know you'll
want to use new Merry Brick colors for their unusual
beauty. And check the economy of larger sizes. Jumbo
Utility offered in 3 of the 9 light colors for example,
makes interiors lastingly beautiful at low cost when used
in code-approved utility wall construction. Ask the Merry
Brick representative who calls on you for complete de-
tails, or call Merry Brick direct.
m/ h1, U4,LL aX
I am in wholehearted agreement
with your premise "The Cure for the
Cause is Care" and in general tho-
roughly agreed with your excellent ed-
itorial which appeared in the August
issue of The Florida Architect.
It seems imperative to me that the
examinations given by the various
State Boards be standardized and that
an important part of the examinations
should be on administrative procedure
and professional liability. In my opin-
ion a number of questions should be
based on various case histories of pro-
fessional liability claims; and the ne-
cessity of utilizing competent consul-
tants in specialized fields should be
On the other hand, I am more or
less in agreement with Ed Stone's
contention as expressed at the New
Orleans convention that what we need
is more architects and not less of
them. You may be interested in know-
ing that here in North Carolina al-
most every newspaper in the State has
written an editorial within the last
week critizing the North Carolina bar
for their examining board only passing
50 percent of those who took the bar
examination this year. It is of course
necessary that we must always remem-
ber that these State Boards are cre-
ated for the protection of the public
and that care must be taken by our
profession to see that this premise is
always adequately emphasized.
With every good wish.
A. G. ODELL, JR., FAIA,
Charlotte, North Carolina
Interama . .
Read your article and enjoyed it
very much. Congratulations on doing
an excellent job of presenting Inter-
ama from the architect's point of view.
ROBERT B. BROWNE,
Architect in Charge,
Inter-American Center Authority
I was pleased to read the interest-
ing and thorough manner in which
you described the Interama project. I
feel that you have sensed the basic
philosophy of Interama as well as the
goal of our planning and design work.
As the Interama project develops
into the building stage, we hope that
you will have occasion to keep your
readers informed of its progress. If we
can be of any help to you, don't hesi-
tate to call on us.
IRVING E. MUSKAT,
Inter-American Center Authority
Personally, I feel that Interama will
be the most outstanding project that
has been undertaken in Florida-or,
for that matter, throughout the coun-
try-to further our progress and rela-
tions with other nations. I am indeed
looking forward to seeing this go for-
ward with a great deal of speed in the
J. N. McARTHUR,
It is with a feeling of pride that the
present Board of the Inter-American
Center Authority has been able to get
the Interama project under way. We
have the money in the bank and con-
tracts are let for the dredging.
It is my humble opinion that this
is one of the great events for our beau-
tiful city and state. I believe that it
will be everything that all of us have
B. E. HEARN, SR.,
F. Graham Williams 1886 1962
Architects throughout the southeast
will be saddened to learn of the death,
on July 13th, of F. GRAHAM WIL-
LIAMS, chairman of the F. GRAHAM
WILLIAMS COMPANY of Atlanta. He
was a personal friend of many, par-
ticularly those in Georgia and the Car-
olinas; and the regard in which he was
held was evidenced in 1955 when the
Georgia Chapter, AIA, elected him an
Honorary Lifetime Associate. He
would have reached his 76th birthday
on December 27 this year.
A native of Warren County, N.C.,
Mr. Williams moved to Atlanta in
1910 and started the building material
business that bears his name. It pros-
pered as a sole proprietorship until its
incorporation in 1947. Originally the
company handled only brick; it now
has a widely diversified line of mas-
onry and insulation materials and
In 1923 Mr. Williams started the
long-famous annual golf tournament
and outing for architects and drafts-
men throughout the entire southeast.
For almost 40 years this had been
one of his cherished personal pleas-
ures. Evidence of its regional popu-
larity was the roster of the most recent
event, June 8, this year. Some 85
hopefuls had registered for the golf
tournament; and Mr. Williams' guests
at the traditional social hour and din-
ner totaled 275.
To all of these and to many more
whose business affairs prevented them
from attending this 39th Annual Out-
ing the death of Mr. Williams will
mean much more than the retirement
of a generous and kindly host. It will
mean the loss of an able, conscien-
tious and cooperative business man
-and of a warm and sincere person-
ality whose creed was friendship to-
ward every one he met.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Deliveries of precision-made glulam materials of
Timber Structures, Inc. to Southeastern contractors
are now several days faster than formerly. This sav-
ing of time results from a new arrangement by which
engineered structural timbers for this area are man-
ufactured in the Greenville, Alabama, plant of W. T.
Smith Timber Fabrications Company.
Affiliated with W. T. Smith Lumber Company,
one of the oldest corporate names in the Southern
states, the new laminators have an unlimited source
of structural quality Southern yellow pine, precision
sawmill and dry kiln equipment, a new modern lam-
inating and fabricating plant, and over 70 years of
These facilities are coordinated with rigid quality
control measures in order to manufacture to the
most demanding quality standards, worthy of the
undivided responsibility assumed by Timber Struc-
tures, Inc. for the performance of their products.
Consultation and assistance is readily available,
as always, from the Timber Structures organization.
This is the largest group of timber specialists in the
industry. Detailed drawings are sent to Greenville
for laminating, finishing and shipping.
For fast service on dependable glulam products,
contact the nearest representative shown below.
BIRMINGHAM 5, ALABAMA
P. O. Box 3206
CHARLOTTE 9, N. C.
P. O. Box 11235
CHATTANOOGA 5, TENNESSEE
2907 Haywood Avenue
COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA
2708 Rosewood Drive
P. O. Box 1262
104 North Lemon
6314 Stetson Road
KNOXVILLE 20, TENNESSEE
231 W. Ford Valley Road
P. O. Box 295
LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS
107 Main Street
P. O. Box 1131
MEMPHIS 12, TENNESSEE
P. O. Box 5161
P. O. Box 631
1818 S. Monroe Street
VALLEY STATION, KENTUCKY
P. O. Box 144
WINSTON-SALEM, N. CAROLINA
P. 0. Box 2972
TIMBER STRUCTURES, INC.
P. 0. Box 3782-E, Portland 8, Oregon
Florida Central Adopts
Resolution on Advertising
At its meeting in Lake Wales
August 11, 1962, the Florida Central
Chapter unanimously adopted a reso-
lution relative to the advertising of
architectural service. It was presented
by ROLAND W. SELLEW, past presi-
dent of the Chapter.
