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* Your University needs $90,000. That sum is required
to provide funds on a matching basis so students at your
University can take advantage of the National Defense
Loan Fund established by the U. S. Government. For each
dollar from the University the NDLF will allocate nine
to provide a revolving fund of almost a million dollars to
help struggling students complete their education.
e The U/F student body has pledged its help to raise
some $20,000 of the sum needed. Students are looking to
you alumni for the remaining $70,000. A gift from each
of you will reach the goal-and every dollar thus donated
is tax deductible.
* There's no better time than right now to help your Uni-
versity-and there's no better reason for helping your
University than to make sure that some fine, up-and-
coming youngster gets the loan he needs in time to help
him over the rough financial spots on the road to a college
degree. And who knows-maybe the boy your dollars aid
today will be serving your business later with the skill
and knowledge you helped make it possible to acquire.
* Remember your own college days. If you had a rocky
financial path to walk-give so others may find the going
easier. And if things went smooth and fine for you-give
so that others can avoid some of the frustrations and
heartbreaks you didn't know existed.
MAKE A FIRM PLEDGE NOW
Write a check today to:
University of Florida Endowment Corp.
And send it promptly to:
University Alumni Association; P. 0. Box 3535
University Station, Gainesville, Fla.
WELCOME THIS OPPORTUNITY TO HELP
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OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
oth 7s Let ae ---
F/A Panorama . . . . . . .
Climatology Expert to Key Convention Program . .
Notes on Climate Design . . . . . . .
By John M. Evans, AIA
Package . By The Individual . . . . .
Message from the FAA President by John Stetson, AIA
1960 Office Practice Seminar . . .
Controls for an Airport Bedlam . .
New Guide Book to Comprehensive Design
News and Notes . . . . .
"Local Papers Please Copy" . . .
Editorial by Roger W. Sherman, AIA
. . . 7
F.A.A. OFFICERS 1960
John Stetson, President, P.O. Box 2174, Palm Beach
Verner Johnson, First Vice-President, 250 N. E. 18th Street, Miami
Arthur Lee Campbell, Second V.-Pres., Room 208, Security Bldg., Gainesville
Robert B. Murphy, Third Vice-President, 1210 Edgewater Drive, Orlando
Francis R. Walton, Secretary, 142 Bay Street, Daytona Beach
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Treasurer, Suite 209, 233 E. Bay Street, Jacksonville
BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hall, Jack W. Zimmer; DAYTONA BEACH:
David A. Leete; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Eugene H. Beach, Anthony L. Pullara,
Robert C. Wielage; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, M. H.
Johnson; FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL: Ernest J. Stidolph; FLORIDA NORTH
WEST: W. Stewart Morrison; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, H. Samuel
Kruse, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, A. Eugene
Cellar, Taylor Hardwick; MID-FLORIDA: Charles L. Hendrick, James E.
Windham, III; PALM BEACH: Kenneth Jacobson, Jefferson N. Powell.
Verna M. Sherman, Administrative Secretary, 414 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami
The series of cover sketches developed by U/F architectural students last
fall which formed part of the Student Exhibit at the 45th Annual FAA
Convention in Jacksonville showed a nearly equal division between imagi-
native free-form designs and relatively simple, formalized layouts that achieved
their effect through a disciplined balance between line, spacing and propor-
tion. The one this month is in the latter category and is based on use of
a quarter-inch grid as the control for positioning and spacing of the necessary
lettering. It was developed by L. Salkin.
The FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
comed, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida.
Printed by McMurray Printers
ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA
VOLUME 10 A
NUMBER 7 1 9
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
3550 N. W. 49th STREET MIAMI 42, FLA.
REINFORCING BARS '
FABRICAIING FAC InlLES
-p = s -I ,
"Steel when ya wand id'
ORLANDO GArden 2-4539
MIAMI NEwton 4-6576
JACKSONVILLE EVergreen 4-5561
WEST PALM BEACH TEmple 2-2493
FORT MYERS EDison 4-5262
Service via Agency . .
This Committee has become con-
cerned over the apparent tendencies
and activities of various agencies of
the Federal, State and local govern-
ments to design, control and execute
The Institute . believes that it
is in the best interests of the public
that governmental building programs
be very completely planned and ad-
ministered." The recent tendencies of
certain agencies is not, in our opin-
ion, in the best interests of the pub-
lic's welfare, nor advantageous to the
architectural profession. We feel it is
of vital importance that the proper
committees representing our profes-
sion become and/or remain alert to
this problem, ferreting out and com-
bating these tendencies, preferably at
their earliest stages of development
before they are allowed to grow to
such magnitude as to be uncontroll-
To more properly implement our
concern, the Jacksonville Chapter has
approved the attached resolution
which states our position and ex-
presses our feelings.
JOHN R. GRAVELEY, AIA
Chairman, Legislation and Registration
Committee, Jacksonville Chapter, AIA.
Resolution of the Jacksonville
Chapter, AIA, concerning Govern-
ment Competition With Private Pro-
1 Our country's government is
established on the premise of free en-
2 A sound private economy is
essential to a strong and healthy gov-
3- Professional design services, by
their very nature, must be rendered
in a completely unbiased and inde-
pendent atmosphere; and,
4 It has been shown that pro-
fessional design services can be rend-
ered better and more economically by
private practitioners; and,
5 It has been noted that the
rendering of professional services in
competition with private practition-
ers by many government agencies in
this area appears to be on the in-
6 This Resolution is in agree-
ment with established policies of the
American Institute of Architects;
Now, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED
1-The Jacksonville Chapter,
AIA, advocates the full-time employ-
ment by government agencies of qual-
ified professional personnel to co-
ordinate and administer their various
programs requiring professional design
2-The Jacksonville Chapter,
AIA, advocates the termination of the
use of government agencies to render
professional services in competition
with private practitioners; and,
3--The Jacksonville Chapter,
AIA, advocates the retaining of priv-
ate practitioners to render profession-
al design services to government agen-
cies requiring same; and,
4-The Jacksonville Chapter,
AIA, recommends to the FAA that
they adopt a similar resolution, do
everything proper to further the reso-
lution and bring the resolution to the
attention of all government personnel
concerned to the end that a harmon-
ious condition shall prevail for all
One Profession ... ?
The primary consideration in the
strained relations between architects
and engineers either has escaped no-
tice or has been ignored. The reason-
ing evidenced in Mr. Smith's com-
ments ("An Engineer Speaks" by
George L. Smith, page 11, May, 1960,
issue) and the editorial (page 42,
same issue) points to the current fact
that architects and engineers consider
themselves in competition. The diffi-
culty lies in the attitude that these
areas of activity are two separate pro-
fessions, whereas, in reality, they are
We must agree that the architect
is more qualified in the requirements
of visual relationships just as we
recognize that the engineer is more
qualified in the requirements of struc-
(Continued on Page 8)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Blacl. and G0old
KEEP A HAWK-EYE ON THAT EXPENSE ACCOUNT . .
It's not news but it's worth repeating at this mid-year check point. 1960 will
be the year of the great expense crack-down by the Internal Revenue Service;
and it's rumored that tax returns of self-employed and professional people
will come up for the closest scrutiny. Get your tax consultant to check over
your record-keeping routines if you haven't already done so and set up
a complete schedule for every deduciable. Then list every expense item as
it occurs and save the tabs to prove the entries . One man we know was
socked with heavy penalties because he hadn't saved his parking tickets.
Another lost out because the IRS man insisted that his business luncheon
checks included non-deductable items for his wife and he couldn't get
together satisfactory proof that she wasn't even there!
URBAN RENEWAL- UP TO BAT FOR THIRD TIME . .
The Development Commission has started another campaign to get planning
and zoning bills through the 1961 legislature -as well as a state-wide
enabling act to permit full participation by Florida communities in the Federal
Slum Clearance Program. Now under way is a $15,000 study $10,000 of
which is a Federal grant looking toward a series of legislative proposals along
these lines. Similar measures failed in 1957, more narrowly in 1959. David
Clark, manager of the Commission's Planning Department, is hoping that
home-town opinion will persuade legislators to pass the bills at the up-coming
session ... At the May conference of the American Society of Planning Officials,
the Development Commission displayed 24 "workable plans" for redevelopment
projects prepared by small communities throughout the State. These are ready
to go just as soon as the green light of legislative action makes it possible.
UNION WAGE RATES UP AGAIN . .
