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|It's time we stopped acting like...|
|Follies and fallacies of a master...|
|Florida architecture needs Florida...|
|Outstanding program developing...|
|Stained glass - New interest in...|
|Message from the president|
|Products and practice|
|News and notes|
|Editorial: Facts about FAA - Basis...|
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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
The four-hour bid plan - An end to bid shopping?
Forrest Coxen named as state school architect
It's time we stopped acting like sheep!
Follies and fallacies of a master plan for schools
Florida architecture needs Florida art
Outstanding program developing for 1958 FAA convention
Stained glass - New interest in an old art
Message from the president
Products and practice
News and notes
Editorial: Facts about FAA - Basis for performance
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
lorida Arc it
OFFICIAL JOURNAL of the FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
Read and Rememsbei .
Follies & Fallacies of A Master Plan for Schools
.- 7 F
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW BUILDING
Curtain Wall by Ludman
Architect: Robert M. Little, Miami, Fla.
Contractor: Fred Howland, Miami, Fla.
the architect's vision sets the pace for the future...
The plans an architect draws today may well
determine the architecture of the future.
When an architect does project the future
in his plans, he must find the materials with
which to implement that vision.
For example, within very recent years, cur-
tain walls have introduced new dimensions
of freedom in design and given the architect
a new fluidity of line, and a cleanness of
structural concept and mobility.
Eminently practical, ingeniously adaptable,
curtain walls have enlarged the architect's
horizon and, at the same time, achieved
a valuable saving in construction time
The Ludman Corporation was one of the
first to pioneer in the engineering develop-
ment and successful installation of curtain
wall in hundreds of buildings of every kind.
Its engineers are constantly formulating
new methods of treatment, new ways of
handling curtain wall design. As a result,
Ludman Curtain Walls offer practical ex-
pression of architectural concepts ... allow
the architect almost unlimited extension of
Ludman Curtain Walls match architectural
vision with superb window engineering that
reduces construction time and costs, yet is
always beautiful, efficient and flexible. They
combine window and wall in one easily
handled, quickly fastened, labor saving unit.
Maintenance is virtually nil.
Ludman Curtain Walls are easily adaptable
to any wall treatment desired, offering a
wide range of materials, color and texture
for interior and exterior walls.
Patented Auto-Lok aluminum awning win-
dows, intermediate projected windows, or
other Ludman windows, co-ordinate with
curtain wall treatment to increase the grace
and effectiveness of the proposed structure.
Furthermore, an architect can always rely
on the Ludman Engineering Division to
keep pace with his vision, from proposal
drawings through completion. This service
is available to the architect at all times
through his nearest Ludman Engineering
Ludman know-how, based on years of actual
curtain wall experience, has proved of aid
to architects the country over.
Ludman engineers are glad to be of assist-
ance at any stage of planning or construc-
tion, or to help solve structural problems
connected with curtain walls or window
treatment. Ludman is on the job through-
out the actual installation.
In Ludman Curtain Walls lie the means by
which the architect may well set the pace
for the future. Write to us for full, detailed
information on our curtain wall system.
The Ludman Corporation Founded 1936
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OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS
I 7Ti Issue ---
The Four-Hour Bid Plan . . . . . . . . . 4
An End to Bid Shopping?
Forrest Coxen Named as State School Architect . . . . . 6
It's Time We Stopped Acting Like Sheep! . . . . . 9
By Robert E. Hansen, AIA
Follies and Fallacies of A Master Plan for Schools . . . . 10
By Roger W. Sherman, Executive Director, FAA
Florida Architecture Needs Florida Art . . . . .. 13
Interview with Gustav Bohland, Sculptor
Outstanding Program Developing for 1958 FAA Convention . . . 17
Stained Glass New Interest in an Old Art . . . . . 18
By Conrad Pickel
Message From The President . . . . . . . . 20
By H. Samuel Kruse, President, FAA
Products and Practice . . . . . . . . . 22
News and Notes . . ................... 24
Advertisers' Index . . . . . . .. 27
Editorial . . . . . . .. 28
Facts about FAA Basis for Performance
F.A.A. OFFICERS 1958
H. Samuel Krus6, President, 811 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Miami
Arthur L. Campbell, First Vice-President, 115 S. Main St., Gainesville
William B. Harvard, Second Vice-President, 2714 Ninth St. N., St. Petersburg
Verner Johnson, Third Vice-President, 250 N. E. 18th St., Miami
Ernest T. H. Bowen, II, Secretary, 2910 Grand Central Ave., Tampa
Morton T. Ironmonger, Treasurer, 1261 E. Las Olas Blvd., Ft. Lauderdale
Roger W. Sherman, Executive Director, 302 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami 32.
IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT: Edgar S. Wortman; BROWARD COUNTY:
William F. Bigoney, Jr., Robert E. Hansen; DAYTONA BEACH: Francis R.
Walton; FLORIDA CENTRAL: Eugene H. Beach, Elliott B. Hadley, Anthony
L. Pullara; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, Myrl J. Hanes; FLORIDA
NORTH CENTRAL: Prentiss Huddleston; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen,
Theodore Gottfried, Herbert R. Savage; JACKSONVILLE: James A. Meehan,
Jr., Walter B. Schultz; MID-FLORIDA: L. Alex Hatton; FLORIDA NORTH
WEST: Hugh J. Leitch; PALM BEACH: C. Ellis Duncan, Jefferson N. Powell.
One of the most effective current arguments against employment of stock
school plans is the job that Florida architects, working with heads-up county
school boards, are doing to meet our State's rapidly expanding demand for
efficient, low-cost educational facilities. This one, the John G. DuPuis
Elementary School in Hialeah, was designed by Jerry P. Simmons, AIA,
and contains 20 classrooms, a cafetorium, administrative areas and a
library. It was completed only a few months ago at a square-foot cost of
The FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly at Rm. 302 Dupont Plaza Cen-
ter, Miami 32, Florida; telephone FR 1-8331.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. . Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
comed, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida.
Printed by McMurray Printers
ROGER W. SHERMAN Editor
FAA Administrative Secretary
VERNA M. SHERMAN
NUMBER 9 1958
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Dupont Plaza Center, John E. Petersen (1903-1957),
Frank H. Shuflin, AIA, architects, Arkin Construction Co., general
contractors, was faced with Florida Oolite Limestone by Kermit V. Miller
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specify it now in slabs up to four by eight feet, three-inches thick, or in ran-
dom ashlar sizes. Finish can be sand-sawn or polished, as you prefer . You can
see Coquina Coral in a sample that will be sent you promptly on request.
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The Four -Hour Subbid Plan--
An End to Bid -Shopping?
Florida architects and contractors,
individually and collectively in the
FAA-AGC-FES Joint Cooperative
Committee have been for some
years attempting to overcome the
manifold evils of bidding procedures.
In the Fall of 1954 the newly-formed
JC Committee considered the sub-
ject and after some discussion came
up with a recommendation which
was mutually approved by architects
and contractors and was published
as a "Recommended Bidding Pro-
cedure" guide in the December,
1954, issue of The Florida Architect.
However it has not been as success-
ful as its originators hoped it would
become. Bid shopping is still preva-
lent. The last-minute frenzy of bid
assembly is still too much the rule
rather than the exception. But there
is a growing realization that some
self-regulation among contractors is
essential; and thus the "four-hour
deadline" idea is beginning to grow.
In Florida this idea has, appar-
ently, been but newly hatched. But
in other Southern states it has been
tried sufficiently to demonstrate its
effectiveness as well as its simplicity.
