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|Low cost does not always mean fair...|
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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
AIA's executive director forecasts the profession's future
Zoning - cause or cure of the urban blight?
Museum of science and natural history
Good landscape design proves stimulus for small house sales
News and notes
Already in the legislature...that stock school plan again
Low cost does not always mean fair value
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
W A A Flo
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Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.
OFFICIAL JOURNAL of the FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. INC.
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OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
'n 7T6 Isu4 e ---
AIA's Executive Director Forecasts the Profession's Future
ZONING Cause or Cure of Urban Blight? . ..
By Verner Johnson, AIA
Museum of Science and Natural History . .
Pancoast, Ferendino, Skeels and Burnham, Architects
Good Landscape Design Proves Stimulus for Small House Sales
News and Notes . . .
Florida North Central Has Model Program
Already in The Legislature .
That Stock School Plan Again
Advertiser's Index . .
. 2 6
Low Cost Does Not Always Mean Fair Value
Editorial By Roger W. Sherman, AIA
F.A.A. OFFICERS 1961
Robert H. Levison, President, 425 S. Garden Ave., Clearwater
Arthur Lee Campbell, First Vice-President, Rm. 208, Security Bldg., Gainesville
Robert B. Murphy, Second Vice-President, 1210 Edgewater Drive, Orlando
William F. Bigoney, Jr., Third V-President, 2520 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Laud.
Verner Johnson, Secretary, 250 N. E. 18th Street, Miami
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Treasurer, Suite 209, 233 E. Bay Street, Jacksonville
Immediate Past President: John Stetson; BROWARD COUNTY: Jack W.
Zimmer, Charles F. McAlpine, Jr.; DAYTONA BEACH: Francis R. Walton;
FLORIDA CENTRAL: Robert C. Wielage, Eugene H. Beach, Anthony L.
Pullara; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, McMillan H. Johnson;
FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Forrest R. Coxen; FLORIDA NORTH
WEST: W. Stewart Morrison; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, H. Samuel
Kruse, C. Robert Abele; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, Jr., John R.
Graveley, Frederick W. Bucky, Jr.; MID-FLORIDA: Charle L. Hendiick, John
P. DeLoe; PALM BEACH: Jefferson N. Powell, Frederick W. Kessler.
Verna M. Sherman, Administrative Secretary, 414 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use In Florida are wel-
come, but mention of names cr use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida Printed by
Clinton Gamble, Dana B. Johannes,
William T. Arnett, Roy M. Pooley, Jr.
ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
NUMBER 5 1961
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Curves of canopy and wall panels
show design versatility of
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The repetitive curves of the canopy over the front entrance
project through the facade to repeat in the lobby.
Individual canopy units were approximately 14' long,
with a spread of about 3'6". Mo-Sai wall panels, too,
picked up the gentle curve motif.
Aggregates used on the Mo-Sai panels were a white
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textured red. black and white combination
for the concave wall panels.
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AIA's Executive Director
As a high point of his first official
visit to the Florida District since as-
suming the duties of AIA Executive
Director in January of this year, WIu.-
LIAM II. SCHIECK, AIA, spoke before
a meeting of the Florida South Chap-
ter, AIA, in Miami on April 11.
Introduced by Regional Director
ROBERT N. LITTLE, FAIA, the new
AIA administrator's talk was an in-
formal discussion of what he called
"some challenges ahead for the pro-
fession". lie keyed most of his com-
ments to results of the recent meet-
ing of the AIA Committee on the
Profession, chairmanned by JAMES A.
HUNTER, FAIA, of which he is the
His talk was prefaced by a sketch
of the attitude of AIA officers, direc-
tors and administrative staff directors
as a background for the Institute's
policies, plans and programs.
"America", he said, "has become
an urban civilization. Cities are going
to grow tremendously; and anything
that is complex about a city now will
be all the more complex in the next
"It's going to mean a lot of build-
ing. The F. W. Dodge Corp in an
economic report said that even with
two recessions there would be a tril-
lion dollars worth of building in the
But he warned his audience about
complacency relative to expanded
building activity. He stated his belief
that there will be". .. the greatest
competition for goods and services to
build this America that you have
"The plastics people and the chem-
ical people and the aluminum people
regard the building market as theirs
as much as the people of traditional
materials as brick, wood, and stone.
And I think there are other people
who believe that the business of de-
signing and providing professional
services is as much their business as
the architects. So you're going to see
them in the picture."
The AIA executive touched on the
concern of the Federal Government
with the increasing urbanization of
the country as indicated by President
Kennedy's housing message and his
statements about a Department of
Urban Affairs. But he forecast
changes in the traditional architect-
"There will be new kinds of cli-
ents," he declared. "A big corpora-
tion that wants to build a S50-million
facility will not be the kind of client
the architect has classically dealt
with. I believe we have a situation
affecting architecture which is occur-
ing for the first time in history.
"WVe pride ourselves that histori-
cally our profession has served the
design needs of successive civilizations.
That opportunity remains for us, not
in terms of buildings on a site, but
(Continued on Page 6)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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The Profession's Future ...
(Continued from Page 4)
buildings in a community. But in
addition to that opportunity, we have
the problem for the first time- of
the means for providing these design
services. That's because our new
urban society and economy is the
most complicated in all history-and
we face this newness and these com-
plications for the first time in his-
The remainder of the AIA execu-
tive's talk dealt largely with Octagon
plans for amplified future services to
the Institute membership. Work and
studies of the Committee on The
Profession was submitted as a promi-
nent example. He stated that "the
package deal" was of great concern
to this Committee and outlined three
kinds of package dealers as the sub-
ject of the Committee's specific in-
The first kind was characterized as
".. .rather small outfits that build
motels, small clinics, bank buildings
and that sort of thing. They sell de-
sign and construction as a part of a
package in order to control the sale
of equipment in which they are pri-
marily interested. Their interest is
strictly commercial, but they are in-
vading the field of architecture. They
cannot, and do not, think like archi-
tects or intend to serve their clients
professionally as an architect does."
Another was described as ". the
giant engineering firm," the type of
organization which, though not com-
mercially interested in product sales,
has for some time served heavy in-
dustry with a package of design
and construction. Now, however,
". .these people are quite willing
to do a college campus or a complex
for a manufacturing company which
may not be heavy industry at all,
but office buildings, research labora-
tories and other such things. So they
are stepping into the field of archi-
The speaker characterized the third
type as the entrepreneur-who, in
notable instances, has teamed up with
prominent Institute members for the
design development and the promo-
tion of large projects. He quoted one
prominent member of the building
industry as saying ". .a great deal
of building in the future will only
come to pass if somebody promotes
it"; and he asked his audience the
question ". So where are we
going to fit in that picture?"