During the first quarter of 1960 the average hourly wage scales of U.S. union
building trades workers increased 0.2 percent, hiking the estimated average
wage for all union building construction workers to $3.55. The wage rate level
of April 1, this year was 4.4 percent higher than on April 1, 1959 -and a
whacking 72 percent above the average for the three-year period 1947-1949,
according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics . On the basis of current
average rates, bricklayers are the highest paid at $4.08 per hour. Plasterers are
next at $3.95; plumbers third at $3.93; and electricians fourth at $3.90. Carpenters
now average $3.66 per hour; painters $3.46. Laborers are eating pretty well
these days, too. Their present average hourly rate is $2.69 ranging from
$1.20 to $3.65 . .
NEW ACCENT ON APPRENTICE TRAINING . .
At the Second Annual Florida State Apprentice Conference, held in Tampa
during May, local Joint Apprentice Committees, which are cooperative labor-
management groups, were urged to step up their training programs to meet
the need for more skilled labor during the booming 'sixties. Currently, only
3,439 apprentices are registered for training in Florida. Among the existing 78
apprentice training groups, that of Broward County ranks first in the state,
l1th in the nation. Started in 1947, the program now includes training in
carpentry, sheet metal, plumbing, lathing, masonry, air conditioning and elec-
trical work. Numbering 245 apprentices, the group includes the Broward Builders
Exchange among several joint sponsors.
JULY, 1960 7
G GEORGE C. C
4201 St. Augustine Road
P.O. Box 10025, Jacksonville, Florida
Slim P rIIt
i1n* pa1.. ..... Doug .L.....
inT llh sse. ....A ae
(Continued from Page 4)
ture and mechanical equipment. All
disturbances of the natural environ-
ment affect the visual esthetic. In
projects normally considered within
the sphere of engineering, the archi-
tect should be retained as a consult-
ant, just as the engineer is employed
in the field of architecture.
In doubtful cases of responsibility,
there should be no concern over
which field receives the primary com-
mission. The one should engage the
other. Just as the architect knows the
value of the engineer to his design, so
the engineer must come to realize the
value of the architect to his engineer-
One of the nation's top authorities
on climatology and the effects of cli-
mate on building design will be
among the group of expert specialists
that will develop the "MAN, CLIMATE
AND THE ARCHITECT" theme of the
FAA's 46th Annual Convention in
November. DR. PAUL A. SIPLE is
popularly known as an explorer. But
he has done extensive research on the
effect of climate on man and his
structures in every section of the
globe. He will share his vast experi-
ence and knowledge with participants
at the Convention's seminar program.
Dr. Siple is the author of many
articles and books, both technical and
popular; and he has been the recip-
ient of innumerable honors for ac-
complishments in his special field. He
is a member of many scientific and
civic organizations and is currently
the president of the Association of
As a member of Admiral Byrd's
first Anarctic Expedition, Dr. Siplc's
career in climatology and exploration
began in the sub-arctic. Since then,
however, his investigations have
ranged into every environmental condi-
tion under which man lives. His work
as scientific adviser to the Chief of
Army Research and Development in-
ing. Ultimately, both must submit to
The answer is mutual respect and
cooperative endeavor not a division
of the spoils.
HAROLD E. SECKINGER
South Miami, Florida.
A Crime Against . .
Reference: Proposed buildings for
College of Architecture and Fine Arts,
University of Florida.
A crime against all who care about
architecture. A greater crime against
those who do not.
ARTHUR DAVID REAVES,
DR. PAUL A. SIPLE
volved him with human survival prob-
lems in hot-humid climates as well as
in cold-dry ones. His studies and con-
clusions many of which have re-
sulted in near-revolutionary recom-
mendations concerning clothing and
shelter units- have accomplished
sweeping and basic changes in official
policies as well as providing our armed
forces with importantly improved
Of particular significance to archi-
(Continued on Page 27)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Climatology Expert to
Key Convention Program
DRAINAGE IN CONCRETE'
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10 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
eaw, Cimaete and T7e 4 chitecet...
By JOHN MARTIN EVANS
Broward County Chapter
1960 FAA Convention Program Chairman
"Man is in reality a pawn of the
environmental forces encompassing
him, being pushed forward to a van-
tage point at one time, or held in
lethargic bondage at another. Here is a
challenge of the first magnitude-can
human intelligence find an effective
answer? If not an answer, then it
should at least comprehend the forces
at work and the major significance of
their effects . "
-Dr. Clarence A. Mills
After thousands of years of living
in hot climates man is finally learning
to cope with heat stress. Just as many
hundreds of years ago he learned to
overcome the frigid cold of western
Europe by inventing an effective heat-
ing system, he is now developing a
new philosophy and technique of hot
climate design. There is no doubt that
air cooling is at the heart of this
Question: Where are the tropics?
Answer: Where the problems of keep-
ing cool in the summer are greater
then keeping warm in the winter.
Florida is a large state stretching
almost from the Tropic of Cancer to
the 31st parallel. To generalize on the
climate of such a large area is very
difficult. We can say that as a state
it divides its time between the trade
wind belt and the middle latitude
westerlies. The southern part lies en-
tirely within the trade belt. This is
one of the basic causes of the climatic
differences in the state.
We are more interested in the crit-
ical months of the year-critical from
development and will make great
areas of the world's surface healthful
to live in. It is very easy, and perhaps
not too inaccurate, to draw the anal-
ogy between the growth of heating
systems and the exploitation of west-
ern Europe and the subsequent evalu-
ation of air conditioning and the
development of the world's tropical
areas. But it is only part of the large-
pattern techniques which the partner-
ship of architecture and science has
The aim of good architecture is
obviously not to turn away from sci-
ence, but rather to integrate it into the
larger framework of our profession.
This science of climate design, this
systematic knowledge, those disci-
plines that a region imposes upon its
architects I would like to bring to
your attention by these notes . .
the point of view of hot climate de-
sign. This is, generally speaking, from
March to October, from Equinox to
Equinox. During this time the wet
and dry bulb temperatures are fairly
constant throughout the peninsula,
although the effect of the trade wind
on southeast Florida is one of in-
creased cooling. In the design of
devices to keep heat out of the build-
ing there are only minor differences
between north and south Florida. In
this matter sectionalism cannot be an
The human body is a heat produc-
ing machine. It must rid itself of
excess body heat or die
Because the human body had a
very well known Architect, it has a
fantastic ability to control its tem-
perature over a wide range of external
environments. Despite this ability,
high temperatures and high humid-
ities put a terrific strain on this heat
While the dry bulb temperatures
in Florida are usually not excessive,
the wet bulb, or humidity, reading is
extremely high during the entire year.
This humidity curbs the efficiency of
the sweating process and makes the
expression "it ain't the heat; it's the
humidity" an all too accurate descrip-
tion of a typical summer day in Flor-
ida The summers, too, are marked by
a total lack of frontal activity which
might bring some stimulating weather
to the peninsula.
Air movement increases the evap-
orative rate of the perspiration on the
skin in proportion to its velocity and
is a vital factor in helping the body
get rid of its excess body heat. DR.
CLARENCE A. MILLS remarks that short
term emergencies of extreme heat
stress can be tolerated by the body
with minor behavior characteristics.
Prolonging the period of heat stress
for many weeks or months causes
basic changes to occur in the body
relating directly to our mental and
physical activities which decline.
Figure 1 shows the four factors
which relate to human comfort. They
are: Air movement, Dry bulb tem-
perature, Wet bulb temperature and
Radiation. These four factors have
been combined by DR. THOMAS BED-
FORD into a thermal comfort reading
(Cortinued on Page 12)
.. ..... .
(Continued from Page 11)
called Corrected Effective Tempera-
ture (CEF) which has been very suc-
cessful in measuring human comfort
on an objective standard. This is
achieved through four readings of
Wet bulb temperature, Dry bull tem-
perature, Air movement by Kata ther-
mometer and Radiant temperature by
use of a Globe thermometer. Unless
those four factors are measured, com-
fort remains very subjective and ques-
tionable in value (see Figure I).
o// IMi0no V
WET BulPRY BULB
TEMR TE P.
"The problem of the sun, as we
know, is that it passes from one ex-
treme to another according to the
seasons. In this play many conditions
are created which await adequate so-
lutions. It is at this point that authen-
tic regionalism has its rightful place.
The techniques are universal . The
sun differs along the curvature of the
meridian, its intensity varies on the
crust of the earth according to its inci-
dence. In this detail the Creator has
given us beautiful and prodigious di-
versity. It is for us, in succession, to
see a solution which is worthy of the
work of nature."- LE CORBUSIER.