The following item culled with
appreciation from the newsletters of
the Carolinas Branch and Central
Florida Chapter of the AGC-in-
dicates that the four-hour idea is
spreading throughout the south and
that Florida might do well to adopt it.
A revolution in bidding procedures
is gradually developing in North and
South Carolina. General contractors
in Columbia added considerable im-
petus to a two-state movement to
erase the subbid problem when they
unanimously adopted a "Four-Hour
Subbid Plan" similar to the ones now
in operation in Charlotte and Dur-
ham, N. C.
The problem of submitting and
receiving subbids has plagued gen-
eral contractors and subcontractors
alike for more years than anyone can
remember. The situation has been
complicated by the shopping and
peddling of bids, and there is good
reason to believe that shopping and
peddling are actually at the roots of
most bidding evils.
Until a year ago, the entire con-
struction industry had pretty well
resolved that shopping and peddling
were, of course, rotten things to do
but they were just two more hazards
you had to face when you hung out
your construction shingle. It was
agreed and rightly so that federal,
state or local laws could not curb
the practice. There are just too many
loopholes for a law to plug up, and
anyway, you can't legislate morals or
Then came the revolution and the
beginning of a revolutionary idea:
Why can't general contractors say
flatly they will not accept subbids
for materials and supplies any later
than four hours prior to the general
The idea was so simple and
wrought with so many improbabili-
ties that few people thought it would
work. Nevertheless, contractors in
San Diego, California, and San An-
tonio, Texas, gave it a try and set
up an ethical practices board to
administer the program.
The idea worked. General con-
tractors received their subbids in time
to put together a realistic bid, and
subcontractors found they were get-
ting bids from their suppliers early
enough to make equally intelligent
bids to the generals. The subs them-
selves agreed not to change bids after
the four-hour deadline.
An astounding result showed up
in a marked decrease in complaints
about shopping and peddling. The
plan completely shot full of holes
the prediction that a four-hour lapse
between the submission of subbids
and the general bid filing would give
all parties four additional hours in
which to carry on their shenanigans.
General contractors in Charlotte,
intrigued by the San Diego four-hour
subbid plan and disgusted with a
degenerating situation in the Char-
lotte area, put the plan into opera-
tion. When it worked in Charlotte,
(Continued on Page 6)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
F LOR QA
U E FLORt'
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End to Bid-Shopping ... ?
(Continued from Page 4)
contractors in Durham adopted it.
Contractors in Columbia are now
making plans to put the plan into
effect on or about October 1. In
addition, there have been several re-
quests that the four-hour plan be put
into operation on a two-state basis.
Fortunately, the plan is moving that
way under its own momentum. At
least four other Carolina cities are
studying the possibilities. In addition,
subbid plans are being considered in
Augusta, Ga., and Lynchburg, Va.
The ultimate hope is that the revo-
lutionary practice of receiving subbids
four hours prior to the general bid
filing will become as traditional as
the general bid deadline itself.
Forrest Coxen Named As
State School Architect
Announcement has been made by
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
of Public Instruction, of the appoint-
ment of FORREST RICHARD COXEN,
AIA, as State School Architect.
Coxen will assume his new duties
officially as of September 1st to fill
the vacancy which was created in the
Department of Public Instruction by
the resignation, on June 10, of
GEORGE M. MEGGINSON, now serving
as the Coordinator of School Plan-
ning for Broward County.
The new State School Architect
has been a resident of Tallahassee
since 1954 and a member of the
State School Architect's staff for the
past three years. He was born in
Indianapolis and after collegiate
work at St. Lawrence University,
Colgate and the University of North
Carolina, received a degree in archi-
tectural engineering at the Univer-
sity of Illinois in 1949. Prior to
moving to Florida he worked in two
Indiana firms, later becoming a
member of the office of ROBERT H.
MAYBIN, in Tallahassee before joining
the State School Architect's staff. He
is registered to practice architecture
Since 1950 Coxen has been inter-
ested in civic as well as professional
affairs. He has served as a director
of the Kokomo, Indiana, Plan Com-
mission and is a member of the
Tallahassee Junior Chamber of Com-
merce. He holds a reserve commission
in the U. S. Navy, has been active
in Naval Reserve Officer Corps of
Civil Engineers and has lectured on
construction techniques before Naval
Reserve units. For the past several
years he has been a member of the
Florida North Central Chapter, AIA,
and is now the president of that
body. He has also served as a director
of the FAA.
Coxen, 33, is married and the father
of two children. His home is at 301
North Dellview, Tallahassee.
Young architect, A.I.A., would like to re-locate in Florida with firm offering
good opportunities. Presently Chief Designer for a large architectural
organization. Will furnish detailed qualification upon request.-Box B-7,
958, Florida Architect.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITqCT
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
It's Time We Stopped
Acting Like Sheep!
By ROBERT E. HANSEN, AIA
FAA Director, Broward County Chapter
Someone said recently that the
"Japanese influence" in architecture
is going to sweep the country. I think
rather that that "Sheep Style" is
sweeping the country and is here to
stay unless each and all of us take
a look at what we are doing, and
having done to us, in the way of
living, politics and architecture.
A case in point--mile after mile
of oceanfront hotels, following some
forgotten bellwether over the preci-
pice of sheep thinking and bad plan-
ning, each bleating louder than the
next one, "Look at me. I am like the
other sheep, but different." Once
lured inside by fancy fronts, 90 per
cent of the inmates look out over
several rows of parked cars to a won-
derful view of the neighboring build-
ings, instead of the ocean view they
are paying for.
In the field of automobiles, it's
the same--mile after endless mile
of big, powerful juggernauts, each
trying to outflash the next. Their
equivalents rust in junk yards and
scrap piles, mostly made obsolete long
before their useful life's end by a sales
pitch that causes the most wasteful
use of irreplaceable national re-
sources, outside of war, that the world
has ever known.
Here, the Japanese and European
tradition of sparing use of material
and clean lines might be used to
good advantage. For, in this field,
now, the clean small cars from abroad
frighten the big giants and erode their
In the field of home building, the
same compulsion to conform stifles
development of indigenous architec-
ture. Stemming from seemingly un-
avoidable financing, cost, and code
restrictions, and lack of appreciation
for good design, the sameness of
our multiple housing is only occa-
sionally relieved by often desperate
attempts to LOOK different without
There's a way out of this dilemma
that's simple: Encourage indigenous
individuality. It's more difficult to
effect, for in the building field it re-
quires lending appraisals as much on
the basis of potential performance as
upon past performance, and greater
reliance on individual judgment. It
necessitates a premium loan value for
good design and good planning,
rather than a black mark.
But the stifling clouds of conform-
ity living, that make us increasingly
as uniform and characterless as fig-
ures in a London fog, are not easy
to disperse. If it is currently popular
to be a Republican, we are afraid to
say, "I am a Democrat." If "Bermuda
roofs" are the thing, we don't dare
say, "I like shingles."
We've come to accept mediocrity
as a normal result, almost to the
point of resenting anyone who takes
the time to create basic individuality,
simply because we cannot stand
someone else's being different. Yet
within the limited framework of our
conformity, we want to be different,
so we load the standard chassis with
expensive and often meaningless
When we have become accustomed
to seeing an individually conceived
idea (it took 20 years to "see" the
built-in stove), we adopt it without
thinking because it is the thing to
do. Then, often as not, we trip over
our own toes once again. Our "Ber-
muda roof" may leak because we
didn't bother about the sub-roof, or
we find the new shopping center is
without bankers, doctors, lawyers and
postal facilities. We see moving con-
gestion on the streets substituted for
static congestion in the parking
spaces and wonder why, and so we
go, round and round, spinning our
wheels, heads in the sand, con-
The many problems created by all
phases of excessive conformity and
apathy are dangerous, threatening
man's most precious gift a free and
It is most dangerous to the fabric
of community life to let our down-
town areas bleed to death because
we refuse to take the time to study
the problem, or can't bear to join
hands to save common values. It is
disheartening to see projects built
today that will surely be the slums
of tomorrow, even though they repre-
sent some improvement over the
slums built yesterday.