Here is the text of the resolution:
WHEREAS, the Executive Com-
mittee of the American Institute of
Architects instructed its Public Rela-
tions Steering Committee to investi-
gate and make a full-scale report as to
advertising aimed at encouraging the
use. of professional architectural ser-
vices, as reported in the A.I.A. Memo
dated July 31st 1962;
AND WHEREAS, such report was
presented to the Executive Commit-
tee at its meeting of July 14-15, em-
bodying five means and an alternate
scheme as to financing such advertis-
ing and consisting of the following:-
(1) Additional dues,
(2) Voluntary contributions from the
() Creation of affiliated organizations,
(tabled at the Dallas convention),
(4) Cooperation with building indus-
try manufacturers and suppliers.
(5) Joint campaigns with other con-
struction industry associations, and
an "Alternative," whereby the
A.I.A. might design various types
and sizes of advertisements which
could be offered to A.I.A. state
and chapter groups in the form of
mats at a moderate cost;
Now THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED,
by Florida Central Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects, as
(1) That additional dues for this pur-
pose is opposed;
(2) That resorting to voluntary contri-
butions from the membership is
believed to be impracticable;
(3) That, in view of the action at the
Dallas convention, the idea of
creating affiliated organizations for
this purpose be abandoned;
(4) That financing of advertising in
cooperation with industry manu-
facturers and suppliers tends to
lower the prestige enjoyed by our
profession and its individual mem-
(5) That joint campaigns with other
construction industry associations
falls in the same category as the
idea contained in item (4) above.
BBE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT,
Florida Central Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects be-
lieves that the preparation of mats,
as described in the "Alternative" pro-
posal set forth above, is a practical
scheme whereby Chapters or groups
within the Chapters could finance ad-
vertising through their own resources
in both an effective and economical
manner, with control thereof within
the immediate areas involved and
through such media as might by them
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT,
Florida Central Chapter submit this
Resolution to the Florida Association
of Architects and urge its adoption at
the 1962 convention of the Associa-
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT,
a copy hereof be sent to the Executive
Director of the American Institute of
Architects by the Secretary of this
Alk4 .- W
4 ~ ..2 Au.
X 1 6
put more sales
appeal in your homes
More and more today it's the quality
"extras" that sell homebuyers. And
concealed telephone wiring is just such a
Lifetime concealed wiring provides plenty of
, built-in outlets throughout the house ...
offers maximum flexibility in phone
placement or rearrangement as family needs
grow or change. And there's never any need to
mar walls or woodwork with additional wiring.
Find out soon how easy it is to
give your homes added sales appeal with
concealed telephone wiring.
Just call your Telephone Business Office.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Yours from Borg-Warner...
the most complete insulation
service ever offered
to homebuilders... 4
IEL AND INSTALLATION
Here, at last, is the professional insulation service
your operation deserves. And it's yours at no extra
cost... through Borg-Warner's comprehensive new
Offering a new kind of builder service, your Alfol
Consulting Technician is geared to deliver total in-
sulation service ... from accurate job-analysis right
through to warranted installation. Why not find out
how this new kind of professional service can give
you important savings in time and money... plus a
better insulating job in the bargain!
Send today for your free brochure describing the
Borg-Warner A.C.T. Service ... along with the name
and location of your nearest Alfol Consulting Tech-
nician. There's no cost or obligation.
A Subsidiary of Borg-Warner Corporation
200 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 4, Illinois
0 toU SEPTEMBER, 1962
Good NEWS about Natural Gas...
FLORIDA'S FINEST geriatric center is all-gas. At Daytona Beach, 100-room
Clyatt Memorial Geriatric Center, built at cost of $1. 5 millions, has natural gas
climate control for summer cooling, winter heating. All-gas kitchen includes wat-
er heating and waste incineration. Gas-powered standby generator insures uninter-
rupted electric service when thunderstorms, .hurricanes and equipment failures
disrupt commercial supply. Center provides housing and treatment for ailing sen-
ior citizens on level between conventional hospitals and average old peoples' home.
MORE HOSPITALS turn to natural gas. Recently completed Daytona Beach
Hospital enjoys perfect climate control -- summer cooling, winter heating -- with
natural gas air conditioning. Putnam County Memorial Hospital, county-owned in-
stitution at Palatka, has converted boiler from fuel oil to natural gas.
$100 PER MONTH is average saving on fuel bills of Wilson's Restaurant at
West Palm Beach since it converted from electric air conditioning and cooking to
natural gas climate control air conditioning and cooking. Owner reports about $20
of saving is in maintenance costs he formerly had to pay to keep electric air con-
ditioning system working.
ORLANDO'S NEWEST office building chose natural gas air conditioning on
engineers' recommendation. Owner Richard L. Murphy of the Executive Building
said: "After extensive feasibility studies, our construction engineers recommend-
ed natural gas to be more economical and more dependable, with lower mainten-
ance cost." Building served by 110-ton gas unit.
15-TONS of natural gas air conditioning, recently installed, now providing
perfect climate control, winter and summer, in fashionable North Bay Road home
of Mr. and Mrs. Philip R. Consolo, Miami Beach.
ANOTHER FAMED Florida restaurant, Freid's of Tampa, gives testimony
on superiority of natural gas. Says owner Garry Freid: "The food looks better
and tastes better as a result of the natural gas flame cooking. But economy and
dependability score high, too. Natural gas is just naturally an all-around better
GAS TURBINE will supply total energy for new 2, 400-pupil high school near-
ing completion at McAllen, Texas. Turbine will supply both 60-cycle and 840-
cycle electric current. Exhaust heat will be used to generate steam for heating
and cooling. In Rio Grande Valley, where temperatures often soar above 100
degrees in late spring, summer and early fall, over-all thermal efficiency of
66% is foreseen for system. D. Dana Price, Houston consulting engineer, de-
NEW SUBDIVISION, Palm Beach County, will have 700 all-gas homes to be
equipped to American Gas Association Blue Star specifications. All will feature
natural gas cooking, water heating and central heating. Deluxe models will also
have "patio package" with gas lighting and char-broiler. Florida Public Utilities
will service development with natural gas.
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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and Organized Intent
By FREDERICK H. BAIR, JR.
Architects and Planners-
Architecture and city planning have
much in common, and the area of
common interest is growing. Both
architecture and planning are efforts
to apply reason to design.
Architects usually work from the
specific to the general, starting with a
structure and its immediate premises
and broadening their, interest to the
near environment the adjacent
buildings, the block, the surrounding
area. Increasingly, the most progres-
sive architects are concerned with how
a building fits with its neighbors, and
with the visual, physical and func-
tional relationships between groups of
buildings and open spaces. From this,
interest spreads to comprehensive
planning for the entire city, and this
has led many architects to become city
The planner goes at it from the
other end and meets the architect
along the way. Usually planners are
concerned first with fitting functional
systems into a rational framework for
the whole urbanized area and its ur-
banizing environs. From this he works
toward detailing for subareas within
the city, and eventually his concern
centers on individual structures and
their immediate premises.
