Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00068
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: February 1960
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00068
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text

I ._ I


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Florida Architect

97tv 7" 1"" -

Letters . . . . .

How Air Conditioning Affects Design
By Alfred L. Jaros, Jr.

New Decade What's Ahead in Housing? . . .
By Arthur S. Goldman

Protection for Investors . . . . . .
Message from The President By John Stetson, AIA

FAA Standards of Good Practice . . . . .
Office and Job Forms

National Citations for Two Florida Schools . . .

News and Notes . . . . . . . .

Advertisers' Index . . . . . . . .

. 15

. 17

. 18-19

. 22

. .24


Triple Play for the Future . . .
Editorial by Roger W. Sherman, AIA

John Stetson, President, P.O. Box 2174, Palm Beach
Verner Johnson, First Vice-President, 250 N. E. 18th Street, Miami
Arthur Lee Campbell, Second V.-Pres., Room 208, Security Bldg., Gainesville
Robert B. Murphy, Third Vice-President, 1210 Edgewater Drive, Orlando
Francis R. Walton, Secretary, 142 Bay Street, Daytona Beach
Roy M. Pooley, Jr., Treasurer, Suite 209, 233 E. Bay Street, Jacksonville

BROWARD COUNTY: Robert E. Hall, Jack W. Zimmer; DAYTONA BEACH:
David A. Leete; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Eugene H. Beach, Anthony L. Pullara,
Robert C. Wielage; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, M. H.
WEST: W. Stewart Morrison; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, H. Samuel
Kruse, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: A. Robert Broadfoot, A. Eugene
Cellar, Taylor Hardwick; MID-FLORIDA: Charles L. Hendrick, James E.
Windham, III; PALM BEACH: Kenneth Jacobson, Jefferson N. Powell.

Verna M. Sherman, Administrative Secretary, 414 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami

The second in our 1960 series of cover designs was selected from submissions
by first year architectural students at the U/F in an eight-hour sketch problem.
It was developed by Robert M. Pierce and is especially interesting in that it
utilizes typography and a series of standard typographical patterns as the sole
design elements. No freehand art work is involved, the effect of the design being
obtained from the combination of standard patterns, rules and type.

The FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly, at 7225 S. W. 82nd Ct.,
Miami 43, Florida; telephone MOhawk 5-5032.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. . Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
comed, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida.
Printed by McMurray Printers



NUMBER 21960

. . . 4

. 28

EDWARDS, McKIMMON & ETHEREDGE, Raleigh, N. C., Architects;
EZRA MEIR & ASSOCIATES, Raleigh, N. C., Engineers;
WILLIAM C. VICK, Raleigh, N. C., Contractor.

Farewell to "the Little Red Schoolhouse"

The LeRoy Martin Junior High School,
Raleigh, North Carolina, is indeed a far cry
from the old style schoolhouse so widely ac-
cepted even a few years back.
A masterful organization of space and a
reassuring blend of safety, beauty and com-
fort characterize this modern plant. Natur-
ally it encompasses the most functional
materials available.
Solite lightweight structural concrete was
used because it effects substantial dead load
savings and resulting economy while offering
strength and durability equal to natural ag-
gregates. Solite lightweight masonry units

were also used, chiefly for their fire safety,
sound absorption and natural insulation.
Solite's increasing popularity in contemp-
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of safety, quiet and comfort and compatibil-
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make it the educated choice for outstanding
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Solite's ease of maintenance is
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Textured surface adds good looks.
9 Solite's natural insulation pro-
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S* Solite absorbs up to 50% of room
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WHATEVER YOU BUILD The professional advice of an architect or engineer can save
you time and money and provide the integrity of design that means lasting satisfaction.



Check and Doublecheck ...
I don't know whether the sub-title
on the cover of the January issue
which ends ". . American Institution
of Architects" was a deliberate effort
to learn how many of us really look
at The Florida Architect. In any case,
you have learned by this note that
I for one do with pleasure, I might
Kiff, Colean, Voss 6 Souder, Architects,
The Office of York 6 Sawyer, New York

The phrase was certainly an error,
though a careless, rather than a deli-
berate one. And though not primarily
a test of scrutiny, it was noticed by
others. For such sharp-eyed interest,
much thanks with special apprecia-
tion to those who offered further
tangible compliments via such letters
as this.-Editor.

Service Opportunity . .
problem (in the January issue, "Let-
ters") which many members of our
profession choose to ignore in favor
of a more passionate interest in the
acquisition of money. It is fortunate
for Mr. Andrews that he did not
persuade one of the architects with

whom he talked to offer his services.
It is extremely doubtful that he would
have received any more concern for
his needs than he did interest in his
I fail to understand how any man
can consider himself an architect
unless he is willing to give his best
efforts to assist any client in the solu-
tion of an architectural problem -
regardless of scope.
In this time when so many clients
approach an architect for professional
services out of necessity due to exist-
ing law rather than from choice
due to a desire for something better
than he can attain elsewhere we
as architects should not only encour-
age him, but hold him close to our
hearts instead of rewarding him with
indifference. Neither do I feel we are
justified in dismissing Mr. Andrews'
plea with the statement ". . there is,
at present, no overall answer." If not,
is any thought being given to an
answer? This helps to corroborate
some current thought that the pro-
fession is not adequately serving the
needs of the public.
Certainly it is possible for an archi-
tect to adequately serve Mr. Andrews'
needs and meet his budget without
a supplement from the architect. It
seems that this would provide an
excellent opportunity to put into
(Continued on Page 6)

Cape Florida, now under development on Key Biscayne as South Florida's newest
luxury-home community, has established a seven-man "Architects' Board." To
start construction activities, each member was invited to design a house. The
initial seven houses will range in price from $28,000 to $53,000; and the
Board members drew lots to see which architect would do what house. Caught
in the act are, left to right, Arthur A. Dresser, president of the Lefcourt Realty
Copr., and Board members James Deen, Clinton Gamble, Edwin T. Reeder,
Robert Fitch Smith, Robert M. Little and Robert B. Browne. The firm of Weed,
Johnson Associates, also a Board member, was not represented at the drawing.

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FEBRUARY, 1960 5

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(Continued from Page 4)

practice the architect-in-training pro-
gram since architects-in-training do
not generally draw salaries of such
magnitude as to -strain the budget
and most certainly are capable of
drawing and supervising a small house.
When the job site is distant from
the initiating office, an association of
architects t o eliminate expensive
travel is feasible. We should be
ashamed to refuse to serve this man
or reply that there is no answer. If
he cannot find an architect to serve
him, then the Association should
supply him with names of several
who will.
I appreciate the complimentary
subscription to The Florida Architect,
enjoy it and look forward to each new
issue. It has always contained thought-
provoking material and I trust it
shall continue to do so. Congratula-
South Miami, Florida

How many Florida architects agree
with Mr. Seckinger? Is the oppor-
tunity for service to the small-house-
buying public clear to a sufficient
number of architects to develop a
practical program through which such
service could be offered? Is it possible
for the FAA to establish some such
program perhaps through the archi-
tect-in-training medium Mr. Seckinger
suggests? Could younger architects be
banded together into a cooperative
group of "small house specialists" to
meet the needs of the other-than-
average home buyer?
Could some method of referral be
set up by the FAA? And could tech-


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niques of drawing, construction and
supervision be established to make
small house design economically feas-
ible-and thus professionally attrac-
tive to established practitioners as
well as their younger employees?
Answers to such questions could
establish a basis upon which the
service Mr. Seckinger calls for might
be developed.-Editor.

Appreciation ...
We were recently forwarded a copy
of your January, 1960, issue in which
you gave such a fine coverage on our
Municipal Building under the title,
"FAA Merit Award 1959 Conven-
We would very much appreciate
being able to obtain two more addi-
tional copies of this issue of your
magazine. We will be most happy to
send you our check prior to mailing
of these issues if you prefer.
We sincerely appreciate this cover-
age as far as our municipality is con-
cerned- and wish to state that the
citizens and governing board of the
city of St. Petersburg Beach concur
in the selection of this building for
an award. We believe it to be an out-
standing architectural feat as well as
a very practical and comfortable
building for our use.
City Manager,
City of St. Petersburg Beach

To Architect William B. Harvard
and his associates, added congratula-
tions! And to City Manager Brandon,
thanks and two complimentary copies
of the January issue.-Editor.


3737 N. W. 43rd Street, Miami


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~4 I




.- *



How Air-Conditioning Affects Design...