The seeds of political conformity
and thought control, so dramatically
highlighted during the McCarthy
(Continued on Page 27)
FOLLIES and FALLACIES OF
A MASTER PLAN FOR SCHOOLS
The perennial proposal of stock
plans for schools is with us again.
The most recently published advocacy
of this bewiskered idea appeared in
the Orlando Sentinel for August 14,
1958. It was set forth over the byline
of columnist ORMUND POWERS; and
all its trite and well-worn arguments
could be brushed aside were it not
for the fact that many newspaper
readers are quite as unthinking as
some newspaper writers. Thus what
Mr. Powers says deserves comment,
if only to clarify the true facts of
a situation wherein straight thinking
is lost in a fog of misleading para-
If a little knowledge is a danger-
ous thing, the ignorance displayed in
this newspaper column is pernicious.
Its thesis is: "I see no reason why we
have to have seven sets of plans, pay
seven architects liberal fees, simply
because we're going to build seven
new schools. Why not use a single
Mr. Powers goes on:
"Classrooms are classrooms, no
matter who designs them. Audi-
toriums, cafetoriums, gymnasiums are
not complicated things . I think
it would make far more sense to copy
the best classroom plans available,
the best plans for the other rooms
in an average school and build them
By ROGER W. SHERMAN
Executive Director, F.A.A.
all alike . If we want the build-
ings to look different- or not to all
bear the nostalgic similarity of yes-
terday's Little Red Schoolhouses -
well, we can pretty up the outsides."
And after more in the same vein
comes the real clincher:
"But the big reason, of course, is
the saving in taxpayers' money, not
alone in the architects' fees which
will run about six percent of the total
cost, but in building costs which are
cheaper if methods are standardized."
Many fallacies underlie these glib
words. They should be exposed in
the interests of the very taxpayers for
whom Mr. Power's editorial heart
appears to bleed. Here are some of
The Master Plan Fallacy ...
Mr. Powers obviously does not
know that this idea has been tried
in Florida and has been abandoned
as impractical and costly here as
elsewhere. The Department of Public
Instruction gave up the stock plan
idea some ten years ago, because, in
the experienced judgement of its
State School Architect, stock plans
could not meet either educational
nor construction requirements due to
". .. different site conditions, enroll-
ment and curricula and because stock
plans impede development of chang-
ing techniques of instruction."
In this sound approach to the
problem of providing adequate in-
structional facilities for Florida's ih-
creasing youngster population, our
State is one of 15 which formerly
tried the stock plan idea but has
abandoned it. Nationally, 23 states
have never used stock plans to solve
their educational plant problems. And
as of 1953, when a national survey
was conducted by the American
Architectural Foundation for the
AIA Committee on School Buildings,
only 10 states were using stock plans
in any form with most of these
being confined to strictly rural one
- or two-room schools, or supple-
mentary structures costing less than
A very recent statement by Flor-
ida's Department of Public Instruc-
tion before the Legislature's Interim
Committee on Education scored
stock plans on a number of counts.
First: They will not meet needs of
various types of school organizations.
Last year, there were 20 different
grade groupings in schools for pupils
above the eighth grade. No master
plan could be devised to satisfy the
varied requirements involved.
Second: No one stock plan or
even many of them could meet the
widely varying needs for specialized
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
I II II I I I I
I- r ---I
instructional facilities. For example,
last year only 157 of the 312 Florida
schools enrolling pupils in the 12th
grade offered physics. Others offered
a variety of courses from general
science up to highly specialized
studies in biology, physics and chem-
istry- thus indicating a wide varia-
tion in both numbers and types of
Third: Overall size needs vary
widely too -even within county
limits. No set of master plans could
meet the variations in enrollments -
which are further complicated by
variations in teaching methods and
subjects offered. As one example, last
year the average class size in the field
of science was 27.9 pupils but
throughout the state were 831 science
classes above 35 pupils.
These are but a few illustrations
indicating the purely educational
variations in school plant facilities of
which Mr. Powers seems to be com-
pletely unaware. In advocating "a
single master plan" to satisfy them,
Mr. Powers seems to be downright
ignorant of the almost astounding
progress in. Florida's educational sys-
tem which has brought these varied
instructional needs into being. Prior
to the development of Florida's
Minimum Foundation Program, this
state was low, low on the educational
totem pole. Today, thanks to the very
progressive attitude toward educa-
tional plants which Mr. Powers is
opposing. Florida ranks among the
upper third of states offering above-
average educational facilities.
The "Classrooms are
Classrooms" Fallacy . .
They were once in the "Little
Red Schoolhouse" Mr. Powers men-
tioned. But many, many years have
passed since this reactionary attitude
was discarded by a host of intelligent
men and women teachers, parents,
architects, educational researchers,
local, county, state and national
school-planning organizations bent
on raising the national standard of
literacy and on providing more effi-
cient educational environments as
one means for doing so.
Mr. Powers and others like him
should find out something about
this. Today classrooms are not just
classrooms. They are tools for better
teaching. And as with any other tool
for any modern activity, unremitting
effort is being spent on their im-
provement by various groups of tech-
nicians in both educational and
construction fields. And these tools
are different depending on the job
they are set up to do. Instructional
space for the teaching of mathema-
tics, for instance, can vary widely
from that for the pursuit of the
sciences. Home-making courses -
and millions of husbands can be
thankful these exist! require vastly
different layouts and equipment from
those courses concerned with history,
languages or the various arts.
The combination of such indi-
vidual spaces- these specialized in-
structional tools --determines the
school plant, to which must be added
facilities for school administration
and operation and such dual-purpose
community facilities as auditoriums,
shops, libraries and the like. Ex-
perience has shown that the right
combination of all these elements in
any one school district may be so
substantially different from others as
to make any sort of overall standard-
ization virtually impossible.
Had Mr. Powers been less willing
to display his ignorance of the sub-
ject on which he was commenting,
he would never have advocated
copying the "best classroom plans
available, the best plans for the other
rooms in an average school and build
them all alike". Had he researched
his subject even a little, he would
have discovered that there is no
"best" classroom and no "average
school". The "best" is only best
(Continued on Page 12)
How to get a School for Johnny is a subject that interests
many and has generated much creative work on the part of a
dedicated few. But it has also been the sounding board for
a huge amount of uninformed opinion on the part of those
who jump at conclusions rather than reason toward a result.
Among these are advocates of the stock plan idea. When such
people glibly accept this poor theory for a sound fact and
chase this chimera of construction in print, they hinder the
cause of educational progress. It is up to the experienced
educators and building professionals to remove the hindrance
wherever and whenever it occurs. Only by setting the record
straight can this be done. This article provides one illustration
of the case in point.
Follies and Fallacies ...
(Continued from Page 11)
where it exists to meet most effi-
ciently and most economically the
conditions for which it was designed.
And precisely because this is so,
Florida's overall educational plant is
becoming one of the best in the
country. It would be costly folly for
the future of our State were we to
accept the outmoded suggestion of
Mr. Powers and thus stop our collec-
tive efforts at improving still further
the tools for teaching which will
shape the mental stature and under-
standing of our future citizens.
The Money-Saving Fallacy..
In this particular paragraph, Mr.