Planners soon learn that broad
brush strokes on an immense canvas
are not enough. Architects soon learn
that to design the individual-building
on the individual tract is not enough.
And here they find themeslves on
common ground although occasion-
ally headed in opposite directions into
each other's territory.
Another thing architects and plan-
ners have in common is that they are
widely ignored by those who could
profit most from their services. Most
buildings bear no mark of the pro-
fessional architect, and there are cer-
tainly few cities which show outward
evidence of the efforts of the profes-
sional planner. This situation should
change as urbanism advances.
Why Reason Has Run
Last Until Lately
In the past, attempts to apply rea-
son to design of buildings or of cities
have often failed because the times
did not encourage man's evolution
from his status as a nonlogical animal.
Man as an individual, in small groups
or in circumstances where there is
plenty of waste or few to endanger,
has wide latitude for the exercise of
nonlogic. In the time of the pioneer,
a man could be a rugged individualist
and move away from his mistakes, or
be buried under them, without much
effect on the neighbors or the nation.
In our urbanizing era, man is no
longer an independent individual. He
is found in larger and larger aggrega-
tions. In his cities, he is finding that
he has made about all the mistakes
he can afford. Logic is being forced
upon him or at least we can hope
that the problems of urbanism will
lead to nothing worse than the appli-
cation of logic.
We could, of course, take advan-
tage of our technological advances and
in a moment of whimsy blow our cities
into radio-active dust, leaving a few
rugged individualists to start making
mistakes at less sophisticated levels
again. Unless there is some such sov-
ereign remedy, it is increasingly evi-
dent that sooner or later man will be
forced to the painful extremity of
applying systematic thought to his
problems. And at this point architects
and planners may find themselves in
considerable demand, since they have
been practicing this dark art in hidden
It is an apparently inevitable conse-
quence of population mass and urban
clustering that we are going to see
government becoming bigger and big-
ger and taking on more and more
functions. This is not the result of a
deep-dyed plot by the Russians nor a
threat that Christianity will take over.
It is a continuation of the socializing
trend which brought man out of the
Already we have socialized roads
and socialized police and fire depart-
ments, socialized armies and navies,
socialized water and sewer systems,
socialized schools, socialized libraries,
social security. We have, in many
cities, socialized mass transportation
and in large areas of the country so-
cialized electric power. All of these
things, without exception, have been
private enterprise functions. All, with-
out exception, became public func-
tions because there was public de-
mand for them. In our country it was
democratic demand. The voters ap-
proved, and still approve, and approve
increasingly, incursions into what were
once fields of private enterprise.
We are going to have bigger gov-
ernment as a consequence of increas-
(Continued on Page 13)
Observations of city planners are often obscured by the crush of
heavy statistics and a pontifical delivery. These penetrating and
pungent paragraphs are the exception. First phrased as a guest-
speech at the August meeting of the Florida Central Chapter, they
merit attention of every architect who is at all conscious of the
influence his professional activity may have on urban development
-or the extent to which his professional effectiveness may be
curbed by that development.
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Urban Destiny . .
(Continued from Page 11)
ingly socialized, increasingly urban
population. We are going to have
increased concentration of power at
non-local levels because we lack guts
enough to do things for ourselves.
Instead of levying local taxes to make
necessary improvements, we run to
county, state or federal sources for
loans or grants. This inevitably raises
county, state or federal taxes, and
diminishes local self-determination.
Again, the move toward increasing
centralization is not the result of a
plot by our enemies or by long-hairs
in our midst. Instead it is our dem-
ocracy, working as we make it work.
If it is Inevitable,
Make it Good
I don't happen to like these things.
I have a romantic attachment to the
notion that, if they will, cities can do
for themselves most of what needs
doing. As a result of practical experi-
ence, however, I am convinced that
most cities won't. The needs increase,
the local government machinery creaks
timidly along, things begin to fall
apart, it is discovered that the city
"can't afford" to do what needs doing,
letters, phone calls and telegrams go
out to the county, to the state, to
congressmen and senators, to federal
agencies, and government becomes
more centralized. This is not the
work of communist agitators or One-
Worlders. It is our own work. We ob-
viously want it this way, whether we
will admit it to ourselves or not.
The question is not whether we will
have bigger and more centralized gov-
ernment. This we have settled, wisely
or not, in our own democratic fashion.
The real question is what we can do
to improve the quality of that kind of
If we are wise, each of us will con-
centrate our principal efforts in fields
in which we can make the most useful
contributions. As planners, our field
is planning. Planning is increasingly
an accepted function in local govern-
ments; and the manner of planning
and what is planned for is increas-
ingly dictated by federal and state
governments. This is the price we have
agreed to pay by saying that our cities
can't afford to plan for themselves, or
that they can't afford to carry out
their own plans. Since plans in the
past have been generally non-existent
or ignored, they have done little dam-
age during the early part of the learn-
Now there is the prospect that plan-
ning will increasingly have the full
power and confidence of government
behind it, at a time when the adoles-
cent art is far from ready. This is an
alarming and challenging prospect. As
with other adolescents, planning as-
sumes a vast amount of wisdom which
it has not yet acquired. In a few places
- Philadelphia, for instance plan-
ning has begun to achieve the kind of
maturity needed. But the exceptions
are far from becoming the rule.
FREDERICK H. BAIR, JR., is the edi-
tor-publisher of "Florida Planning and
Development," a planning consultant
to a number of Florida cities, a mem-
ber of the American Institute of Plan-
ners and a keen, free-wheeling analyst
of urban problems and possibilities.
For some years he has served as Execu-
tive Secretary of the Florida Planning
and Zoning Association.
Government is Ready for
Planning Is Planning
Ready for Government?
Federal domination of planning -
with states as intermediary agencies to
assure conformity with standards -
has produced a substantial number of
local plans under the 701 programs.
These plans follow a pattern which in-
dicate some danger that sophomoric
cliches of form and procedure have
become the standard mold. As yet it
is not clear whether much good or
harm has been done.
As a parallel to what might happen,
look at the public housing picture.
Planners are frequently blamed for
this, although in many instances com-
petent planners had very little to do
with what went on. (Certainly plan-
ners share the blame in some degree.)