Jaros, Baum and Bolles,
Consulting Engineers

Since mechanical and electrical
equipment has become a major factor
in making large modem buildings liv-
able, rentable- and, indeed econom-
ically feasible-it seems inevitable
that it should have developed from
what fifty years ago was considered
almost as a necessary evil into one
of the major determinants of archi-
tectural and constructional design.
We have indeed come a long way
(as in most everything else) from
Cro-Magnon Man who used wood
fire for warmth and light, the natural
slope of the cave floor for drainage,
and perhaps gourds or bladders to
store water. On our journey, we have
passed through many stages, where
defensibility, religious symbolism,
beauty or sometimes ostentation -
were almost the sole motives of the
architect and comfort was hardly con-
sidered. Today, on the other hand,
the most beautiful building would not
rent if it did not provide adequate
illumination, ample and well con-
trolled heating and cooling, comfort-
able humidity and air-motion, conven-
ient elevators and plumbing facilities,
quick and easy communications-and
an ever-growing variety and complex-
ity of other services.
Depending upon the type of build-
ing, the mechanical and electric serv-
ice equipment will aggregate anywhere
from 25 to 40 percent (or more) of
typical present-day construction cost.
In industrial plants it may often be
the larger half of the entire building
investment. Consequently, in the
planning of a really successful large
building, the mechanical engineers
must be of as high a caliber as the
architects, the mechanical contractors
as skilled as the builders. And the
mechanical plant as to scheme,
space-requirements, proper materials
and details, functional completeness,
proper control under varying condi-
tions and (above all), intelligent and
imaginative adaptation to the special
uses and requirements of the building

-must receive full consideration from
the very inception of the design.
While the subject of this paper
deals rather with the effect of the
mechanical requirements upon archi-
tectural ideas than with the mechan-
ical plant per se, some thought as
to the nature of the equipment will
help in a clear evaluation of its in-
fluence. Briefly, mechanical equip-
ment design may be classified under
the following headings:
(a) Heating (and sometimes
(b) Ventilation and Air Con-
ditioning Systems.
(c) Automatic Temperature Con-
trol Systems.
(d) Plumbing and Drainage.
(e) Water Supply and Purification.
(f) Fire-Protection.
(g) Illumination.
(h) Electric Power and Distribution,
Communication Wiring, etc.
(i) Elevators, Escalators, etc.
(j) Noise-Limitation.
(k) Cold-storage or other uses of
(1) In certain types of buildings,
High Pressure Steam services
(e.g., laundries, kitchens, steri-
lizing, etc.), electric substations,
pumping plants, etc.

(m) In unusual cases, electric gen-
erating plants, external water-
supply or sewage-disposal plants
-and the like.

At this point, it may be appropriate
to discuss certain generalizations:
The various groups of mechanical
"plant" need well-planned machine
rooms. Boiler (or steam-meter) rooms,
pump rooms, refrigerating machine
and fan rooms, switchboards, house-
sewers, water supply and heating
mains, air-intake ducts and discharge
shafts, elevator machine rooms, cool-
ing towers (and many other such
items), need to be so located and
arranged as to connect properly with
what is outside of the building-with
each other-and with the interior
systems they serve.
All of this equipment requires suf-
ficient space for efficient operation
and good maintenance. More and
more, most of the physical basement
is devoted to garaging or other public
or rentable uses, so that other suitable
spaces must be found for machine
rooms, pipes and ducts.
Even in 1910, the New York City
Municipal Building was planned with
(Continued on Page 10)

The effect of mechanical systems on contemporary architectural
design is today no longer confined to the provision of a relatively
few pipe chases, duct areas and boiler rooms. With mechanical
equipment accounting for almost half of the construction cost
dollar and with mechanical control of interior living conditions
becoming increasingly important as a prime building requirement
-equipment engineering is having a profound effect on archi-
tectural design. In no field is this more apparent-or more
significant- than in that of air conditioning. . The author
of this article is a prominent New York engineer who has worked
collaboratively with architects with conspicuous success. He pre-
sented a full and thoughtful survey of architect-engineer collab-
oration before a seminar audience of the South Atlantic Regional
Conference last year. Material published here has been ab-
stracted from his more lengthy discussion at that meeting.

Air Conditioning...
(Continued from Page 9)
its principal "Pipe Cellar" several
stories above the street; today, a large
part of the functional "basement"
may be found at various other levels.
In natural gas districts, many tall
buildings have boiler plants on the
roof. Main refrigerating plants are
increasingly to be found in penthouses
thirty or more stories above the street.
And the provision of one or more
intermediate floors, devoted entirely
to machine and tank rooms, ductwork
and piping distribution is quite com-
mon in large office buildings, hotels,
hospitals, etc.
In an alteration to an existing build-
ing, such ideas may be even more
important. Space above the main roof
may sometimes be the only available
space of sufficient size. In some cases,
indeed, individual one-floor air con-
ditioning and wiring systems (almost
obsolete for new buildings) may often
be the best or even the only -
scheme consistent with use of the
building during instalaltion.
Equally important is the proper
arrangement of vertical shafts and
their locations in the core to secure
good coordination with the horizontal
parts of the mechanical equipment.
Such particulars must be varied to
fit each particular occupancy situation,
both as to mechanical and architec-
tural needs. The important point is
that enough space, properly located
and arranged, must be provided. How
and where? That is where imagina-
tion, experience, initiative and real
cooperation between the architect and
the engineer are vital.
The mechanical equipment greatly
affects the design of the building
structure. Machinery imposes weight
and vibration loads on columns,
beams and girders, and an intelligent
compromise can often effect consid-
erable structural saving, without sacri-
ficing either building arrangement or
mechanical efficiency. Chimneys, ver-
tical ducts and many pipe lines re-
quire framed shafts, anchorage and
support; and an understanding ap-
proach to structural details will often
provide convenient mechanical spaces
which otherwise would have projected
farther into useful areas.
The use of radiant heating- and
the recent development of radiant
cooling as an integral part of air con-
ditioning design-require close coordi-

nation between the mechanical de-
signer, the illumination expert and
the architectural designer of ceiling
details and supports.
The very high cost of good air
conditioning (both for installation
and operation) have put new empha-
sis on the importance of reducing
summer "heat-gains" from heat-con-
duction through roofs, air-infiltration
-and especially from sunshine. And
an especially important effect on arch-
itectural concepts will flow from the
need for efficient yet esthetic outside
shading of large glass areas as a factor
of ultimate economy.
Quality, Design, Installation,
and Maintenance
For really good design -especially
as to fan room equipment, air dis-
tribution and automatic control-con-
scientious installation and competent
adjustment, maintenance and opera-
tion are essential to satisfactory results.
The equipment must be able to care
for the maximum load requirements
that occur often enough to matter
(perhaps 100 hours in an average sum-
mer). It must be able automatically
and dependably to adjust its per-
formance to the desires of the occu-
pants and to the changing demands
resulting from varying outside weather,
orientation sunshine and wind, vary-
ing number of occupants, etc. The
proper control of temperature and
humidity and economical operation
- requires a combination of well
engineered control equipment and
intelligent operating personnel. Care
and intelligence must also be applied
to the maintenance of all equipment;
a good air conditioning plant is suf-
ficiently complex and costly to justify
an adequate and well paid operating
As with everything else in a build-
ing program, budgets and economics
must be considered. We could assign
a good air conditioning system to serve
any design of building and any sort
of conditions if costs (cost of installa-
tion and cost of operation) were no
consideration. I have even seen a
tropical night club with a roof and
no sides but the palm tree grove
where customers were adequately air
conditioned in spite of the warm and
humid Caribbean air!
But the costs do count and heavily
-ninety-nine time out of a hundred.
So one of the engineer's most im-
portant duties is to advise the archi-

tect how to plan the building for
mechanical economy. At the same
time, results must be satisfactory: the
occupants must be satisfied, the plant
must be durable, it must be easy to
operate and maintain and economical
to run.
The very first point I would tell
any architect is: "Engage your engi-
neers at the very start of the project."
Tell them everything you can about
the program and about the owner's
desires. Require them to fit their ideas
into this program- but give careful
consideration to every suggestion of
theirs that will help their work to be
efficient and economical. And give
them time enough to do a thorough
job. Good engineering, especially in
an unusual building, requires lots of
comparative studies and computa-
tions; and nothing is more detrimental
than so tight a schedule or so many
major changes late in the schedule -
that the engineer must concentrate
only on getting through.
To my fellow engineers, I would
add: "Understand just what sort of
building is wanted and use your
ability and imagination to create what
will best fit that building program."
There are many schemes, many tech-
niques available to you; do not just
copy some other and different job,
but develop what will best serve this
one. And do not be afraid to argue
(pleasantly but firmly) with your
clients, to secure those physical con-
ditions in the building which will
enable you best to serve them. You
are an engineer, not merely a drafts-
man, and you are being paid to apply
your judgment, your experience, and
-even sometimes your originality.
Now, let us get down to the con-
crete. Talking first of how much
capacity, only three controllable fac-
tors are really important:
(a) Watts of simultaneous lighting,
power and office (or other) equip-
ment. Every three and one-half kilo-
watts is another ton of refrigerating
(b) CFM of outdoor air in hot
humid weather beyond what is needed
for health and freshness.
(c) Amount of glass through which
solar radiation may penetrate.
As to watts, we run into an im-
mediate conflict of interests. High
foot-candles, fine diffusion, or dra-
matic concentrations of light, decora-
tive effects-all of these are desirable.