Powers' real understanding of his
subject plummets to a new low. Here
are some elementary facts that he -
and more importantly his readers -
The cost of occupancy the
school plant, its servicing, operation
and supplies-involves approximately
50 percent of a total educational
budget. Some authorities estimate
costs differently. DR. CHARLES W.
BURSCH, an educational consultant
who was formerly Chief of the Office
of School Planning, California De-
partment of Education, puts the
construction cost of a school plant
at only 10 percent of the total educa-
tional program and allocates the
other 90 percent to the costs of
personnel teachers and administra-
tors- services and supplies.
In view of such extra-building
costs as insurance, financing, equip-
ment and land acquisition, Dr.
Bursch is probably closer to the facts
than other estimates which put the
cost of school construction at a
somewhat higher percentage. Assum-
ing a median point for the sake of
illustration, it is safe to say that con-
struction cost will run 20 percent of
a total budget; and that this is a
figure on which the cost of architec-
tural service can be predicated.
On this realistic basis, therefore,
architectural services cost but .012
percent of a county's school budget,
assuming, as has Mr. Powers, that
these services involve six percent of
a construction cost. This figure, low
as it is, stands out as a seemingly
prominent item merely because pro-
fessional custom has regarded it as
a "fee" for services not as an inte-
grated cost of building, similar to the
interest on a bond issue or premiums
for adequate insurance, or even the
legitimate profit made by the con-
tractor who builds a school plant.
However, because it does stand out
as an apparently independent item
of cost for any educational plant, the
cost of architectural service has be-
come a favorite target for those who
cry for "economy" but will not take
the trouble to analyze how true
economy can be produced or
wherein lie possibilities for savings
which will produce it. The answer
does not lie in the standardization of
school plants -any more than the
current success of the Ford Motor
Company lies with adherance to the
old policy of its founder that re-
search was merely expense, mechani-
cal improvement and design advance
were unimportant and any color was
good enough "so long as it was
If any interested person even
Mr. Powers in view of his paragraphs
- will take the trouble to analyze
the school economy situation in
realistic terms, he will come to one
inescapable conclusion. It is the
same conclusion which all of our 48
states have come to in regard to the
development and utilization of stock
plans for any purpose other than as
an expedient to meet the most minor
and temporary needs. This is that
true economy in school construction
results from the use of the most
capable brains available in setting
up the educational and planning
needs; in the application of the most
extensive and skilled experience in
providing school plant designs to
meet those needs; in specifying con-
struction methods and equipment
items which will minimize insurance
rates and reduce maintenance ex-
penses throughout the financial life
of the building; and in coordinating
an overall program of plant develop-
ment which will serve both present
and future demands of the com-
munity for a growing enrollment of
pupils and an expanding understand-
ing of teachers relative to progressive
improvements in teaching methods.
This is the only realistic criterion
of economy for any school board in
any community throughout Florida.
No community, no county, no state
department of public instruction can
afford less -for anything below a
well-considered standard of high per-
formance from start to finish will
prove to be too expensive for the
future to seriously contemplate in
the present. Those who have gone
to the studied bother to make them-
selves expert in the many phases of
educational activity will bear out this
statement. It is only those speaking
from an ignorance born of precious
little knowledge who are looking at
wishful thoughts down a short nose
and are sounding off for reaction
rather than progress.
What these people do not seem
to realize is that the architect is only
one member of a three-man team -
the other two being the educational
planner and the school administrator.
The educator sets the policy and
program of instruction in terms of
modern educational standards. The
administrator defines the scope of
the program in terms of community
needs and probable growth and sets
a budget. The educational require-
ments and the physical limitations are
then turned over to the architect. His
special job is to provide adequate fa-
cilities within allotted expenditures.
This team is doing a good job in
Florida. Those interested can get
from the National Education Associa-
tion figures to show that the costs of
Florida's schools compare well with
those of other states -both as to
unit cost per square foot and cost
per pupil. This has been achieved
because architects have utilized every
proved technical means to hold costs
down consistent with sound construc-
tion that will minimize insurance and
future maintenance costs.
The Architect saves by careful plan-
ning, by specifying standard items
of construction and equipment in-
stead of special ones; and by co-
ordinating all details to avoid waste.
It is an exacting job, an important
job. And in doing it, this professional
man, no less than the laborer, is
certainly worthy of his hire.
The "Liberal Fee" Fallacy...
This is another spike which needs
driving home with good sound blows.
Many people, Mr. Powers apparently
among them, do not know what con-
stitutes the architectural services for
which payment is made. Most people
accept a realtor's percentage -
(Continued on Page 26)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
"Playing Porpoise"-an over-mantle bas relief for a private residence. It was executed
in plaster, measures two-feet and three-inches long by seven and one-half inches high.
Needs Florida Art
This interview with GUSTAV BOHLAND, sculptor,
is the first of a planned series of interviews with Flor-
ida artists whose collaborative interests and talents can
help architects reach new levels of significance in
building design ...
Florida-her people and her archi-
tecture-is now ripe for a resurgence
of decorative art. That is the belief
of GUSTAV BOHLAND, European born,
American-trained sculptor, who has
been a south-Florida resident for
many years past and has watched the
social and architectural development
of the State with a philosophic in-
terest. Florida has carved-and is
still carving-a special place for her-
self in the country's history, he says;
and her background and accomplish-
men ts should be memorialized
through sculpture skillfully coordi-
nated with architectural design.
Though trained in the academic
tradition, the sculptor has an absorb-
ing interest in what he regards as
tremendous creative possibilities for
abstract design. But abstract design,
he says, requires the most intense
discipline, based on long, sound train-
ing on the part of the artist.
"The kind of work generally pre-
sented as such," Bohland says em-
phatically, "Is merely blind confusion
and disorganization-totally meaning-
less-unless it is done by an experi-
enced artist who knows what he is
doing. Otherwise it is mob rule in
the field of the arts.
"The fact that an EPSTEIN, BOUR-
DELLE or BRANCUSI and only re-
cently some U.S.A. sculptors-has
demonstrated, in the abstract, the
need of an expression different than
that of the past should not imply
that any sort of sculpture or any
artistic embellishment for buildings
can stand independently. The sculp-
tor must recognize that the prime fac-
tor of his work on any architectural
design is the value of its composition
as a coordinated element of archi-
"Stylization is important, too. It
must be treated as an integral part of
the whole design theme and
throughout every phase and detail.
It must complement the architecture
-whether the architectural theme be
of a certain period, in the contem-
porary 'tradition', or the unique, crea-
tive reflection of a single design per-
Gustav Bohland's background gives
impressive authority to his convic-
tions. He has worked with such archi-
tectural scupltors as ADOLPH ALEX-
ANDER WEINMAN, RENE P. CHAM-
BELLAN and PAUL JENNEWEIN. But
he has also executed independently
an amazing variety of individual
works and has exhibited at most of
the country's major galleries, includ-
ing, notably, the Corcoran Gallery
at Washington, the Pennsylvania
Academy of Fine Arts, the Brooklyn
Museum and the Palace of the Legion
of Honor at San Francisco.
(Continued on Page Ii)
The obverse side of a gold medal modeled
in 1952 and presented to Dr. Albert
Schweitzer, winner of Nobel Peace Prize.
A free-standing group executed in cast bronze and modeled in 1950 as
a memorial to Ted Wylie, the brother of Miami author Philip Wylie. This
bronze, symbolic of a maritime accident, stands thirty-eight inches high.
Decorative wall placque embodying a col-
ored-outline relief against white for
execution in plaster was designed for a
quantity-reproduction as a moderately-
priced decorative unit for commercial-
residential buildings as hotels, apartments
and motels. It measures eleven and one-
half inches by twenty eight inches.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Needs Florida Art .
