• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Top-flight speakers to guide convention...
 To the ladies
 The 1961 office practice semin...
 The junior college program
 U/M announces plans for international...
 News and notes
 Frederick G. Seelman - 1889-19...
 "The scourge of the curtain...
 Advertisers' index
 Back Cover






Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00088
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: October 1961
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00088
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Advertising
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Top-flight speakers to guide convention seminar program
        Page 4
        Page 5
    To the ladies
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The 1961 office practice seminar
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The junior college program
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    U/M announces plans for international research center
        Page 19
    News and notes
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Frederick G. Seelman - 1889-1961
        Page 22
    "The scourge of the curtain wall"
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Advertisers' index
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.























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OCTOBER, 1961







74e




Florida Architect
OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS


Ia 74 h a&e - -

Top-Flight Speakers to Guide Convention Seminar Program

To the Ladies . . . . . . . .
By Beverly Stetson

The 1961 Office Practice Seminar . . . . .
Part IV Conclusion Omissions and Errors

The Junior College Program . . . . . .
Dade County Junior College
Palm Beach Junior College

U/M Announces Plans for International Research Center

News and Notes . . . . . . .

New Palm Beach Church Has Three-Compound Layout .


Frederick G. Seelman . 1889-1961

"The Scourge of the Curtain Wall" .
By Edward Mark Treib

Advertisers' Index . . . .


F.A.A. OFFICERS 1961
Robert H. Levison, President, 425 S. Garden Ave., Clearwater
Arthur Lee Campbell, First Vice-President, Rm. 208, Security Bldg., Gainesville
Robert B. Murphy, Second Vice-President, 1210 Edgewater Drive, Orlando
William F. Bigoney, Jr., Third V-President, 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Laud.
Verner Johnson, Secretary, 250 N. E. 18th Street, Miami
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Treasurer, Suite 209, 233 E. Bay Street, Jacksonville
DIRECTORS
Immediate Past President: John Stetson; BROWARD COUNTY: Jack W.
Zimmer, Charles F. McAlpine, Jr.; DAYTONA BEACH: Francis R. Walton;
FLORIDA CENTRAL: Robert C. Wielage, Eugene H. Beach, A. Wynn
Howell; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, McMillan H. Johnson;
FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA NORTH
WEST: W. Stewart Morrison; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, H. Samuel
Kruse, C. Robert Abele; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr., John R.
Graveley, Frederick W. Bucky, Jr.; MID-FLORIDA: Charle L. Hendrick, John
P. DeLoe; PALM BEACH: Jefferson N. Powell, Frederick W. Kessler.

Verna M. Sherman, Administrative Secretary, 414 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami
THE COVER ...
We noted last month that several designs had been submitted for covers by
Raymond H. Strowd, partner in the Fort Myers firm of Cornwell and Strowd,
Architects. This is the second of his sketches. He assures us it has no special
graphic significance but those with a penchant for symbolism might find
some suggestion of structure in it, thus interpeting it as a visual forecast of
next month's Convention theme "Structural Arts and Architecture". And
that's as good an explanation as any!


. 19

. . . 20


. 2 2


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Controlled circulation postage paid at
Miami, Florida . Printed by McMurray
Printers.
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE
Clinton Gamble, Dana B. Johannes,
William T. Arnett, Roy M. Pooley, Jr.

ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
Editor-Publisher

VOLUME 11

NUMBER 10 1961
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT










The CONCRETE M.



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Top-Flight Speakers to Guide




Convention's Seminar Programs


It would be difficult to avoid su-
perlatives in describing next month's
Convention program. Program Chair-
man FREDERICK W. KESSLER-with
the generous consultative assistance
of P/A Editor THOMAS H. CREIGH-
TON, FAIA-has outlined a schedule
of speeches and panel discussions that
cannot help but stir the attention and
interest of all Florida architects who
have at heart the advancement of
their professional capabilities.
For, truly, the roster of speakers
contains some professional diamonds
of the first water. And their contri-
butions to the development of the
Convention theme "Structural Arts
and Architecture" should provide as
memorable a two days as any in the
FAA's 47-year convention history.
This year speakers have been orga-
nized into "Workshop Seminar"
groups, rather than mere discussion
panels. In Chairman Kessler's own
words, . we are attempting to
bring out arguments, pro and con,
within the panels and promote real
'hot' discussions. We feel that in this
way the most interest can be devel-
oped. . We have an outstanding
list of panelists and, at least from that
score, this should be one of the most
important conventions our state orga-
nization has ever had."
Further, the subjects of the various
Workshop Seminars-three in all-
run a wide gamut of time-oriented
material. On Thursday afternoon the
Seminar topic will be "Architecture
and Technology." Panelists will be
ROBERT M. LITTLE, FAIA, ALONZO
HARRIMAN, FAIA, FELIX CANDELA,
BRUCE GRAHAM, AIA, and GEORGE
MATSUMOTO. They will discuss . .
Relationship of modern architecture
and technological development; the
Bauhaus and beginnings of industrial
design; the impact of new materials
and mass production on architecture;
new freedoms in plasticity and spans
with domes, shells, hyperbolic para-
baloids . In the light of such dis-
cussion, they will attempt an answer


to the question, What controls must
the architect exert over these new
structural possibilities?
The Friday morning Workshop
Seminar has been titled "Concrete
vs. Steel in Architectural Forms."
Panelists will explore . Plastic pos-
sibilities of concrete and the freedom
of poured concrete vs. the discipline
of precast concrete; the economics of
structural forms; the concrete of Pei,
Yamasaki, Bundschaft vs. that of
Nervi, Candela and Salvadori; metal
frames and their modular possibil-
ities, and use of more plastic metal
frames (not only steel).
On Friday afternoon the title of the
Workshop Seminar is "Esthetic Pos-
sibilities in New Structural Forms",
and the panelists, ranging far afield,
will consider such diverse questions
as . Will the search continue for
new forms? What is architecture of
the future likely to be--10, 100,
1,000 years hence? Is an architect
capable of producing a satisfactory
sculptural form-and if so, is it justi-
fied? What about its economics? Are
we justified in producing uneconomi-


cal designs for the sake of form?
What should the profession be dem-
onstrating to its public-experimen-
tation and chaos, or maturity and
style? What should architectural
schools be teaching?
Unlike past conventions, the same
men will serve as panelists at all three
Workshop Seminars. As one result it
is hoped that each will have a more
than usual opportunity to develop his
individual convictions to a greater
extent than is usually possible-even
though such development may be
spread out in three panel sessions.
Thus, from the panelists' standpoint,
this will be an unusually hardworking
convention. From the standpoint of
those attending the Workshop Sem-
nars the program provides an unique
opportunity to consider the values of
divergent viewpoints and thus to eval-
uate each in terms of his own indi-
vidual experience and reaction. It is
an ambitious convention program;
and because this is so, it is a program
that offers to each who attends it as
much as he wishes to take from it.
There is no doubt that to many, it
will prove to be a high-assay mother-
lode of professional inspiration and
value.
Three other important speeches are
listed on the Convention's agenda.
On Thursday, November 9, AIA Pres-
ident PHILIP H. WILL, JR., FAIA,
will deliver an address which has
been billed as "Greetings from the
(Continued on Page 6)


This is part of the hard-working FAA Convention Committee of the Palm Beach
Chapter during a recent planning conference. They are, seated, left to right,
Robert W. Wening, Jr., publicity; Kenneth Jacobson, general chairman; Beverly
Stetson, women' events; Howard E. McCall, product exhibits; Norman Robson,
awards. Standing are, left to right, John Stetson, hospitality; Paul R. Mckinley,
students; John B. Marion, students; Roy M. Simon, entertainment; John T.
Shoup, publicity; Harold A. Obst, chapter president; Samuel Ogren, Jr., program.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT








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Convention...
(Continued from Page 4)
Institute." Friday afternoon, follow-
ing the third Workshop Seminar,
Sculptress GWEN Lux (Mrs. Thomas
H. Creighton) will speak on "Sculp-
ture and the Other Arts as Related
to the Esthetics of Structural and
Other Forms." She will be concerned
with several questions . Should
architect, engineer, sculptor, interior
designer and artist collaborate, or
should they be one person, as often
in history? Are we attempting to inte-
grate various phases of design, or are
we completely divorcing them? Are
we capable of close integration? Is the
challenge too much for the architect?
Is there a place for the 'other arts'
in the work of Candela, Breuer, or
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill?
Final address of the Convention,
at the Saturday, Novemebr 11, clos-
ing luncheon, will be given by P/A
Editor THOMAS H. CREIGHTON, FA-
IA. His topic will be "Summary of
Convention Seminars." Here again
will be a concern with questions . .
Have we accomplished our purpose?
Will architecture and engineering