Florida is a low latitude state. At
apogee the sun reaches an altitude
of about 83 degrees in the north and
about 88 in the southern latitudes.
The solar lead from the sun begins
to be a problem at about the spring
equinox and continues until the fall
equinox in October. Figure II shows
graphically the heat load on the eleva-
tions and roof of a building on a July
day in the Miami area. The paradox
of the summer sun in low latitude is
that the north elevation receives a
much higher solar load in these hot
months then the south elevation. The
ROOF NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST
JULY SUN-MIAMI AREA
sun rises in the northeast and sets in
the northwest and radiates a consid-
erable heat load to the north at these
times. Since the sun is extremely high
in the south during these same
months, we have a much reduced solar
load on this elevation. The cast and
west elevations and the roof receive
intense solar loads as the graph indi-
The solution to the solar gain on
the various elevations is one of design-
ing an effective screen to block the
sun. Shading devices have always been
used of course; but it was LE COR-
BUSIER who perceived that this cle-
ment could be a most important
esthetic, if properly designed. He used
it in the Ministry of Education and
Health Building in Rio and it was in
this building that the Brise Soleil be-
came famous. The salient expression
of sun shades is in the unlimited
variety or shapes that can be used
on the various elevations to solve for
the constant changing solar altitudes
and hour angles. As OLGYAY and OLG-
YAY note in their book, "The ma-
terials which provide a screen between
man and his natural environment
offer rich possibilities for visual ex-
pression. With them new components
are added to the architectural vocab-
The design of shading devices is
based on three principles:
1-Determine the time of year when
these devices are needed.
2-Determine the position of the
sun when shading is needed.
3-Determine the type and position
of the shading device which will
block the sun.
The second requirement is best met
by purchasing a Sun Angle Calculator
from the Libbey-Owens-Ford Co., for
a moderate price. This calculator con-
tains templates for all latitudes in the
United States. By eliminating the ted-
ious projection of the true sun alti-
tude along the sun azimuth line it
saves its price in a few weeks of use.
(We will have these available at the
FAA convention in Hollywood next
November.) The tolerance of two
degrees in latitude is close enough
for sun shade design and it is not
necessary to correct for the exact
latitude of the subject under investi-
The book called Solar Control and
Shading Devices by Olgyay and Olg-
yay is also available. It is the best
work on this subject and will remain
so for many, many years. It can be
purchased from Princeton University
Press for $12.50. (The authors will
be guest speakers at the 1960 FAA
Because of the height of the sun
during the summer months, the south
elevation is not difficult to shade.
Figure III shows the south elevation
of the Broward Mental Hygiene
Clinic and noon sun angles calculated
for the various times of the year. You
will notice that the sun is allowed
to enter during the cold months. We
get some reduction in our heating
load and, all and all, it adds to
the brightness of the interiors during
As a general rule of the thumb the
cost of shading devices will equal the
cost of air conditioning tonnage saved
by them. We found this rule quite
accurate in the Clinic building men-
tioned above. Olgyay and Olgyay
claim that a 30 per cent saving in
the cost of air conditioning equip-
ment and a 15 per cent saving in
operation cost can be expected. Some
air conditioning engineers are not
aware of the reduced heat gain that
such shading devices give and the
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
architect should make clear to his con-
sultant that this factor has been
Figures IV and V represent a com-
parative heat gain through glass and
through a frame wall. Figure VI shows
a comparison of the total radiant heat
load passed through quarter-inch plate
glass as being close to 83 per cent,
while on the right a new type of
grey solar glass with the same thick-
ness reduces this heat gain to 59 per
cent. This glass could work to good
use as a remedial solution to those
areas that for one reason or another
cannot be obscured with shading de-
vices. The grey glass has an additional
virtue of reducing glare from adjoin-
ing areas and from the sky.
Figure VII shows a situation in
which non-air conditioned space is
combined with air conditioned offices.
The air conditioned space is oriented
north and south with a solid wall to
the west. The natural cooled space is
oriented toward the east to make the
best use of the trade wind breeze.
Figure VIII shows a good orientation
for air conditioned space.
The first method of excluding heat
from a building was by shading it
from the sun. Another method is by
reflectivity. Benjamin Franklin's ex-
periment with colored patches of cloth
in the snow was the classic experi-
ment on this subject. By relating the
depth of the patch of cloth sunk into
the snow as the snow melted he was
able to make a rough table of co-
efficients of reflectivity. In general a
black body absorbs all the heat that
reaches it and reflects none of it. Con-
versely, a white or shiny body reflects
almost all the radiant heat it gets.
Various colors have various coeffi-
cients of reflectivity.
A word of warning at this point.
Any amount of color that substanti-
ally changes white into a strong tint
or pastel will absorb from 50 per cent
to 60 per cent of the sun's rays. Those
walls that have a high solar load would
best be a very light color. The north
and south walls can take darker colors
much better because of their lower
solar heat load. By the same reasoning
a sun shade of a dark color would not
be efficient, since it would absorb a
large heat load and radiate it back
through the window that it had been
designed to protect. Naturally, the
glare of the white wall is a problem
to be considered. This priority of
0 2 4 g- I 1 It 14 i s i 2D- IS t 24
OF A WOODEN WALL
problems and solutions must be solved
for every job and every situation.
The third method of excluding heat
is by using the principle of thermal
capacity. We should avoid the use of
building materials that have high mass
and store up the heat of the sun. Our
CBS construction is public enemy No.
1 from this point of view. It has high
mass and poor "U" factors and time
Time lag is a very important phrase
in the thermal capacity department.
It means the time it takes heat to
pass through materials from the out-
side to the inside. The greater the
mass, the greater the time it takes
for the heat to pass through. If we
take the example of a west concrete
block wall, with furring and plaster,
G LA S5
OF A GLASS PANE
we would find that it reaches its max-
imum temperature on the outside
around four or five o'clock in the
afternoon. Soon afterwards the sun
sets and night cooling commences.
Unfortunately, this does not stop the
heat flow through the wall. Four or
five hours later this temperature of
perhaps 15 degrees above the inside
temperature starts to radiate into the
interior. This will last until equilib-
rium is reached in the early morning.
In summer months in Florida this
equilibrium is never reached. The
block does not cool to outside tem-
perature, but always has a deposit of
heat in it.
Ideally, the proper wall or roof ma-
terial should be a thin, highly re-
(Continued on Page 14)
I 0 .t1 6 S o L I
14 -- 3 o
l + S"UN
\1 a oo.
wide choice of
designs in the
choice of colors
Twelve standard designs in Ceramic Veneer
grilles are now available from Federal Seaboard
in a vast range of ceramic colors. Wherever a
solar screen or perforated facade is desirable
for sun control, ventilation or to insure privacy
while enhancing appearance, you can now design
with color in mind by specifying Ceramic Veneer
grilles. In addition to the standard units, Federal
Seaboard will custom-make grilles of your own
design at slightly higher cost. With Ceramic
Veneer grilles you are always assured of perma-
nent colors, high quality and a uniformly glazed
finish that retains its original beauty with mini-
For solar screen and
color guide brochures,
write today to:
CORP 0 RATI 0 N
10 East 40th St., New York 16, N. Y.
Plant at Perth Amboy, New Jersey
(Continued from Page 13)
flective curtain wall with a high "U"
factor. This type of wall or panel
would store very little heat and reach
an equilibrium with the outside tem-
perature in a very short time.
When we talk of "U" factors we
mean the resistance of a material to
conductivity of heat. Regardless of
what the manufacturers' charts indi-
cate for Florida, I would use at least
a "U" factor of 0.1 for buildings that
are used by people. This would be
needed on the roof and the west and
east walls. Insulation is a very small
item in overall building cost-and
never was so much comfort gained by
so little money spent.
The fourth method of reducing heat
stress is by air movement. It is a very
important factor in any measurement
of comfort factors as mentioned
before. Air movement increases the
evaporation of perspiration and aids
the body in ridding itself of the excess
body heat which varies from 400-700
Btu / Hour for normal activity. In
temperate climates the body gets rid
of this surplus heat by one-third con-
duction and convection, one-third rad-
iation, and one-third evaporation. In
the tropics this evaporation per-
centage is increased to 80 per cent-
so you can see that anything that
increases the rate of evaporation in-
crease the comfort of the subject.