"The answer we're aiming toward,"
he continued, "is to expand the
architect's services and to find ways
of doing this ethically and profes-
He cited the work of land assem-
bly, the arrangement of financing
programs and-after completion of
the building-the provision of equip-
ment and furnishings as logical ex-
tensions of the architect's traditional
professional services of design and
supervision of construction. Such
"extra services" would be undertaken
for additional fees and under an
agreement similar to that now cover-
ing "classical architectural services."
In undertaking such expanded serv-
ices, the architect would still oper-
ate in his traditional role as the
In emphasizing the interest of the
Committee on The Profession rela-
(Continued on Page 24)
FOR MASONRY WALLS
DOUBLES THERMAL EFFICIENCY
After ten years of research, Zonolite Company has
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concrete block and cavity walls.
Full scale wall specimens have been thoroughly
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Heat Transmission Test Results Zonolite Mas-
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masonry wall up to 50 percent. This means that
smaller heating and air conditioning units can be used.
Their cost of operation will also be lower.
Interior surface temperatures stay much closer to
room temperature allowing 30 percent less radiant heat
exchange with the body. This means greater human
Water Permeability Test Results ... A cavity wall
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Vapor Permeability Test Results The results of
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Call or write Zonolite Company, 211 E. Robinson
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6 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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The Federal Building Richmond, Virginia
Our Changing Skyline
Utilizing the latest construction techniques and mater-
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and a deadweight saving of more than 8,000 tons.
The basic structure of the building is Solite reinforced
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capitals or sheer heads. The plates are a uniform 9" thick-
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exposed as finished ceilings in many areas.
Solite lightweight structural concrete was used for the
pre-cast panels that predominate in the exterior walls of the
building, and for exterior walls below grade. The panels,
one of the project's most striking features, are faced with
mosaic ceramic tile in a distinctive shade of green. Self-
insulative, sound-absorbent Solite lightweight masonry
units were employed for interior partitions and to back up
the limestone face that complements the tile-faced panels.
The use of lightweight aggregate in these many appli-
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Fresh in concept, sophisticated in design, the new Fed-
eral Building will indeed be a wonderful place to work-and
a distinct contribution to Richmond's "changing skyline."
This scale model of the proposed Rich-
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of the new Federal Building. The build-
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look the mall of the completed center.
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A4 ewr 4Arwoach to on Range trban plan n ...-
By VERNER JOHNSON, AIA,
Need for some sort of control over
the indiscriminate use of land is
generally recognized by those who
take the best interests of their
communities to heart; Zoning has
been widely accepted as the most
practical means for establishing
such control. But many thoughtful
citizens have come to feel that
the current type of zoning
ordinance does not offer a com-
plete or even adequate answer
to the problem Here is a
new concept of zoning-a concept
that puts people before property
and seems to promise wider and
more stable ultimate values than
under our present system It
is worthy, we think, of the
most thoughtful consideration.
Widespread need for urban re-
newal is almost too obvious for com-
ment. But a serious question exists as
to whether many of the renewal pro-
jects now under way or proposed will
prove to be the unmitigated civic
blessings their sponsors regard them
to be. To put it even more bluntly,
it seems highly probable that the
social and economic forces which have
generated the need for such renewal
projects will continue to operate and
thus forge a new complex of blight
and decay in the very areas where
"renewal" has been so bravely de-
The foundation for such statements
is the pattern of much of our present
thinking. We have put the neighbor-
hood improvement cart before the
community development horse. We
are projecting grandiose ideas for cur-
ing the physical cancers of our cities
without seeking the elimination of
their cause. In too many instances we
have permitted these ideas to grow
without first completing the necessary
urban planning on which they can be
soundly based. In the business of re-
vamping the character of our cities
and towns we have lost sight of what
lies in the root and core of our cur-
rent civic problems-the germ that
has generated the spread of the decay
and blight we are now so feverishly
attempting to halt and eliminate.
This germ is our current attitude
toward zoning. Not zoning itself. But
the kind of zoning that is generally
employed as a civic planning tool. This
is arbitrary. It is not flexible. It is
static and takes little account of the
dynamic character of city growth.
Above all, our present concept of zon-
ing is concerned entirely with the use
of land-not the users of the land.
These are people. And until our atti-
tude toward zoning has been shifted
to focus primarily on the rights and
needs of people, rather than on the
arbitrary improvement of land, the
germ of urban decay and blight will
continue to grow and the need for a
continual process of urban renewal
will be with us.
Have our current zoning laws en-
abled us to shape and control the
character of our cities-or have they
proved an instrument of corrosive de-
The need for planned growth and
proper use of land has long been rec-
ognized. But where have our present
zoning laws produced communities
pleasant to live in and sound in both
social and economic values? National-
ly we are facing the problems of
bankrupt "mill towns"; of highway
"strip towns"; of virtually unregulated
"suburban sprawl"; of urban "slum
pockets"; of downtown "blighted
areas". And as the nation's population
swells, these problems are becoming
more complex, more difficult of solu-
tion, more influential as factors con-
(Continued on Page 10)
ZONING--Cause or Cure of Urban Blight...?
(Continued from Page 9)
trolling the social and economic val-
ues of increasingly large areas of both
urban and suburban organization.
Arbitrary zoning has not proved a
satisfactory solution either to cure
these conditions or to prevent their
reoccurence. The "single family" zone
has too often developed into a crowd-
ed desert of mediocrity. Zones for
"business" have produced a motley
of dismal advertising ribbons that
threaten to destroy our highways and
thorofares. Multi-family housing,
largely relegated to the fringe of busi-
ness areas, only increase the chaos
of an already unsupportable conges-
tion of traffic.
No, our current concept of zoning
with its complex and detailed rules
and regulations, has failed and is
failing to create cities of charm,
beauty, convenience and utility. Our
zoning ordinances are not accomplish-
ing their implied purpose for a num-
ber of reasons. First, they are so
highly restrictive of design that a
building becomes little more, archi-
tecturally, than a physical expression
of setback dimensions, height limita-
tions, area stipulations and surface ex-
posure requirements. Second, they
are too rigid in their attempt to regu-
late, in minute detail, each use to
which a building can be put. So,
within an area of a certain zoning
classification the.deadliness of mo-
notony is evident in close-packed
gridirons of small houses, in squares
crowded with commercial structures,
in traffic-congested blocks of office
Thirdly, our zoning ordinances
lack consideration of appropriate land
use. Thus, they are one chief cause
of our increasing traffic problems that
result from undesirable concentration
and overbuilding. Finally, they are in-
flexible and seldom, if ever, changed.