But we can ask the illuminating
people to develop schemes which
secure the results they desire from the
least, not the most, watts compatible
with results.
And we can do a few stunts in
the air conditioning design itself to
reduce the tax which lights put on
air conditioning costs:
(a) Where much heat is liberated
by equipment which could be so en-
closed, use hoods or even complete
enclosures to divert this heat into
separate exhaust systems direct to out-
doors. This requires space for such
(b) With luminous ceilings, or re-
cessed light troughs or spotlights in
ceilings, a design which utilizes ceiling
space as a return air plenum will
considerably reduce total supply air
quantities and refrigerating demands.
This involves adequate space between
the ceiling and all beams also good
insulation of supply ducts in such
(c) Where other considerations
make radiant cooled metal ceilings
worthy of consideration, lighting fix-
tures can sometimes be directly cooled
by the same circulating water system.
This will not reduce refrigeration, but
will materially reduce air quantities
and size of ducts, fans, etc.
Outside air quantities are a matter
of judgment. We would consider
something more than 1/3 CFM per
square foot of floor area the desirable
minimum for offices and similar
spaces and for spaces crowded with
people, at least 10 or 15 CFM per
person. Much more than the mini-
mum is desirable in cool weather--
when it may avoid the need for using
refrigeration at all. But in Winter,
excess outside air wastes fuel and may
increase boiler size while in humid
Midsummer weather, every needless
200 to 250 CFM of it requires another
ton of refrigeration capacity! So we
must ask the architect for air-inlet
openings and shafts big enough to
supply 100% of outdoor air in Spring
and Fall-but return air ducts, shafts
and discharges large enough for 85
or 90 percent of this, to permit max-
imum recirculation in Winter and
Coming now to our third factor,
it should be clear that the most pro-
lific way to save on the cost of air
conditioning and still have an ade-
quate, efficient and satisfactory plant

Outdoor Condition, 95' DB, 75" WB.
Indoor Condition, 77' DB, 50% RH.
South Exposure, August mid-day.
(Note: 8:00 A.M. East, 4 P. M. West or October and November.
Noon South, will increase solar inputs about 60%.)
Persons, One per 100 Sq. Ft. (Light Activity).
Electric Usage (Lights, etc.) 5 /2 Watts/Sq.Ft.
Wall Construction, 12 ft. Fl. to Fl. "U" = 0.3
Ventilation, 0.4 cfm Outside Air/Sq.Ft. (75" to 64" WB)
COMPARISONS: (All for 1 ft. wide x 15 ft. deep Outside Zone)
Percent Glass in Facade 25 50 75
Sens. Load. Conduction, Sing. Glass, 61 122 183
Lat. & Outs. Air Load, BTU/Hr. 275 275 275
Double Glass 30 61 91
S wall, BTU/Hr. 48 32 16
SOccupants, BTU/Hr. 35 35 35
SElec. Equip., 280 280 280
Total Sens., Excl. Solar *668 699 *683 744 *698 789
Solar, Unshaded, Plain Glass 306 612 918
Double Glass *276 *552 *827
Ht.-Ret. Glass 224 448 672
Glass Block 84 "168 *252
Solar, Inside Blinds, Plain Glass 171 342 513
S Double Glass *147 *294 *440
S Ht.-Ret. Glass 168 346 504
Solar, Outside Shading, Plain Glass 84 168 252

Percent Glass in Facade 25 50 75
CFM/Sq.Ft. (Unshaded) Plain Glass 2.3 3.3 4.5
SDouble Glass 2.1 3.0 3.9
Ht. Ret. Glass 2.0 2.8 3.7
SGlass Block 1.5 1.8 2.1
(Inside Blinds) Plain Glass 1.9 2.5 3.2
S Double Glass 1.7 2.2 2.7
SHt.-Ret. Glass 1.8 2.4 3.1
(Outside Shading) Plain Glass 1.6 2.0 2.4

Percent Glass in Facade 25 50 75
Tons/1000 Sq. ft. Unshaded Plain Glass 6.00 7.45 9.65
SDouble Glass 5.30 6.95 8.55
S Ht. Ret. Glass 5.15 6.55 7.70
Glass Block 4.25 4.75 5.30
Tons/1000 Sq. ft. Inside Blinds, Plain Glass 4.95 6.05 8.30
SDouble Glass 4.60 5.50 6.35
.. Ht. Ret. Glass 4.75 5.90 6.60
Outside Shading, Plate Glass 4.40 5.15 5.85
Note: A. Figures in Table One marked based on Conduction for Double Glass.
B. All other figures in Table One based on Conduction for Single Glass.
C. Unit Figure Strip is 1 ft. parallel to wall and window, x 15' perpendicular to wall.
D. Figures in Table One are BTU/Hr. Unit Strip.
E. Figures in Table Two are CFM/Sq.Ft. for Unit Strip
(based on "all-air" system with 20* F.T.D.).
F. Figures in Table Three are Tons/1000 Sq.Ft. for South Outside Zone.

-is to keep the windows as small
as is otherwise acceptable (even
shaded ones conduct at least three
times as much heat as equal areas
of wall) and more particularly, to
keep the sun out of the windows-
entirely if that is possible, or as
nearly so as other considerations will
permit. This is a common practice
in the tropics, probably because it
was even more necessary to do this
there during the centuries before air
conditioning was developed.
But, for some reason, American
habits, municipal building laws in
some cases, and the most former arch-

itectural concepts of our builders, have
until recently accomplished little or
nothing of such shading in our large
modern air conditional buildings -
and a widespread change in this
direction could well be recommended
to every architect.
Various factors have a bearing on
which method of shading to employ:
(a) The old fashioned canvas awn-
ing on the outside of the building can
do more to reduce cooling demand
than a combination of heat-absorbing
glass and venetian blinds.
(b) Such awnings can be made still
(Continued on Page 12)

Air Conditioning...
(Continued from Page 11)
better by making them light in color
on the outside and by providing a
ventilating opening at the top of each
awning. The light color reflects more
of the sun's rays outward; and the
ventilation permits hot air accumulat-
ing under the awning to escape, in-
stead of increasing heat conduction
through the window.
(c) Modern types of ventilating
awnings, built of aluminum or plastics,
are excellent for this.
(d) Unfortunately, all of these as
well as the old fashioned wooden slat
shutter outside of the window also
quite effective have a common de-
fect. They must be adjusted, perhaps
at several hundred distinct points in
a building; and to do this the windows
must be opened and closed. Because
of this nuisance, all of these "old"
methods have largely fallen into dis-
(e) On orientations where the sun
is quite high in the sky (in the North-
ern hemisphere, the south facade),
projecting balconies or cornices can
be arranged to do as effective a job

as any sort of awning. However, this
method of shading is less useful on
easterly exposures, and almost useless
on westerly exposures- because the
solar heat radiation is greatest on a
west window late in the afternoon
when the sun, low in the sky, can
shine in under the awning.
(f) For these directions, the best
shading methods are fixed or movable
metal or concrete jalousies, several feet
out from the building (which intro-
duces a support problem unless proj-
ecting vertical fins are used for this
purpose), or else various schemes of
vertical louvres, either fixed a little
way out from the windows or pivoted
so that their angulation can be ad-
justed automatically, if desired, to
the changing direction of the sun's
(g) The latter method is especially
valuable on exposures somewhat to
the south of true east or west; the
spaces between such louvres should
then look northward rather than
(h) An interesting--and if well
handled, very attractive method of
shading is the use of brick or other
fretwork, set vertically, a moderate

distance out from the windows. Some
very excellent examples are in recent
work of Edward Stone. These can be
designed to give a good percentage
of shading and at the some time
serve as a main architectural motif.
An interesting corollary is that
where a building can be long and
narrow in plan, it will pay to arrange
for the principal facades to face north
and south. North requires no shading
or very little. South is architecturally
easy to shade; and west, the most
serious shading problem, has little
area. Sometimes even this can be
eliminated by locating the core-pos-
sibly with a blank wall at the west
Regardless of the type of glass or
shading, the effects of window size,
per se, may be rendered more graphic,
perhaps, by considering a building
with about 250,000 net square feet
of usable floor area with typical
construction and 40 percent windows.
This might require about 1,000 tons
of air conditioning. Such a plant
might add about $1,800,000 to the
total construction cost of which
about $1,400,000 or less would be
(Continued on Page 20)

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The detail in the grille work over the windows, so easily
achieved with concrete, was taken from patterns based
on the beehive and the Sego Lily, Utah's state flower.
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newest forms for greater freedom of expression in struc-
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Helping Build Florida




,-y .'S

New Decade-What's Ahead in Housing?