Comfort through air movement has
a great amount to do with the proper
orientation of the building. This is
more successful in residential work
then in commercial, because a house
is usually a bit more flexible in its
planning and less likely to be air
conditioned than a commercial build-
ing. A non-air conditioned office or
store is unthinkable in Florida. The
weather bureau will be delighted to
give all the information required on
prevailing breezes in cities where it
has a recording station.
Wind tunnel tests on scale model
houses stress four points about the
movement of air through buildings.
They are, in a rough order of their
1-Let the air in the building and
out again with a minimum of
obstructions and distance be-
2-There should be directional air
movement along the ceiling line
to remove dead hot air and along
the floor to a height of four or
five feet to cool the people in
3-If the exit is larger than the
entry of air, then a venturi action
is created and air velocity is in-
4-Fences, trees, vegetation, and
other buildings can breeze-block
you, or set up turbulences that
will alter normal air flow. Paved
areas will radiate heat into the
building at night if located to
the windward of the openings.
Grassed and landscaped areas will
increase cooling factors if located
to the windward of the openings.
This is only an outline of the prob-
lems we have in our particular climate
of Florida. I have intentionally said
little about air conditioning except
where the subject entered this paper
as a side-issue. I feel that is most
complicated and the responsibility of
the consultant. But it is the responsi-
bility of the architect to turn over
to his engineer a building that has as
low a heat gain as is humanly possible
to develop. We cannot expect the air
conditioning designer to design our
shading devices although I suspect
they must have been sorely tempted
to do this at some time.
The architect can break the rules
if he has full knowledge of the con-
sequences of his act. These notes I
have made have only been in the way
of guiding principles; they are not
mandates. No building has been de-
signed without compromises between
design, economy and function. Knowl-
edge makes the decisions better bal-
anced and wiser in the end. If we
obtain the "authentic regionalism"
that Corbu speaks about, both archi-
tecture and Florida will be served.
Class notes: Arch. ASS. Department of Trop-
ical Arch., Sept.-Dec., 1959.
Bates, Marston: Where Winter Never Comes.
Carson, Robe, The Florida Tropics, Economic
Geography, Vol. 27, No 4, 1951.
Ellsworth Huntington, Civilization and Cli-
Dr. Clarence A. Mills, Temperature Dom-
inance Over Human Life, Science, Sept. 16,
Regional Climate Analyses and Design Data,
The House Beautiful Climate Control Proj-
ect, III. S. Florida.
Olgyay & Olgyay, Solar Control and Shading
Maxwell Fry & Jane Drew, Tropical Archi-
Charts for the Calculation of Environmental
Warmth, Medical Research Council, Her
Majesty's Ctationery Office.
Winslow and Harrington, Temperature & Hu-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
. / I e
Here's How Hollolite Panels Give You Greater Design Freedom
More design freedom for Florida architects has been the
objective of Holloway Materials Corporation through-
out the development cycle of Hollolite Panels.
Designed for uses ranging from decorative trim to
entire walls, Hollolite Panels incorporate several fea-
tures which free the architect from design restrictions
imposed by the material. Among these are:
AN ALMC TLESS COLOR R03 1
35 varieties of marble and granite, as well as specified
domestic stones, are available as aggregates. These
may be combined with a wide range of binder colors,
including non-fading blue, aqua and yellow, a full
selection of domestic oxide colors, and gray, white,
D f "Florentine" aggregate is available in
large, small, or mixed sizes and in rough or smooth
form. Aggregate surfaces can be ground and polished
to a high gloss as specified. "Contemporary" Hollolite
Panels, without aggregate, are also available. They
can be furnished in brushed or tooled finish, textured
mold finish, or architect-designed sculptured form.
A VERSATILE SELECTION OF'
Hollolite Panels are available as tiles, handlift panels
or curtain wall panels. This selection of sizes enables
architects to design Hollolite portions in scale with
the rest of the building.
E.A.SY N SI T A.S TALLzLA,.iD 13Y L(0C A ^
eC IT?'S ESN- Under the supervision of
Holloway representatives, Hollolite Panels can be
readily installed by local crews. Tiles are installed by
regular tilesetters, handlift panels by stonesetters, and
curtain wall panels by crews skilled in heavier in-
manufacturing and shipping methods used by Hollo-
way bring you Hollolite Panels at a very attractive
price when compared with other architectural facing
and curtain wall materials.
STY" 0 -L L'OLITEI
Y2 and Y thick, are
cast either 6" square or 12" square.
Flush ground terrazzo tiles are also
available for floors and walls. Cus-
tom sizes can be cut.
'Al I are 31% x 15% x 2".
They are easily handled by stone-
setters without special equipment,
and using any of the standard
ALTL -ANELS are avail-
able in lengths from 4' to 16', 4'
width, and thicknesses of 4", 5", and
6", in solid or insulated sandwich
the *e t a wha resi
crieria he ch-oose
Architectss rh pla r spcf Hol lr
e 0 0 a 0 S
5-. 0 S* 0 0 0
0 * 0 0
tem integal wit th r"8es of th
duin s p I a pr-
S i S*R 0 .
GLOBO MISTO. Round aggregate in mixed sizes. Shown one-half of youthe
actual size. its emotional impact. The
prsrptos -spcfcain exre0 l
taloe to the demnd ofyurdsin
"Scrp0on meho SoS spcfyn
actual size.an mi ti
Please send me more details about
GLOBO MISTO LUCIDO. As above, with aggregate surface ground
and highly polished.
f ",CITY' & ZONE
RUVIDO MISTO. Rough aggregate in mixed sizes. Shown one-half
of actual size.
RUVIDO MISTO LUCIDO. As above, with aggregate surface
ground and highly polished.
15 Years of Concrete Know-how
Assure Quality of Hollolite Panels
For Holloway Materials Corporation,
the introduction of new Hollolite .
Panels marks one and one-half decades .
of pioneering in the advanced design 0 '"
and use of concrete products. During --- ... .- _
these years of successful experimenta-- : -- --
tion with engineering and manufac- -
turing advances, more than 70 million
pre-cast concrete units have been de-
livered. Holloway has evolved several -- ~ J
procedures which will be of definite
benefit to users of Hollolite Panels. i-
Among these benefits are:
QUALITY CONTROL. for Hollo-
lite Tiles and Panels is performed in
this modern laboratory by a registered
professional engineer. -i
Holloway Materials Corp.
has a registered staff engineer to aid architects with the structural
considerations of Hollolite Panel installation. In cooperation with
the Company's resident architect, the Holloway engineer helps
you arrive at the most effective, economical use of Hollolite Panels.
Tile samples are furnished on request for all tile projects. Complete
z shop drawings, including structural details of erection, are submit-
ted for architect's approval on every curtain wall panel installation.
Panels are cast, cured, and finished in Holloway's Winter Park,
Florida plant. Expert supervision and careful craftsmanship put
quality into every tile and panel. A modern, completely equipped,
engineer-staffed laboratory is your assurance of a uniformly
> .. Holloway's policy of
S delivering all materials on their own trucks adds the finishing
< touch to the Company's responsibility to you. From the earliest
plans to on-time delivery, Holloway assumes complete control of
Hollolite Panels for your job.
SL A Holloway representative will visit your city soon with the
J Lo : complete technical details of Hollolite design, fabrication, and
) | o < erection. Watch for your invitation, and plan now to meet with him.
J (U < > In the meantime, you can obtain interim information simply by
4 J yJ j filling in and mailing the attached card.
z PRE-CAST DIVISION
FI- P. 0. DRAWER 1347 WINTER PARK, FLA.
Periodically the problem of the
"package deal" rears its ugly head to
take a scat of primary importance
along with the practicing non-profes-
sional. Angry members of the profes-
sion demand that the State Board or
their professional society do some-
thing immediately to save them from
utter ruin. As civilization progresses,
even in this enlightened land, there
are those who cannot keep pace.
Actually, where does the architect-
ural profession stand in respect to
these changing times? Many men
have progressed in their thinking and
their practice, far outdistancing any
non-registered men bent on the prac-
tice of our profession in spite of State
laws and no professional training.