Nor are they easily subject to change
-with the result that areas no long-
er suited to their original use become
blighted urban slums before the
ordinances can be adjusted in pace
with the city's growth and developing
Is it not time to change all this?
Now, when the matter of urban re-
newal has everywhere become of such
pressing importance, can we not free
ourselves of the rigid, detailed, bur-
densome and confusing restrictions
that zoning regulations have imposed?
Once this has been done, the barrier
of legal technicalities will have been
removed from the field of intelligent,
long-range urban planning.
Some sort of control is, of course,
necessary. But what we need in zoning
is similar to what is needed in modern
building codes performance stand-
ards instead of specification require-
ments. Therefore, instead of regula-
tions on setbacks, heights and all the
other technical curbs that clutter our
present ordinances, let us frame a
series of minimum standards in terms
of human safety. It should not be
difficult to establish criteria for light
and air, for protection against fire
and hurricane, and structural sound-
ness in terms of building use.
Let us also free ourselves from all
the arbitrary patterns of land use to
which we are now bound. The pres-
ent system of area zoning in terms
of building classifications must be
replaced by some control that is not
only more flexible but is also geared
to human safety and convenience and
the orderly, long-range development
of the community. The only factor
that meets this two-fold requirement
is density-the control of land use in
terms of the number of people who
are going to use it.
The relative concentration of land
users marks the difference between
congestion and ordered convenience.
Land planners have already demon-
strated the value of the density fac-
tor as a measurement for certain types
of neighborhood developments. Is it
not reasonable to extend this meas-
urement to include more than just a
neighborhood? Once density factors
are established in relation to an essen-
tial variety of human needs, there
will exist a basic planning tool which
can be flexible and widely used.
Buildings to serve all human needs
can be classified into four broad cat-
egories. These are: (1) Residential-
where people live in small or large
houses, or in multi-family structures;
2) Service-including stores, offices,
restaurants, hotels, and any other
building type that houses a commer-
cial or service activity; 3) Community
-embracing a range of public and
institutional buildings, recreational
structures, hospitals, churches, etc.; 4)
of all types with all related facilities
for warehousing, research, administra-
tion and transportation.
Research could discover what den-
sity factors would be properly appli-
cable to these building categories.
Thus provision for them could be
easily made on an area planning
basis-with relative locations flexibly
determinable according to a variety
of such local conditions as topography,
natural resources, transportation and
With such a background, every ele-
ment of planning and design from
the broadest regional viewpoint
through all segments of community
organization to individual buildings
themselves would enjoy a new free-
dom. The basis for this freedom
would be flexible ratios one, a
true and proper land coverage as a
percentage of total land area; and,
two, a proper total allowable floor
area in keeping with the land density
factors established for the site.
A new system of zoning embodying
these principles could have far-reach-
ing effects. It could channel growth
in a vastly more orderly fashion than
is now possible. It might well prove
the means for eliminating civic con-
gestion by controlling the cause of
such congestion. And it would be
flexible enough to permit changes in
land use consistent with urban
growth and development and this
notably without recourse to law.
Furthermore, if imaginatively em-
ployed, this density factor zoning
would go far to preserve the green-
belts and the buffer strips that plan-
ning and housing experts have long
been calling for. As an illustration,
let's consider a typical urban plat,
undeveloped. At an accepted density
of four families per acre, and with a
reasonable allowance for streets, a
unit building plot would contain
about 7,500 suqare feet. On this plat
could be built a variety of housing
units. Each single-family small house
would occupy a single plot. But a
ten-unit row house project would re-
quire a full two and one-half acres;
and a 100-unit cooperative apartment
would sit on a site of 25 acres pro-
viding ample opportunity for land-
scaping and for recreational facilities.
The same density factor would ap-
ply to allocation and development of
service or business buildings. As an
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
What's Best--Urban Renewal or Urban Planning?
Must this continue ...
Here is a diagramatic comparison of results that
might be expected from the land development
about a typical cross-road site left, from our
present zoning regulations and, right, from zoning
by density factors. Under present custom, areas
are zoned according to building type and activity.
So business buildings line the roads, creating an
When we could have this... ?
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S *. .......* ...
t ee. *** '-oe
:".::% 0 g Wy /
**4y.J. ..... I *tI i i
"* n ases b....i te Den.i. 1..
tor zong preve n t hv onentrat io
t.... f o. ch," deveope.
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l :. o d
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automatic congestion and a mounting traffic
problem. Apartments fringe the business area
with residential areas behind them. Density fac-
tor zoning would prevent heavy concentration
near roads, provide adequate parking facilities,
open and landscaped buffer strips, and oppor-
tunity for change as the area developed.
~ a ~ .
example, if 1000 families can support
1,000,000 square feet of neighborhood
stores and offices, the required service
space per family becomes 1000. Mul-
tiplied by the density factor of 4 fam-
ilies per acre, it is clear that the area
is zoned for 4,000 square feet of ser-
vice building per acre. Thus, a neigh-
bodhood shopping and business center
requiring 80,000 square feet would
command a building site of 20 acres
-ample to provide necessary parking
and to provide also a spread of open,
landscaped land as a desirable buffer
strip between the bustle of commer-
cial activities and the privacy of home
Thus the variety of land use in
every sort of neighborhood would do
much to induce more imaginative and
better integrated use of the land. In
this concept of density zoning, control
could be achieved through regulation
of lot coverage and floor areas only.
Through this is provided an automa-
tic assurance of ample free ground
about every building. This appears to
offer a solution to many of our park-
ing problems and, as an additional
bonus, would assure maintenance of
free and open ground, thus eliminat-
ing the congestion and over-crowding
that are the root stocks of blight,
urban decay and slums.
Density factors would naturally
vary according to concentration re-
quirements in various parts of the
urban complex. And as the city grew,
density zones of certain areas could
be adjusted to permit re-development
in line with changing civic needs.
These are important points. Cities
live, breathe, expand, change. They
are dynamic, constantly shifting. Un-
controlled they sprawl, exhaust them-
selves, finally die. Under tight and
static controls like our current
zoning rules and regulations they
become stifled, congested, pressured.
They become sick from overcrowding,
plummctted values, sliding social
standards. Then blight takes over,
decay sets in, slums develop, down-
town becomes an economic and trans-
We are living in such cities now.
If we are now, finally, willing to spend
the huge sums necessary to remake
our cities, let us now also make such
changes in our laws and set up such
standards as may be necessary to as-
sure ourselves that another rebuilding
will not be necessary in another 25
years. The concept of density factor
zoning may well be one long step to
* Saluting: j
Architect: Philip Pearlman.