A PACKAGE DEAL!
This year it's a new kind of
Convention in more ways
than one. For the first time
in FAA history your Conven-
tion expenses will be packaged
and any tabs for extras will
be strictly of your own making!
The Boca Raton Hotel is oper-
ated on the American Plan. This
means that the price of your
room includes the price of
three wonderful meals each
day morning, noon and
night. And, you can eat as
little or as much as you wish!
. Not only that there'll
be no extra charge for the tra-
ditional Friday night banquet.
And even the entertainment
for the fun and frolic night on
Thursday is part of the deal . .
Incidentally, this Thursday par-
ty will be SOMETHING . A
full evening of variety show -
with special surprise numbers
good music, good food and
dancing . .


grow further apart, or become com-
pletely integrated with the other arts?
De we understand each other's langu-
age? What is regionalism in architec-
ture? Is Florida architecture different?
Have we different problems?
This vocal side of the 47th Con-


vention program will pose many ques-
tions-questions that most practicing
architects have recognized as impor-
tant. And from the discussions born
from the convictions and experiences
of Convention speakers may emerge
-dimly or clearly according to the
individual-some important answers.
The questions are professional in char-
acter. Answers to them may, or may
not follow the same pattern. But
whatever form they may take, they
will be thought-provoking and con-
structive.



To The Ladies...
By BEVERLY STETSON
The majority of successful architects
have wives in their business, profess-
ional and social lives. Mrs. PHILIP
WILL, our A.I.A. president's wife is a
stunning example, as were MRS JOHN
NOBLE RICHARDS, MRS. LEON CHATE-
LAIN and others who stood beside their
well-known husbands. Conventions of
professional groups throughout the
country now count the ladies and
(Continued on Page 24)


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The 1961





Office Practice





Seminar


Mr. Starnes-Our first speaker at
this concluding seminar session is a
native of Pennsylvania and a 1928
graduate of Pennsylvania State Uni-
versity. He has been in the insurance
field ever since and in 1947 formed
his own agency in Washington, D.C.,
VICTOR O. SCHINNERER & COMPANY,
INC. He has been extremely active in
Washington civic affairs as well as in
his own profession. Some years age he
developed a program of liability in-
surance for the AIA; and as one result
of his research and experience in this
specialized field he has become an
acknowledged authority on profes-
sional liability coverage. I present to
you now MR. VICTOR O. SCHINNERER
from Washington.

Mr. Schinnerer-I am delighted to
have the opportunity to participate in
this panel discussion on the important
subject of the liability and legal re-
sponsibilities of the architect.

First Why? The legal trend
toward fixing liability on third parties
began some years ago in cases involv-
ing manufactured products. Prior to
this, the purchaser of a defective or
injurious product could claim dam-
ages only from the person from whom
he purchased these goods. It was
generally accepted that the seller and
the buyer had a legal relationship
wherein one could be held responsible
to the other. The manufacturer or
the designer, on the other hand, was
considered a third party, remote and
removed from the transaction.
In recent years, however, the
courts have tended to rule that the
OCTOBER, 1961


The concluding session of the 1961
FAA Office Practice Seminar started
at 3:15 p.m., June 10, 1961 at the
Hillsboro Hotel, Tampa. Subject was
"Omissions and Errors." Chairman of
the meeting was EARL M. STARNES,
AIA, of the Florida South Chapter.
Speakers were VICTOR A. SCHINNER-
ER, insurance counsellor, and WIL-


manufacturer and designer could be
held liable. This type of third party
liability case came into prominence
in 1916 when the owner of a Buick
automobile was thrown from his car
by the collapse of one of the old
wooden-spoked wheels. The Buick
Motor Company insisted that respon-
sibility lay on the retail dealer who
sold the car. But Justice Cardozo, in
a famous decision, held that the man-
ufacturer of the automobile was li-
able directly to the buyer. This was
the famous MacPherson v. Buick Mo-
tor Company case.
Although for many years third
party liability cases involved only
goods, or, in legal language, "chat-
tels", it was inevitable that the day
would come when the concept might
be extended to apply to those who
supplied professional services.
Several years ago a two-year old
boy was seriously injured when he
fell off the rear stoop of an apart-
ment house in Binghamton, New


LIAM E. SHERMAN, attorney. As in
the first two sessions of the Seminar,
this was conducted as a panel pre-
sentation followed by a question and
answer period. Unlike most of the
previous speakers, Mr. Schinnerer read
from a previously prepared document
which is reproduced here in full as it
was submitted.


York. His parents engaged a lawyer
to determine who was responsible.
Naturally, you would assume that this
would be the owner of the apart-
ment building who had a rental
agreement with the boy's parents.
Actually, a completely different per-
son was also hailed into court-the
architect who had designed the
building six years before. It was al-
leged that he had prepared an unsafe
design by failing to put a railing
around the stoop or by failing to
have the center step extend for the
stoop's full length.
Fortunately for the architect, the
court released him from the suit be-
cause of a legal defect in the com-
plaint against him. But the real sig-
nificance of the ruling was the im-
plication that if the court had con-
cluded otherwise, the architect would
have been liable. The court ruled:
". we conclude that the 'prin-
ciple inherent' in the MacPherson
(Continued on Page 10)


Part IV Omissions and Errors


B19~$I~B~BB~






Omissions and Errors...
(Continued from Page 9)
doctrine applies to determine the lia-
bility of architects or builders for
their handiwork. . (Macpherson v.
Buick Motor Co., supra, 217 N.Y.
382, 111 N.E. 1050, L.R.A. 1916F,
696)
To architects, this opened up a
new area of legal responsibility. The
reason was that, historically, under
what is known as privityy of con-
tract", architects were considered to
have a legal responsibility only with
the owner who engaged them. Thus,
they could be held liable only by the
owner, not by others with whom they
had no contractural relation. Today,
however, this ancient concept of priv-
ity between two parties has been
challenged and overthrown in the
courts.
Although the architect was releas-
ed in the Binghamton case, it is ap-
parent that the language of the court
has been taken seriously in other
areas. Take the case of an architec-
tural firm in the South that designed
and supervised the construction of a
hospital. There was nothing wrong
with the design, but there was some-
thing wrong with the plumbing sub-
contractor's shop drawings He failed
to install a pressure relief valve that
was called for in the architect's plans.
Before the architect was notified that
the boiler had been installed, the
subcontractor ran a test, the boiler
exploded and a workman was killed.
His widow filed suit against many
parties, including the architects and
the consulting engineers.
She obtained a judgment of $58,
700.00 from the architects. In the
words of the lower court judge, the
architects are supposed to "snoop,
pry and prod" and if they had done
so in this case, they would have dis-
covered the omission of the safety
valve. The Circuit Court not only
affirmed the decision of the lower
court, but increased the judgment to
$83,000.00, stating that:
"In view of the circumstances here-
in shown, we believe a duty existed
on the part of the architect to use
reasonable care toward the contrac-
tor and his employees as well as the
various subcontractors and their em-
ployees whom the architect had every
reason to anticipate would be in-
volved in the construction of this