(Continued from Page 13)
He appears to be equally at ease
with marble, bronze or plaster; and
many of his smaller works have been
executed as castings in aluminum and
nickel or as carvings in a variety of
rare woods. He believes such varied
experience is necessary for a sculptor
who works with architects.
"The experienced sculptor," Boh-
land declares, "can cooperate with the
architect to solve any decorative de-
sign problem-in any medium which
may be called for. Today, more than
ever, the sculptor faces a challenge-
with the architect-in modern archi-
tecture. The architect is reaching for
a new expression, a new simplicity of
statement based on the growing im-
portance of technological factors. The
sculptor must do likewise. Working
together, this design team can pro-
duce significant results-not only as a
statement of, but also as memorial to
our era, our philosophies and our
"But the sculpture, as the building
of which it is a part, must meet a
purpose. To merely use any sort of
three-dimensional form as an em-
bellishment for a modern structure-
without thought or sensitivity as to
its basic purpose or its design charac-
ter-is to accept semi-illiteracy as a
design standard. Unfortunately too
many of our buildings and too many
examples of our modern decorative
arts suffer because of this."
Above, an abstraction called "Hurri-
cane," carved in walnut in three sec-
tions and measuring, overall, thirty-
five by twenty-three by four inches.
This three sectional group, "Sea Lions," was carved in lignum vitae, the hardest,
heaviest and toughest of woods. It measures four feet in overall length, is nineteen
inches high and fifteen inches in depth . Below, this sketch model for a public
fountain was executed at a scale of three-eights of an inch to the foot as a proposal,
in 1951, for a heroically proportioned memorial for construction in Miami's
Bayfront Park as part of the landscaped setting for the Miami Public Library.
Let's face it!
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the 35"year average a' 42 days a 'year when
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46 DAYS o 60'
Most Florida folks remember last winter. Last summer, in our news-
paper TV radio billboard advertising, we reminded those who
might have forgotten. We believe you'll find 100% acceptance of
your recommendations for central oil or gas heating as the cheapest
and best solution to Florida's cold-snap heating problem.
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16 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
Outstanding Program for
1958 FAA Convention
Within a few short weeks archi-
tects all over the State will be receiv-
ing the first mailing for advance
registration at the 44th Annual FAA
Convention. As most of them already
know this is to be held in the new
Deauville Hotel at Miami Beach.
The dates are November 20, 21 and
22; and the fact that it will soon be
time to reserve space for these dates,
indicates that the Convention Pro-
gram is now getting a final grooming.
As a matter of fact, the foundation
and the main structure of the Con-
vention was built several months
ago. Early in the year JOSEPH M.
SHIFALO, president of the Mid-
Florida Chapter which will officiate
as Convention Hosts and one of
the co-chairmen -with ROBERT B.
MURPHY of the Chapter's Con-
vention Committee, announced the
Convention theme as "Opportunity
in An Expanding Era". Actually the
two-and-one-half-day meeting will
constitute a kind of "Symposium on
Space" for the central theme will
be carried out by speakers who are
closely in touch with the tremendous
new developments now under way.
One of them will be DR. PAUL J.
WALSH, of the Naval Research
Laboratory at Washington, D. C. Dr.
Walsh is one of the country's experts
on Space and the means for finally
conquering it. As a scientist he has
been instrumental in developing the
ICBM inter-continental ballistic
missile. But as a far-seeing pioneer
he has an imagination based firmly
on technical realities and will discuss,
for architects fortunate enough to
attend the Convention, the future he
sees ahead in terms of the possibili-
ties for development now at hand.
There could hardly exist a more
provocative subject--nor a better
qualified person than Dr. Walsh to
Another speaker will be RALPH
DELALHAYE PAINE, JR., publisher of
Fortune and the Architectural Forum.
With lines of information leading
to every significant development
throughout the world, Mr. Paine
is one of the best-informed people
in the country. He will discuss some
of the forces he thinks are now
fashioning our immediate future;
and he will sketch what he believes
will be the outline of professional
activity which will result.
AIA President JOHN NOBLE RICH-
ARDS, has been invited as a guest
speaker. And what has been described
as "the red-hot professional question
of the moment" the practical
ways in which architects can meet
the business threat of the "building-
package dealer" will be the subject
of a panel workshop session moder-
ated by HERBERT C. MILLKEY,
former chairman of the AIA's com-
mittee on this important subject,
with GRAYSON GILL, of Dallas, Texas,
and VINCENT G. KLING of Phila-
delphia, as panelists. Behind these
three men is a wealth of study on
this problem and their discussion
will be geared to the down-to-earth
things that architects in Florida can
do toward solving it.
There will be a Public Relations
workshop too. ROBERT DENNY, P/R
counsel for the AIA, will demonstrate
how the Institute, P/R program can
be made effective in Florida in terms
of both Chapter and individual
activities. RALPH RENICK, news direc-
tor for WTVJ, will discuss the
mechanics of TV programs and will
suggest the ways in which TV can
be used by architects for the benefit
of themselves and the public they
serve. And from the fourth estate,
FREDERICK SHERMAN, real estate
editor of the Miami Herald, will out-
line what architects should do for
and with the newspapers to develop
publicity of interest and value to all
concerned. And all three have prom-
ised to answer questions!
Those are some highlights. Others
include a 75-booth exhibit of build-
ing products which constitute a
liberal education in what's new
(Continued on Page 19)
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Architects: Frank A. Shuflin. AIA; John E. Petersen, AIA. -'" For details, con-
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New Interest in An Old Art
The art of stained glass is unique
in that it calls for the highest talents
of artist and craftsman alike and
involves, even today, a process and
a set of basic materials which have
not changed essentially since the
Middle Ages. Architects learned as
students that the peak of this art
was reached in the great Gothic
cathedrals of Europe. They know,
too, that the quality and decorative
power of stained glass gradually
diminished to the point, early in the
twentieth century, of being almost
Today, however, there appears to
be a resurgence of this painstaking
craftsmanship in color. It is being
increasingly studied by modern art-
ists; and with the availability of
modern lighting techniques, stained
glass in all its original depth of color
and symbolism of design can well
be used in secular as well as religious
structures. Though the application
of this old art may change and the
design of each example may show
new freedoms of expression in both
subject and draftsmanship, the craft-
ing process remains substantially the
same as during medieval times.
Stained glass is an art requiring
architectural understanding and sensi-
tivity on the part of its creator. And
to produce it requires adherance to
a strict sequence of steps. Among
artists who are now working with
stained glass in Florida is CONRAD
PICKEL who has recently opened a
studio at Vero Beach. The following
description of the stained glass pro-
cess has been written by him.
The glass used in good windows
is mouth-blown antique glass, most
of which must still be imported from
Europe. The thin, opalescent glass
used so often in America in the past
decades, or glass painted with enamel
colors is not real stained glass. In
good stained glass there are variations
in the thickness of as much as one-
quarter inch in one piece which adds
to the interest by its shading and
feeling of texture.
The color in glass is in the sub-
stance itself. While the mass of
colorless glass is still in its molten
state, various metallic ingredients
such as gold, cobalt, chromium, etc.,
are added to produce an endless
number of colors. This method of
staining or dyeing glass is the same
as that used in the Middle Ages. For
this reason it is called antique glass
or pot-metal from the pot in which
it is made. A lump of the bubbling
mass is caught up at one end of a
blowpipe, blown into a cylinder, cut,
flattened, and cooled. Its very imper-
fections are often a part of its glory.