Director of Marketing
House and Home

Despite such perennial problems as
tight money and land price inflation,
1960 is due for the second biggest
year since World War II. 1960 dol-
lar volume will be off only 4.2 percent
from that of 1959.
1960's volume of new housing
should total about $17.5 billion
($16.5-billion private and $750-mil-
lion public)-$775-million less than
1959's postwar high, but almost $2-
billion more than the biggest previous
postwar year, 1955. Bigger and better
houses, not inflation, will be the
prime reason for 1960's high volume.
Continued prosperity will bolster
housing demand throughout 1960.
Incomes will be at new highs. Atti-
tudes will be confident. And there
will be enough buyers and renters
to afford the available houses and
apartments. Here are some signs that
point to a healthy demand:
1...Vacancies in single-family houses
for sale are still low 1.2 percent
of all home-owner units in the second
quarter of 1959. That's only three-
tenths of a percentage point higher
than in 1950, despite the vast volume
of building since then.
2...A bigger percentage of house-
holds will have an income of $5000
and over, thus be able to buy a new
house. In 1960 non-farm households
will increase by more than 900,000,
but households with income over
$5000 are likely to increase by more
than a million.
3...At least 300,000 housing units
will be removed from the market--
abandoned, converted to other uses
or demolished in urban renewal and
highway programs.
Public including military -
housing starts will continue to fall
off. Government-built housing will
account for 30,000 new units in 1960
5,000 less than 1959 and 37,900
less than in 1958. Local public hous-
ing will lose ground despite a back-
log of more than 100,000 units. These
units are under subsidy contract with

the federal government, but building
contracts have not been let on them
because of site selection problems and
other local difficulties. Military hous-
ing which has made up 26 to
53 percent of all public housing -
will drop too. Probable total is 8,000
units 20 percent less than 1959
and mostly in single-family houses.
Private apartment building will
probably hit a postwar peak. New
apartments (structures for three or
more families) may account for
250,000 units. That will be 10,000
more than 1959 and almost 80,000
more than any other postwar year.
It will also be 20 percent of all 1960
private starts the highest propor-
tion of apartments since the de-
pression. America is currently spend-
ing more money to build more apart-
ments than America spent and built
at the peak of the boom in 1950.
If the new apartments are attractive
enough, the boom could go on for
years, because:
1...Some 45-million more people
have crowded into 192 metropolitan
areas since 1929. But the housing
industry has been so busy building
houses that it has hardly built enough
new apartments to keep up with
apartment demolitions and conver-
sions to business use.

2...The market for apartments will
grow even faster than the market for
houses, because from now to 1970
the number of younger families and
the number of older families will
increase even faster than the num-
ber of families in the house-buying
age-bracket between 35 and 55. Apart-
ments are the natural habitat of young
couples before they can afford to buy
a good house and older couples after
they no longer need a house.
3...Land prices are so inflated that
fewer and fewer families can afford
the land cost of single-family houses
close in.
4...More than half of today's apart-
ments need to be replaced or com-
pletely rebuilt between now and 1970
- because in 1970's much richer
America no one will want to live in
them. The new housing census found
that one-fifth of today's apartments
are either dilapidated or lack a private
inside bath. And nearly half the re-
mainder are antiquated units priced
for the dwindling minority of very
poor families (less than 17 percent
today, less than 10 percent by 1970)
who cannot afford to pay more than
$60 a month for a home.
If the new apartments built are
good enough and merchandising is
(Continued on Page 16)

From every quarter of our economy come forecasts of an unprece-
dented prosperity for the next few years. But not all commenta-
tors have ventured to sight ahead for ten years. And few are as
able to pinpoint activity in a special field of construction as is
the author of this article. . Mr. Goldman is Director of
Marketing, House and Home Magazine; and his conclusions
relative to the "Stupendous Sixties" were presented originally
before the 11th Exposition of the Air-Conditioning and Refrig-
eration Institute last fall at Atlantic City, N. J. . The article
published here is only a portion of Mr. Goldman's discussion.
But it contains material that should be of pointed significance
to Florida's architects. And of even more importance, it suggests
an attitude toward the development of our future which could well
be taken to heart by every element of our construction industry.

New Decade...
(Continued from Page 15)
good enough, the market can easily
absorb 300,000 new apartments year
after year. If not, this boom can
fizzle out as fast as the last one.
(Mr. Goldman spoke of the vital
need for a new concept of value and
quality in the design, construction and
equipment of houses and apartments.
He made the point that of all pos-
sessions Americans enjoy today, none
was so comparatively obsolete as
American housing. And to illustrate
the speed with which changes are
re-making American life to produce
a virtually new world in the next two
decades he referred to his "stage-
prop aunt" . .)
My aunt is 92 and one thing is
sure. Our physical world has changed
more since my aunt was born than
it has changed all the time since
Christ was born in Bethlehem. When
she was born, houses were still lighted
with candles or whale oil lamps we
didn't have kerosene then and the
gaslit era hadn't begun.
When aunt was born there wasn't
a house in the United States with

central heat. When she was born it
was only 12 years since President Fill-
more brought back to the White
House the bathtub President Jackson
had thrown out. My recollection is
that it was still against the law to
take a bath in Philadelphia between
November 1 and April 1; and in my
aunt's house in New York City, there
wasn't enough water pressure in the
city mains to have a bathroom on the
second floor!
My aunt is 92. In case you're
curious, I'm 53. Most of the changes
my aunt has seen have come since
I was born. As a matter of fact, one
of the few reasons I'm reconciled to
being 53 is that I can still remember,
and remember clearly, a world that is
gone with the wind.
I can remember a world without
automobiles, without airplanes and a
world without radio for in those
days we didn't even have a marconi.
The first time my aunt went to
Europe, they shot off rockets and
Roman candles to let people on shore
know what liner had crossed the
ocean safely. I can remember a world
almost without telephones, almost
without electricity, a world that had

no paved streets outside the big cities.
I remember a world when you
couldn't be sure of keeping fresh meat
in the icebox over a long weekend.
I remember a world where the only
labor-saving device Auntie had was an
immigrant girl who was paid six dol-
lars a month! I remember a world
where the average family's purchas-
ing power in constant dollars was less
than a quarter of what it is today.
The world has changed a lot since
I was a little boy. It has changed
faster and faster. It is changing this
year faster than in any year past. It
will change more between now and
1980 which is another way of
saying it will change more during the
life of most of the housing mortgages
being written today than it has
changed in the 53 years since I was
born or the 92 years since my aunt
was born. By 1980 our world today
will seem as queer and quaint as the
carless, radioless, planeless, paved-
streetless world of 1900 seems today.
How many of us are thinking and
planning and working for the wonder-
ful world that lies ahead? How many
of us are still planning for tomorrow
as if tomorrow should be like today?

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Mfteage ewam 7/&e Poew

Florida Associlllc-n of Archlects

For man\ years now,. there has
been close cooperation between the
Associated General Contractors and
the Florida Association of Architects.
Other groups have joined us along
the way to combine forces in forming
what is now known as the Joint Co-
operative Council of Florida. Your
President has served on this commit-
tee and Council almost since its in-
ception. Problems of organization,
differences of opinion and idea and,
on occasion, statewide programs have
been met and conquered. During the
last several years the matter of a
State Building Code has often been
At the last annual convention of
the F.A.A. a resolution was submit-
ted, and later referred to the F.A.A.
Board of Directors, which stated:
"Now, therefore, be it resolved by
this Convention, that the policy of
the Florida Association of Architects
now is to proceed with all due dis-
patch with steps necessary, as seems
best, to secure adoption of a building
code which will protect the unincor-
porated areas of the State." To this
I would have added in place of "un-
incorporated areas," all areas not now
having a building code at least equal
to the Southern Standard Code.
A man seeking a haircut in a barber
shop is better protected by the laws
of this state than is an investor either
buying a building or having one con-
structed in over 75 percent of the
State's area. In many locales, the local
politicians write the code as they feel
is necessary. In some areas a building
permit is issued only as a source of
income to the local political subdivi-
sion. I would estimate and feel
safe in so doing that in over 65
percent of the incorporated areas of
the State now issuing building per-
mits no duplicate set of plans is
required for permit application (one
remaining in the building inspector's
file and one being required to remain
on the job during construction); that
no building code is recognized or that
the so-called building department has

Protection for Investors

no qualified personnel to issue per-
mits; and that the local political sub-
division fails to collect the occupa-
tional license it should from the man
who drew the plans.
We have a state law which limits
the practice of architecture. Because
of this, every licensed architect is
forced to pay an occupational license
to operate in a given area. Yet the
vast majority of the buildings con-
structed in the State today bear no
architect's seal or name. Who draws
them, and how many hundreds of
thousands of dollars are lost to cities
and counties, as well as the state,
because of failure to collect occupa-
tional taxes from men depriving their
government of this source of income?
Not only do they avoid carrying their
share of the tax burden, but they also
endanger the life and limb of thou-
sands of Floridians annually. We are
cursed by nature with occupying one
of nature's most turbulent hurricane
producing areas. Why are the un-
qualified permitted to continue in the
practice of designing what is tanta-
mount to a hurricane shelter?
To get back to the building code,
there are several questions I would
like to ask the State Legislature.
Floridians spend more on building
construction each year than on gaso-
line, whiskey, gambling, automobiles,
hotel and apartment rentals, work-
men's compensation, inter-state com-

merce possibly anything you could
name excepting food. Yet John Doe
can spend his life savings on a home
built just outside of an incorporated
area and not one law protects him
against faulty construction, poor de-
sign or bad materials. Why Mr. Legis-
lator? Why, Joint Cooperative Coun-
cil? Don't you think it time we did
something to regulate this industry
in the areas with little or no control?
Granted major populous areas have
building codes; but what two are
similar? Certainly, some areas have
adopted the Southern Standard Code
with certain changes and qualifica-
tions. These latter two items are as
varied as faces in a subway. Why
must we have ump-teen different
codes? Oh, part of the State is hurri-
cane free! Where? I've lived in the
state my entire life, and my father
before me. Just as North and South
Carolina, Long Island and the New
England coast are hurricane free, so
is the entire State of Florida.
It should not be impossible to
enact a minimum state code to serve
as a basis for all city and county codes
in the more progressive areas. From
time to time, and as new materials
are developed, revisions could be
made. A state-wide building codes
committee invested with the power
to act could not only maintain law
and order, but could keep the codes
(Continued on Page 27)



Office and Job Forms ...