particular project. An architect em-
ployed to prepare plans for and sup-
ervise construction of a building or
facility . must exercise reasonable
diligence and care under the circum-
stances to protect against injury to
those who may be reasonably foreseen
to be imperiled by defective or im-
proper construction or lack of ade-
quate supervision."
The engineer was released from
the suit when his attorney showed:
1) the contract between the archi-
tect and the engineer provided a re-
duced fee for the engineer with the
implied understanding that he would
not have to supervise the construc-
tion; and 2), the shop drawings
which the plumbing contractor used
were not approved by the engineer
but were initialled by the architect.
The far-reaching implications of
this startling case motivated the
A.I.A. and the Louisiana Society of
Architects to join the defendant ar-
chitect in an appeal to the Supreme
Court of Lousiana.
The verdict of the Supreme Court
was a happy one for the architectur-
al profession. The decision of the
lower court was reversed and the
architect was cleared of liability.
Thus, for the time being, this trend
has been stayed in Louisiana. But
many competent observers believe
that while a battle has been won,
the war will continue in other areas.
In addition to this new develop-
ment, there has been a marked in-
crease in the number of claims which
have developed out of the architects'
contractural relationship with the
owner.
Take the case of an architectural
firm that prepared plans for a bowl-
ing alley. A typist in the office made
a typographical error that showed the
building as 58 feet long instead of
68 feet. This disastrous mistake was
never caught until the bowling equip-
ment people arrived to install the
alleys. By that time, the fat was in
the fire. An additional ten feet of
land, that could have been bought
originally, was no longer available.
Thus, the machinery to operate the
pinsetters had to be located at the
side of the alleys instead of at the
end, the lighting had to be rearrang-
ed and there was a delay in opening
the alleys which caused the loss of
income to the owner. In this case,
the owner collected $19,850.00 in


damages of which Continental paid
$19,350.00 and the architect paid
only the deductible amount, $500.00
Or, take the case of the firm that
designed a three-story reinforced con-
crete building for use as a laboratory
The design called for a six-inch roof
slab of concrete and a roof fill of
lightweight aggregate to protect the
concrete slab and provide a draining
slope. Expansion of the lightweight
aggregate caused three parapeted
walls to be displaced, resulting in
damages in the amount of $22,400.00.
Even though the owner had approved
the plans, the court awarded judg-
ment against the architect.
The Court ruled that the architect
should have obtained more accurate
information about the characteristics
of the material before specifying its
use. In handing down this decision,
the court said:
"An architect implicitly warrants
not only that he has the skill, knowl-
edge, and judgment required to pro-
duce a result that will meet the needs
of his employer, but that in the prep-
aration of plans and specifications and
in the supervision of the work he
will employ that skill, knowledge and
judgment without negligence . he
is liable to his employer if damage
results."
This need for defense against law
suits for damages has not been lim-
ited to the engineering and architec-
tural professions. All kinds of third
party liability suits have been on the
increase suits for bodily injury,
property damage, loss of income, loss
of services, etc.-based on real or
imagined damages.
This inclination to attempt to col-
lect for damages has spread and
become a problem of great concern
to all engaged in commerce, industry
and the professions. Liability insur-
ance seemed the obvious answer to
this problem, but architects soon dis-
covered that adequate policies were
not generally available.
While professional liability insur-
ance had been developed for the
legal, medical, dental, accounting and
other professions, most insurance
companies, when asked to write a
broad policy for architects and en-
gineers, threw up their hands. The
field was too wide and too unpredict-
able, covering, as it did, everything
from a towering suspension bridge to
the railing on a homeowner's porch.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






Now, Just How Was the Policy
Developed? Approximately ten
years ago, The American Institute
of Architects appointed a Professional
Liability Committee to study the
trend toward third party liability and
try to find a way to protect archi-
tects from suits for real or imagined
damages. The Committee worked
with various insurance agents and
listened to anyone who wished to
give advice or make a proposal.
Very little was accomplished until
just about five years ago when the
first real rays of hope appeared. The
A.I.A. Committee discussed the prob-
lem with our firm (Victor O. Schin-
ner & Company, Inc. of Washing-
ton, D. C., a firm of insurance ana-
lysts, brokers and consultants). We
were interested. To us, it was a chal-
lenge as well as an opportunity. From
that time on, our firm made liability
for architects and engineers a pet
project.
Our firm developed a question-
naire which was sent to all members
of the A.I.A. by the Committee to
determine some of the basic data ne-
cessary to successfully underwrite the
insurance. The response was gratify-
ing and the replies, when studied and
tabulated, gave us a clear picture of
the kind of coverage architects felt
they needed. Working with the
A.I.A. Committee on Professional In-
surance, we developed a truly "Broad
Coverage" Policy.
The next problem was to find a
suitable insurance company to under-
write the policy. A Company had to
be found which would meet the rigid
requirements of the Committee for
financial strength, stability and ser-
vice facilities, and, at the same time,
a company that would be willing to
embark upon this new and untried
field of professional liability insur-
ance. After discussions with the ex-
ecutives of many insurance concerns,
mutually satisfactory arrangements
were worked out with the Continen-
tal Casualty Cimpany, a $400-million
company and one of the largest and
most respected in the industry.
Because the policy was tailor made
to the requirements of the A.I.A.
Committee, it was natural for A.I.A.
to commend it to their members.
This was done by the Board of Direc-
tors of The American Institute of
Architects on November 28th, 1956.
From the beginning, our firm has
worked closely with the A.I.A. Conm-
OCTOBER, 1961


mittee to disseminate information on
this important subject to all members
of the profession. As a result, there
are now over 3,600 architectural and
engineering firms insured under the
A.I.A. commended program under-
written by our firm in the Continent-
al Casualty Company.
With a valuable backlog of exper-
ience, available nowhere else, and
with expert knowledge acquired in
this specialized field, our firm has
been able to obtain from Continental
Casualty Company a series of im-
provements in the basic policy.
At the same time, in cooperation
with the A.I.A. Committee, studies
are being made of claims, law suits
and legal trends to identify and dis-
close danger areas and alerts that can
be passed on to A.I.A. members.


Informed counsel and advice on how
to prevent and minimize claims can
be one of the most valuable aspects
of the program.
This knowledge and experience is
also being utilized by the AIA-EJC
Joint Sub-Committee, which has just
completed a comprehensive study of
the overall responsibilities and lia-
bilties of architects and engineers. It
was my good fortune to serve as
consultant to this Committee.
Here are some of the provisions
that the A.I.A. Committee wanted
written into their ideal Professional
Liability Policy. They are what make
it a truly "Broad Coverage" policy.
All of these items are included in
the Continental Casualty Company
Policy.
(Continued on Page 1S)


The four-session, all-day Office Practice Seminar, held
June 10, 1961, at the Hillsboro Hotel in Tampa, was the
third such gathering to be sponsored by the FAA's Office
Practice Committee. Seminar Chairman Earl M. Starnes,
working with FAA President Robert H. Levison, organized
the meeting into four sessions as follows:
10:00 AM....THE STUDENT AND THE ARCHITECT"
Chairman...J. Vance Duncan, AIA
Speakers.....T. Trip Russell, AIA
Ronnie Ginn
Dale Freelove
Walter Raymond, AIA
11:15 AM...."ARCHITECT-ENGINEER COORDINATION"
Chairman....Robert H. Maybin, AIA
Speakers..... Newton Ebaugh, PE
W. E. Bishop, PE
C. M. Spooner, Jr., PE
2:00 PM...."NEW AIA GENERAL CONDITIONS"
Chairman....Hilliard T. Smith, Jr., AIA
Speakers.....Bernard B. Rothschild, AIA
3:15 PM...."OMMISSIONS AND ERRORS"
Chairman....Earl M. Starnes, AIA
Speakers.....Victor A. Schinnerer,
Insurance Counselor
William E. Sherman
Attorney
This year, for the first time, proceedings of the seminar
were tape-recorded. A resolution was adopted by the FAA
Board of Directors at its June 9th meeting that "the per-
tinent portions" of these proceedings be published. The
first three sessions were reported in July, August and
September. This issue concludes the series...Most of the
talks were delivered on an extemporaneous basis, thus a
substantial re-writing from the transcript of the recording
has been necessary to avoid the repetitions and fragmented
sentences that invariably occur in the recording of such
deliveries. However, all tape-transcripts have been edited
with the care necessary to assure inclusion of all "the per-
tinent portions" of each session.