Engineers: Gerald Spolter, Structural.
Weiss & Hertz, Mechanical and Electrical.
The Beth Torah Congregation
m* ^ BETTER FUEL COUNCIL of DADE COUNTY U
A Better Fuel Council member is ready to assist in solving
your commercial heating problems. Just call FR 1-2447.
E1 u ,,, ; U. E ,ECE
12 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Museum of Science and Natural History
of Dade County
PANCOAST, FERENDINO, SKEELS
This is a noteworthy building in
more ways than one. First, it is the
fruition of plans which were only vag-
uely formed when the Junior League
of Miami first opened a museum for
youngsters in 1949. The project was
immediately successful; and growth-
which means increasing public ac-
ceptance-was so rapid that in 1959
it had outgrown its title as the Junior
Museum Guild and was ready for a
full-fledged educational program for
Miamians of all ages. At that time
the Museum assumed its present
name; and at that time too plans
were developed for the building that
now houses its exhibits and activ-
ities. It was first opened to visitors
late in September last year--and
counted more than 100,000 of them
during its first month of operation.
Location is on a 10-acre, mango-
planted site that was formerly part
(Continued on Page 14)
1 i -_
of the famed Deering estate and is
now owned by Dade County as part
of Vizcaya, the Dade County Art
Museum. The present building is
only a portion of what will ultimately
become one of the country's most
important institutions of its type. The
window walls of its long entrance
facade faces north; and future ad-
ditions are planned for both east and
west walls. Plans already have been
developed for a planetarium at the
east end. Additions to the west end
will serve to provide the Museum
with needed work and storage areas
as well as additional exhibit and
educational activity spaces.
When the planetarium is com-
pleted-a financing program is now
under way-it will rank as one of
the country's largest and most tech-
nically complete. It will scat approx-
imately 320 people under a dome 60
feet in diameter. Main and auxiliary
projectors will reproduce the entire
celestial sphere and will be able to
demonstrate a processional cycle of
25,800 years in either past or future
time. The equipment will not only
be such as to provide the fascinating
entertainment for which planetaria
have become famous. It will be
equally as well adapted to educa-
tional uses in such fields as geography,
astronomy, mathematics and celestial
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
As might be expected, the
majority of exhibits in the
Museum relate to the life, re-
sources and history of Florida.
But there are many non-Flor-
ida exhibits also, including one
on energy and light and,
near the world globe in the
lobby, one of the ten largest
Kodiak bears ever shot .
The plan below indicates that
some of the exhibtis are out-
doors; and the picture on the
opposite page suggests how
outdoors and indoors have been
merged to produce a sense of
informality and freedom seldom
encountered in a museum of
this kind. The stairs lead to
an observatory on the roof;
and the picture was taken from
the refreshment porch adjacent
to the outdoor exhibit of pre-
historic animals The world
globe has a special history of its
own. For many years it was a
center of attraction to passen-
gers when the PAA terminal
was located in what is now the
Miami City Hall at Dinner Key.
The old globe, refurbished and
reinstalled, now serves visitors
to the Museum as a graphic
reference for many of the
Good Landscape Design Proves
Stimulus For Small House Sales
The art of the architect should
be extended to include the design of
the land as well as the house -
whether the design is that of a
large, custom built home or involves
the comparatively complicated treat-
ment of a project house site, That is
the conviction of CHARLES B. GOLD-
SMITH, AIA, who has abundantly
proved his theory in working with
ARTHUR RUTENBERG, west coast
builder of small project homes.
Shown here are two views of model
homes in the Clearwater area. Their
builder has given much credit to the
landscaping treatment for his highly
successful record of sales-even in the
face of a marked slow-up in real estate
and house construction activity. He
reported that 90 percent of the buyers
were attracted as much by the design
of the site as by the houses them-
Although the landscaping becomes
part of the home buyers "package"
it is by no means standardized. In
each case the architect consults with
the buyer, obtains an idea of pre-
ferences in landscape treatment and
then develops the grounds plan ac-
cordly. When such a plan is devel-
oped, costs, including compensation
for the architect, range from $600 to
$1,000. No charge is made the buyer
for advice on landscaping that does not
involve actual design development.
This appears to be a modest ex-
ample of the "expanded service" now
being advocated by the Institute. And
it may suggest to other architects
working with construction firms or
realtors in the design of project houses
that a full development of the site
is a logical part of the design process.
From the strictly professional point
of view this extension of design serv-
ice may prove not only an extra
source of income, but an opportunity
for the architect to do a better all-
over job of site development. From
the sales viewpoint, it permits the
builder to "sell the sizzle instead
of the steak." Here the "sizzle" is
Florida living-as opposed to merely
a house on a barren Florida lot.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
News & Notes
Florida North Central
Has Model Chapter Program
There are those in the Institute
who look askance at the small, local
Chapter. But one of the best argu-
ments against the theory that only a
a large chapter can be an effective
clement of professional organization
is right now in very active operation
in Tallahassee. It is the North Cen-
tral Chapter. President is CHESTER
LEE CRAFT; and what he and his var-
ious committeemen are doing to im-
prove both internal and external pub-
lic relations and to make Tallahassee
architect-conscious through the med-
ium of community service could well
be taken as a model by many chap-
This design, submitted by James
Bullard and Dan Branch, was
chosen the winning design for the
Junior Museum project by a jury
that included Chester L Craft and
Edward M. Fearney, Chapter mem-
bers and architects with the Board
of Control. The competition was
held late last year under the pro-
fessional guidance of Prentiss Hud-
dieston, past president of the Flor-
ida North Central Chapter. The
program stipulated that the com-
petition winner would be commis-
sioned as architect for the museum.
ters of the AIA throughout the coun-
try large ones as well as small.
The Chapter (14 corporate, 11
associates) has a long history of in-
terest in community affairs and prob-
lems. Some years ago it was instru-
mental in urging authorization of a
regional planning and urban renewal
study; and its most recent activity was
the conduct of a limited competition
for the design of a proposed Tallahas-
see Junior Museum to be built by the
Junior League of Tallahassee, Inc., on
a recently acquired 10-acre tract on
Former Chapter president PREN-
riss HUDDLESTON acted as profession-
al advisor for the competition which
drew 11 entries and which was won
by the collaborating team of JAMES
D. BULLARD and DAN P. BRANCH,
both of whom are associates of the
Tallahassee firm of Barrett, Daffin
and Bishop. Tied for First Mention
were LAWRENCE B. EVANS, JR., and
CHARLES BENDA. Second Mention -
also a tie was shared by LEROY
GRAY and CARLTON LILLIE.