In public housing, things went-beyond
the preparation of proposals. Govern-
ment took off before it knew what it
was doing, committed a number of
gross blunders-expensive socially and
financially and having established
the means for mass production, re-
peated the mistakes wholesale. At long
last it shows signs of becoming aware
of its errors and will probably start on
One of the problems of large gov-
ernment is that it takes too long to
learn too little from too much. The
forms and manuals are printed, the
staff is trained, and the procedures are
established, the wheels are turning,
the IBM cards are punched and it is
easier to repeat mistakes than to cor-
I have spent a considerable amount
of time discussing the place of plan-
ning in government because higher-
echelon government, and particularly
federal government, appears likely to
dominate the field of local planning
in the future. This means that the
campaign for improving local planning
approaches must be directed at the
federal level, and it is important that
the action be prompt. But before we
start moving for reform, what reform
should we move for? Here's where we
run into trouble: Let's review some of
the deficiencies of current theory end
1. We spend too much time
planning for an unknown long-range
future, not enough in planning for
a known present and a partly dis-
cernible near-range future.
2. We plan for the future as
though it would be a simple pro-
jection of the past, as though we
knew what the problems of the
future would be, as though current
ideas as to desirable solutions would
fit with the desires of people who
will have different standards, dif-
ferent aspirations, a different way
3. We plan too narrowly, with
undue concentration on physical
development, insufficient attention
to social and economic consequen-
4. We focus too much attention
on the Master Plan, not enough on
planning as a continuous process of
relating new knowledge to new
problems or changing problems.
(Continued on Page 14)
(Continued from Page 13)
5. In our planning, we ignore
the potential effects of technology.
6. Too much of planning is a
defence of the obsolete, a protec-
tion of the status quo with out-
That is quite a handful of charges.
It would be easy to add more, but
we'll do well to get through with par-
tial substantiation of this lot.
Long-Range Planning and
It should not be too difficult to
reach agreement that we can't predict
the long-range future with a sufficient
degree of accuracy to be useful for
long-range planning. The easiest way
to demonstrate this is by reviewing
the success or failure of population
predictions. Surely we would have to
know within reasonable limits what
the population of the city of the fu-
ture would be if we are going to plan
in any detail for the city of the future
- and equally surely, we can't know.
If you doubt this, look at the his-
tory of population prognostication in
this country. Both national and local
projections have been hopelessly cock-
Nationally, during the '30s there
was a decline in birth rate which led
our demographers to a virtually un-
animous opinion that growth was
finished in the U. S. In 1938, the
National Resources Planning Board
concluded: "The transition from an
increasing to a stationary or decreasing
population may on the whole be bene-
ficial to the life of the Nation. The
gradual decrease in the proportion of
children raises problems of major na-
Came then the war, a revolution in
the economy and a flood of births.
But the conditioning of the '30s out-
weighed current facts at the Bureau
of the Census. In 1947, when we were
under major strain on the diaper sup-
ply, the Bureau issued new estimates
indicating in the most optimistic up-
per range that we might conceivably
reach 185 million by 1975. (This fig-
ure was passed in 1961.)
"The outlook after 1950," says the
report, "is for a continuation of the
long-term decline in population
growth, both in absolute numbers and
rate. Moreover, the population will
reach its maximum size and will begin
to decrease unless heavy immigration
Comparing what was considered to
be the most probable figure with what
actually happened, four years after
1947 we were well past the 1960 pre-
diction, six years later we were at the
1970 estimate, and in 1955, eight
years after the report, we were past
the 1990 ultimate maximum and were
beginning to get our second wind. We
are currently adding about 3 million
Although the 1947 study does not
advocate a large increase in numbers,
it suggests that measures could be
taken to insure this objective: "While
there is no immediate prospect that
the United States will adopt a national
program designed to maintain or in-
crease the birth rate, and hence to
affect the future growth of the popula-
tion, it should be remembered that
such programs are already in effect in
Canada and several European coun-
tries." This report was written by
eminent experts deafened by precon-
ceived notions to the squalls of mount-
ing numbers of grandchildren. Private
enterprise, through unremitting efforts
of our returning heroes, maintained
and increased the birth rate without
In 1955, the Bureau of the Census
issued "Illustrative Projections of the
Population by States- 1960 and
1965," with seven ranges of figures
based on various assumptions. Com-
parison of 1960 census counts with
what had been projected reveals that
in a five-year span the projections were
so far off as to be virtually useless for
planning or other purposes. Falling
completely outside the ranges were
the U. S., three of the four major
regions, seven of the nine subregions,
and 34 of 49 states (counting D. C.
as a state). For the District of Colum-
bia, special techniques developed by
local planners were used. The figures
for the District set a record for short-
On local forecasts, accuracy is gen-
erally worse than for national, regional
or state. Research on predictions at
the local level indicates an average
error of more than 50 percent in 20
years on amount of change projected,
without much choice in the direction
We have not improved our tech-
niques and we have not learned cau-
tion. You may say that since we have
underestimated generally during the
past three decades, all that is neces-
sary is to adjust our sights upward in
the future. Pause a moment on that,
or you may add another to the string
of theories which have been exploding
Coming on we have the largest co-
hort of persons in the main child-
bearing age groups in our history. We
have also growing alarm about over-
population and we have wide dispersal
of contraceptive methods. We have a
population increasingly sensitive to
security. It is worth noting that the
marriage rate (which appears to have
some correlation with births) dropped
during the minor recession of '58 to
the lowest point since 1932. So we
can say with complete assuredness
that in the period between 1965 and
1970 there is a 50-50 chance that, all
things remaining equal, there may be
15 million births or there may be 30
million births, give or take 5 or 10
million. Don't make that more than
an even money bet.
Our chances on useful long-range
prediction on a lot of other things are
considerably worse. On population
and on other matters, one of the most
important objectives is to advance the
science and art of planning to the
point where we find out faster when
we are planning for the wrong thing.
The future will not be a straight-
line projection of the past. It will fol-
low interesting and unexpected curves.
Planners are unlikely to get far ahead
of it. The least they can do is to turn
as closely behind it as possible. Other-
wise they will be carried into the ditch
by their own momentum and being
planners, will call for the world to
follow. If the world is being pushed
by massive governments, it may.
The history of what planning we
have had should have taught us that
if we plan too far ahead, we will be
planning for the wrong thing.