Omissions and Errors...
(Continued from Page 11)
The policy covers professional
acts, errors or omissions regardless of
whether an accident results or wheth-
er negligence is proven.
The policy covers every em-
ployee of the firm, not just partners
or officers.
The policy covers the architect
for any person or firm for whose acts
he is liable such as consultants,
other architects, his own employes
and others.
The policy pays for legal defense
in full even though this would bring
total payments above the limits set in
the policy. Neither the limit nor the
deductible applies to this cost of legal
defense.
The expense of arbitration is
covered in like manner. Neither de-
ductible nor limit applies.
Immediate medical and surgical
relief expenses are covered without re-
gard to liability and in addition to
the policy limit.
The insurance company must
obtain the architect's consent before
settling or compromising a claim.
The coverage may be obtained
on a worldwide basis.
The policy can be written to
cover the insured retroactively back
to the beginning of his practice. In
the case of a partnership this applies
to each partner separately. The sig-
nificance of this provision cannot be
overemphasized. It was one of the
main requirements set up by the
A.I.A. Committee.
The insurance company is not
permitted to subrogate against em-
ployees of the insured architect.
The policy may not be cancelled
by the company except by registered
Smail or certified mail and with ten
days' prior notice.
If the company does cancel or
refuse to renew a policy, the architect
continues to be covered for an addi-
tional twelve months on all work
done while the policy was in force.
As a practical matter, the A.I.A.-
commended policy has other advan-
tages. It is supervised by the A.I.A.
Committee and our firm as its consul-
tant. It can be bought in any one of
the fifty states through the archi-
S tect's own insurance broker or Con-
tinental agent. The policy is flex-
ible and may be bought with deduct-
ibles of $500.00, $1,000.00, $2,500.-
12


00, etc., and limits of $25,000.00,
$50,000.00, $100,000.00, and up. The
cost of the insurance is reasonable-
particularly when the broad scope of
coverage is considered.
Unfortunately, things in the area
of legal liability have been taking a
rather unfortunate turn for the pro-
fessions, as well as for all business
and industry in the area of third
party liability. In years gone by, ar-
chitects actually were bystanders in
many suits because of the rule of
privity. Today however, the courts
are throwing out privity as a defense.
Also, modern architectural and engi-
neering practice is more complex than
ever with new materials coming into
use, etc. No longer can the architect
do all the work himself-lie must
rely on and use the services of others
-yet he may be held legally respon-
sible for their work. Adding to the
seriousness of the situation is the
modern trend for aggrieved persons
to seek legal redress for real or fan-
cied injuries.
Whether we like it or not, we
must recognize that these conditions
exist and be prepared to defend our-
selves. Common ordinary prudence
calls for a Professional Liability Pol-
icy, in sufficient amount and tailored
to meet the needs of the profession
in today's fast changing world. For-
tunately, such a policy is available.

Mr. Starnes-Thank you very
much Vie. In developing the program
for this Seminar the committee felt
it would be of much interest to bring
this matter of professional liability
into our own local area. Therefore
our next speaker is a representative
of the legal profession, a native of
Florida who was born and reared in
Winter Park and who graduated in
1952 from the University of Florida
Law School. Formerly he served in
the Attorney General's office in Tal-
lahasee, and he now conducts his
own law practice in Deland and Ve-
nice. I take personal pleasure in pre-
senting MR. WILLIAM E. SHERMAN.

Mr. Sherman-You have the good
fortune to live in one of the most
progressive states in the country rela-
tive to the interesting problem of lia-
bility of architects. But the first thing
I wish to talk about is not directly
related to liability. It is the way to
stay out of court.


I have specific reference to Articles
39 and 40 of your General Condi-
tions and Article 19 of your standard
Form of Agreement. All of these re-
late to arbitration.
When lawyers look at a contract,
they have a tendency to think of a
court of law as a means of enforcing
it. This is proper. But lawyers also
tend to think that a court of law is
the only means of enforcing a con-
tract; and this is improper. In your
contracts you have wisely provided
for arbitration as a method of adjust-
ing difficulties without the necessity
of a lawsuit.
Until 1957 it was very difficult to
make an arbitration agreement stick
in the State of Florida. For one thing,
the parties did not have to agree to
it; and even when they did, our courts
made statements to the effect that
such agreements were contrary to the
jurisdictional requirements of the
court and were probably unconstitu-
tional.
In 1957, however, the Florida Leg-
islature adopted an act which was to
be known as the Commercial Arbi-
tration Code. Under this act-which
incidentally has never been construed
by court-you can make arbitration
as provided for in your contract a
rule of court; and after arbitration has
been performed by technical people
trained in your field, you can then
make this decision a judgment.
Granted this is subject to review.
However, if the essential legal require-
ments have been met by the arbitra-
tors in making a finding of fact, the
arbitration will stick.
I won't go into cases. But there
has been recognition by Florida courts
of the effect of an arbitration decision
rendered in New York under the pro-
visions of the New York act. And the
judgment rendered by the court under
the New York arbitration code was
enforced here. This was a 1956 case
-prior to adoption of our own Arbi-
tration Code, so there's still some of
the old language relative to jurisdic-
tion in the case. But I believe that
today the Florida courts, under our
present arbitration act, will enforce
the arbitration provisions of your con-
tract.
So you can now not only arbitrate
your dispute with the owner; you can
arbitrate the owner's dispute with the
contractor under the provisions of
your General Conditions. And I sug-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






gest this be attempted whenever pos-
sible. It will prevent long and involved
court procedure and will provide
quick determination of the question
by technical persons.
I suggest that your local groups
select some members to serve as arbi-
trators-preferably those with long
experience and high reputation. But
I also suggest that you check with a
lawyer before going into arbitration,
because the provisions of the Florida
statute must be followed.
Now-over and above the contract
you operate under, you have general
responsibilities. These are the respon-
sibilities the law imposes on anyone
who attempts to do anything-even
gratuitously-for another and involve
the exercise of some degree of care
and skill in the performance of the
particular activity. This has been rec-
ognized as the responsibility of all
professions-and specifically of at-
torneys at law, architects and ac-
countants.
The landmark case for the entire
country that established this principle
was started in this state in 1918 and
has since been quoted as authority in
other states. In establishing that an
architect is responsible for errors and
omissions in his work, the court form-
ulated two rules. The first is that an
architect owes his employer the duty
of exercising and applying skill and
ability, judgment and taste, reason-
ably and without negligence, in the
preparation of plans and specifica-
tions for a proposed structure. This
is responsibility under the contract
and responsibility for negligent per-
formance of the contract. So there
are two possible roads to liability.
One is a suit under the contract to
enforce it. The other is a suit for
negligence which may be brought be-
cause of negligence accruing out of
the contract. The court held that the
proper measure of damages is an
amount equal to the difference be-
tween the value of the building as
actually designed and constructed and
the value it would have had if prop-
erly designed and constructed. I quote
that rule to clarify the limitations of
that particular lawsuit.
Now, over and above the liability
you have under the contract, there
is another rule of law that makes you
responsible also for damage or injury
which results from a breach of con-
tract and which might reasonably
OCTOBER, 1961


have been within the concepts of
the parties at the time they entered
into the contract. This gets over into
the question of your liability to parties
who are not signatory to the contract.
There are no decisions in the State
of Florida directly affecting architects
in this regard. Normally you're joined
with others-with the contractor and
sometimes with the owner-in law-
suits brought by persons injured by
various defects in structures. Conse-
quently, your liability will be gov-
erned by the same theories and rules
that are applied to the contractor.
Since your responsibility is coexten-
sive with the contractor's and has
been held to be joint where there is
any joint negligence, the person at-
tempting to enforce a liability against
you and the contractor has the choice
of suing either; he is not bound to
sue both.
In 1954 the Florida Supreme Court
used a suit against a contractor in
which a small boy was killed while
playing on a construction job to es-
tablish in Florida the exception to
the general rule that a contractor is
not responsible for such an occurence.
The court's decision was based on a
very old English case that first estab-
lished the dangerous instrumentality
exception to the rule that contractors
are not normally liable for injuries to
third parties. This rule was originally
modified by the MacPherson case re-
ferred to by Mr. Schinnerer and it
has been extended here to building
contractors.
But more importantly, the court
adopted the re-statement of contract
rule which now governs the law in
the State of Florida. One who, on
behalf of the possessor of land, erects
a structure-this includes, of course,
architects as well as contractors-or
creates any other condition thereon
is subject to liability to others within,
or without, the land for bodily harm
caused to them by the dangerous
character of the structure or condi-
tion after the work has been accepted
by the possessor.
Another case is important, too.
Here a man sustained injuries caused
in some manner by a wash basin in
a motel room and sued the owner of
the property and the contractor. The
Supreme Court said that contractors,
vendors and manufacturers are not
liable for injuries to third parties
after the contractor has completed his