As drawn up and administered by
the competition's professional advis-
or, the program contemplated the
winner as the architect for the Jun-
ior Museum project. Cost limitations
were set at $75,000, with a sq, ft. cost
pegged at $10. Results of the com-
petition were widely publicized; and
drawings of the winning design were
(Continued on Page 19)
qnp Ar s lin M Rs M z4L. S& so YM Im
^TSzsuc~s 77 19r Ze 3a2 Ma X T 9 M 07h-
reminding Mr. and Mrs.
again and again and
again that OIL house
heating cuts fuel
bills in HALF. He's
NOW'S THE TIME TO INSTALL
ECONOMICAL CENTRAL OIL HOME HEATING!
then next October
"SET THE THERMOSTAT FOR A WARM WINTER"
O Oil heat averages about HALF the cost of home heating
with other fuels! No premium price to pay when fuel oil is used
only for home heating. Supplies are always dependable. Much safer
-no fumes. Clean, circulating, automatic heat, assuring maximum
comfort-complete peace of mind-lowest cost. Best solution by
far to Florida's home heating problem.
NOW AVAILABLE AT YOUR DEALER'S
Newest models of economical oil GENTLE REMINOER TO ARCHITECTS:
t e hr N C D -terms to 36 mnts o Floridians are being "gently reminded" in ads like this
little or NO UCA DOWN-ters to J3 months or longer! of the superior safety, dependability and economy of
Anc A .OIL home heating. You'll find ready agreement among
| j your clients when you recommend OIL heat, proved best
oSE W all 'round for Florida homes.
LOOR Lo- HNOME HEATING. ...'
BUILDORAMA, DUPONT PLAZA CENTER, MIAMI
SEE THE OIL HEATING DISPLAY AT BUILDORAMA, DUPONT PLAZA CENTER, MIAMI
In THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
News & Notes
(Continued from Page 17)
extensively used as an aid in raising
funds needed for the immediate con-
struction of the museum. Completion
of the building is scheduled for early
Thus far this year the Chapter has
had three meetings; and a brief re-
view of the programs indicates the
extent to which these Tallahassee ar-
chitects are making their professional
influence felt. In January, for ex-
ample, the subject was planning for
the growth and development of Flor-
ida State University. Speaker was DR.
MILTON WX. CAROTHERS, V.P. of
F/S/U, who discussed with Chapter
members a 10-year plan for the Uni-
versity to coordinate its development
with provisions of the Tallahassee
master plan and the programs of both
county and state road departments.
The program was sponsored by the
Chapter's Committee on Community
The February meeting held at
Randall House, one of Tallahasscc's
historic mansions was sponsored by
the Chapter committee on historic
buildings. Among Chapter guests were
DR. ADOLPH KARL, associate professor
of art at F/S/U, JAMES LESSER, JR.,
Tallahassee city attorney and chair-
man of the joint city-county commit-
tee for the preservation of historic
monuments, and MALCOLM B. JOHN-
SON, executive editor of the Tallahas-
The Chapter has been working
closely with civic officials to preserve
some of Leon County's notable old
buildings. Both groups have had full
cooperation from editors of the
The meeting in March was con-
cerned largely with the Chapter's
cooperation with the program of the
FAA's committee on Government Re-
lations. It was in charge of FORREST
R. COXEN, a committee member at
both state and chapter levels. Attend-
ing and speaking briefly were State
Senator F. WILSON CARRAWAY and
State Representatives MALLORY E.
HORNE and RICHARD O. MITCHELL.
FAA President ROBERT H. LEVISON
and ANTHONY L. PULLARA, chairman
of the FAA committee on Govern-
ment Relations, were also special
guests of the Chapter. Both spoke on
the FAA's legislative year program.
Straws in the Wind ...
"Improvement, Si; Recession No!"
This could be a new rallying cry for
construction activity in Florida. Two
capsule indications come from the
Miami area but items appearing in
other parts of the state bear out the
fact that Florida's building industry
is well back on the road and starting
to roll in high gear.
One such indication is a release
from the F. XV. Dodge Corp., stating
that February building contracts in
the Miami area ran a whopping 78
percent above the February 1960 dol-
lar volume. Non-residential contracts
were up 50 percent. And residential
contracts soared to 92 percent ahead
of the year-ago figure.
The other indication is more
psychological though none the less
real. It's the new slogan adopted by
the Scavicw Awning Company. The
symbol of the slogan is "BIBA"-
(Continued on Page 21)
Water spotting is murder on wax fin-
ishes, but there's no wax on Poly-Clad
Plywall. Spots wipe right off. All 12
finishes are guaranteed against fading.
V-grooved or plain, 4' x 7', 8', or 10'
panels with pre-finished moldings to
Hamilton Plywood of Orlando. Inc..
924 Sligh Blvd.. GA S-4604
Hamilton Plywood of St. Petersburg. Inc..
2860 22nd Ave.. No., Phone 5-7627
Hamilton Plywood of Ft. Lauderdale. Inc..
1607 S.W. 1st Ave., JA 3-5415
Hamilton Plywood of Jacksonville, Inc..
1043 Haines St. Expressway, EL 6.8S42
MAY, 1961 19
Florida Masonry Cement meets and exceeds the
requirements of Federal and A.S.T.M. specifications
for non-staining masonry cements.
For 23 years this FLORIDA product has enjoyed
continuously the confidence of specifiers and users
of masonry cement time-tested, job-tested,
GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY
FLORIDA DIVISION. TAMPA SIGNAL MOUNTAIN DIVISION. CHATTANOOGA TRINITY DIVISION. DALLAS
PENINSULAR DIVISION. JACKSON. MICHIGAN VICTOR DIVISION. FREDONIA. KANSAS
20 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
News & Notes
(Continued from Page 19)
and the meaning expresses the con-
viction of Scaview as well as the level
of their activity. The initials mean,
"Business Is Better Already."
Cuban Architects' Project..
Some 200 architects have emi-
grated from Cuba and have formed
an Association of Cuban Architects in
Exile. Through cooperation of the
School of Architectural Engineering
of the University of Miami and
with some promised assistance from
the AIA -a project of building code
research has been started that may
obtain the backing of the Department
of Health and Welfare in Washing-
ton. GusTAvo MORENO, president of
the Cuban architects group, spoke be-
fore the members of the Florida
South Chapter last month. He was
introduced by ALFRED B. PARKER,
FAIA; and approval of the research
code project was expressed by AIA
Executive Director Schieck who
noted that the Cuban building code
dated from 1902 and needed modern-
Mexican Tour Again .