I CERTIFY: That the work under the above named contract has been satisfactorily completed under the terms of the con-
tract; that the project is recommended for occupancy by the owning agency; that the contractor has submitted satisfactory evi-
dence that he has paid all labor, materials and other charges against the project in accordance with the terms of the contract.

Date Days

Contract Date

Contractor Notified to Proceed

Days Allowed by Contract

Extensions Granted by C. 0.

Total Days Allowable

Work Began

Project substantially completed

Days to Complete




THIS IS TO CERTIFY: That to the best of my knowledge and belief the statements made in the contractor's affidavit and
the architect's certificate have been satisfactorily completed under the terms of the contract.


Title Date












I solemnly swear (or affirm): That the work under the above named contract and all amendments thereto has been satisfactorily
completed; that all amounts payable for materials, labor and other charges against the project have been paid; that no liens have
been attached against the project; that no suits are pending by reason of work on the project under the contract; that all Work-
men's Compensation claims are covered by Workmen's Compensation insurance as required by law; and that all public liability
claims are covered by insurance.





Personally appeared before me this day of-

known (or made known) to me to be the


(Corporate Officer Title)


who, being by me duly sworn, subscribed to the foregoing affidavit in my presence.

Notary Public
(Type Name)



_ ___________________^ - -- ------------- ---------------. -.- _.. -.- -- I

_____ ______ __________________^_. ---- - ,. ------ ---- ..-. - ---- -- -- - ----- ----- I

Air Conditioning...
(Continued from Page 12)
in the air conditioning contract itself,
$200,000 in electrical work, and about
the same in the general contract-and
about $110,000 per annum to the
operating and maintenance costs, in-
cluding labor, but not fixed charges.
Reducing the windows to 25 per-
cent of the facades would reduce the
maximum air conditioning demand to
about 900 tons. This should reduce
the initial investment to about $1,-
250,000, and the per annum cost,
operation and maintenance, to about
$95,000. Complete solar shading, even
without reducing the size of windows,
would reduce the air conditioning
plant to 800 tons, simplify its zoning
and therefore its unit cost. The initial
investment might approximate $1,-
050,000, a saving of about 30 per-
cent-and the per annum cost should
be about $85,000, a saving of over
20 percent.
For multi-story building in which
peripheral unit systems are desirable
and economical, an important budge-
tary consideration is the provision, at
the outside walls, of suitable spaces

for vertical distribution of "primary"
air and secondary water. It has been
our experience that horizontal dis-
tribution of these services on each
floor (from central shafts) will add
a quite appreciable percentage to in-
stallation costs. When such buildings
become very large and high (e.g., the
new Chase-Manhattan Bank Building
in N.Y.C.), many practical advan-
tages, including a large saving, can
be realized by subdividing the entire
mechanical plant refrigerating ma-
chines as well as fan rooms and
duct systems into several practically
independent plants, each serving a
vertical half, third, or fourth of the
entire building. Such schemes requir-
ing "intermediate floors" with large
air intakes and special framing can
profoundly affect the entire architec-
tural treatment.
A recent idea valuable on a south
facade especially is to incline windows,
top outward as in an airport control
tower, thus reducing the effective
cross section perpendicular to the
sun's rays. In a detailed study of this
scheme, based upon various combi-
nations of glass types and angles of
inclination vertical windows, win-

dows at various specified angles of
inclination outward, plain glass un-
shaded, or plain glass with inside
venetian blinds it was assumed that
the interior would be 20 cooler than
outdoors; and the heat transmission
was included, as well as the solar
radiation entering through the glass.
The heat- transmission is approxi-
mately 22 BTU's/hr/sq.ft. whether
or not the sun hits the glass and is
not affected by the inclination.
(a) With the usual vertical win-
dow, south exposure, and clear glass,
solar radiation would add about 120
per cent to the summation of all other
sensible-heat loads, including people
and lights and a corresponding
amount to the CFM of conditioned
air that must be supplied.
(b) Since the refrigerating tonnage
(as distinguished from the air quan-
tity) includes also the outdoor air and
latent loads, the solar radiation on
these windows would add about 80
per cent to the tonnage required for
this outside zone (not for the whole
(c) The quantities were worked out
for vertical glass 6 feet high. The
study showed that, in mid-August, a

Design for more SALES APPEAL with

S.Concealed Telephone


Today's home buyer looks for more built-
in conveniences. The better living extras
attract more prospective buyers--and
help sell individual units and complete
subdivisions faster.
Concealed telephone wiring is becoming
more and more popular with home buy-
ers. Families like the convenience of
planned telephone outlets and the beauty
of wire-free walls.
It's easy to include the "plus" feature
of concealed wiring for telephones in your
home designs. Just call our Business
Office. We'll be happy to work with you.

Southern Bell

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window inclined outward, approx-
imately 20, unshaded, will only ad-
mit one-half as much solar radiation
per square foot of glass, as a shaded
vertical window and a window in-
clined outward at 30' only about one-
fourth! Such inclined windows should
none-the-less be provided with vene-
tian blinds. These would not be im-
portant in mid-Summer, but will be-
come important during October as
the sun goes lower.
Deliberately, I have until now said
nothing about cooling or heating by
direct electrical means such as pass-
ing a current through the junction of
two dissimilar metals embedded in
walls, ceilings, etc. Such methods -
known in theory for a long time -
have recently received a certain
amount of newspaper notoriety. They
have been demonstrated; they work,
but, at present, at a very high price.
Turned directly into heat, one kilo-
watt-hour of electric energy can de-
liver 3415 B.T.U. Used to drive a
refrigerating plant, one kilowatt-hour
may do 12,000 B.T.U. of cooling ef-
fect. In the present "state of the art,"
one kilowatt-hour used in thermo-elec-
tric cooling might accomplish a few

hundred, or at most one thousand,
B.T.U. of cooling. It may well be
many decades before this process at-
tains adequate commercial efficiency.
Solar heating has real interest for
residences and other low buildings, but
it is questionable whether enough en-
ergy can ever be gathered in this way
to operate air-conditioning equipment
for a large building. A very favorable
estimate of solar heat that might be
trapped by equipment on an entire
roof would be an average of 100
B.T.U./sq. ft. throughout daylight
hours if the sun stays out. If all of
this could be efficiently used in an
absorption refrigerating plant, it might
provide adequate air conditioning for
slightly more than one floor of the
same area.
We may now summarize some of
the effects that the advancing art of
air-conditioning may be expected to
exert on architectural concepts:
(a) The Architect and the En-
gineer must think of each other not
so much as employer and employee,
but as members of a team, working
together in the development of the
basic concepts of the building as well
as in its final planning and details.

(b) The building must provide
proper spaces in the right places for
well-designed mechanical and elec-
trical equipment thoughtfully adap-
ted to its needs.
(c) This includes not only ma-
chine-rooms with all their adjuncts -
main shafts for ducts and pipes, etc.
- but equally, schemes of outside
walls and windows, roofs, ceilings,
floors, etc., integrated with the mecha-
nical services.
(d) The orientation and design of
facades play an important role in
determining the capacity, cost and
efficiency of air-conditioning systems,
(e) The engineer's viewpoint must
play a real part in helping to deter-
mine outside treatment, fenestration,
schemes for solar shading, projecting
ribs or fins, balconies, banks of hori-
zontal or vertical louvres and other
such features that will profoundly
affect the appearance and construc-
tion of the building.
(f) We may expect for years
to come the same flux and develop-
ment in such matters as has in the
past followed each major new influ-
ence in architecture.

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California, available locally. Distributed in Florida by:
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Steward-Mellon Co., Tampa . . Dunan Brick Yards, Inc., Hialeah . .
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And in Georgia by:
F. Graham Williams Co., Atlanta

P~l~ fatherockp% INc


Award-winning Englewood Elementary School, Orlando, James E. Windham, III, Architect.