With the exception of a stain
painted and fired to produce yellow
tones in white glass, the only pigment
used is a reddish brown or black
powdered oxide to delineate features
and form, drapery, and pattern. The
pigment is rendered permanent by
fusing in the surface of the glass at
a high temperature.
The most important step of course
is the original design of the window.
The artist must know the exact
measurements and shape of the win-
dow. He must also take into consi-
deration the location and amount of
light allowed for this window. He is
then able to make a small sketch
in color, incorporating the theme
that is to be used in the design of
When this design has been ap-
proved, a large, full-scale drawing is
made in accordance with the sketch.
This large drawing, done in charcoal
or ink, is called a cartoon. It is drawn
very exactly, showing the wide, thick
lines which will allow for the lead
around each segment of glass. From
this cartoon, several carbon copies
are traced for the exact pattern. Each
segment of the pattern is now cut
with double blade scissors which
simultaneously cut away a narrow
strip of paper, allowing sufficient
space between the segments for the
core of the grooved lead. With these
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Direct color prints by Chromastat, provide
sharp, clear definition, brilliant depths and
highlights, color accuracy to match the orig-
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them in sizes from 8" x 10" to 20" x 30"
at surprisingly low cost. Price of an 8" x 10",
for example, is little more than that of a
standard black and white photo.
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Chromastats in 8" x 10" were made of this rendering,
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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
individual pieces of the pattern, the
selection of glass can be made.
After the various pieces of glass
have been selected and cut to the
correct size, they are placed over the
original cartoon and a light is cast
from beneath the cartoon to aid in
painting and tracing on the glass. A
special paint, metallic oxide, is traced
on the individual pieces of glass,
glass, bringing out the individual
characteristics such as facial ex-
pressions, fingers, hair, ornamenta-
tion, etc. All tracing is done in black,
no colored paint is used since the
glass itself portrays the colors used.
When all tracing is completed, the
glass segments are firmly fastened to
a large plate glass easel with beeswax.
The easel is then tipped to allow
actual daylight to shine through the
glass segments. From this vantage
the stained glass receives careful
scrutiny and if any changes are made
in glass selection or in tracing, the
pieces are then removed and replaced
at this time.
The glass is now removed from the
easel, placed on asbestos sheets, and
put in an electric kiln to fire at 12000
temperature. At this degree, the paint
becomes fused with the glass so that
it cannot be washed off, scratched
off, or worn off. Firing this glass is
actually an all-day procedure, includ-
ing the slow cooling process.
Following this step, the glass is
removed from the cooling chambers
and now is ready for the lead. A
very pure, soft lead is used, shaped
around each segment of glass and cut
to fit exactly. The lead strips are
approximately "3 to 1" wide and
the glass fits closely in either side of
the grooved lead. Each joint is
soldered on both sides. Finally the
stained glass is cemented on both
sides to make the windows waterproof
and air tight.
Convention . .
(Continued on Page 17)
and available for specification -with
time allowed in the overall Conven-
tion program to view them. There
will be entertainment as well as
business and an opportunity to be
the enviable recipient of a round-the-
Carribean trip, a week-end in Nas-
sau or a whole series of really
wonderful gifts. Better mark your
A poured roof deck or fill of Perlite Insulating Con-
crete is one of the most efficient and inexpensive means
you can specify for reducing interior heat loads. For
example, "U" factors of a 1 :6 mix ratio range from .200
to .098 depending on the type of construction and the
thickness of roof fill used.
This high insulating effectiveness makes possible a
substantial reduction in air-conditioning costs. With les-
sened heat loads, smaller units, less tonnage and power are
required and economies like these are often greater
than the costs of the Florilite Perlite insulating fills that
In addition . Perlite concrete is lightweight about
one-fifth the weight of standard concrete. So its use
makes possible construction economies, too thus still
further reducing. the cost of using one of the most versatile
and effective materials in building .
By H. SAMUEL KRUSE
Better Service Is
The Measure of Progress
Being president of the Florida As-
sociation of Architects, much of my
time is spent devising new ways, or
better ways, by which the Associa-
tion can serve the interests of the
architects of this State and promote
the profession. The things the As-
sociation can do for the profession
are almost limitless only time,
money and personnel are needed to
accomplish these things. The Asso-
ciation can support, or fight, legisla-
tion of interest to the profession; it
can conduct research and publish
technical, professional and business
papers educating the profession; it
can conduct public relations programs
to create an understanding of the
public of the profession and its ac-
tivities. The Association can per-
form many things for the profession.
But one important function it cannot
perform. It cannot perform archi-
tectural service for the individual
architect. Service to his client is still
the architect's prime purpose. With-
out it there is no need for the pro-
fession, much less an Association.
In too many instances there has
arisen evidence that this simple pro-
gression is not universally understood
by all architects of Florida. The As-
sociation is organized to promote the
interests of the profession. If there
is no profession, there is nothing
with interests for the Association to
promote. If individual architects
render no service to their clients, no
architectural service is rendered.
Since the purpose of the profession
is architectural service, if individual
architects do not render architectural
service, then there is no architectural
profession. Put this way it seems so
simple, almost childish. Why is it,
then, that some architects pay good
time and money to become registered
architects, establish firms purportedly
for architectural service, join profes-
sional societies, and then refuse to
perform the service?
Service Justifies Itself
Let us not quibble about what
constitutes service. I have heard that
the quality of the pants is in propor-
tion to the sale price, so must archi-
tectural service be meted. Nuts to
this analogy! The quality of pants
and price is business where profit is
the goal. The practice of architecture
is not a business. An appendecotomy
for a charity patient is of the same
quality as for the patient who pays
his way. That is the way it is in a
profession; the service is its reason
for being. The practice of architec-
ture is a profession and architectural
service its reason for being.
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20 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
I can hear the rebuttals: "Silly
dreamer, who isn't interested in
profit?" And my answer is, "If you
are an architect, your prime purpose
is to serve-whether it be for ac-
claim, love, or money. If you are a
good architect you will serve your
client with a distinctive flair along
with the technical proficiency ex-
pected of all architects. If you are a
really good architect, you will not
only render this distinctive service,
but render it so efficiently that a
profit is realized from the fee!" Please
think for a moment, then ask your-
self, "Who are the best architects I
know?" Are they the wealthy ones?
I bet you won't know whether the
best architects are wealthy or not.
Why? Because architects are judged
by their service, not the profit they
can make by not rendering service.
Last night I spent an hour con-
vincing a building committee mem-
ber, that an architect's supervision of
construction was worth the fee. A
contractor friend of his had told him
what an architect did on his projects
and that supervision wasn't worth
the money. If what the contractor
said was true, the architect deserved
no compensation for supervision.
Look how the failure of one archi-
tect to perform properly was accepted
as standard performance for all archi-
tects, including the president of the
FAA. I convinced the committee that
architect's supervision properly per-
formed is more than worth the fee-
that is, I convinced a majority of
the committee. The contractor is
still telling his friends and his
friends are telling others-that archi-
tects' supervision of construction
stinks and isn't worth the fee. Be-
cause of one smarty 'architect who
made a profit by giving no service
for his fee, the whole profession suf-
fers a relapse, the Association in-
creases the dues to redouble its pub-
lic relations efforts to regain the posi-
tion the profession had before that
one, lone jerk pulled a fast one.
Real Service-or Drafting?
The Electrical Contractors' Asso-
ciation is promoting an architect's
educational campaign. I was asked to
assist in evaluating the material to
be given to practicing architects. I
was told that it was necessary to stan-
dardize the information so that fair,
competitive bidding could take place.
I thought the material too elementary.