Another seminar tour of Mexico is
scheduled for September of this year.
As last year, this will be a 14-day
study trip of Mexican architecture
and interior design. The tour will be
conducted in cooperation with the
Mexican Society of Architects. Infor-
mation regarding it is available from
T. I. IIEWITT, 2413 Driscoll, Hous-
ton, 19, Texas.
NORMAN M. GILLER, Florida South
Chapter, has been elected president of
the South Florida Council, BSA-
the first time in 47 years that an
architect has held this office.
\VILLIAM H. PECK announces the
opening of his own office at 1990
Sunrise Boulevard, Ft. Lauderdale.
GEORGE L. BENNETT announces
the opening of his ofifcc for the prac-
tice of architecture at 3215 North
Ocean Blvd., Fort Laudcrdale.
JOHN E. MAY announces removal of
his office to 500 West Hallandale
Beach Blvd., Hallandale.
MATTERS OF HIGH POLICY ? This group, caught by the cameraman
at the Robert Meyer Hotel in Jacksonville, include, left to right, Roy M.
Pooley, Jr., FAA Treasurer; Robert H. Levison, FAA President; Turpin C. Ban-
nister, FAIA, FAA Director and Dean, College of Architecture and Fine Arts,
U/F; and Robert M. Little, FAIA, Director, Florida Region, AIA They
and other members of the FAA Board were in Jacksonville for the FAA Board
Meeting April 1. Board members were guests of the Jacksonville Chapter
at the Chapter's monthly dinner meeting on March 31. During their day-long
session April 1, Board members discussed plans for growth of the Florida
Region and State Association relative to the educational facilities and program
of the U/F. The Office Practice Seminar to be held in Tampa June 10, was
also a subject of Board concern Subject of the particular conference
pictured here wasn't recorded. Could have been any one of these subjects -
or even the recipe for a brand new cocktail!
For executive convenience and customer
hospitality-here's everything you need,
hidden away in a handsome furniture
piece. Contains refrigerator with freezer
(plenty of ice cubes), two-burner electric
rangetop, deep sink (optional), plus con-
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-other models for the em.
oloyee lounge, home game
room and rental properties.
For full information, write
Dwyer Products of Florida,
Inc. Suite 621, Dupont Plaza
Center, 300 Biscayne Boule-
vard Way, Miami 32, Florida
G GEORGE C.
4201 St. Augustine Road
P.O. Box 10025, Jacksonville, Florida
Already in The Legislature...
That Stock School Plan Again
'Ihe June, 1960, issue of The Flor-
ida Architect carried an item, in F/A
Panorama, entitled "Stock School
Plans Again Next Year .?" This
forecast an economy legislature; and
it forecast also the probability of an-
other proposal to use stock school
plans. The item concluded, ". .Pork-
chop county representatives aren't the
only ones to flirt with this fallacy.
Chances seem good that the construc-
tion industry will have to re-fight the
same old battle next spring on the
same old grounds."
On April 17, beginning the Legisla-
ture's third week, Sarasota County
Representative G. M. Nelson intro-
duced Ilouse Bill No. 1039. It pro-
posed the use of stock school plans
and was referred for study to two im-
portant House committees. One was
Education, Public Schools; the other
The following might help delibera-
tions of both committees. It has been
adapted, with grateful appreciation,
from the February, 1961, issue of The
Northern Illinois Architect, a publica-
tion sponsored and copyrighted by the
Northern Illinois Chapter, AIA.
Proposals for use of stock school
plans bob up during periods of finan-
cial pinch and when attention is fo-
cused on the cost of public education.
Yet a national survey disclosed that
not one state school system recom-
mended use of stock plans to an-
other state. Fifteen states reported
having tried stock plans only to aban-
don them. Results of a new survey
show that only two states now use
stock plans and such use is lim-
ited to small rural schools.
\hy have so many states repu-
diated the stock plan idea? The ob-
vious reason is that stock plans can't
and don't produce either good or
economical schools. Not only that.
Stock plans are expensive. One state
disclosed in a survey report that it
has wasted $40,000 on just the prep-
aration of two unusuable stock plans.
(The latest Florida proposal speci-
fies that a number of stock plans shall
be prepared for various types of school
classifications. On the basis of other
states' experience, this would multiply
dollar-waste by many times.)
Stock plans won't work, first, be-
cause soil conditions, land contours,
drainage characteristics, and utility
facilities and connections of sites vary
greatly. You can't stockpile school
sites. So no stock plan can be drawn
Second, because every site is dif-
ferent, every design problem is differ-
ent. Orientation of any building can
have great effect on cost not only
initially, but relative to both efficient
operation and maintenance. With
varying land characteristics even a
stock plan would have to be radically
changed to assure orientation that
would minimize solar heat loads, take
maximum advantage of prevailing
winds and the protective character-
istics of each site.
Engineering and mechanical re-
quirements vary widely on every
school job. The number of rooms,
their size, location, shape and orien-
tation all have direct bearing on
plumbing and drainage facilities, on
heating and ventilation systems, on
electrical loads, circuit distribution
and metering within the building.
Further, even the structural details of
a stock plan may require change to
meet varying requirements-not only
of site character, but of a variety of
building codes and regulations that
often differ widely from one com-
munity to another.
So, little but the mere shell of the
building is left as a stock plan possi-
bility. The walls of a building sel-
dom cost more than 15 percent of
the building budget. But even here
the savings are highly questionable.
For example, on identical, flat
sites, standardization might seem feas-
ible. But these are rare. If the site
is rolling, it will often cost more to
bulldoze it flat than to design and
build a structure that takes advantage
of the land contours. It might well
be economically advantageous to de-
sign a school in several separate build-
ings to avoid blasting away a rocky
hill or filling a low-level swamp.
Again, what's the ultimate layout
(Continued on Page 24)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
-- -. ---
Thanks to your planning, new homes in
every price range are being up-graded
to Medallion Home standards of electric
living. There's increasing recognition
that the home with anything less will be
out of date in the near future. In the
FP&L service area, twice as many
Medallions were awarded in 1960 as
You and every segment of the home con-
struction industry will be benefited by the
50 million dollars being spent nationally
during 1961 alone on the "Live Better
Electrically" and "Medallion Home"
promotion to sell more homes faster.
A Medallion Home award certifies to these comforts and
1. ALL-ELECTRIC KITCHEN with clean, cool, flameless electric
range and at least three other major electric appliances,
including a safe, flameless electric water heater for
precious peace of mind.