National Citation for Two Florida Schools

At the national convention of the
American Association of School Ad-
ministrators, to be held in Atlantic
City, N.J. February 13 through 17,
three Florida architects will receive
citations for design excellence of re-
cently completed public schools. One
Sis James E. Windham, III, Orlando,
whose Englewood Elementary School
is shown here. The others are Bolton
McBride and William R. Frizzell,
both of Ft. Meyers, who were asso-
.... ciated in the design of the Lee Junior
S :.i '=High School in Ft. Myers.
These two schools were among 22
which were selected from a gallery of
210 projects as being worthy of special
recognition. The citations were given
on an overall basis of excellence, in
which degree of educational effi-
ciency, functional planning relation-
ships, adaptability for community use
and future expansion, site utilization
and development, handling of struc-
tural and design materials, provision
for interior comfort conditioning and
construction cost were all involved.
The two award winning schools will
be fully presented in a later issue of
The Florida Architect. They were
selected by a jury composed of three
AIA architects and three educators.


"Didn't cost much...

Very economical"

Mrs. McLean says, "We in-
stalled a central oil-fired heat-
ing system in our new home.
It didn't cost much. It has
been very economical. We are
indeed well pleased with oil .

The McLean family will be
warm and comfortable in cold
snap weather with safe, clean,
money-saving oil heating. And
you would be too. Oil is by far
your cheapest home heating
fuel. Supplies are always de-
pendable. You'll never be
charged a premium when you
use cheap fuel oil for home
heating only.

safety and
reflect the I
clients will
new homes.
rama, Dupoi


.Mrs. Walter L. McLean, 4811 Manatee Avenue, West
Bradenton, "sets the thermostat for a warm winter."

CHITECT: Ads like this one, emphasizing the economy,
all 'round superiority of oil heating for Florida homes, also
preference of most Floridians for oil equipment. Your Florida
welcome your recommendation of central oil heating in their
For information on oil equipment write or visit us at Buildo-
nt Plaza Center, Miami.

News & Not

Insurance Survey . .
As reported in the December, 1959,
issue, a questionnaire has been devel-
oped to survey insurance needs of
FAA members. The form, with a cov-
ering letter, was mailed to both cor-
porate and associate members the
week of January 18 by Clifford F.
Gould, FAA Insurance Consultant.
Information requested in the ques-

tionnaire is necessary before any plan
for group insurance or any recom-
mendations for any type of group in-
surance can be formulated by Mr.
Gould. Thus all members are urged
to complete the forms as soon as pos-
sible and return them to Mr. Gould
at the address noted on his covering
letter. This will save the FAA's In-
surance Consultant both time and

NEW FIRM Robert E.
Hansen and Joseph T.
Romano have announced
association with Robert B.
S Sullan and Jorgen G.
Hansen to form the new
firm of Hansen, Romano,
Sullan and Hansen. Head-
quarters office will be at
the Ft. Lauderdale ad-
dress maintained by Rob-
S ert E. Hansen since 1939.
Another office in Pom-
pano Beach will be oper-
ated by Joseph T. Ro-
mano. Pictured here are
the principals of the new
firm in the same left to
right sequence as in the
firm's name.

effort in developing recommenda-
tions for adequate insurance coverage.
And it will also save the FAA the
expense of issuing additional forms to
those not replying to this first one.

Expanding Horizons -
San Francisco in April
What promises to be one of the
very best annual conventions in all
AIA history is scheduled for April 18
to 22 at San Francisco, with head-
quarters at the Mark Hopkins Hotel.
Theme is "Expanding Horizons"; and
under that general subject architects
will explore the trend of the country's
political, economic, technological and
philosophical developments as these
relate to the profession's responsibili-
ties for shaping human environment.
Top personalities will highlight the
trends among them J. ROBERT
and WENDELL BELL and their ob-
servations will be related to archi-
tecture by panels of outstanding archi-
tects. Other convention activities in-
clude a tour through San Francisco
and the Bay's outstanding houses, an


Job in the State of Florida \

Specialists in Tank and Steel Plate Fabrication

Centrally located on Florida's east coast with excellent rail
and road connections, Bagwell's fast deliveries will keep your
jobs on schedule and out of the "red."
Bagwell Steel Products, Incorporated is an affiliate of the General
Steel Tank Company, Birmingham, Alabama, that has
served the south for over thirty-three years. All of the technical
"know how" of both companies is at your disposal. Discuss your
problems with us. We welcome the opportunity to quote on
your difficult steel plate and tank specifications. We will meet
your most exacting delivery dates.
Write for data on our standard tanks and also for our
"how to specify" sheets.

Specialists in Steel Plate Fabrication
6010 N. W. 9th Avenue (P. O. Box A934 Oakland Park)
Tel. WEbster 3-4501



"open house" party at the city's his-
toric Jackson Square and participation
in the annual Black and White Sym-
phony Ball.
This 1960 convention is the second
in the AIA's recent history to have
been developed and programmed
largely by an AIA chapter, rather than
the Institute's headquarters staff.
Last year's meeting at New Orleans
was substantially influenced by rec-
ommendations of the New Orleans
Chapter. This year, both theme and
program were originated by a com-
mittee of the Northern California
Chapter. The New Orleans meeting
provided a number of innovations, to
the traditional pattern of AIA con-
ventions. Judging from advance data
now available, the San Francisco
meeting will be equally as novel, pro-
vocative and memorable.

Personal . .
DRAEGER, both members of the Flor-
ida Central Chapter, have announced
formation of a partnership with of-
fices at 2032 Hillview Street, Sara-
In Jacksonville, JAMES O. KEMP, of
the Jacksonville Chapter, has opened
an office for independent practice at
1456 June Street, Jacksonville 7.
Due to inaccurate information re-
ceived prior to publication of the
January issue, OGDEN K. HOUSTON,
JR., was erroneously listed as the 1960
Secretary of the Florida South Chap-
ter. We are glad to correct the error
here. The Florida South Chapter Sec-
retary for-1960 is THEODORE GOTT-
FRIED, 844 Biscayne Blvd., Miami 38.
DAVID A. LEETE announces a
change in his office address from 2030
So. Peninsula Drive to 116 Seabreeze
Blvd., Daytona Beach.
In Tampa the firm of PULLARA,
BOWEN AND WATSON, Architects and
Engineers has been dissolved as such.
However, activities will be continued
under the new firm name of PULLARA
AND WATSON, Architects and Engi-
neers. Headquarters of the firm will
remain the same.

AIA Board Acts on
Retained Percentage
For some time past the AIA Board
has been considering, at the urgent
requests of other building industry
groups, a policy attitude toward re-
tained percentages on private work.
(Continued on Page 26)

new Amsterdam design
The delicate and graceful Amsterdam pattern, superbly executed in malleable
iron, is equally striking in traditional or contemporary environment. Con-
tinuous designs are obtained by joining the castings, both vertically and hori-
zontally, to form screens, grilles, columns or railing panels. The non-shattering
quality of malleable iron assures permanence, as well as fabricating economy.
"Amsterdam" is but one of the many beautiful panels carried in stock by
Julius Blum & Co., Inc.
More than 8,000 items in stock. See Catalog No. 8 or Sweet's
Architectural File No. 6e/BL. Phones: Carlstadt, N. J., GEneva 8-4600;
Philadelphia, MArket 7-7596; New York, OXford 5-2236


I'. ',.

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r -


In Cooperatives...

Economical Heating Is a MUST

* Safety, room-by-room control, cleanliness and
positive, through-the-room circulation are
equally important . ELECTREND provides all
these essentials in one efficient, compact unit.

4550 37th Street No. St. Petersburg
Phone: HEmlock 6-8420

Depend on Members of
1390 N.W. 43rd ST.
Phone NE 5-8751
SAirko Air Conditioning Company
Cawthon, Dudley M., Inc.
Central Roof & Supply Co.
Conditioned Air Corporation
Domestic Refrigeration
Giffen Industries, Inc.
Hamilton, Sam L., Inc.
Hill York Corporation
McDonald Air Conditioning
SMiami Air Conditioning
SMiami Super Cold, Inc.
SPoole & Kent Company
Sydco Corporation
Zack Air Conditioning & Refrigeration
SA & B Pipe & Gen. Sheet Metal
Steel Co. & Roofing
SAir Filters Co. Condos Corporation
Airtemp Div. G'Craves Refrigeration
orpor oe Middleton and Co.
SChrysler Corporation McMurray, H. L., Co.
Brophy, George O'Brian Associates
o Clark Equipment Co. Thermo Air
* Dean, A. C., Co. Service, Inc.
Florida Electric Motor Trane Company u



"SINCE 1921"



Architects' Supplies

Complete Reproduction

433 W. Bay St.
Jacksonville, Fla.


News & Notes
(Continued from Page 25)
Both the AGC and the National Joint
Cooperative Committee, AIA-AGC,
have consistently urged that this pol-
icy be formulated as similar to that
now prevailing for public work. For
some reason, the AIA Board has not
accepted this recommendation until
its meeting at Portland, Oregon, last
fall. At that time the Board re-con-
sidered the matter and decided to
reverse its stand.
Accordingly a new policy statement
was issued "encouraging an expansion
to private works, wherever possible, of
such retained percentage procedures
as now prevail on Federal public
works. Such retained percentages
would be at the rate of 10 percent
until 50 percent of the job is com-
pleted, after which there shall be no
additional retainage, provided that
the work has proceeded to the satis-
faction of the Architect and/or
the Owner."
It has been widely recognized by
most elements of the construction
industry that retainages higher than
this have worked hardships some-
times severe ones on both general
and specialty contractors. The custom
of high retainages has, in the aggre-
gate, effectively frozen millions in
construction funds and has many
times forced contractors to borrow
heavily at high rates to complete jobs
satisfactorily. In cases where such
conditions were anticipated, this has
served to increase the job bid or cost.
In other cases it has resulted in
drastic reduction of the contractor's
anticipated profit.