"An architect will throw this stuff
in the waste can. Can't you give more
advanced technical data?" After I was
shown several dozen sets of drawings,
the Contractors considered representa-
tive of the profession, I agreed the
proposed educational material was not
too elementary for a certain group
of architects. But the Contractors
had already decided-if two dozen
architects are electrically incompetent,
all are incompetent.
A well-coordinated high school lad
with average intelligence and a little
training can make excellent drawings
for a small building. If you sell this
type of drafting service as architec-
tural service, you are dishonest to
your client or yourself, or both-and
you hit your profession a dirty blow
below the belt. No profession can
survive long the stigmas resulting
from inadequacies of its individual
members. Neither can an Association
survive acting as an apologist for its
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PRODUCTS & PRACTICE
The amazing development of adhe-
sives has made possible an in-
creasingly wide range of products
combining, in a single unit, proper-
ties of one or more materials. One
of the most recently perfected prod-
ucts of this type is a wall panel
surfaced with a film of polyvinyl
chloride bonded to sheets of either
steel or aluminum. The panel, called
"Clad-Rex" by the manufacturers,
can be bonded to an insulating core
and used in partitions or curtain
walls; or the vinyl-metal laminates
can be applied directly to wall
surfaces with a rubber-base, slow-
The surface film of vinyl is avail-
able in a wide range of colors and
is said to be impervious to moisture
and highly resistant to acids, alkalis
alcohol, household detergents and
salt water. The films are also pro-
cessed in a range of patterns and
textures. The semi-rigid plastic film
is permanently bonded to the metal
by a process which permits the
resulting laminate to be brake-formed
or deep-drawn without destroying the
bond or permeability of the plastic
Sheets of the steel laminate are
available in a 4 by 8-foot dimension
and weigh 1.2 lbs. per sq. ft. Alu-
minum laminates are fabricated in
two sizes, 4 by 8-feet and 4 by 10-feet
and weigh .45 lbs. per sq. ft.
New Wall-Hung Toilet
A new type of off-the-floor water
closet with a concealed, in-the-wall
tank has been announced by the
Crane Company. Designed primarily
for residential use, the new unit,
called "Walsan", is said to be the
first of its kind with a concealed tank
which fits in a 2 by 6-inch stud wall.
The tank, made of steel and insulated
to prevent condensation, is only
55-inches deep and is concealed be-
hind a steel panel that snaps into
place without screws. The bowl,
styled by industrial designer Henry
Dreyfuss, is of vitreous china avail-
able in seven colors and white, and
is supported by a new type of cast
iron fitting which is secured in the
wall by a sole plate and a tie-bar
anchored to the studding.
A new lavatory design which com-
bines a dressing table surface with a
small lavatory in a single unit of
vitreous china has been recently
developed by the Kohler Company.
Called the "Ledgend Lavatory" the
new unit was designed primarily for
hotels, motels, tourist courts and
restaurants, though it is also well
new process create
You'll be amazed! By a photographic
process, beautiful wood grains,
prefinished to perfection, are now
available at the low cost of inexpensive
plywood. There's no plastic, no paper;
it's all wood, and it's beautiful!
Call collect for full details.
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"Hamilton Plywood of St. Petersburg, Inc. 5-7627
Hamilton Plywood of Ft. Lauderdale, Inc.JAckson 3-5415
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
adapted to private office washrooms
and residential use. It is made with
the dressing table on either side of
the lavatory and is available in white
or in seven standard colors.
Stainless Steel Sculpture
Sheets and tubes of stainless steel
were combined to form a symbolic
sculpture which was recently in-
stalled on a wall of the new Aviation
High School in New York. Gwen
Lux, the sculptor, has named her
composition "Vapor Trials" as a non-
objective representation of jet planes.
of the future. The material used was
an easily weldable, general purpose
stainless steel, containing about 18 per
cent chromium and 8 per cent nickel.
Produced by Electro Metallurgical
Division of the Union Carbide Corp.,
it was chosen by the artist for both
practical and symbolic reasons. The
material will resist the corrosions of
the industrial atmosphere in the
locality of the sculpture; and stainless
steel is regarded as one of the im-
portant materials in the production
of modern jet planes.
Here are a few of more than 24,000 hermetically sealed containers
stored in a Portland Cement Association laboratory near Chicago.
Many of them may not be opened for 50, 75 or 100 years.
Sealed in these containers are samples of portland cements and
aggregates used in more than 10,000 specimens in PCA field re-
search projects scattered from coast to coast. The concrete in these
specimens will show varying resistance to a wide range of wearing
forces. By analyzing the samples in relation to the performance of
specimens, it will be possible to design ever more durable and
lower-annual-cost concrete to help build a stronger America.
Such research looks to the future. It is a symbol of the faith
the cement industry has in our country. The Association, in its
continuing program of research, makes all information gained
immediately and freely available to the public through its field
engineering service and educational and promotional programs.
Thus this knowledge can be quickly used by architects, engineers
and contractors. All PCA activities are made possible by the vol-
untary financial support of its 69 member companies who make
a large part of the portland cement used in the U.S. and Canada.
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION
227 North Main St. ) A national organization to improve and extend the uses of portland cement
Orlando, Florida and concrete through scientific research and engineering field work
News & Notes
AIA Board to Meet in Florida
It is now official that the fall quar-
terly meeting of the AIA Board of
Directors will be held in Clearwater,
at the Fort Harrison Hotel, November
10 to 15, 1958. It is probable that
the red coats of what Past President
LEON CHATELAIN called the "Clear-
water Valley Hunt Club" will again
be prominent during part of that
week, for the Florida Central Chap-
ter will act in practiced fashion as
hosts to the Board. An entertain-
ment program to relax the minds and
renew the spirits of the AIA Directors
is now being planned, according to
President ROBERT H. LEVISON.
Daytona Beach ...
The first of a scheduled series of
Chapter meetings for the discussion
of FAA legislative matters was held
by the Daytona Beach Chapter Aug-
ust 23, at the Elinor Village Country
Club at Ormond Beach. Some 20
members and their wives gathered for
cocktails at 7:30, followed by a din-
ner. The affair was chairmanned by
FRANCIS R. WALTON in the absence
of Chapter President CRAIG GEHLERT.
Honored guests included Volusia
County legislators, Senator and Mrs.
WILLIAM GAUTIER, Representative
and Mrs. FREDERICK B. KARL and
Representative and Mrs. JAMES H.
SWEENEY, JR. Guest speaker at the
after-dinner meeting was the Exe-
cutive Director of the FAA, ROGER
By request, the speaker opened the
discussion with an outline of the regis-
tration law, then attempted to an-
swer the Chapter's collective question
"How can poor laws be stopped?"
His opening remarks emphasized the
fact that State Board of Architecture,
as the agency charged with adminis-
tering the registration law, has no
jurisdiction in questions dealing with
professional ethics. The Board has
the power to proceed against archi-
tects who violate the provisions of
the law or those unregistered persons
100% more Diel-
drin than specified
by U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture for termite-treat-
ment of ground areas.
The film of plyethylene plastic
meets the vapor permeability
requirements of Federal Spe-
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of felt impregnated with Dieldrin, one of the most lethal and stable
insecticides known . The plastic keeps moisture out; the Dieldrin
kills the bugs and TERMIBAR meets U.S. Govt. specs on both
important counts . Full data on how to use and specify TERMIBAR
is yours for the asking . .
BIRD & SON, INC.
P. 0. Box 4336, Charleston Heights, S. C.
24 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
who attempt to practice architecture
as defined under the law. But in
matters of professional ethics, he said,
each individual Chapter must work
within the judiciary procedure set up
by the AIA.