2. FULL HOUSEPOWER 100-200 amp service entrance-
enough wiring to give work-saving appliances all the
electricity they need... plus extra power for those added
later. Plenty of switches and outlets the key to Better
3. LIGHT FOR LIVING ample light planned for comfort,
safety and beauty.
For full details of the Medallion Home program and valuable
promotional aids, call any FP&L office.
^^(^s -MS/y fltameless 6 W~Zi
.. ...... ..... o.........
FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY
HELPING BUILD FLORIDA
MAY, 1961 23
Stock School Plans...
(Continued from Page 22)
for the school plant? If community
growth is probable, the school must
grow accordingly. And this often may
require units of varying size and facili-
ties to be built at different times
according to a master schedule. Long-
range planning like this can save
many dollars in bond repayments-
but it requires a flexibility of design
inherently lacking in a stock plan.
Third, what will be the educational
program for which the school is to be
built? Teaching methods varn widely;
and facilities required are not the
same for each method. Even seeming-
ly small differences in educational
policies and teaching methods will af-
fect a plant design not only in gen-
cral layout but in many detailed
aspects of classroom planning and
Fourth, can any school system
afford to freeze its school plant de-
sign? Present materials, equipment
and structural technology may meet
today's needs. But improvements in
all phases of design and construction
are being constantly developed. \What
might prove good today may well be
obsolete and inordinately expensive
tomorrow. Educators, competent
builders, engineers and architects all
agree that such standardization is eco-
nomically dangerous and impractical.
What do school buildings really
cost? Our public education program
accounts for from one-half to two-
thirds of our community budgets. But
the new school building portion of
that overall program takes only ten
to twenty cents of the local tax dol-
lar. Most of the education budget is
spent for teaching and administrative
staffs, for educational supplies and
equipment, for interest on borrowed
funds. The surprising truth is that
if we were to get our school buildings
for nothing, it would still make little
difference on our local tax bills.
And what will school buildings cost
tomorrow? Is a stock plan any guar-
antee of economy in an uncertain cost
future? The reverse might well be
true. There is no way to make cer-
tain that materials and products
which seem economical today will not
become inefficient, technically obso-
lete and expensive tomorrow. So, the
specification for a stock school plan
becomes nothing more than a basis
for future changes.
There is a way to get well-dcsigncd,
well-built, economical schools suited
to the community and geared to its
educational requirements. This is
through the cooperative actions of a
team informed citizens, able edu-
cators, professional architects, and
competent builders hired under con-
tract by competitive bidding. Nothing
else will do the job.
The Profession's Future...
(Continued from Page 6)
tive to this matter of expanded sern-
ice the speaker said,
"The Committee has already started
a study of re-writing the Mandatory
Standards; so that if this is under-
taken and is spelled out clearly
enough-it will, at the same time,
become an ethical form of practice.
"Looking beyond this, we are
thinking of an extension service from
AIA headquarters in the form of edu-
cational material on such things as
financing and land assembly written
by experts in these fields."
4 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
More and more
are asking for
Whatever else the latest building boom may
have done, one thing is certain prospective
home buyers no longer have to be sold on
modern conveniences, like telephone planning.
They ask for them.
The advantages of adding or moving telephones
with a minimum of cost is a plus factor for
any new home.
Won't you let us show you how easy it is to have
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Relative to interest in and contact
with government and government
agencies, the speaker noted the In-
stitutc's continuing activity with such
organizations as the Public Housing
Administration, the Post Office Dc-
partment reportedly now seeking
improvement in the architectural
senrices furnished under the Depart-
mcnt's present lease arrangement-
the Federal Housing Administration
and the General Services Adminis-
tration. He also expressed the AIA
staff's increasing interest in govern-
mental affairs at the state level. At
present, various chapters and state
organizations, each engrossed in local
legislative matters, have little knowl-
edge of what others may be doing-
or how others may have solved prob-
lems similar to their own. He out-
lined a plan to improve this current
"I propose," he said, "that we
sharpen our mechanism at AIA head-
quarters to set up a fully document-
ed file of state legislative activities
in which chapters and state organi-
zations may have been involved. We
will need your help. But if we can
lcarn to what extent state architec-
tural organizations have won or lost
their legislative battles, we can then
furnish information as may be needed
to help win other battles."
lle noted the AIA's continuing
contact with other national associa-
tions and specifically mentioned a
current controversy with the Ameri-
can Bar Association. The lawyers'
committee on the illegal practice of
law has now taken the position that
architects' contact with contracts bc-
tween the owner and contractor con-
stitutes the practice of law.
"Extremists of this group," said
the Executive Director, "would like
to take over, make it impossible for
us to print the standard document
for that contract, and see to it that
a lawyer was retained to draw up the
contract and write the general con-
ditions. We will fight this right
through the courts; and I don't think
the extremists will prevail."
His talk closed with a brief review
of the new organization at AIA head-
quarters. As part of this he mentioned
the study now being made on the
problem of improved professional
education and outlined movements
underway on workshops for public
relations and design activities.
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THE ARCHITECTURE OF AMERICA. By
John Burchard, FAIA, and Albert
Bush Brown, FAIA. Published by
Little, Brown and Company, Boston,
with the sponsorship of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects. 6/4" x
9Vi". Illustrated from photographs.
595 pages. $15.00
In the foreword to this long-
awaited book-originally planned for
publication as part of the AIA Cen-
tennial Program in 1957-EDMUND
R. PURvEs, FAIA, expresses his con-
viction that it will ". prove to be
the major work on American archi-
tecture of the past century." Em-
phatic as it is, his expression might
well turn out to be the under-state-
ment of his distinguished professional
career. For this book, to any indi-
vidual with even the least interest in
architecture beyond its mere func-
tion as shelter, would seem to have
The title page contains a sub-title
-"A Social and Cultural History."
It is a bit misleading, for it sounds
forbidding, slightly dull, somewhat
pedantic. The book itself is anything
but that. It is scholarly, yes-and
from this point of view approaches
the stature of a minor miracle in
tremendously broad, meticulously doc-
umented research. But it is rolling,
surging, tempestuous, exciting history.
Innumerable passages read like a
novel instead of a documentary; and
by some fortunate legerdemain of
collaborative editing, its two authors
have achieved a style that is crisp
and crackling-as lusty as the breeze
of a March lion and as keenly edged
with c!ear meaning as well honed
This is a well-organized book. It
contains a prologue a 40 -page
treatise on "The Nature of Archi-
tecture," which as an interpretive
exposition of an almost intangible,
many faceted social art, ranks as
superior in concept and expression
to anything similar this reviewer has
ever read. Thereafter, in five parts,
the architecture of America passes in
review from 1600 to 1960. All parts
do not span an equal number of
years. The authors have recognized
certain cut-off points, certain surges
of industrial and social development
-here and elsewhere-which mark
transition, the starting thread of a
new pattern in the nation's archi-
Unquestionably this book will
stand years-firm as a work of refer-
ence. But unlike many such, it has
about it the re-readable quality of a
well-loved classic. The book has yet
another quality of which even its
authors might not have been initially
aware. This is a two-edged, sly sharp-
ness. For the public this work brings
architecture clearly into focus with
its times. And in it the architect is
pitilessly exposed to the glaring flood-
light of his own ego.