CSI Convention ...
The Fourth Annual Convention of
the Construction Specifications Insti-
tute will be held April 25 to 27, 1960,
at Rickey's Studio Inn, Palo Alto,
California. More than 300 delegates
are expected to attend from the In-
stitute's 40 chapters and more than
3000 members. Convention hosts will
be the San Francisco Chapter, CSI,
of which LEONARD M. TIVOL, archi-
tect, is president.
The CSI has grown rapidly in Flor-
ida with three chapters now active in
Miami, Jacksonville and Tampa. The
Miami Chapter has almost completed
its first major project-a completely
new topical outline for architectural

President's Message...
Continued from Page 17)
up to date. How would this be
financed? I would like to have the
difference that could be realized by
the State each year in the costs of
this operation and the occupational
license payments of those tax dodgers
who could be flushed from their back
room drafting boards, not to mention
the many unlicensed builders and sub-
Can you imagine the Florida Bar
Association permitting "do-it-your-
self" legal kits being sold through
newspaper advertising, or the Florida
Medical Association permitting the
unlicensed practitioners to diagnose
or treat patients? Yet hundreds of
thousands of men, women and chil-
dren live in homes, work in buildings
and worship in churches so sub-stand-
ard in construction that even a gale
wind would endanger their lives. Who
would be responsible should disaster
occur? The political subdivisions per-
mit this construction, no laws control
the designer or the builder. So how
would a judge with the wisdom of
Solomon properly place the blame?
It's time we did something.

Aichel Steel and Supply Co. 4
Air-conditioning, Refrigeration,
Heating & Piping Asso. 26
American Celcure Wood
Preserving Co. .. . 16
Bagwell Steel Products, Inc. 24
Julius Blum & Co. . 25
A. R. Cogswell . . 26
Dunan Bick Yards, Inc. 3rd Cover
Dwyer Products of
Florida, Inc. . 2nd Cover
Electrend Distributing Co. . 26
Featherock, Inc. .... 21
Florida Foundry &
Pattern Works . 6
Florida Home Heating Institute 23
Florida Power & Light Co. 14
Florida Steel Corporation . 28
George C. Griffin Co. . 6
Hamilton Plywood . . 12
Mutschler Kitchens of Florida 8
Portland Cement Asso. . 13
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc.. 5
Solite . . . 3
Southern Bell Telephone .20
Tiffany Tile Corp. . . 1
T-Square Miami . . 7
F. Graham Williams Co. . 27


JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary



"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"

TRINITY 6-1084





We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.

Represented in Florida by

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Coral Gables, Florida

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MO 1-5154

* 15 tons of molten steel pour from
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TAMPA 8-0451
ORLANDO GArden 2-4539
MIAMI NEwton 4-6576
JACKSONVILLE EVergreen 4-5561
FORT MYERS EDison 4-5262

Triple Play for the Future-

Project to Blight to Slums

You need only ride the Sunshine
Parkway from Miami to Fort Lauder-
dale to get some idea of how tragic-
ally our fast-dwindling Florida land-
scape is being desecrated. Stretching
north from Miami and south from
Fort Lauderdale are now scores upon
scores of little stock-plan houses. On
either side of the Parkway almost
as far as the eye can see in some
areas the pastel walls of depressing
mediocrity are taking over. Hardly
more than a year ago this was ham-
mock land, grazing land, open country
with vistas typical of the unique
south-Florida landscape. At the pres-
ent rate of building it will be hardly
more than another year until this
unconscienceable dreariness will com-
pletely hedge in the openness of the
Parkway on both sides.
Tract after tract is being spawned
And tract after tract is distinguished
only by the same row-after-row mono-
tony, the same type of cheek-by-jowl
crowding, the same sort of "organiza-
tion-man" layout, the same concept
of quicky development dollars, the
same callous disregard of what future
decay this very sameness will engen-
der. The spreading picture is more
than depressing. In it lie the seeds
of a vast future slum when main-
tenance is sloughed off, when values
fall, when tax sales mount, when a
growing number of foreclosures mean
resale to successively lower income
Unfortunately such projects are not
confined to this Parkway area. You can
see their counterpart in every section
of the State. And for every new realty
development millionaire they are
creating, the future will return a hun-
dred individual tragedies to saddle the
fringes of our towns and cities with
creeping, sprawling blight and to
bring new problems of slum clearance
and suburban rehabilitation.
Must this be so? Must Florida
communities continue to allow de-
velopment practices that for thirty
years have plagued older cities? Why
is it necessary to permit the same
disregard of good planning, good

design, good investment that have
brought on such dreary suburbs as the
row houses in Queens, New York, and
as the muddle of slums which are
now being expensively cleaned out of
Baltimore, Philadelphia, Detroit and
Boston to name only a few? Must
history so repeat itself as to actually
sanction the implantation of civic
cancers instead of demanding prac-
tical measures to prevent their occur-
rence and inhibit their growth?
To agree would be to deny that
we are at all able to shape our own
civic destinies or to admit that our
community ideals are so limited we
condone the near-sighted ineptitudes
that are now being perpetrated.
Certainly something can be done!
Something can be done with zoning
- with zoning on a regional, com-
munity-collaboration basis. Something
can be done through community
standards of land-use developed as
a result of thoughtfully considered
ordinances. Something can be done
by better methods of pre-qualifying
those who wish to develop housing
projects and demanding assurances
that standards will be maintained.
But even these are not enough,
desirable as they are. What is really
needed is a new attitude toward the
development of our communities
and the solution of their growing
problems. We need imaginative bold-
ness. Who is to say that a few high-
rise apartments set with community
facilities in the center of an open,
beautifully landscaped park could not
bring as many facilities, the same
living economies and even the
same pride of ownership to its in-
habitants as thirty acres of the stand-
ardized, monotonous and cheerless
mediocrity which now characterize
the row-lined, haphazard sprawl of
single-dwelling suburbia?
More important, who will now
show the foresight, the courage, the
wisdom and the initiative to recog-
nize the evils of our present civic
patterns and take vigorous action
toward their betterment?




"Oil heating a 'must'...
economical, too."

Mr. Fernald says, "Central
oil heating is a 'must' in our
home. It is economical, too.
It's great to relax in control-
led warmth instead of huddl-
ing in just one warm spot in
the house."

Are you still trying to get by
with costly, makeshift "spot"
heating in your home? It's so
unnecessary. You can enjoy
clean, modern oil heating and
save money. Oil is by far your
cheapest home heating fuel.
Safest and most dependable,
too. You can use oil for home
heating only without paying
a premium price. And you can
install a compact, attractive
oil heating unit now with little
or NO CASH DOWN-terms
to 36 months or longer.

See your oil heating dealer for home
heating survey and cost estimate. It's
free-no obligation.


Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Fernald live at 4100
14th Avenue, West Bradenton. Here young
Gary Fernald and his mother enjoy the com-
fort of their attractive oil-heated home.

Folks all over Florida sing the praises
of oil home heating in newspaper ads
like this one. You won't find any re-
sistance when you recommend safe,
economical, efficient, dependable oil
heating in the homes you design! If
you need any information on central
automatically controlled oil heating
systems we will be glad to provide it.
Write or visit us at Buildorama, DuPont
Plaza Center, Miami.


"SINCE 1921"



Architects' Supplies

Complete Reproduction

433 W. Bay St.
Jacksonville, Fla.




Goes on smooth as satin
No painty odor
Soapy water cleans
painting tools quickly
One coat covers
Dries in an hour or less
Colors coordinated with
Satin Impervo Enamel


Moore paints

News & Not

Board Names Time
for 1960 Meetings
At its December 5th meeting at
Gainesville the FAA Board selected
the following dates and locations for
its 1960 regular meetings: January
23-Fort Lauderdale area; March 26
-Tallahassee area; July 23-Daytona
Beach area; September 24-Tampa-
Clearwater area. No specific head-
quarters were named by the Board,
the thought being that these would
be worked out in detail by the AIA
Chapters which, presumably, will be
acting as local hosts during the Board's
visit to each area.
This schedule means the Board
will meet at least five times during
1960. A meeting immediately pre-
ceding the FAA's annual convention
is required by FAA By-Laws. This will
be held November 9, 1960, at the
Hollywood Beach Hotel which has
been officially named as the site for
the 1960 convention.
In another important action, the
Board voted an appropriation of
$2,000 for defraying expenses of an
informational P/R effort to help pro-
mote development of a new building
for the College of Architecture and
Fine Arts. Material will be prepared
under the direction of EDWARD G.
GRAFTON as FAA Public Relations
Committee chairman who will work
with CLINTON GAMBLE as chairman
of the FAA's special committee on
the new building.