Others, long smug in the belief that
registration laws and the American
Mes44ae omw 7e Preeidentee.a,
Package By The Individual
By JOHN STETSON, AIA
Florida Association of Architects
Institute of Architects will forever
protect them against the unregistered,
are beginning to panic. Ordinary
draftsmen are turning out designs too
often as commendable as these com-
placent members of the Architectural
Most of the professions today are
recognizing the need for refresher
courses and for courses covering new
techniques. Our professional maga-
zines, and your own Florida Archi-
tect continually print articles covering
new construction methods as well as
articles concerned with the necessity
of a thorough understanding of every
field related to the successful design,
(Continued on Page 24)
1960 Office Practice Seminar
The second of what is hoped will
become an annual Office Practice
Seminar has been scheduled for Fri-
day, August 12 at Clearwater. Last
year's Seminar, held at Palm Beach,
was an outstanding success. Though
admittedly an experiment, the session
drew almost 70 architects from every
section of the state. This year attend-
ance could well be doubled, for the
FAA Office Practice Committee,
chairmanned by ROBERT H. LEVISON,
has developed a program of signif-
icance to every practicing architect.
As last year, the Seminar will be
divided into five hourly work sessions,
two in the morning, three in the af-
ternoon. As now planned, these will
be followed by a cocktail party Fri-
day evening at which Seminar part-
icipants will be joined by members
of the FAA Board of Directors which
will hold its third meeting of 1960
in Clearwater on Saturday, August 13.
They will receive invitations to be
guest-observers at the Board meeting.
The Seminar's first hourly session
will get under way promptly at 10:00
AM. The second will follow a 10-
minute coffee break. Luncheon will
start at 12:15; and at 1:30 sharp the
hourly afternoon sessions will start.
This year the Seminar will include a
summary session from 4:30 to 5:30.
Robert H. Levison will act as gen-
eral chairman of the day-long meet-
ing. Speaker-moderators for the
two morning sessions will be HIL-
LIARD T. SMITH, JR., Palm Beach,
who will open the Seminar with a
discussion on "Program, Feasibility
and Other Report Writing"; and
EARLE M. STARNES, Miami, on "Spe-
Subject of the first afternoon ses-
sion will be "The Architect and His
Accounting". The speaker will be a
qualified expert a CPA whose
name will be announced in the Au-
gust issue of The Florida Architect.
The second meeting of the afternoon
will deal with "Building Project Fi-
nance and Appraisal" and will be
handled by Chairman Levison with
BRUCE TAYLOR, MIA, realtor, profes-
sional appraiser and Mayor of Bellaire.
The following session will present a
discussion of "Cost Estimating and
Bidding Procedures" by a panel com-
posed of JOHN ABNER BURTON, IV,
Sanford; EDGCAR C. HANEBUTHI, Sara-
sota; and G. PERRIN MCCONNELL,
executive secretary of the Florida
West Coast Chapter, AGC, Tampa.
The Seminar's guest of honor will
be DANIEL SCHWARTZMAN, FAIA, of
New York City, Chairman of the AIA
National Committee on Office Prac-
tice. He has consented to summarize
the results of the day-long meeting;
and from an unusually broad back-
ground of professional experience and
distinguished accomplishment he will
bring the proceedings of the Seminar
into sharp and practical focus.
TELL THE SEMINAR COMMITTEE YOUR PLANS TO ATTEND
Write to: R..b.,er H Le..:.:.r IA Ch FAA Co.mnmrnrtee or. Oft..:- :r..r,:
-4 -.:. a- r.jd n .. C l arr .a3r.: r
Indicate: I- I .ill ar.r -.j th.: O't..: 'ra.:r-.: Sem in r u.,u ri i2 I -
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THE HOUSTON CORPORATION
a Florida corporation
St. Petersburg Miami Jacksonville Orlando Lakeland Daytona Beach Eustis
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
An Airport Bedlam
The new and still not entirely
completed passenger terminal at
Miami's International Airport is
among the very largest and most mod-
ern of its kind. Dade County's Port
Authority has already spent over $26
million centralizing the latest facil-
ities into a million-plus square feet of
hard-working floor space geared to the
needs of the fast-approaching jet era
of commercial aviation.
Within its big spread U layout,
Steward and Skinner, Miami archi-
tects, have provided for external ex-
pansion and internal alteration to
accommodate ever changing airline
requirements and procedures. At this
jet age terminal 74 huge aircraft can
be loaded or unloaded simultaneously
-three times the capacity of the Na-
tional Airport at Washington, D. C.
A passenger concourse about one-third
of a mile in length has positions for
10 national and 26 international air
The terminal was planned on the
"split-level" principle of operation-
with enplanning passengers arriving
for ticketing and check-in at the
second floor level and deplaning pas-
sengers claiming baggage and trans-
portation on the ground floor. Much
of the lower level is assigned to
terminal service areas. Baggage from
second floor check-in stations is
moved down by mechanical conveyors
to large "make-up" areas.
Development of the airport has
been in progress since the end of
World War II and is now at least
half again as large as was originally
contemplated. Two new passenger
stations were added and the two-story
Consumer Service Building which
stretches its 90-foot width to a third-
mile length opposite the parking area.
Above it is a just-completed five-story,
274-room commercial hotel-the first
major hotel in the country built as
part of an air terminal that em-
bodies in a roof top, tropicalized
setting a swimming pool, dressing
rooms and bar.
In designing the hotel which is
virtually on top of planes landing and
taking off Steward and Skinner, to-
gether with Mitchell and Gordon,
Coral Gables consulting engineers,
were faced with a series of compli-
cated interior conditioning problems.
Of top importance was the control of
noise. The huge airport's traffic pat-
tern averages a flight movement every
84 seconds, 24 hours of every day.
Air traffic at Miami's
has zoomed more than
350 percent in the past
nine years compared
with an average US in-
crease of 167 percent.
With this growth has
come growing intensi-
ties of heat, noise and
confusion . How to
control the resulting
bedlam was a major
problem of overall de-
sign. The solution to
it involved some ingen-
ious innovations in
pattern . .
And at 100 feet of altitude the sound
intensity of a jet aircraft on takeoff
will swell to 120 decibels. Noise, of
course, seeps through windows, walls,
roof and ventilator ducts. Four meth-
ods were employed to keep it out.
1 ... Double windows were speci-
fied. The outer window, set nine and
one-half inches from the inner unit,
has two layers of glass secured in a
neoprene gasket and canted outward
from the bottom at a 5 angle to
help reduce vibration and subsequent
(Continued on Page 30)
New Guide Book to
A brilliantly compact tour of Dymaxia from its tor-
turous concept through its progressive development
into a full-fledged system that promises a boundless
scope of possibility
THE DYMAXION WORLD OF BUCK-
MINSTER FULLER, by Dr. Robert W.
Marks. Published by Reinhold Book
Division, 430 Park Avenue, New
York 22, N. Y. 232 pages; 81/2 by
101/2; illustrated; $12.00.
From almost any point of view this
is a truly extra-ordinary book. The
subject of it-whom the author calls "a
protean maverick"-is reason enough
to lift this volume above the usual
offerings of the book trade. But the
format is almost as noteworthy, at
least from an editorial viewpoint. Ma-
terial has been armrnged in two defi-
nite sections one the running text
which has been divided into chapters
covering, generally, the background of
Buckminster Fuller and his specific
The other section-by far the most
fascinating to any graphic minded
reader presents a series of illustra-
tions, drawings, charts, photographs,
arranged in chronological order of is-
suance and complemented by captions
which, in themselves, are often gems
of highly informative, but ultra-con-
densed writing. The two sections rein-
force and explain one another. In
combination they create an account
of a remarkable activity which, during
the course of more than forty turbu-
lent years, revealed a purposeful cre-
ativity and diamond-sharp mentality
which history will undoubtedly rank
as equal to any of those which have
helped make it.
Dr. Marks' generic name for the
many Buckminster Fullers his book
shows to exist is probably as good as
any. It is the disiti on of an 18-year
friendship which has developed an
evident ability to translate Dymaxion
attitudes, philosophy, expressions and
works in relatively simple, compara-
tively- easy- to- understand terms. The
author has no need to apologize for
his work when he says "It is a difficult
matter to interpret Bucky." It is in-
deed. But he has succeeded so admir-
ably that the Dymaxion world as well
as our own ordinary one has cause
to thank him.
Not that this book offers easy read-
ing. To those who have conversed
with Buckminstcr Fuller, or worked
with him or read his "incisive, private
argot" or listened to his reasoning and
tried to absorb fully the technical
richness offered Dr. Marks' transla-
tion should be clear. But others must
study. Necessarily both text and illus-
tration captions contain numerous
quotations from Buckminster Fuller;
and the author's paraphrasing of ideas,
reasoning and conclusions have under-
155 Northeast Fortieth Street, Miami, Florida
S. L. SHEPHERD & ASSOCIATES Architect
WALTER K. SMITH Associate Architect
THOMAS & SLATER, INC. Builder
RICHARD PLUMER BUSINESS INTERIORS, INC.