work and the project had been turned
over to, and accepted by, the owner.
At the same time the court noted
there are more exceptions to that rule
than there are factual situations for
applying it.
Later the case was retried and later
still came back to the Supreme Court
on appeal. On re-hearing, the court
adopted the contract rule just stated
-and held that this was not re-
stricted to the dangerous instrument-
ality theory. The dangerous instru-
mentality theory is based on the idea
that something has been created
which is so dangerous that everybody
knows it to be dangerous. It started
with fire-arms. Our Supreme Court
has extended it to automobiles, to
airplanes; it has been applied to a
lawn chair-and in this case it was
applied to a wash basin!
These are exceptions to the general
rule which protects you from liability.
But there are more exceptions than
there are reasons for applying the
rule. The current rule is this: If a
dangerous instrumentality has been
created, or a condition on the prop-
erty which is so dangerous that it was
reasonably foreseeable, then the lia-
bility of architect and contractor will
continue even after the building has
been turned over to the owner. If
there is a hidden, latent condition of
the building which the owner has not
discovered prior to his acceptance of
the building, the architect or contrac-
tor, or both, will remain responsible
for that condition--but only, of
course, if there has been negligence-
of design, of supervision, or of con-
struction-involved in the perform-
ance of their functions.
The theory that blocks your liabil-
ity is equally as clear. If a building
defect is open and obvious to the
owner while inspecting the building;
and if the owner accepts the building
in spite of the obvious defect, his
acceptance blocks your liability. Here
is an illustration of this, a fairly recent
case in Miami.
In this, a waitress in a hotel
brought suit against the architect, the
contractor and the plumber involved
in the design and construction of the
kitchen. She alleged she was injured
because of the design of the kitchen.
Between some refrigerators was a
damp, slippery alley that she was
forced to use between her counter
(Continued on Page 25)


I






THE JUNIOR COLLEGE PROGRAM...



The concept of the Community Junior College is not new in Florida, for
the first permissive legislation was passed in 1939 and amended in
1947 when the Minimum Foundation Program was adopted. But only
since 1955 has the Junior College movement received any real official
impetus. Then the Legislature authorized a comprehensive study of the
subject by the Community College Council which issued a report in 1957.
This was an admirably complete study of the need for, the probable
future of, and desirable characteristics for a state-wide Community
Junior College Program. Since its publication, the recommended pro-
gram has crystallized into an active and continuing development hin-
dered as to an orderly progression only by the lack of timely financing
necessary for its realization ... The important point is that Florida is
now committed to a Junior College Program. The program has been
charted; priorities have been assigned to various localities on the basis
of need; and needs are being met as quickly as financial abilities of
counties and the state make possible... Shown here are the beginnings
of two recently authorized Junior College plants. ..


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






(.,! 1


Ultimately the Dade County Jun-
ior College will be organized into
three plants or teaching centers-a
Central unit, a Northwestern unit
and a unit serving the southern part
of the county. Instructional programs
in the first two centers started in Sep-
tember, 1960, and the present con-
struction program is geared toward
making the administration building
of the Central Center-which will
serve also as headquarters for the
entire Dade County Junior College
complex-available for use by the be-
ginning of the college term in Sep-
tember, 1962.
The campus plan of the Central
Center, shown on the facing page,
encompasses about 45 acres and in-
cludes a three-story administration,
academic and library building facing
west and flanked on the northeast
by a two-story physical education
building and on the southeast by
a two-story fine arts and technology
building. To the east of this latter
structure, and fronting on a dredged-
out lake-which also is adjacent to
the administration building to the
west-is a one-story student center.
Various playing fields are adjacent to
the physical education building to the
north, and the building group is vir-
tually surrounded by parking lots.
The administration building,
sketches of which are shown on this
page, is the first building to be con-
structed, although most of the site
work, including the lake, has been
completed. The lake, incidentally, is
a design unit of which the architects
are justifiably proud. It not only pro-
vides a natural grouping-point for the
necessary buildings, but it also served
the double purpose of draining the
land and providing fill for the build-
ing locations.


DADE COUNTY



JUNIOR COLLEGE


Pancoast, Ferendino, Skeels 6r Burnham, Architects
OCTOBER, 1961


Two views of the projected Central
Center of the Dade County Junior
College. Above, a view from the
east, looking down the mall between
the Administration Building and the
Fine Arts and Technology Building.
At the left is the Student Center. The
Fine Arts and Technology Building is
in the center acroe the lake; and the
three-story Administration Building is
on the right. This building, scheduled
for completion in late 1962 will be
built with a reinforced concrete fram-
ing, precast concrete panels. It will be
air conditioned with a high-velocity
system; and "windows" will be nar-
row slits between wall panels.


- '---~
--

























PALM


BEACH


JUNIOR


COLLEGE

Frederick W. Kessler
Architect





This two-way, fully air-conditioned
auditorium was built in 1960 at a cost
of $211,000. It will seat 508 in the
enclosed portion and approximately
2,000 in the open-air patio in the
rear. It has been planned to provide
complete educational facilities for both
originating programs and for viewing
by the student body. The open air
stage is closed by a top-hung alumi-
num bifold door when not in use. ...
Facing page: views of the new Tech-
nical Building with a detail of the
inner patio shown above. The struc-
tural design has been developed with
prestressed concrete floor and roof
systems, with cantilevered members
forming covered walks. Solar screens
have been extensively employed -in
part of clay tile, and in part of alum-
inum louvers.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT










Founded in 1933, the Palm Beach
Junior College is Florida's oldest and
is a pioneer development in this spe-
cial field of education. The initial
enrollment was 41; its first graduating
class, in 1935 numbered three. By
1956 it had grown to an enrollment
of 745 and that year established its
first permanent campus-after three
temporary locations-on a 114-acre
site just west of Lake Worth. Cur-
rently the enrollment stands at about
2,300-and even with the added con-
struction which will be made possible
if the current appropriation of about
$540,000 is released, the College will
still lack some 70,000 sq.ft. of needed
instructional area.
Initial construction of the new per-
manent campus in 1955-56 included
an administration building housing
offices, library, lecture rooms and gen-
eral purpose classrooms; a science
building housing the department of
business and science, including bi-
ology, chemistry and home economics;
a student center that embodies a
lounge and dining area and campus
store, and an athletic building-fu-
ture plans for which include a field
house.
Shown here are the most recent
additions to the campus, a general
view of which is shown at the top
of the facing page. They are a Teach-
ing Auditorium, facing page, and a
Technical Building, right on this page.
The auditorium provides a central
stage flanked by both interior and
exterior seating facilities on its long
axis and a TV studio-classroom and
workshop on the short axis. The
building is planned for the utmost
flexibility of use and can be adapted
to a wide variety of TV and stage
presentations.
The technical building is two sto-
ries high and contains, ranged around
a central open patio, a number of
highly specialized laboratories and
classrooms. On the first floor is a
one-story wing for nursing arts and
electrical, electronic and physics lab-
oratories, all equipped for a variety
of experimental as well as instruc-
tional activities. The second floor con-
tains offices, two large drafting rooms
and space for generalized instruction
activities.
OCTOBER, 1961








the clean

look of...


PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE


II


Architect, George Storrs. Jr
Photographs courtesy of R H Wrighl, Inc


New applications, wider acceptance,
increased demand for its use... have
marked prestressed concrete progress,
making this an era of unprecedented
product expansion. Chartered in 1954...
its inception in Florida... the Prestressed
Concrete Institute will hold its conven-
tion this year in Denver, Colorado.
The roster now totals 720 with
members in 43 states in the U. S. A. and
in 33 other countries. For their contri-
bution in making this era noteworthy,
acknowledgment is made to the
following Florida manufacturers of
prestressed concrete units.
BRANNEN, INC., Sarasota
CAPITOL PRESTRESS COMPANY, Jacksonville
CAST-CRETE CORPORATION Tampa
CONCRETE STRUCTURES, INC., North Miami
DURA-STRESS, INC., Leesburg
DUVAL ENGINEERING & CONTRACTING CO., Jacksonville
WELL ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING CO., Lakeland
FINFROCK INDUSTRIES, INC., Orlando
FLORIDA LITH-I-BAR, INC., Miami
R. H. WRIGHT,


4,T



AA


" FLORIDA PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CO., INC., Tampa
" JUNO PRESTRESSORS, INC., West Palm Beach
" LEWIS MANUFACTURING CO., INC., Miami
* MAULE INDUSTRIES, INC., Miami
* MEEKINS-BAMMAN PRE-CAST CORP., Hallandale
" PERMA-STRESS, INC., Holly Hill
" PRESTRESSED CONCRETE, INC., Lakeland
* SOUTHERN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CO., INC., Pensacola
" WEST COAST SHELL CORPORATION, Sarasota
INC., Ft. Lauderdale


GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY "W w T '
FLORIDA DIVISION. TAMPA 0 SIGNAL MOUNTAIN DIVISION. CHATTANOOGA TRINITY DIVISION. DALLAS
PENINSULAR DIVISION. JACKSON. MICHIGAN VICTOR DIVISION. FREDONIA, KANSAS
8 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


ia\







U\M Announces Plans For



International Research Center


Florida has a new research facility.
It is called the International Research
Center of the University of Miami
and plans new well underway suggest
that its full development may be one
of the most important projects ever
undertaken in this state. The Inter-
national Research Center campus will
occupy 100 acres of a 450-acre plot
located just a mile north of the U/M
South Campus-about at 35-minute
drive from Miami's International Air-
port or the heart of the downtown
area. The rest of the land will be
divided into 7V2-acre plots and will
be made available to various indus-
tries for the construction of individual
research laboratories.
The development program for the
new Center is rooted in a concept of
cooperative activity between this spec-
ialized division of the University and
industrial organizations of diverse
character. The Center is conceived as
bridge linking education and industry.


First it will provide instruction at the
graduate level in preparation for mas-
ters' and doctors' degrees. Second,
plans include the assembly and main-
tenance of such common facilities as
patent files, a scientific library, lec-
ture, exhibit and seminar rooms -
and ultimate expansion to include
shop facilities, computers and a wide
range of scientific equipment for the
common use of industrial research
teams. However, industries locating at
the Center will enjoy complete inde-
pendence of action; and facilities of
the Center will be limited to those
necessary for research only. Though
pilot plants may conceivably be devel-
oped as a result of an extensive re-
search program, the Center will ex-
clude activities of commercial produc-
tion or fabrication.
Though the Center is a long-time
dream for a graduate scientific cam-
pus on the part of U/M officials; its
physical evolution is the chief interest


Left, tentative layout of
the new 450-acre Re-
search Center in south
Dade County. The 100-
acre Center Campus
would be surrounded by
71/2-acre plots occupied
by research laboratories
of industrial organiza-
tions. Typical of these is
the research building
planned for the Texas
Butadiene and Chemical
Corporation, above, for
which Steward Skinner
Associates are the
architects.


OCTOBER, 1961


DR. IRVING E. MUSKAT
President, U/M International
Research Center


and responsibility of DR. IRVING E.
MUSKAT, the U/M's recently-ap-
pointed Vice President for Research,
who now heads the Center as its
president. Other Center officers are
DR. ROBERT JOHNS, U/M Executive
Vice President, who is working with
Dr. Muskat as the Center's Vice
President, and HARRY HOOD BASSETT,
Chairman of the Executive Commit-
tee of the First National Bank of
Miami, who has been named as Sec-
retary-Treasurer.
Though the Center's chief target
thus far has been scientific and in-
dustrial research, facilities of the Cen-
ter could easily be adapted, according
to Dr. Muscat, to a program of in-
vestigation and testing of building
components and various types of
space units. A recent interview with
the Center's president highlighted the
need for applied research of this type
as well as the present lack of any
program seeking to establish perform-
ance criteria for buildings in terms of
their designed-for use and coordinated
structural characteristics. Dr. Muskat
said he would welcome a building re-
search program sponsored by such a
group as the FAA and expressed his
opinion that manufacturers of build-
ing components would willingly
underwrite expenses of conducting
such a program.
This recalls the proposal, made in
1957, for the formation of the Florida
Foundation for the Advancement of
Building. An article in the November,
1957, issue of The Florida Architect,
by DR. TURPIN C. BANNISTER, FAIA
explained the FFAB program.







News & Notes


Proper Use of "A.I.A." . .
The first of last month the AIA
Memo carried a lead story on the
proper use of the initials "AIA". In
essence, none but corporate members
of the Institute may use the initials;
and only Fellows of the Institute are
entitled to use the initials "FAIA".
Others must write out their particular
affiliation with the Institute, as, for
example, "Associate Member of
(name) Chapter of The American
Institute of Architects" -with the
name of the Institute spelled out. Stu-
dent associate members may not use
either initials or the Institute's full
name in connection with their own
names.
The instructions in the Memo were
clear enough, except for one point.
Some firms, in letterheads and on job
signs, have been using the designation
"AIA Architects" after their firm
name. J. WINFIELD RANKIN, Director
of Staff Administration at Institute
headquarters, says this is permissible
if all members of the firm arc cor-
porate members of the Institute--
otherwise not. For example "Jones
and Smith, AIA Architects" would
be correct if both Jones and Smith
were corporate members. But "Jones
and Smith Associates, AIA Archi-
tects" would not be allowable, since
names of the associates arc not in-
cluded in the firm designation -


whether or not the "associates" were
actually corporate members of the
Institute.
The whole idea, of course, is to
confine the use of the "AIA" initials
to designate a corporate membership
in the Institute only. Since Institute
membership is granted only to indi-
viduals and not firms, use of the
initials by firms should be such as to
refer clearly to principals of the firms
who are corporate members of the
Institute.

AIA Awards Program . .
The deadline for submission of
work in the 1962 AIA Honor Awards
Program is drawing near. Those plan-


ning to enter work in the Program
should be preparing their material in
accordance with AIA instructions re-
cently issued.
November 28 is the deadline for
entry slips and registration fees. A fee
of $10 for each building or group of
buildings submitted must accompany
the entry slip. Both entry and fee
must reach Institute headquarters
prior to the deadline date.
Buildings of all classes completed
after January 1, 1957, are eligible for
submission. Entries, in brochure form,
must reach the Institute office by
January 19 for judgement at the
Octagon January 29-31. Full instruc-
tions relative to the Awards Program


New Palm Beach Church Has

Three-Compound Layout
In this scheme for the new Grace Episcopal Church at
West Palm Beach, Robert B. Browne, AIA, of Miami, has
separated the three essential functions of the church -
worship, education and social activity into as many
groups and has enclosed each in a compound of stone
monoliths. Recognition of the close linkage of all three
primary functions is given through the covered walks
that join all three compounds. The structure in the
worship compound, above, is planned for a congregation
ranging from 150 to 450. Exceptionally large overhangs
(12 feet) serve to shelter attendance overflow; and
top-hinged glazed doors permit side enclosure when
needed. . Classroom and social units will be con-
structed of factory-fabricated components and assembled
at the site. The complex is hexagonally modulated to
provide functional and esthetic versatility; and the con-
cept of the entire layout is to symbolize the Christian
abstraction of the Trinity.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






and the submission of entries can be
obtained from AIA headquarters in
Washington. If you've mislaid the
folder describing the Program, better
send for another before it's too late.

Will We-or Won't We... ?
Again this year the Legislature ap-
propriated money for the new build-
ing at Gainesville to house the Col-
lege of Architecture and Fine Arts.
And again this year the State's finan-
cial cupboard is so bare that this
project, along with many others, has
not yet been started.
Recently Governor FARRIS BRYANT
has bumped into opposition to his
proposal for cutting the Gordian knot
of this educational building situation
by borrowing the needed money.
Whether or not the Governor will be
successful in putting his plan across
remains to be seen. But recently the
AGC has been going all out in urging
that some action be taken to start the
dirt flying. The Miami and Jackson-
ville Chapters have been particularly
active; and recently ROBERT MUNSIE,
manager of the Jacksonville Chapter,
received this letter from the Governor.
"I have your letter of August 29,
1961, and I am sure that by now you
have seen the newspaper publicity
concerning my proposal for the finan-
cing of the construction for the build-
ing of Architecture and Fine Arts at
the University of Florida.
"I hope that your organization,
AGC, and others in Florida can see
fit to support my overall plans for the
promotion of higher education in
Florida."
It is probable that Governor Bryant
would welcome opinions on his plans
from any quarter. If you believe his
financing proposal to be a sound and
practical one that could bring the
much needed building into existence
soon, why not say so in a letter to
him?