THE MASTER BUILDERS. By Peter
Blake. Published by Alfred A. Knopf,
New York. 7" x 9%". Illustrated
from sketches and photographs. 399
In one sense this book is a col-
lection of personality profiles-of LE
CORBUSIER, of MIEs VAN DER ROHE,
and of FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. AS
such it is written in the best NEW
YORKER profile technique-complete
with personal background, anecdotes
and analytical commentary. But is is
much more than just that. In high-
lighting the careers and contributions
of these three creative personalities,
the author-himself an architect and
a sensitive writer of no mean ability-
has produced one of the most literate
expositions of modern architecture
that has yet been published.
He writes of Corbu as the master
of Form; of Mies as the master of
Structure, and of Wright as the
master of Space. Here is the triangular
basis for all architecture. Upon this
basis has been built a critical evalu-
ation of each man's work-notably
against the background of personality.
The threads of analysis and inter-
pretation run continuously through
the book, weaving the three compon-
entent profiles into a rich tapestry
of architectural appreciation. The
book may have been written to
clarify modem architecture to those
who profess to practice it. Or it
may have been directed at the public
as an invitation to understanding. In
either case it has been written with
sensitivity, an admirable craftsman-
ship and with an obvious enthusiasm
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
for its subject matter that some read-
ers may consider just a bit unbridled.
But when the last page has been
turned, most readers probably agree
that the enthusiasm is justified. Mr.
Blake sketches his three Masters as
beacon lights in an era that is already
coming to an end. In a final small
section-a sort of epilogue that the
author calls "Prospect"-he sums-up
the present influence of these three
architectural giants in terms of the
possible future. One gathers that he
has high hopes but it not at all certain
about their realization. And he has
chosen to close this really excellent
work with this quotation from Le
Corbusier-"What makes our dreams
so daring is that they can be realized."
CREATIVE COLOR. By Faber Birren.
Published by Reinhold, New York.
81/4" x 10Vi". Illustrated in color
with drawings, charts and diagrams.
128 pages. $10.00.
This latest work by the nation's
leading expert on color has been
directed primarily says the dust
jacket-at artists and designers. Thus
it is somewhat technical in character.
But it will undoubtedly be found
useful beyond the reference informa-
tion on the composition and use of
color contained in the first section.
For the second section deals with
theories of color perception and sug-
gests some of the almost infinitely
various effects that can be achieved
through an understanding of the prac-
tical meaning of perception psy-
RETIREMENT VILLAGES. Edited by
Ernest W. Burgess. Published by the
Division of Gerontology of The Uni-
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Mich. 6%" x 10". Illustrated from
drawings, charts and photographs.
156 pages. $3.50.
This is a paper-bound report of
The Conference on Retirement Vil-
lages held last year at Palm Beach
under the sponsorship of the Amer-
ican Society of the Aged. The subject
is one of increasing importance; and
information contained in this book
provides basic reference material on
such subjects as Location and De-
sign, Operation and Services and
Financing. Included are a series of
papers and a list of recommendations
for additional research.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS, Chairman
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer G. ED LUNSFORD, JR., Secretary
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. FRANK .D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
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Years ago a Danish architect who had become an American protagonist of
LE CORBUSIER'S efforts to bring a new architecture out of Nouveau Art made
"Architecture is the art of total design. The process of architectural design
starts with the first conception of a structure. It does not end until the
structure is demolished."
At one quick reading this may seem like a far-fetched attitude toward the
architect's overall responsibility as well as an impractical suggestion that
architects should somehow arrange to outlive their buildings. But it is neither.
Actually, it is as practical a bit of professional philosophy as we have ever
encountered. And, as a guiding principle of architectural practice it is as
sound today as when it was first issued as the conclusion of a searching effort
to place the architect and his work in proper relationship with his society
Let's touch briefly on only one of the many professional implications con-
tained in that terse, inclusive statement. This is the value of a building; and
in the sense we use it, the meaning of the word is very broad indeed.
Consider the worth of a building from the community's viewpoint. Does
it add to the stature of its neighborhood? Does it provide a needed facility in
such a fashion as to minimize-if not actually help solve--such problems
as traffic congestion and land-crowding that hinder the orderly progress of
Does it fully serve the needs of its owner well? Arc the various elements
of its plan organized for convenience, flexibility and economy? Is its design
such as to like Lc\cr Ilouse in New York provide its owner with a
public relations "image" of his interests and activities?
Finally, for our present purpose, is the building a good investment for its
owner not only in tcnms of initial cost, but in terms of its total cost over
the period of its financial lifetime? This, we think, is one of the most
important implications in the statement that architectural design .
does not end until the structure is demolished." Total cost means the con-
tinuing cost of maintenance in addition to the cost of first construction.
Maintenance costs can be high or low; and the level of such costs depends
largely on the specifications that control the character of the finished building.
Specifications are an essential part of the architect's "total design" job.
The inference is or certainly should be obvious. Specifications that call
for cheap construction cannot help but produce a building that, over the
full period of its financially useful life, will prove expensive. Conversely,
specifications that call for quality products for every clement of construction
and equipment will pay for themselves times over by savings in the progressive
costs of maintenance. There's only one qualification to this last statement.
It will hold true in direct proportion to the extent an architect permits devia-
tion from the standard of quality his specifications have established. If he
holds firm against attempts at substitution and does sufficient product research
to make "or equal" clauses unnecessary, he can assure his client a building
which will have fair value initially and throughout its useful life.
And this, we submit, is one of the chief justifications for the architect's
existence. "Total design" directly involves the professional integrity of the
architect. The logical result is "total value". If the architectural profession
feels impelled to do some collective soul-searching, let it be done in such
terms as these. Total design, total value, total integrity these apply with
equal force to every segment and member of the profession, from the one-
man, one-job-at-a-time studio to the 1000-man organization with a billion
If the soul-searching will result in better building values, let's get on
with it. For in such better values lies the salvation of the architectural pro-
fession and the continuing livelihood of all its members.
-ROGER NV. SHERMAN, AIA.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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