Interior Design and Furnishings
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
standably been somewhat conditioned
by the character of Dymaxion expres-
sion. But this is an asset rather than
a liability. It is as it should be. The
Dymaxion world is still a new one.
The sooner today's world understands
its language as an inclusive expression
of its purposeful ideals, the better for
If the book lacks anything, it is a
somewhat more detailed delineation
of the human side of its comprehen-
sive designer subject. Dr. Marks has
skillfully and economically chronicled
Mr. Dymaxion's achievements as de-
signer, cartographer, teacher, writer,
mathematician, model builder, and,
most recently, successful corporation
executive. By and large, the book is
largely the subjective story of Buck-
minster Fuller, inventor, who started
out as a business man in the building
materials field, spent some thirty years
developing theories and "anticipatory
designs" and now, with a stack of
patents and a growing acceptance of
his ideas, is engaged in administering
his business entities and guarding
against infringement of his rights to
So Dr. Marks' circle of biography
Scheduled for Construction Soon...
In Florida, as elsewhere, Fuller's principles of geodisic design are being recog-
nized as a unique solution to a whole series of spanning problems. As one
example, this sketch for a Metropolitan Amusement Center for Fort Lauderdale
embodies a geodisic dome 400 feet in diameter which is now being engineered
in aluminum by the Kaiser organization to house 15,000 people. Charles F.
McKirahan, AIA, and Associate are the architects.
seems to close as neatly as the struc-
ture of a gcodisic dome. Within that
circle, however, there is much that Dr.
Marks has left untouched. There is
the steel and velvet of the man him-
self; the people, the places, the "to-
and-froing"- in short the whole va-
ried, multi-patterned background of
this remarkable inventor whose ac-
complishments Dr. Marks explains so
ably. Here is material in plenty for
another fascinating volume. Some day
soon, we hope, it should see the light
of a publisher's release.-R.WV.S.
RICHARD PL UMER
155 Northeast Fortieth Street
(Continued from Page 19)
construction and operation of a build-
ing. Throughout our schooling we
learn design and gain some knowledge
of construction. Later in practice we
further develop our design techniques,
and, if worth our salt, learn a lot
about how a building is put together.
Too often, there our education ceases.
How often we hear architects make
the pronouncement that they don't
give a hoot if the building makes
money for the owner or not. They say
that the way they have designed it, it
should; but how can an architect be
expected to hang around until man-
agement makes a successful go of it.
This raises the question, "If a build-
ing is designed properly and econo-
mically, why shouldn't it be a suc-
cess?" Or maybe some architects' in-
terest in their clients ceases upon final
fee payment. So very much of our
business is of the repeat variety, I
hope this isn't often the case. To me,
a successful operation is equally im-
portant to the design behind which
the operation is carried on. Certainly
each depends on the other.
There have been thousands of
books written on the subject of proper
use of real estate, tax planning for real
estate, relationship of investment to
anticipated income, economic break-
downs of business property develop-
ment and operation. How many archi-
tectural firms have such editions in
their libraries? How many practicing
principals have made a study of these
important factors? A knowledge, even
slight, of this important part of a
successful commercial building op-
eration is just as essential as a basic
knowledge of landscaping, air condi-
tioning, decorating, etc. to any archi-
tect providing a service more compre-
hensive than just a plan service.
Herein seems to lie the problem
and its answer. If you are not willing
and able to offer a full service (so far
as proper limitations permit), then
be content to remain side by side
with those offering just as much as
you. As you loaf in the sun, don't be
perturbed at the increasingly larger
percentage of clients seeking a com-
plete service (package deal or what-
ever you wish to call it) from offices
or organizations capable of such ser-
vice or seeking draftsmen or other
unscrupulous professionals willing to
perform a minimum service for an
even more minimum fee.
Let's take as an example two cases
with which we are quite familiar. The
first is a man who retired to Florida
with a wife, child and a certain
amount of cash. The money was not
enough to provide a living if invested
in normal protected savings accounts.
Retiree number two is in a parallel
position. Both decided to enter the
motel, hotel or apartment business.
Number One sought to stretch his
money to its fullest, shopping for the
cheapest of everything. At the con-
clusion of his building program he
had eight small apartment units, had
spent a total of slightly less than
$72,000 for land, building, furnish-
ings, fees, etc., including a mortgage
of $25,000 and leaving operating
funds of about $7,500. At the end of
five years, Number One has a real
lemon on his hands. He still owes
over $20,000 on a mortgage, has no
operating funds, a maximum occu-
pancy that barely provides a living,
and now his maintenance headaches
(Continued on Page 28)
To pt point across
m--mmm -m-m mmM-mm mm mm = M-mm-mm- --mmw
Our point is this . characteristics of treated
t/ lumber vary with the type of treatment used. For
instance, some treatments leach out . Celcure
is non-leaching. Many give off unpleasant odors
. Celcure is odorless. Others contain poisons
that are extremely dangerous . Celcure is
non-poisonous and can be used anywhere without
worry. Celcure has many important advantages
which are unmatched by other treatments.
PRESSURE TREATED LUMBER
24 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
THE KEY TO ARCHITECTURAL PRESTIGE
Florida architects have done much to up-grade home-building
standards. The Medallion Home award is another incentive for The Medallion Home campaign
their creative talents in furthering modern living . ."Better Liv- is backed by multi-million dollar
ing-Electrically." It offers a challenge in designing All-Electric promotions in newspapers and
Kitchens, planned for modern electrical appliances, plus modern magazines, on TV and radio. Call
our office for full details and spec-
Light-for-Living throughout the house, ifications to qualify your homes
Regardless of size, type, or price, the Medallion Home award is for Medallion Awards.
given by Florida Power & Light Company to any home that meets
the following electrical requirements:
ALL-ELECTRIC KITCHEN-LAUNDRY that includes at least 4 major
electrical appliances . water heater, range, and the choice of clothes
dryer, dishwasher, or other "Reddy-servants."
FULL HOUSEPOWER (100-200 amp service) with large enough wire
and ample circuits, outlets and switches for maximum convenience and I
efficiency ... now and in the future. ION
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Helping Build Florida
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News & Notes
Architects in the News
Complaints by some that architects
aren't getting their fair share of pub-
licity are not borne out by current
facts. Analysis of returns from an all-
state newspaper clipping service
showed close to 100 items appearing
in daily papers in every section of the
state for the first week in June all
dealing with architects and their act-
ivities. Stories ranged in importance
from a 1-column, 2-inch notice to a
7-column, half-page spread with pic-
tures and full credit to the architects.
A survey of such publicity over the
past several months indicates that
Florida architects generally are enjoy-
ing an excellent press. Not only are
their projected buildings being report-
ed in newspapers throughout the
state; but their activities as interested
members of their communities are
also being chronicled.
The conclusion is inescapable that
the importance of architectural ser-
vices is becoming more generally real-
ized. Activities of architects are being
reported as valid news stories -
which indicates that editors are now
recognizing the professional character
of these activities. In addition, the
current volume of publicity for the
profession indicates that architects
themselves have recognized some of
the editors' day-to-day problems -
and are making it easier for them to
use architectural stories by furnishing
the kind of material needed. On both
counts this is a big step ahead for
grass-roots P/R in our state.
Guide for Chapter Officers..
To conform to official usage, the
name of an AIA chapter should pre-
cede the designation of the Institute.
For example, either of these two name
styles is correct: "Florida Chapter,
AIA," or "Florida Chapter of The
American Institute of Architects." It
is not correct to designate a chapter
as, "American Institute of Architects,
This usage has been current with
the Institute for some years. But it
seems not to be generally realized by
all Chapter officers. This reminder is
particularly for the helpful guidance
of chapter P/R Committee chairmen.
Century 21 Exposition .... Seattle 1962 . .
Man's role in the space age will be the main theme of The Century 21 Exposi-
tion scheduled for Seattle, Washington, from April 21 to October 21, 1962.
Eighty-four nations have already been invited to participate in what will be
the first international exposition held in the U. S. since the World's Fair of
1939 . Century 21 will offer an insight into man's future, rather than
a review of past progress that has marked the character of former expositions.
Progress of science will be heavily stressed; and Congress has appropriated
some $9-millions for the U. S. part of the exposition . Above is a model
of the U. S. Science Pavilion, the $3.5-million focal point of a 6.5-acre display
area that will contain "the most comprehensive science exhibit ever assembled."