New Ruling on Seal by
Hotel r Restaurant Comm.
The State Hotel and Restaurant
Commission will no longer issue per-
mits for construction unless the ap-
plication for a permit has been sealed
as well as signed by the designing
architect. Formerly the Commission's
Supervising Architects would accept
an application without an architect's
seal, provided the architect's signature
appeared on the application. In clar-
(Continued on Page i2)
OCTOBER, 1961






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News" & Notes.
(Continued from Page 21)
ifying the use of an architect's seal
on applications, LEWIS M. HITT, the
Commission's Supervising Architect
in Miami, cited Rule 2.5 of the Com-
mission's Rules on Construction as
authority for the new requirement.

Coming up ... !
Encouraging figures come from the
F. W. Dodge Corp. relative to con-
tracts for future construction in the
metropolitan Miami area. During July
- the most recent period covered by
current Dodge figures these were
up a whopping 61 percent over the
volume for the same period last year.
Heavy engineering contracts were not
included in the figures.
Dodge reported non-residential con-
tracts in Dade County increased 28
per cent this year as compared to July
last year. Residential contracts showed
an even sharper upturn- a 74 per-


cent increase over last year. Cumu-
lative totals of building contracts in
Dade County for the first seven
months of this year showed a 5 per-
cent increase over the corresponding
period last year.
It's true that Dade County isn't all
Florida. But it has often proved to be
the state's bellwether in the past.
Thus the rising trend of building
there is indicative of increasingly
healthy conditions throughout the
state.

Changes . .
ROBERT E. ROLL has moved his
office to the Amdur Building, 40 S.E.
1st street, Boca Raton. The phone
number, 395-050, remains the same.
ROBERT M. SHRUM has moved his
office to the Fairmont Building, 1100
N.E. 125th St., North Miami. His
new telephone number is
PLaza 1-5524.
PAUL GRUPP has moved to new
offices at 1190 N.E. 125th St., North


FREDERICK G. SEELMAN -


FEDERICK G. SEELMAN, AIA, a
charter member of the Palm Beach
Chapter (founded in 1947) and a
practicing architect in Palm Beach
since 1925, died September 5, 1961,
at his Palm Beach home. He would
have been 72 December 9th of this
year.
Born in Nurnberg, Bavaria, he
came to the United States near the
turn of the century, studied in New
York City and graduated from the
Columbia College Atelier in 1916.
After military service in World War
I and a period of travel, he joined the
Palm Beach firm of Treanor and
Fatio and from 1925 to 1940 worked
there as an associate and full partner.
In 1940 he opened an office under
his own name and maintained it for
more than 20 years until his death.
Much of his practice was in the
field of large residences and Catholic
churches and institutional buildings;
and in the latter category, particularly,
he was the recepient of several design
awards.
Throughout his active professional
life he found time to serve his pro-
fession and community. A corporate


1889 1961


Rabe's Studio
FREDERICK G. SEELMAN, AIA

member of the AIA since 1943, he
acted in many capacities for the Palm
Beach Chapter and was president of
the FAA for 1936-37, prior to the
Association's affiliation with the In-
stitute as a State organization. He
was a member of the Palm Beach
Chamber of Commerce dating from
1948, was a charter member of the
Palm Beach Rotary Club and during
1952-53 was Commodore of the Palm
Beach Yacht Club.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT



















I


RESERVE EARLY!
If you haven't already
done so, make the reser-
vation for your Conven-
tion stay at the Boca Raton
Hotel at once. Better
drop everything and do
it now! The Convention
is closer than you think-
and although the hotel
has ample space, early
reservation will get you a
preferred room location.
It will also be a help to
your Convention Commit-
tee in planning and will
avoid last minute hurry
and confusion on your
part. ... So why don't
you DO IT NOW!


Miami. The telephone remains the
same PLaza 4-6459.
The architectural firm of ANSON &
KERR have opened a new office in the
Everglades Bank Building, 1610 S.
Andrews Ave., Ft. Lauderdale. The
new telephone number is JAckson
5-3238.
R. CARROLL PEACOCK has opened
a new office for the practice of archi-
tecture at 324 Royal Palm Way, Palm
Beach. Telephone number is
838-3838.
The firm of ARMSTRONG, PRYOR
AND ASSOCIATES have moved their
offices to Suite 200, First National
Bank Building, Stuart, Florida. The
mailing address is P.O. Box 445,
Stuart; and the telephone is un-
changed, ATwater 7-3533.
GEORGE D. STORRS, JR., has moved
to larger quarters at 1429 N. Federal
Highway, Fort Lauderdale. His phone
is unchanged, LOgan 4-2094.

Significant quotes . .
"The architect remains the key to
architecture. Whether he is a form-
giver, who perhaps develops a tech-
t nique, such as MIES, GROPIUS, LE
CORBUSIER; or a form-adapter, who
perfects that technique, such as a
BUNSHAFT, a NETSCH, a PEI, a KAHN,
a SAARINEN; or a form-user who car-
ries the technique to a wide applica-
tion, such as a ROTH-he is the man
who is going to determine, in the
long run, where our building-con-
struction technologies are going. And
I don't mean to imply that he will
(Continued on Page 24)
OCTOBER, 1961


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"The Scourge of the Curtain Wall...'


EDITOR, FA:
After reading your September issue
and your plea for cover material, I
decided to submit a satirical cartoon
that has long been on my mind. To
me, the enclosed drawing, "The
Scourge Of The Curtain Wall," is a
humorous view of the head of the
average American after 25 years of
living, working and playing in curtain
wall buildings. By this time, his head
will adapt completely to the unimag-
inative environs in which he dwells:
his head becomes a curtain wall fa-
cade; his eyes, solar screens; his nose,
a pre-cast concrete form; his mouth
and neck, pilots, and his hair, a roof
garden. I thought that you might
have some use for it; if not for a
cover, perhaps for an inside cartoon.
This June, I graduated from Miami
Beach High School and am beginning
to attend the University of Florida,
where I will major in architecture.
I have only received your magazine
for three months, but I feel it is very
informative and of extremely high


value to the student. I only wish that
more of the member architects would
take the time and effort to submit
more articles, as Mr. Kenneth Treister
has done.
EDWARD MARC TREIB
Miami Beach


.I
,i
a.






News & Notes-
(Continued from Page 23)
decide this on an arbitrary basis. He
will decide it on an artistic, on a
technological, and on a business
basis." THOMAS H. CREIGHTON,
FAIA, editor, P/A, in a speech before
the Metal Curtain Wall Clinic at the
23rd Annual Convention of the Na-
tional Association of Architectural
Metal Manufacturers, April, 1961, at
New York.

"We can be grateful for one great,
new overwhelming fact. For the first
time in history, architectural and
engineering design are absolutely es-
sential elements in the planning and
building process. ... Today the word
building is scarcely adequate to de-
scribe what we produce. What we
are creating are single, specialized-use
inventions designed to meet ever-ris-
ing standards of performance. The
cost of human time has multiplied so
sharply that buildings inefficient to
purpose cannot be economically tol-
erated."-Philip Will, Jr., FAIA, in a
speech at the 5th Annual Convention
of the CSI, New York, May, 1961.


To The Ladies...
(Continued from Page 6)
their convention program as a very
important part of the overall activi-
ties. No longer are the wives seated
in the audience at banquets and lun-
cheons nor are they shunted off on
tours of nearby tourist attractions as
a sole means of entertainment. In-
stead they have been welcomed at
business meetings and seminars, and
this is particularly true of recent FAA
conventions.
Because the Association itself seems
interested in welcoming the ladies to
active participation in its convention
program, we are hoping that this will
provide the impetus for a wonderful
turnout of architect's wives from all
over the State. The program sparkles
with the names of well-known archi-
tects and allied professionals and will
be stimulating, informative and thor-
oughly enjoyable. Of course, there is
a definite program directed to the
ladies as well, which we know you
will all be interested in.
The Boca Raton Club and all its
facilities can be a "program" in itself.
It is a masterpiece of Old World


architecture, although actually con-
structed at the time of Florida's great
boom. Until you have seen this
beauty spot, you will think only
Europe contains operations of this
type. For those who dislike contem-
porary forms, it is a welcome relief;
for those who are contemporary buffs,
it presents a challenge-how could it
be improved in luxuriousness? Every-
where you turn there are new vistas,
new nooks and niches to investigate,
top fashion shops to browse through.
Because the convention is being
planned on the "American Plan" in-
cluding three meals, the ladies' activ-
ities will be confined to the hotel,
cabana club and the spacious grounds.
Of course your hostesses will have
transportation available for any ladies
who care to make a trip to Palm
Beach, Fort Lauderdale, or just to
tour the Boca Raton area. But with
a mile-long beach and beautiful ca-
bana club available, luxurious tropical
gardens, an 18-hole golf course, arch-
ery, croquet, card rooms, hospitality
areas, etc. we feel your convention
stay will be too short to take it all
in and that you will return home
with your head in a whirl.