Relative to stoppage of poor laws,
the speaker said that the best method
was to anticipate proposals which
would result in bad laws and prevent
them from being introduced as legis-
lative bills. He cited work now being
done to prevent development, next
year, of a proposal for a stock school
plan bill. The speaker emphasized
the importance of supporting good
laws as well as stopping bad ones.
New Offices ...
LESLIE G. PICKET and J. CLYDE
PARLIER announce the formation of a
partnership for the practice of archi-
tecture with offices at 392 South Cen-
tral Avenue, Bartow, Florida.
WILLIAM H. MASON announced, as
of July 22nd, that he had opened an
office for the practice of architec-
ture at 131 West Marion Avenue,
~T I I r
Florida South Said . .
This sign, done by Wayne Sessions,
P/R chairman for the Florida South
Chapter, was prominently displayed at
the head table during the August
meeting of the Chapter. This was
planned as a closed-to-visitors meet-
ing to air professional problems and
individual suggestions for solving
them. Discussion was active and gen-
eral; and from it will result a number
of local actions, spearheaded by Chap-
ter committees, according to President
Irvin S. Korach.
FOR SWIVEL LIGHTS
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Follies and Fallacies ...
(Continued from Page 12)
which may run from five to seven
percent as a necessary cost of sell-
ing land. Most people admit that
a contractor is entitled to a profit
- from four to ten per cent on
a building he constructs. Most peo-
ple grant the necessity for interest
rates on bond issues and for the
profits included in premiums for
insurance policies. But payment to
an architect for his specialized serv-
ices seems not only galling, but in-
comprehensible. Mr. Powers has
indicated six percent as the standard
for such services on schools. Using
that percentage as a basis, what is
First, contrary to popular concep-
tion, it is not flat profit for the
architect. Like any other profession,
architecture involves overhead. This
takes some 15 percent more if
business taxes are included of his
gross income. Another 33 to 40 per-
cent goes for the architect's payroll
- the clerical, drafting, specification
and supervisory help he needs to pro-
vide the service he contracts for.
Another 30 to 35 percent is paid to
engineering consultants. This leaves
from 10 to 20 percent for the archi-
tect himself which must be shared
with partners if he does not work as
On a $1,000,000 school building,
for example, this would involve a
net return for the architect's pro-
fessional services of $12,000-assum-
ing he were to run his office effi-
ciently enough to produce the top
profit percentage noted above. This,
of course, is but 1.2 percent of the
construction cost yet the financing
charges for such a project often run
substantially more than this on a
continuing yearly basis.
These are a few of the facets of
this important subject which Mr.
Powers did not mention in his para-
graphs. They are undoubtedly facts
which he did not know the ignor-
ance of which permitted him to write
as he did. But these are some of the
basic facts which should not only
be known, but thoroughly understood
by anyone who has the authority to
comment on the matter of educa-
tional facilities or the responsibility
for attempting to shape public opin-
ion concerning them.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
It's Time We Stopped ...
(Continued from Page 9)
fiasco, are an ever-present danger to
our country and to our community.
And if, individually, we have too
much apathy to try to stop the con-
stant cries, "we're better than any-
body!" and "we can lick the hell out
of anybody!" some country yet may
be goaded to "cross the Rubicon."
Architecturally too, we must ring
the bell on ourselves, rousing all the
spirit we can muster, for it has been
truly said that the architecture of
an era reflects the spirit of its people
and we have much to answer for.
Good architecture of any time
needs no style but its own gene-
rated by real imagination on the part
of investors, bankers, mayors, police,
planners, builders, craftsmen, archi-
tects, decorators and just plain peo-
ple. These last are the most impor-
tant, for it is you and I who will
get good design, good government,
and good living, when we demand
it of one another and refuse to settle
Bird & Son, Inc. . . 24
Briggs Manufacturing Company 8
A. R. Cogswell . . 26
Coquina Coral Inc . . 3
Dunan Brick Yards . 3rd Cover
Electrend Distributing Co.
of Florida . .... .26
Florida Foundry &
Pattern Works . .. 26
Florida Home Heating Institute 16
Florida Portland Cement Co. 5
Florida Power and Light Co. 7
Florida Steel Corporation . 4
George C. Griffin . . 6
Hamilton Plywood . . 22
Ludman Corporation 2nd Cover
O. O. McKinley Co. Inc. . 17
Hegeler Zinc Co. . 20
Corporation . 4th Cover
Mr. Foster's Store . .. 25
Perlite, Incorporated .. .19
Portland Cement Association 23
Prescolite Manufacturing Co.. 25
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc. .
Blueprint Co., Inc. . 18
Unit Structures . . 21
F. Graham Williams Co. 27
F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS, Chairman
JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
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Basis fort ..
Those three capital letters "F-A-A" stand for much
more than even some of the FAA members may realize.
In support of that statement, here are some facts about
the FAA-what it is and what it does for the professional
community of this State.
As an organization, the FAA dates back almost 46
years. It was chartered in its present form as a State
Organization of the AIA in 1946-and thus is the third
oldest body of its kind in the country.
Membership of the FAA is composed of all members
in the 10 AIA Chapters in Florida. Thus it is truly
representative of the architectural profession and speaks
for it with a single strong voice at the state level.
Purpose of the FAA is to provide a unified representa-
tion in all statewide matters which affect the architectural
profession and to coordinate the interests of Florida's
AIA Chapters toward that end. Thus it functions as the
statewide representative of the architectural profession
in Florida. It also operates as the representative of the
American Institute of Architects at the state level.
The FAA actually does, at the state level, what in-
dividual architects and separate AIA Chapters cannot
do alone. Continuing FAA activities includes:
1 . Representation of the architectural profes-
sion's interests before the State Legislature, various In-
terim Legislative Committees and those State agencies
operating under policies and conducting activities which
affect the affairs of architects and their clients.
2 . Continual cooperative effort on behalf of archi-
tects' varied professional interests with other stite-level
professional organizations-particularly those concerned
with the several phases of the building industry. These
include such organizations as the Florida Engineering
Society, the Florida AGC Council, the Florida Home
Builders' Association and trade and industry groups.
3 . Counsel and cooperative activities, through
FAA Committees, with a variety of specialized groups
whose interests are the betterment of social and eco-
nomic conditions with which architects come in profes-
sional contact as, for example, the Florida Education
Association and the Florida Planning and Zoning
4 . Close and active contact, through committees
and appointed individuals, with the Florida State Board
of Architecture and those educational institutions which
offer professional training.
5 . Publication of a monthly magazine, The Flor-
ida Architect, to all architects and professional engineers
registered in Florida; and issuance to FAA members of
periodic information memos as coordinating guides to
Chapters in formation of individual policies and programs.
6 . Organization, with each Host Chapter of the
Annual Convention and exhibit of building products.
The full list of FAA activities is long and varied. The
FAA program is subject to constant change in certain
phases as various projects are completed and others begun.
Work of the FAA progresses through its officers and
directors, its various committees and its administrative
staff. The FAA Board is made up of one or more rep-
resentatives from each AIA Chapter in the state, the
number being pro-rated according to Chapter size. The
Board meets regularly four times a year, and during
interim periods FAA affairs are handled by the Board's
Executive Committee composed of the officers, any three
of which constitute a quorum for action.
Detailed and continued administration of FAA's af-
fairs is handled by the Executive Director and his staff,
now consisting of an Administrative Secretary and a steno-
typist. An accountant and legal counsel work with this
staff on a consulting basis.
This, in brief outline, is what "F-A-A" means. These
three letters are becoming better known each year. And
in every section of our State they now enjoy an earned
respect as symbolising the policies and programs of the
professional body for which they stand.
28 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT ..
28 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
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