Architects for the pre-cast, pre-stressed, five-unit structure are Minoru Yama-
saki and Associates, of Detroit, and Naramore, Bain, Brady and Johanson
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Summer Workshop Proposed
During last month's meeting of the
Florida Central Chapter a proposal
for establishing a summer professional
workshop was endorsed and a com-
mittee authorized for the purpose of
expediting action toward this end. The
proposal was made to the Chapter at
its June 11 meeting at Lakeland by
Mr. R. C. WILLARD of the U/F Col-
lege of Architecture and Fine Arts.
As outlined by Mr. Willard the
"workshop" would start during the
summer of 1961 to serve the area of
the Florida Central Chapter Tam-
pa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Sara-
sota and Lakeland. It would operate
in three separate phases. First the
workshop would offer courses in archi-
tecture and fine arts at pre-college
levels to high school students the
object being to help students choose
architecture as a college major and
also to provide a generalized fine arts
background for laymen.
Second phase would involve a pro-
gram of continuing education in tech-
nical subjects for the practicing pro-
fessional. This would offer refresher
courses in such subjects as design,
mechanical equipment, advanced
structural systems, rendering, interior
design and landscaping. The pro-
gram's third phase would be aimed at
the men with whom architects work
- bankers, real estate men, builders.
Courses would be selected to provide
these laymen with generalized infor-
mation on architecture and the arts.
In outlining the program Mr. Wil-
lard suggested that the courses be
given on a night school basis with
some classes also scheduled for Sat-
urdays. Support of the program
would come from tuition charges for
Personal . .
JAMES E. WINDHAM, III, has moved
from 1315 Edgewater Drive to 333
North Rosalind Avenue, Orlando.
Friends and associates were sad-
dened by the sudden and tragic death
of CHESTER W. TROWBRIDGE, 33, Ft.
Lauderdale, in an airplane accident
near Andros Island in the Bahamas,
June 21. He was an associate of the
Broward County Chapter and main-
tained an office at 3215 N. Ocean
Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale.
(Continued from Page 8)
tects is Dr. Siple's completion of Re-
gional Climatic Analyses and Design
Data 1200 pages with 84 maps and
charts first attempted for House
Beautiful's Climate Control Project
and subsequently published serially
by the AIA Bulletin. Since then-
19-9 to 1952 he produced Cli-
matic Criteria for Building Construc-
tion for the Building Research Advis-
ory Board of the National Research
Council and was Associate Editor,
with TYLER S. ROGERS, of the Fiber-
glas Corporation, of an Architectural
Record book, Design of Insulated
Buildings for Various Climates.
These accomplishments are only a
small portion of the vital background
that this man will bring to the FAA
Convention. Since his start with Ad-
miral Byrd in 1928 as a 19-year old
student of geology and biology at
Alleghany College, Dr. Siple has bent
a keen, and probing mentality toward
the solutions of man's environment
problems. His willingness to share
his findings is an opportunity no Flor-
ida architect should miss.
the soft, still voice of o __
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(Continued from Page 24)
Number Two took a different path.
He first sought an architect he felt
had a basic knowledge of the field
chosen by Number Two as his best
investment possibility. After several
meetings with his architect he learned
he had chosen a rental operation with
which he was least familiar. It took
over six months to work out his pro-
gram-and only after careful analyza-
tion of the relationship of investment
to income, utilizing every possible
operational expense factor, mortgage
requirement, public appeal factor,
family part of the operation, main-
tenance, etc. His final investment? A
whopping $235,000. Today he enjoys
an even larger income than originally
planned for, and finds almost no va-
cancies year round.
No, the difference was not in loca-
tion; the two are across-the-street
neighbors. The architect for Number
One received the grand fee of $500-
and by the appearance of the situa-
tion did not earn that. Number Two's
man received a six percent fee and
earned every nickel. Today he and
Number Two, only five years ago
complete strangers, are close friends.
Operation figures indicate the plan
established for this successful opera-
tion erred on the conservative side by
at least twenty percent as to income
and over ten percent as to costs. No
magic formula was used. This archi-
tect knew where to find the informa-
tion he did not already possess, and
then put it to use for his client. You
might call this a "package deal." But
certainly the insurance broker, the
mortgage company and particularly
the client consider it a "good deal."
This package by the individual ex-
tends into another field almost un-
touched. All about us are locations
for very successful operations. The
only thing required is an imaginative
mind, with business sense to instigate
a project, then sell it. Why should
others make the profits on such de-
velopments? The architect is trained
to do these things, but usually sits in
his ivory tower awaiting the knock at
the door heralding the approach of a
person seeking drafting services. Flor-
ida today offers almost unlimited pos-
sibilities for new building developed
as a package by an enterprising archi-
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flexible, durable NATURAL RUBBER, in-
terwoven with specially refined and cxi-
dized HIGH MELT POINT ASPHALT, aids
materially in retarding condensation on all
treated structures. Ideal for Roof, Mason-
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Gardner MOBILASTIC ALUMINUM
Sunsational! The superior brilliancy of this
product reflects and disperses up to 75%
of the sun's actinic rays. Interiors become
cool and comfortable during the "long
hot summer." High Aluminum pigment
content plus the finest grade asphalt in-
sure an extra thick, quality top-coat.
Insulates, waterproofs, prevents rust and
corrosion as its repels heat. Provides a
protective shield for the under-body of
asphalt. Apply with brush or spray.
Gardner SILICONE WATERPROOFING
Superior! A full strength Silicone water-
p-oofing for cement buildings. Designed
specifically for southern climates.
Write or call for full
ASPHALT PRODUCTS CO.
912 RUBY ST., TAMPA, FLORIDA
Manufacturers of Quality Roofing, Water-
proofing & Flooring Compounds for
Home & Industry
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
The guy with the halo? He's the builder
who offers economical heat!
Of course most house-hunters now recognize the need in
Florida for dependable, permanently-installed home heating.
And they know it won't cost them much if it's oil heat.
The builder who spends a little more to give his homebuyers
the big savings assured by oil heating deserves his halo.
Just how much more economical is oil heat? It averages
about HALF the cost of heat from other fuels! It's much safer
and more dependable, too-by far the best for Florida homes.
If you're buying or building, insist on oil home heating. If
your present home needs better heat at much lower cost -
install clean, efficient, far-more-economical oil heating! It's the
one right solution to Florida's home heating problem!
MUCH SAFER MORE
Have you checked on
Home Heating costs
Here's what you'll find: Oil heat
averages HALF the cost of heat from
other fuels. No premium price to
pay when fuel oil is used only for home
heating. Supplies are dependable-
fuel oil is always available. Oil home
heating is much safer (no obnoxious
fumes or combustible gases) . .
gives clean, automatic, circulating heat... assures peace of mind, maximum
comfort for your family... by far the best solution of Florida's home heating problem.
FLORIDA HOME -'I HEATING INSTITUTE
BUILDORAMA, DUPONT PLAZA CENTER, MIAMI
MR. ARCHITECT: Ads like this have helped to spread the word all over Florida this summer about the
superior economy, safety and dependability of OIL home heating. You'll find no resistance among your
clients when you recommend OIL heat in their houses.
See the oil heating display at Buildorama, Dupont Plaza Center, Miami
JULY, 1960 29
FOR SWIVEL LIGHTS
swivels 9 bea ful
holds 9 beautiful
tension /finishes to
indefinitely choose from
Choice of metal cones; or Fabriglas
cones, with embedded maple leaves,
ferns, or rattan. (Also available in
WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG
Depend on Members of
HEATING & PIPING
1390 N.W. 43rd ST.
Phone NE 5-8751
MEMBERS OF RACCA NATIONAL
Airko Air Conditioning Company
Cawthon, Dudley M, Inc.
Central Roof & Supply Co.
Conditioned Air Corporation
Ham ilton, Samo L, Inc.
Hitll York, Corporatlion
McDonald Air Conditioning
Miami Air Conditioning
Miami Super Cold, Inc.
SPoole & Kent Comopany
SZack Air Conditioning & Refrigeration
A & B Pipe & CGen Sheet Meta
Steel Co. & Roofing
Sir Filters Co. Gondas Corpo aton
Art ip Div. raves Refrigeration
Chrysler Corporation Lor ry of FCl., Inci
rophy, George *oc Mtlddleton and Co.
Clark Equipment Co. a \lcMurray, fI. L., Co.