In "And On the Eighth Day," I
have played with this idea in some
detail. Planning objectives for 1905,
1935, 1960 and 1980 are set forth
under a heading in the form of a
chorus. The heading goes like this:
"Every city should have a Master
Plan, bold, imaginative, flexible, to
guide its development so that by the
end of twenty years it becomes a thing
of Beauty, Order and Convenience,
fitted to its time. Certain basic prin-
ciples should guide the preparation of
the plan." Taking these basic prin-
(Continued on Page 28)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
House With A Florida Atrium
ALFRED BROWNING PARKER, FAIA
This is an unusual house on a num-
ber of counts. First, it was commis-
sioned by Popular Mechanics maga-
zine as a "low-maintenance home for
carefree living." Second, it is a model
house for a thriving real estate devel-
opment Palm Beach Gardens, on
the northwest outskirts of West Palm
Beach. As such it can be duplicated
from a set of complete plans and spec-
ifications available from its sponsors
for $50-or can be adapted to vary-
ing family requirements to the extent
of several "alternate" room and equip-
Most importantly, however, it is .
anything but a "project" or a "build- .
her's" house. On the contrary, it is ear-
marked by the meticulous attention to
design concept and detail for which
its architect has become famous and
is probably destined to receive a cita-
tion in some future design awards pro-
gram. But it is not a small house; and
its duplication on a regular contract
basis could hardly be held in the low
cost bracket, however economical the 4*
price might be in view if the livabil-
ity values produced. Total area under ..
roof is 4,523 sq.ft.; the total living and W
working area is 3,409 sq.ft., and the
total enclosed living area is 1,919 sq.
ft. Unit costs in the lower East Coast
area for construction comparable to
that of this house have averaged about
$15 per sq.ft. for fully enclosed living
areas and from $8 to $10 per sq.ft. for
roofed but open or semi enclosed
Use of an inner court a sort of
atrium around which living and service
areas are ranged-is more than a tour
de force. It actually creates an outdoor
area (since the atrium roof is open to
the weather) inside the house. Thus
is provided complete freedom of fam-
ily action with the blessing of utter
privacy. And thus also are eliminated
the cliches of fish-bowl glass walls on
the exterior. It seems a good trend-
freedom within, a demure conserva-
tism without. Wide-jalousie windows
provide needed exterior light and ven-
tilation in every room; and these are
well shaded by a five-foot roof over-
hang on all four elevations.
As built and shown here, this is a
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Photos by Ezra Stoller Associates
three bedroom, two bath house with
a laundry between two of the bed-
rooms. There is a shop and a one-car
garage in addition to the carport. The
living-dining area is L-shape and opens
directly on to the atrium, as does the
master bedroom that faces the kitchen
across the atrium. In an "alternate"
version, the laundry become a fourth
bedroom, the carport becomes a util-
ity room-for a laundry shared with
a half-bath-and the garage becomes
a double carport. Plans also provide
for an optional open fireplace and for
a basement where climate and terrain
may make this desirable. The atrium
can be paved and planted or made
into a swimming pool area. And the
now-screened roof opening above the
atrium can be weather-proofed by
glass or plastic panels. In either vers-
ion, the house is air-conditioned.
Structurally, a masonry wall 30-
inches above the floor surrounds the
house. On this is wood framing. Ex-
terior sheathing and interior paneling
are of redwood.
Historically the integration of plastic and graphic art with
architectural design has been a significant measure of
great buildings. But the traditional collaboration of artist
and architect has been-with some notable exceptions-
generally lacking in contemporary work. Now a new type
of sculptural art suggests that this condition can be over-
come within the present-day limits of building economics.
It is "sand-cast sculpture"; and its first use in Florida is
on the Auditorium for the new Miami Beach Library.
Production of Sand-cast Sculpture ..
In ancient Greece during the fifth
century B.C., there were two archi-
tects who had a problem. The tri-
umphant leader of their nation had
designated them to design "a temple
of enduring beauty" to honor the
Goddess Athena. Ictinus and Calli-
crates, GIA, took their commission
seriously. They came up with a mag-
nificent design, then topped it off by
inviting the sculptor, Phidias, to sup-
ervise the carving of vast friezes which
multiplied the splendor of their
temple. A few eyebrows were raised
at this invitation to a colleague, but
those few were lowered when the
Parthenon was completed.
In those days it was not unusual
to tap a source of creativity outside
the profession. In other historical
periods it was also a natural practice,
and then again for hundreds of years
the relationship became estranged.
Today a new awareness portends re-
newed kinships. The reasons are ap-
Today's architect is faced with a
unique challenge. He has been freed
1. . The sculptor models his design 2. . Panels are formed on a casting bed and the sculptor's assistant checks
in wet sand-in a reverse relief so the design of each against detail drawings to make certain that each element
casting will conform to sketch, is correct in form and depth before the final casting in concrete.
18 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
experimentt in Architectural Sculpture
By JOAN GILL
Copyright, 1962, by Joan Gill
All rights reserved
from traditional dogmas by new ma-
terials, new methods, new thinking;
and he must rely more and more
upon his personal vision and indi-
vidual style. He must use every re-
source available to him in order to
accept the increased responsibilities
of his freedom. Realizing the situa-
tion, both his profession and the pub-
lic have urged him to review his es-
thetic standards and judgments. At
the same time, as perhaps never be-
fore in modern times, his profession
and the public are lending support
in this movement to see the architect
become the true "environmental
shaper" of his times.
This is where the lesson derived
from Greek architecture becomes per-
tinent and significant. There are in-
stances when an American architect
can follow the earlier precedents of
his historical inheritance and call
upon a sculptor or artist, as colleague
or consultant. Contrary to belief,
there are artists and sculptors who
recognize the demands of contempo-
rary architectural thought, who can
design and execute their work accord-
ing to modern methods and building
Perhaps they are few, but there is a
good example of one of this breed in
Miami, Florida. His name is ALBERT
VRANA and his architectural sculpture
girds the cylindrical exterior wall of
the new Miami Beach Public Library
auditorium. A. HERBERT MATCHES,
AIA, who designed the library, con-
ceived the idea of having a sculptured
exterior for the library auditorium-
a two-story drum that stands apart
from the main building, connected by
a walkway-and began to make in-
quiries, nationally and locally, to find
an artist capable of handling the job.
He met with several artists before he
was introduced to Vrana.
Sculptor Vrana showed no diffi-
culty in talking the language of the
architect; blue prints and renderings
were no mystery to him; a reference
to Sweet's brought no suggestion of
chocolate to his mind. Vrana comes
from a family of contractors. He ran
his own business on Long Island prior
to moving south eight years ago to
open a sculpture studio. He knew
what was necessary for the design
and execution of a concrete bas-relief
(157' around, 20' high). Mathes ex-
plained what he envisioned; Vrana
agreed to accept a retainer fee to pre-
pare a design for the rotunda.
Vrana made sketches, drew up a
scale design, then translated this into
a three-dimensional model, precise in
every detail. He called his work "The
Story of Man," a theme agreed upon
by architect and sculptor as appropri-
ate to the total design concept.
"This library is created to contain
a record of man's relationship to his
environment," he wrote at that time.
"I have chosen, therefore, the idea of
portraying the development of man-
past, present, and future through
the use of symbolism."