Homebuyers are looking for MORE!

Homebuyers are demanding that
today's home be more than just
comfortable it must have the latest
improvements to keep it "up-to-
date" for many years to come.


1..


4_y,"*


That's why they are asking for
concealed telephone wiring. The
added convenience of planned
telephone outlets and wire-free walls
is important to them.
May we show you how easy it is to
incorporate modern, saleable
concealed telephone wiring into the
home or subdivision you are design-
ing. Just call your Telephone
Business Office.


Southern Bell

... GOwwu-g ARs the Ft


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





-.


1






We are being especially honored
this year by the presence of MRS.
PHILIP WILL, wife of the President
of the American Institute of Archi-
tects. In addition we will be wel-
coming other Board members' wives
and speakers' wives. They will be
coming from all over the United
States to join us in our fun and
festivities. We know that you ladies
will have a wonderful, relaxing time
at our convention. Be sure to make
your reservations early; pack your re-
sort and party clothes and come!



Omissions and Errors...
(Continued from Page 13)
position and the kitchen. She slipped,
fell and hurt herself. She did not
sue the hotel because she was prob-
ably already covered by workmens'
compensation.
The court held here that this con-
dition was an open and obvious one
and one that had been accepted by
the hotel owners when they accepted
the building after construction had
been completed. So, it became the
owner's duty to remedy the condition;
and the approximate cause of the
injury to the waitress was the negli-
gence of the owner in failing to cor-
rect the condition after he had ac-
cepted it. If this defect had been
hidden, or if it had been so inher-
ently dangerous as to fall into the
category of a dangerous instrumen-
tality-which includes automobiles,
lawn chairs and wash basins!-the
liability of the defendants would not
have been blocked by the acceptance
of the owner.
Finally, let me offer three recom-
mendations. First, to protect yourself
from liability in a growing situation,
insure. Second, make of yourself as
small a target as possible-that is,
try to protect yourself from personal
liability by arranging your assets in
such a fashion that you do not hold
a lot of property susceptible to judg-
ment. Third, try, as a group, to
implement arbitration. This last will
probably not help you in court matters
-purely court matters such as are
created when someone is injured. But
it will be of great assistance in keep-
ing you out of court on matters
involving construction.
(Continued on Page 26)
OCTOBER, 1961


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DO WE HAVE
YOUR CORRECT
MAIL ADDRESS?

If you are not receiving
your copies of this FAA
magazine, it is probably
because your address in
our stencil files is incor-
rect ... We try hard to
keep abreast of all address
changes. You can help us
do so by following these
suggestions:
I...If you change jobs
or move your home to
another location, get a
change-of-address card
from your local Post Office
and mail it to us.
2...If you join an AIA
Chapter, tell us about it,
listing your current ad-
dress. Busy Chapter secre-
taries sometimes forget to
file changes promptly.
Don't let yourself be-
come an "unknown", a
"moved", or a "wrong
address"....


Omissions and Errors...
(Continued from Page 25)


As in previous sessions, a question
and answer period followed the talks
by panelists. Part of this audience-
participation discussion included some
general observations and commentary
that was not directly pertinent to the
main thesis of the session. These have
not been reported; and questions have
been briefed to clarify their reldaion
to certain points relative to the con-
text of the panelists' talks.


Q-Suppose a window had been
placed in such a position relative to
paved walks close to a building that,
when opened, it constituted an ob-
struction to people using the walk.
Is this a case in which the danger of
injury is so obvious that the passerby
is responsible for his own welfare-
and not the owner or architect of the
building?

A (By Mr. Sherman)-In the case
of an obvious obstruction such as you
describe, the person who runs into it
will, normally, be guilty of contribu-
tory negligence. Under our common
law doctrine this is-with a few ex-
ceptions-a complete bar to recovery.
Basically it is a good defense and in
the case of an obvious defect such as
you mention would prevent liability.
As to the defect becoming the respon-
sibility of the owner, I feel he would
be responsible if he had noted the
defect-that is the danger of the open
windows during his inspection of
the building and had accepted it as
part of the completed building. The
designer and contractor would then
be absolved of responsibility for the
defect even if contributory negligence
did not hold as a defense.

Q-This case involves use of a
slightly raised threshold between dis-
similar floor surfaces in a corridor and
wash room. During the construction
period this was thought to be no
more critical than the normal thres-
hold in a carpeted doorway. But an
elderly woman, in entering the wash
room, tripped on the threshold, fell
and broke her arm. Can she collect
damages from the building owner, or
is this the same sort of obvious danger
as the open window?


A (By Mr. Sherman) Certainly
suit could be brought against the
owner. Whether or not he would be
held responsible depends upon a
number of circumstances outside of
this discussion because there are
different levels of liability that might
be involved. But I believe the archi-
tect and contractor would be ab-
solved, because this defect was open
to the owner.
Here is another illustration of this
principle. Suppose you design a floor
with a step giving it two levels; and
suppose you carefully mark the two
levels with different colors specific-
ally so people will not miss the step
and trip over it. If the owner sub-
sequently paints both levels the same
color so the step is difficult to see
and thus becomes a source of poten-
tial injury, you are not responsible for
any design error. There has been pro-
duced an intervening cause of pos-
sible injury. By the same token, if
the owner had done something to
extenuate this particular difficulty, he
would be responsible.

Q-Does professional liability in-
surance offer protection for loss of
life occasioned by failure of construc-
tion due to design errors-such as the
collapse of a stair?

A (By Mr. Schinnerer)-Yes.
Q-Is there logic in requiring con-
sulting engineers with whom archi-
tects work to carry professional lia-
bility insurance similar to that of the
architect?

A (By Mr. Schinnerer) There
certainly is. The new architect-
engineer agreement states that each
party will insure. But existence of
insurance in itself isn't a cureall. A
case we now have will illustrate this.
An architect hired an engineer for
structural work, but in due course the
owner refused to accept the building
because of obvious structural defects.
Anticipating this possibility, the
architect had held back an amount
from the engineer's fees sufficient, he
believed, to cover the cost of remov-
ing the defects.
But the engineer's mistakes were
not limited to his technical activities.
He had neglected to pay his bills -
including his withholding tax to
Uncle Sam. So Uncle Sam attached
the funds held by the architect. As
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






prime professional the architect was
responsible for seeing the defects were
made good. Thus, through the failure
of the engineer this perfectly capable
architect now finds himself liable for
some $30,000--all of which could
have been prevented had he used a
bit more care in the selection of his
engineer.
Two points are involved here.
First, be sure the engineer you select
is financially responsible. Second, he
should carry insurance to cover his
part of the professional liability.

Q-If we carry professional liability
insurance what should the limits of
liability be?

A (By Mr. Schinnerer) The
architect should not specify limits of
liability under any circumstances.
This is the responsibility of the owner
and his insurance consultant. The
owner hires the architect to do a
specific job of architecture, not to be
his insurance counsellor. If an archi-
tect specified limits of liability that
proved to be inadequate, this type of
claim would not be covered by his
professional liability insurance.


ADVERTISERS' INDEX
Blumcraft of Pittsburgh .8
A. R. Cogswell ...... 26
Dunan Brick Yards,
Inc . . 3rd Cover
Dwyer Kitchens of Florida . 23
Florida Foundry & Pattern
Works . . . 22
Florida Home Heating
Institute . . 28
Florida Power & Light Co.. 7
Florida Portland Cement Div. 18
General Portland Cement Co. 3
Houdaille Span . . 5
Meekins, Inc. . 2nd Cover
Merry Bros. Brick & Tile Co. 1
Prescolite . . . .22
A. H Ramsey & Sons, Inc. . 21
Southern Bell Tel. &
Tel. Co ...... . 24
Superior Window
Company . . 4th Cover
Tempera Corporation . 6
Washington Federal Savings
& Loan Assn. .25
F. Graham Williams Co. .27


OCTOBER, 1961


F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS, Chairman
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretray
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.






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