SFlorida electric Motor Trane Company
(Continued from Page 21)
sound transmission. Window frames
themselves are also cushioned with
2 ... Both inner and outer surfaces
of the exterior concrete block wall
have been sealed with a parging coat
of cement stucco. An inner wall inde-
pendent of the exterior block con-
struction was framed with metal studs
to which inner window units are at-
tached. Studs are set on insulating
fiber board pads on each floor and
are separated from direct contact with
the inside surface of the exterior wall
by neoprene cushions.
3 ... To soundproof the roof, a
series of light channels were sus-
pended from the structural slab by
resilient clips. From these another
series of resilient clips supports a
metal lath and plaster ceiling hung
two feet below the roof slab.
4 ... With the building thus sealed
tightly, a high velocity air-condition-
ing system was used and designed to
operate at a slight positive pressure
as a further deterrent to sound waves.
The insulation provided by the
double membrane wall construction
and the use of triple glazing at win-
dows resulted in relatively small in-
terior heat gain or loss. In addition,
the solar heat load through large glass
areas was minimized through use of
hollow core, aluminum sun shades.
These also shield five floors of airport
offices; and controllable vertical lou-
vers provide solar shading for public
areas on the second floor along the
west side of the terminal building.
Though these devices served to re-
duce considerably the air conditioning
machinery and ducts which would
otherwise have been necessary, over
3,000 tons of cooling capacity are
still required to handle the entire
terminal-hotel heat load of nearly 18
million Btu's per hour. This is said
to be the largest refrigeration system
serving a single building in the South-
Terminal building and hotel are
conditioned by separate systems. In
the terminal, seven Carrier centrifugal
refrigerating machines furnish chilled
water to 112 built-up fan-coil condi-
tioners in service rooms and pent-
houses strategically located through-
out the terminal. Each equipment
room houses from three to five air
Aichel Steel and Supply Co. 32
Air Conditioning, Refrigeration,
Heating & Piping Asso. 30
American Celcure Wood
Preserving Co. . 24
A. R. Cogswell 30
Dunan Brick Yards, Inc. 3rd Cover
Dwoskin, Inc. .... 5
Electrend Distributing Co. . 28
Federal Seaboard Terra
Cotta Corp. 14
Florida Home Heating Institute 29
Florida Portland Cement Div. 9
Florida Power & Light Co. 25
Florida Steel Corp. . 4
Florida Tile Industries . .
Gardner Asphalt Products Co. 28
George C. Griffin Co. . 8
Hamilton Plywood . . 27
Holloway Materials Corp.
The Houston Corp. . 20
Richard Plumer . 22 and 23
Prescolite . 30
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc. 6
Sta-Brite Fluorescent Mfg. Co. 3
Tiffany Tile Corp. . 26
F. Graham Williams Co. . 31
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
433 W. Bay St.
handling units comprised of a fan
section, cooling coils, dampers and
air chambers. Here return air is mixed
with 10 percent outside air, filtered,
cooled and dehumidified and circu-
lated through low velocity ducts at
1,000 feet per minute.
Purpose of sectional apparatus
rooms is for optimum control at max-
imum economy. Instead of operating
a central plant continuously at peakl
performance, individual systems can
be adjusted to meet fluctuating needs
determined by varying load condi-
tions. Conditioned air is discharged
through wall grilles and ceiling
diffusers. Return air ducts are non-
existant, for spaces above hung ceil-
ings in terminal areas have been
utilized as return air plenums.
In the hotel system, conditioned
air is supplied at high velocity to
ceiling-mounted units in each room.
In each is a secondary chilled-water
coil; and dial controls permit occu-
pants to regulate temperatures accord-
ing to individual preference.
The system saved two rooms per
hotel floor, according to the engineer.
Conditioned air is produced in a
central penthouse equipment room
and distributed through small-diam-
eter, sound-insulated, cylindrical ducts
within the wall and ceiling construc-
tion. The high pressure air is fed
through the ceiling units from a series
of small jets; and its velocity is re-
duced in a sound-absorbing chamber
of the control cabinets before being
released to the room through ceiling
Room outlets of this system con-
tain no fans, thus no motors to senv-
ice. In addition to saving the cost
of electrical circuits to each unit, the
overall operating cost of this high-
velocity system is said to be much
less than that of the conventional
type employing fan-coil equipment.
Three completely independent
electrical transformer vaults supply
12,100 kw electricity for the entire
terminal. Should a power failure occur,
the load automatically shifts from one
to the other. If all three should fail
simultaneously, generating units cap-
able of indefinite operation start auto-
matically. When power is restored
they stop automatically. All services
are tied into central control boards
constantly recording the pulse of the
terminal, warning of impeding func-
tional difficulties before they start.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS, Chairman
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
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CERAMIC GLAZED BRICK
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The men who administer local government in the towns, cities and
counties throughout our state undoubtedly have the best interests of their
communities at heart. In spite of the politics involved, most of them
probably have a sincere desire to serve their fellow citizens well and to
improve local conditions in every possible way.
But not all of them travel the same road to these goals. And in some
cases a blind spot of misunderstanding is effectively preventing much
progress along any path at all.
For example, in many of our smaller cities, there exists a curious attitude
on the part of public officials relative to the issuance of building permits.
In too many instances permits for construction of really substantial buildings
are being issued by departments without question relative to either the
character or adequacy of the drawings and specifications for a proposed
structure or the technical competence of the individual who prepared these
This procedure is creating an unfortunate situation in every community
where it is current. It is hamstringing the community's progressive development
by giving unthinking approval to poor planning, cheap-john building methods,
inexpert design and is therefore helping to keep property values low
while improving the chances of future business deterioration and community
blight. This is certainly important enough to cause citizens some concern.
But in addition, the slipshod practice is exposing members of the community
to the dangers of possible building failures resulting from technical incom-
petence on the part of unqualified building designers.
Finally and possibly most dangerous of all this situation is such
that it is difficult, sometimes legally impossible, to fix responsibility for any
such failure which might occur. The building official who issues a permit
for a structure designed by anyone not duly certified as competent under
Florida law assumes a fearful responsibility himself. He has opened the
door to technical incompetence as well as professional illegality. Thus he
can give his fellow citizens no assurance that the building for which he
grants a permit will be either structurally safe or even adequate for its purpose.
Surely, it would seem, no building official, zoning director, mayor or
city commissioner would expose himself or his townsfolk to the possibility
of such hazards. Yet, as a result of weak administrative policies or the lack
of adequate regulatory ordinances, that is exactly what is happening in many
Of course, it's not happening on purpose. This situation exists primarily
because local government officials do not realize first, the various dangers
involved; nor, second, how easy it is to take the positive step needed to
eliminate these dangers.
All that any community need do is to adopt an ordinance embodying
two simple provisions. The first is that no building permit shall be issued
unless the documents submitted bear the signature and seal of an individual
registered by an official state agency as being technically competent and
legally qualified to produce them. The second is that no occupational license
for the purpose of preparing building plans and specifications shall be issued
to anyone not so registered.
It's just that simple. Communities which have already done this have
raised their civic sights to the vast advantage of their citizens. If all Florida
communities would do this, each would take a long step toward sounder
civic values and a brighter, more prosperous future.-ROGER WV. SHERMAN, AIA.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
.. .... .- '
., ., fy- .-- -. ., *. 4W-r-', .V 'w^ ^* *'.M^ tA .. i'.-W r-........-#e ^ & -w *
These are the grille tile
of hard, fired cla \vwe
import from Vene:uela
They're somev.hat lighter
in color and more
delicate in scale than
those from Panama.
But they have the same
sort of slight color
variations and occasional
kiln markings that
make for a really
beautiful texture in
the finished wall
DUNAN BRICK YARDS,
MIAMI, FLORIDA TU 7-1525- --
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f 4 -
The first Convention of the new decade -
PCC which some are already calling "The Sizzling
Sixties" will be at Hollywood in No\ember.
The Broward Count\, Chapter will be the host,
and members are already at work developing
the theme "Man, Climate and The Architect"
into a program which promises to be both pro-
vocative and unusual . It's not too earl\ to
plan for the 1960 FAA Conienton right now.
There's a good chance you'll be invited to par-
ticipate as well as to attend .
Convention will be the Holly-
wood Beach Hotel-long rated
as offering some of the best
convention facilities on the
entire east coast. In addition
to plenty of space for meet-
ings and exhibits, all sorts of
opportunities exist for fun.
46th ANNUAL FAA CONVENTION
NOVEMBER 10, 11, 12, 1960 HOLLYWOOD BEACH HOTEL HOLLYWOOD