Mathes approved the design; they
presented it to an enthusiastic Li-
brary Board; the Miami Beach City
Council accepted it. The architect
was given his contract, but the case
(Continued on Page 20)
Photos by Hank Koch
3. . Workmen prepare the sculp- 4. .... After the concrete pour, panels are cured to movable strength, numbered
tured beds for concrete which is re- for identification with a master drawing, washed of surplus sand and stacked
enforced to meet structural needs, in sequence until completely cured and ready for instalaltion.
The sculptor, Albert Vrana, and some of
the finished panels of his abstract design.
(Continued from Page 19)
was not closed. The city officials were
suddenly faced with the fact that
there was no precedent for drawing
up a contractual agreement between
the city and an artist. Was an artist
reliable enough to handle public
funds? To counter this speculation,
Vrana presented a favorable Dun
and Bradstreet rating. The usual
image of the artist took a giant step
forward. When he produced a perfor-
mance bond for the full amount of the
contract, the City of Miami Beach
hired its first artist.
Vrana sub-contracted to a concrete
firm on whose grounds he set up his
molds for sand casting some 180 pan-
els to his design. In spite of the fact
that each panel (6'-8" x 2'-8") was
individually carved and cast by the
sculptor, he worked to a production
scheduled that enabled him to fulfill
his contractual obligations. Working
carefully to achieve the textural qual-
ities that met his artistic criteria, he
was also alert to see that the re-in-
forced concrete panels conformed to
the legal and engineering require-
ments of routine inspections.
The results have been astonishing.
For, by eliminating the monotony
and restrictions of rigid molds, Vrana's
work took on the context of major
sculpture. With strong contrasting
forms and sharply defined lines, "The
Story of Man," encircling the rotunda,
has the mellowed look of old stone
Economically and structurally sound,
this monumental sculpture in the -
round stands as a testimony to tradi-
tion and experiment in the tremend-
ous field of architectural sculpture.
Given an enlightened and capable
artist, the contemporary architect can
realize a vision that takes its roots
from ancient times.
The almost-completed auditorium has acquired the mellow look of a stone-carved structure
through the sand-cast texture of the concrete. Yet the modeled symbolism is as modern as
the casting technique of the concrete panels in which it was executed.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
HOUDAILLE-SPAN USED ON WALLS AND ROOF RESULTS IN AN
ATTRACTIVE, STRUCTURAL "SKIN"; MEETS BUDGET REQUIREMENTS
U The Ascension Lutheran Church, Boynton Beach,
Florida, is an outstanding example of the imaginative
use of prestressed concrete planks. The design
called for a concrete bent framework sheathed with
HOUDAILLE-SPAN . one of the first uses of the
product in this area for wall construction. Simple
steel angle brackets, 19' 6'/2" maximum length, sup-
port the horizontally placed slabs which range in
length from 9' 3/" to 16' 4". The dimensional sta-
bility of the machine-produced units permitted accu-
rate connections at
eave and where walls
meet roof. The flat
slabs serve as both
roof and ceiling . .
the finish on the roof
being a sprayed on,
fluid neoprene-based ,,
roofing. The under-
side of the slabs were
sprayed with acousti-
cal plaster for an at-
tractive ceiling finish.
In this instance, the architect selected HOUDAILLE-
SPAN to achieve an economical, structurally sound and
aesthetically satisfying edifice. Perhaps your next
project can be improved through the application of
HOUDAILLE-SPAN. We'd be pleased to discuss the pos-
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SEPTEMBER, 1962 21
News & Notes
Planned for next month October
25-26 is a two-day seminar on the
design of functional hospitals and
nursing homes. Location will be the
auditorium of the Florida State Board
of Health, 1217 Pearl Street, Jaskson-
ville. Registration fee is $10 per per-
son; and applications should be ad-
dressed to Walter Schultz, AIA, P. 0.
Box 4850, Jacksonville 1.
The seminar is being co-sponsored
by the FAA, the FES, the Florida
State Board of Health and the Hospi-
tal Division of the Florida Develop-
ment Commission. It is open to all
architects and engineers who may be
interested in up-dated technical infor-
mation on the design of an increasing-
ly important series of building types.
The roster of speakers to be an-
nounced next month will include
specialists in health service building
equipment as well as planning.
Sessions have been planned consec-
utively so all may be attended. Sub-
jects for presentation and discussion
include: health agency functions and
relationships; environmental health
factors; regulations, codes and stan-
dards; functional design elements of
hospitals and nursing homes; site
planning and selection; long-range
project planning; safety factors; and
mechanical systems, including those
involving air conditioning, communi-
cations and electrical equipment.
Though a substantial attendance is
anticipated, the seminar committee
has not organized housing accomoda-
tion facilities. Those planning to at-
tend the conference should make their
own hotel reservations.
Convention Notes ...
By the middle of this month archi-
tects throughout the state will be re-
ceiving specific information regarding
the forthcoming FAA Convention -
and with this a hotel reservation form.
The Convention Committee of the
Florida Central Chapter urges that
the reservation forms be completed
just as soon as they are received. Ex-
prience has shown that pre-registration
is of great advantage to everyone; and
since hotel space is always limited,
preferences must be allocated on a
first-come, first-served basis.
The Convention Committee is now
1962 CONVENTION CHAIRMAN
Dana B. Johannes, Florida Central
Chapter, is in general charge of the
FAA's 48th Annual Convention to be
held November 8, 9, 10, 1962, at
the Soreno Hotel, St. Petersburg, Fla.
terest for conventioners. Included in
the exhibitor roster are a number of
product and trade associations. Their
purpose is to provide information,
both general and specific, about a wide
range of materials, products and serv-
ices which form the basis for archi-
tectural specification and thus have a
direct influence on architectural de-
sign. Convention planning has em-
phasized the informative value of the
product exhibit by allowing a generous
amount of time during the three-day
meeting for discussion with exhibitor
Information regarding details of the
Convention program is available from
the FAA's administrative office, 414F
Dupont Plaza Center, Miami, FR
U/F Symposiums ...
The Department of Architecture of
the U/F at Gainesville has arranged a
series of three symposiums for the
school year of 1962-63. An announce-
ment by James T. Lendrum, head of
the department, indicates that each
symposium will be complete in itself;
but topics of each are interdependent
in the interests of continuity. The
program is an effort to coordinate
some of the current and varied ideas
regarding the integration of art and
science in architecture.
The first of the series will be held
October 11, 1962. Titled "Sources
and Resources," it will deal with the
influence of environment and tech-
nology on architectural design. Guest
speakers will include Philip N. Youtz,
FAIA, dean of the College of Archi-
tecture and Design, University of
Michigan, and Emerson Goble, AIA,
editor of Architectural Record.
Date of the second symposium is
February 14, 1963. As "Plans and
Programs" it will be concerned with
the need for establishing realistic cri-
teria and concepts for good planning.