New FAA Stationery
After the New Year, the FAA will
sport new stationery-and each FAA
member will carry a membership card
-designed by a student of the U/F
College of Architecture and Fine Arts.
A sketch problem for both letterhead
and membership card was held De-
cember 4; and results were judged by
the entire FAA Board of Directors
acting as a competition jury Saturday
noon, December 5. Selections were
made by the numerical voting system;
and the first prize went to KENNETH
STANTON, the second to DAVID
SHOUSE. Stanton's designs are now
being processed for FAA use.
The student competition involved
a first prize award of 25 and a second
award of $15.

New Office Address
for The Florida Architect
As of January 1, 1960, the FAA's
Official Journal, The Florida Arch-
itect, will have a new address to
which all correspondence should be
sent. It will be 7225 S. W. 82nd
Court, Miami 43, Florida. Telephone
number of the new office will be
MOhawk 5-5032. Mail will, of course,
be forwarded from the old address;
but the new address should be used
from now on for all communications
relative to editorial material, advertis-
ing and circulation matters, the latter
including changes of addresses of those
receiving the publication.
The magazine's new publishing
headquarters was established as a
result of the FAA's action relating to
its continued publication taken at the
FAA Board meeting held at Gaines-
ville, December 5, 1959. At that time
it was unanimously voted that all pub-
lishing operations would be conducted
by the FAA's former Executive Di-
rector, ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA, as
an activity separate from that of the
FAA's administrative office. As editor-
publisher, Sherman will work with
an FAA Publication Committee,
chairmanned by CLINTON GAMBLE,
Fort Lauderdale, and including ROY
M. POOLEY, JR., Jacksonville, ROBERT
H. LEVISON, Clearwater, HUGH J.
LEITCH, Pensacola, and WILLIAM A.
STEWART, Gainesville.
The FAA's administrative office
will continue operations at 414F Du-
pont Plaza Center, Miami 32. Cur-
rently, office affairs will be in charge
of the FAA's Administrative Secretary.
The office phone number is FRank-
lin 1-8253.

On page 20 of the De-
cember, 1959, issue of
The Florida Architect,
the address and phone
number of the Braden-
ton Stone Co. were in-
correct. We are glad to
print the correct ones
here: P. O. Box 256;
Phone 4-1044. We are
sorry indeed for any in-
convenience this error
may have caused.


Tile Design Award ...
(Continued from Page 6)

This design-award program of the
TCAA was initiated to encourage
wider and more imaginative employ-
ment of tile in architectural design.
The award is given annually to an
architect resident in the state selected
as the site of the TCAA's annual con-
vention. This year's program is being
developed jointly by an award com-
mittee of the TCAA and a commit-
tee from the FAA which includes
Robert E. Boardman, W. Mayberry
Lee and Taylor Hardwick, all of the
Jacksonville Chapter. This committee
will also act as the jury screening all
competition entries. The final jury
will include architects Boardman and
Lee in addition to the president of
the TCAA.
As now planned, the presentation
program will include a special feature
for architects during the afternoon of
May 11 culminating in a cocktail
party from 4:00 to 5:00 to which,
presumably, architects are invited.
The TCAA convention headquarters
will be in Jacksonville's Robert Meyer

Air-conditioning, Refrigeration,
Heating & Piping Asso.. 28
American Celcure Wood
Preserving Corp. . 27
Better Fuel Council
of Dade County ._11
Buildorama . .. 12
A. R. Cogswell . . 30
Dunan Brick Yards . 3rd Cover
Electrend Distributing Co . 22
Featherock, Inc. . . 23
Florida Home Heating Institute 29
Florida Portland Cement Co. 18
Florida Power & Light Co.. 26
Florida Steel Corp. . . 4
Florida Tile Industries . I
General Portland Cement Co. 3
George C. Griffin Co. . 31
Lupton Curtain Walls . 10
Benjamin Moore & Company 30
Richard Plumer . 24 and 25
Prescolite . . . 28
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc. 5
Solite . . . 7
Tiffany Tile Corp . . 8
F Graham Williams . . 31


JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary



"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"

TRINITY 6-1084 ..


.- J. 1690 MONROE DRIVE, N. E.





We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.

Represented in Florida by

3709 Harlano Street

Coral Gables, Florida

Telephone No. HI 3-6554
MO 1-5154



United Effort Can Reach The Goal

In just sixteen months the 1961 Florida State Legis-
lature will convene in Tallahassee. During its sixty-day
session, Appropriations Committees of both legislative
houses will list all expenditures planned for the ensuing
biennium. Legislators will vote on this listing; and when
the 1961 Appropriations Bill has been passed, the State
of Florida will have a rigid budget for disbursing its
income until a new Appropriations Bill is fashioned and
passed in 1963.
So the hour is late. To members of Florida's construc-
tion industry it is later than most think. Right now
projects are being planned for inclusion in the 1961
appropriations schedule. If funds for the vitally needed
building for the U/F College of Architecture and Fine
Arts are to be included, action toward that end must be
started now. And efforts toward that end must be vig-
orous, all-inclusive and unremitting until Florida's new
Governor finally signs the Appropriations Bill into law.
The urgent necessity for this building has been clearly
evident for many, many years. But fulfillment of the need
has been repeatedly passed over. This must not happen
again. Legislators must be made to realize the vital urgency
involved. They must be made to realize the alternative
if they fail to act upon this urgency. And it is up to
every element of the construction industry to see that this
is accomplished -and that adequate, not merely mini-
mum, funds are appropriated for use at the earliest pos-
sible time.
Here are some of the facts legislators should know:
1 ... Since 1949- ten years the College has been
housed in temporary wooden shacks scattered about the
campus -shacks which are now in a disgraceful state
of disrepair, and deterioration.
2 ... The College of Architecture and Fine Arts ranks
high among major centers of education in the art and
science of construction. Yet it is the only major unit
of the University of Florida which has been subjected to
a complete and callous neglect of its instructional facil-
3 . Because of its shamefully inadequate quarters,
the College is in real danger of losing approval by the Na-
tional Architectural Accrediting Board. If this should hap-
pen and it may well take place in 1961 if the near-
future does not forecast betterment of existing conditions
--educational standards and opportunities in Florida
would suffer a disgraceful and embarrassing setback.
4... Appropriation was made by the 1957 Legislature;
but no construction funds were released during the bien-

nium. In 1959 the appropriation was rejected even though
the needed buildings had been accorded a top priority by
the University. However, some planning funds have since
been allocated by the Board of Control. Plans are now
nearing completion.
5 ... The building has been visioned as caring for
the educational needs of every segment of Florida's con-
struction industry. Not only the architectural profession
will be served; but instructional departments will also
include facilities for the interior design and landscape
architecture professions as well as those for the technical
training of students slated for the fields of general con-
tracting and home building. Thus, every phase of our
State's huge and growing industry has a stake in the
early development of this project.
Because this is all true, every individual who earns
his living and sees his future in Florida's building has
a direct concern with the realization of this project.
Combined, the various elements of construction in our
State bulk up to a grouping and a dollar-volume that
are now as great as any other segment of Florida's econ-
omy not excepting tourism or agriculture.
So, from every important viewpoint educationally,
regionally, economically and even politically Florida's
legislators have good reason to close ranks and insist that
Appropriations Committees include, in 1961 Bills, non-
revokable recommendations for funds covering a construc-
tion industries building for the U/F campus.
The only question relative to such recommendations
is the overall amount of the appropriation now required.
This should be set at a minimum of $2,500,000. This
is a million more than was sought from the 1955 and
1957 Legislatures. The former sum of $1.5-million had
been determined on a basis that visioned a progressive
building program. Since then building costs have risen.
So have instructional needs of the College. Present studies
indicate that the former sum requested would provide
a net usable area of only 56,000 sq. ft. and would force
continued use of three existing temporary buildings. The
larger sum would care for the increased cost factor; and
it would also provide about 91,000 sq. ft. of net usable
area now needed to avoid continued use of the temporary
shacks now housing college activities.
This is the goal. Helping to reach it is the duty and
the high privilege of every member of Florida's construc-
tion industry be he architect, contractor, home builder,
material supplier, equipment manufacturer, financier or
building owner. ROGER W. SHERMAN, AIA.




MIAMI, FLORIDA TUxedo 7-1525

I ,


S. The first Convention of the new decade -
which some are already calling "The Sizzling
Sixties" will be at Hollywood in November.
The Broward County Chapter will be the host;
and members are already at work developing
the theme "Architecture for Our Climate" into
a program which promises to be both provoca-
tive and unusual. . It's not too early to plan
for the 1960 FAA Convention right now.
There's a good chance you'll be invited to par-
ticipate as well as to attend . .




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