The third meeting, scheduled for
March 14, 1963, will discuss, under
the heading of "Technics and Tech-
niques" the principles and methods of
carrying out the plans and programs
in definitive terms. Purpose is to clari-
in definitive terms. Purpose is to
clarify the means whereby structures,
mechanics and design can be success-
fully coordinated into a unified whole.
The next meeting of the
FAA Board of Directors
will be held at the Wa-
kulla Springs Hotel, in the
area of the Florida North
Central Chapter on Sep-
tember 29, 1962. This is
a particularly important
meeting and all Directors
are urged to attend, In-
formation regarding it
can be obtained from the
FAA Executive Secretary,
414F Dupont Plaza Cen-
ter, Miami 32, FR 1-8253
Each symposium will include a
luncheon session, an afternoon session
and an evening session. The afternoon
session will be in the form of a panel
discussion hopefully with audience
participation. No registration fees are
involved for attendance at any of the
three meetings, which are open to
all architects and engineers in addition
to members of the University faculty
and student body.
Additional information is available
from the office of the Department of
Architecture, 125 Temporary Build-
ing E, U/F, Gainesville. The tele-
phone is FR 6-3261, extension 2979.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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Mollie Lewis, left, Fenimore tenant,
baked cakes and pastries on the old
electric range for many years. Says:
"Everything turns out perfect.
and it is so easy to use electric."
Another tenant. 86-year-old
Bessie Weingarten, regularly baked bread
for the past 16 years on her electric range.
Ran es still operating perfectly
after 33 years of service in these apartments
When the 48-unit Fenimore Apartment building was built on Miami Beach in
1928, it was the first apartment house to feature all-electric kitchens in that
area. Now, after 33 years of trouble-free service, the original ranges are being
replaced by modem electric ranges as part of the general, overall modernization
of the property. The original ranges, however, were still in good condition and
operated as well as they did when they were installed in 1928. As testimony
to the excellent condition of these old ranges, inspection by the Florida Hotel
and Restaurant Commission rated the establishment 100% on August 23, 1961,
before the old ranges were replaced.
This is another proof of the dependability and lasting convenience of flameless
electric cooking that keeps your kitchen cooler, cleaner and safer. When you
add or replace kitchen equipment, remember . .
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
News & Notes
(Continued from Page 22)
ARNOLD F. BUTT, AIA, has been
named Consulting Architect for the
University of Florida, Gainesville, ac-
cording to a recent announcement by
President J. WAYNE REITZ. The new
appointee will replace Jefferson M.
Hamilton who retried July 1. Butt's
association with the University dates
from 1952 when he was appointed an
assistant professor of architecture. He
has served as assistant to the consult-
ing architect since 1956. He is a na-
tive of Lincoln, Nebraska, holds an
AB degree in architecture from the
University of Nebraska and an MA
from Rice Institute in Texas.
The Miami firm of STARNES and
RENTSCHER has moved its office to
462 S. Dixie Highway, Coral Gables.
The new phone is 667-6449.
The firm of REYNOLDS, SMITH and
HILLS, with present offices in both
Jacksonville and Tampa, have an-
nounced the opening of another
branch office at 7 West Gore Avenue,
Orlando. Mailing address is P. 0. Box
8006, Orlando; ad the phone is 424-
9533. The office will be headed by
NORMAN L. BRYAN, NSPE, as resident
partner, and JOHN THOMAS WATSON,
HUGO S. THORSEN, JR., and JOSEPH
B. HARMS have announced formation
of a partnership for the practice of
architecture with the firm name of
THORSEN AND HARMS. Address is 502
First Federal Savings Building, Jack-
sonville 2. Phone is EL 5-3305.
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Part of a paper on the control of
civic ugliness by Dr. BURNHAM
KELLY, AIA, Dean, College of
Architecture, Cornell University.
The lifting of esthetic standards
in utilitarian architecture will not
come from the ultimate consumers.
On the contrary, the public at large
has long sensed that buildings have
become transitory and ephemeral,
and it accepts modern architecture
and city design in terms of mere
fashion, with an emphasis on gim-
micks. Instead of baubles, bangles,
and beads, they have learned to ex-
pect the architectural equivalent:
skydomes, spandrels, and screens.
May we look for better esthetic
standards, then, to the decision-
makers: the businessmen, the various
institutions associated with building,
and the government? The decision-
makers concentrate on the utility of
utilitarian architecture. Despite an
occasional strongly-stated esthetic re-
42 MILLION AMERICAN HOME
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They've pushed the national total of gas use
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26 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
quirement, they usually believe that
they leave matters of art to the artists.
This belief has gained so wide a cre-
dence that writers, conferences, and
research projects now routinely assume
that the esthetic failings of our cities
signify some sort of fine-art deficiency
in our designers. -
This is nonsense; fine-art ability is
not at issue. The major esthetic fail-
ings are in the much more widespread
area of utilitarian art, and-here there
is much less delegation to the artist.
Far more important, much that is not
delegated at all, because it is thought
to involve only economy and effici-
ency, is of the greatest importance to
design. Typically, the hands of our
designers may be found tied firmly
behind their backs even before they
are brought into design deliberations.
Let me illustrate.
Financing terms and rates are
powerful design tools. When the ad-
ministrators have decided that public
housing will be accompanied by slum-
clearance projects to be financed over
a period of sixty years, and that the
local authority need only pay the
operating and maintenance costs dur-
ing this period, they have said in so
many words: "This is to be institu-
tional architecture!" No matter what
happens to the people, the buildings
will be designed to last sixty years-
and they will look it!
Operating methods also shape
buildings. The typical urban project
of today is a large project, of mixed
public-private enterprise. with a highly
skilled management team at work for
months or years before construction
begins. During this period, entire
families and generations of design de-
cisions have their origin. To an in-
creasing degree, the final design is
shaped by new industrial production
and erection, techniques.
In sum, utilitarian conclusions are
major forces in the design of urban
areas. Decision makers are simply not
aware of the extent to which their
supposedly non-design decisions have
arbitrary physical consequences. They
cannot be expected, therefore, to lead
the way to higher esthetic standards.
Is the designer guiltless, then,
standing as he does with his hands
tied behind his back? Of course not.
He has only to resist, to seek out con-
structive compromises, in order to free
himself. The sad fact of the matter is
that only too few architects and city
designers have any real appreciation
of the situation. While willing enough
to complain about the restraints im-
posed upon him by codes, ordinances,
unions, and suppliers, the average de-
signer has little appreciation of the
fact that, with patience and effort,
he can recast these external conditions
in such a way as to substantially en-
large his freedom of design without
losing sight of the purpose they are
supposed to serve.
The average designer has even less
appreciation of the importance to him
of a wide range of fiscal and legal
problems. And he is not average at
all if he has anything like a concrete
conception of the opportunities for an
expanded scope of design provided in
large project operations and industrial
There is no overpowering opposi-
tion other than their own inertia. Of
course, there is no direct client, but
the indirect client is the general pub-
lic, and the situation is desperate. As
a professional man, the designer has
accepted a responsibility to this gen-
eral public. He has a moral obligation
to do something about it, and at once.
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e, your natural gas companies here in Florida
cite additional evidence that it's going places
ir State, too .. that it's demonstrably better,
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:ing, but also for home heating and air condi-
ing, water heating, clothes drying, refrigera-
and other uses.
our qualified engineers or manufacturers' experts on
,r installations. All over Florida, the natural gas
stry is going places .. you're invited to come along!
And it stands to reason that modern Florida house-
wives, like holnemakers everywhere, want and
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and the latest figures saying that the "best" is
natural gas, it's just common sense to include
natural gas service in the homes you design, build
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SEPTEMBER, 1962 27
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Urban Destiny . .
(Continued from Page 14)
ciples as they might well have been
drafted by a thinking planner wedded
to the notion that he knew what he
was doing, we come up with these,
1905-As many as 30,000,000
may be added to the population by
1925. Two-fifths will, of course, be
on farms. The remainder will create
major urban problems unless develop-
ment is kept compact and orderly.
Population should be concentrated for
the convenience of the public. Work-
ers should not have to walk more than
two of three miles to their places of
employment, or to a streetcar line.
Factories and tenements should be
close together, so that the working
classes can get to their places of em-
ployment with ease. Grocery stores,
meat markets and the like should be
liberally intermingled with residences
to provide easy access to daily neces-
sities. However, some means should
be sought to limit saloons to one per
block, and to require closing at mid-
night except on Saturdays. Rising in-
come of workers makes it likely that
as many as one in three may have
vehicles by 1925. Make ample provi-
sion for livery stables in the Plan.
1935 Population approaches its
ultimate peak. Congestion and squalor
in our cities cries out for lower den-
sities. Population should be spread
out, with far more suburban living.
Many slum dwellers should be moved
to villages outside the urban complex.
Encourage subsistence agriculture to
aid during periods of unemployment.
Large lots would help in this, and
would also provide more light, air,
room for septic tanks. Conflicting uses
should be segregated through rigid
zoning control residential uses
(single-family, two-family, and multi-
ple family) in separate districts, com-
mercial and industrial uses separated
from residential areas.
1960 -With our exploding popu-
lation (over a quarter of a billion by
1985) urban growth will be tremen-
dous. Urban sprawl is a major threat
to solvency. Costs of extending sewer
and water lines, arterial street systems,
and urban services mount astronomi-
cally. Hopscotch land development
creates chaos. Unnecessarily large lots
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
DO WE HAVE
If you are not receiving
your copies of this FAA
magazine, it is probably
because your address in
our stencil files is incor-
rect . . We try hard to
keep abreast of all address
changes. You can help us
do so by following these
1...If you change jobs
or move your home to
another location, get a
from your local Post Office
and mail it to us.
2...If you join an AIA
Chapter, tell us about it,
listing your current ad-
dress. Busy Chapter secre-
taries sometimes forget to
file changes promptly.
Don't let yourself be-
come an "unknown", a
"moved", or a "wrong
Dunan Brick Yards 3rd Cover
Dwyer Products of Florida, Inc 28
Florida Gas Transmission Co. 26-27
Florida Home Heating Institute 30
Florida Natural Gas Assn. 8
Florida Portland Cement
Division . 10
Florida Power &
Light Co. . 24
Houdaille-Span, Inc. . 21
Merry Brothers Brick &
Tile Co. . . 3
Miami Window Corp. . 1
Peoples Gas System . . 12
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc. 25
Reflectal Corp. . .. 7
Solite .. 23
Southern Bell Tel. & Tel 6
Tidewater Concrete Block
& Tile Co. . 9
Timber Structures, Inc. . 5
Vogue Industries, Inc. . 26
F. Graham Williams Co. . 29
I _iil--- -- WMB
in subdivisions waste land and make
provision of urban services more ex-
pensive. In Master Plan for 1985,
emphasize organized, orderly develop-
ment, more efficient densities, lower
unit service costs, compactness. Neigh-
borhoods should be a quarter mile
square, contain schools, employment
centers, shopping facilities. Lots
should be 69.57 feet square. (If
pressed, I will tell you why.)
1980-Population of the U. S.
will soon be back up to 100 million,
barring resumption of hostilities. It is
functionally pointless to attempt re-
contruction of the large-target metro-
polis. This complex became militarily
indefensible only a few decades after
it become obsolete as an urban form.
The Master Plan for 2000 will be in
accordance with accepted principles
of concentrated dispersal, assuring uni-
formity and high protection. The
Small-Target Order requires city-units
housing 25,000 persons in structures
500 feet in diameter and 120 feet
deep. Major trade, service, distribu-
tion, storage and administrative facil-
ities will be located on the lowest
le el. and intercity utility and trans-
portation connections (except from
factories) will come in at this level.
Neighborhood trade and service cen-
ters and elementary schools will be
located adjacent to the central trans-
portation shaft. Federal Order 9382,
See. 277b, provides for spacing be-
tween city-units. (If pressed, I'll read
that, too, but it's a federal sentence
long.) Automated manufacturing
plants for synthesis of food and fibers
will be located at least five miles from
the nearest city-unit. Plans for primi-
tive and semi-automated plants re-
quiring substantial numbers of per-
sonnel will be processed and approved
by the Area Planning and Defense
From this you should get a notion
of the problems of a planner trapped
in a present he cannot escape, and
prescribing for a future he cannot
ED. NOTE: The foregoing is only a
part of Mr. Bair's article on URBAN
DESTINY AND ORGANIZED INTENT. Part
Two will appear in an early forthcom-
ing issue. In it Mr. Bair discusses some
of the many technological changes that
are becoming active agents in shaping
the city of the future.
SEPTEMBER, 1962 -
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretray
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
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On Tampa Bay...
It's St. Petersburg in 1962 . and the
Convention's Host will be the Florida Central
Chapter -whose red-coated hospitality in 1957
sparked a memorable meeting and established
an attractive and unique new FAA tradition .
14 T 4"' -
.-.. . ... .". '. T' .
4. .. : 4 41 0'; ,
Headquarters of the FAA's 1962 Convention will be the Soreno
Hotel, one of the largest and finest of Florida's west coast. It's
convenient to all downtown St. Petersburg's facilities. It is also
near the yacht harbor and commands a beautiful view of Tampa
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UAL FAA CONVENTION
1962 SORENO HOTEL ST. PETERSBURG