• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 The biennium will be booming
 FAA directors meet at Clearwat...
 Good architecture is good...
 The future of the city
 Hostages to history
 At long last - A new home for the...
 News and notes
 Necrology - John Edwin petersen,...
 Advertisers' index
 Back Cover






Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00037
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: July 1957
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    The biennium will be booming
        Page 4
        Page 5
    FAA directors meet at Clearwater
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Good architecture is good government
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The future of the city
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Hostages to history
        Page 15
        Page 16
    At long last - A new home for the UF College of Architecture
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    News and notes
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Necrology - John Edwin petersen, AIA
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Advertisers' index
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.























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Convention Headquarters
in Clearwater will be the
Fort Harrison Hotel -
comfort, good food, low
prices and every facility
for fun. Better get your
reservation in early .





The fa46 ?Pe Gordo Weat...



That's West Florida, of course... and the call comes
from Clearwater, the Gem of the Suncoast and the
headquarters city for this year's FAA Convention ...
Plans for a wonderful Convention Program are virtu-
ally completed. They'll be detailed in the next issue
... Watch for them ... And don't forget the dates -
November 7, 8, 9 ... The Florida Central Chapter
will be the hosts . This is a personal invitation
from every member to come early, stay late and have
the time of your life.




43rd ANNUAL FAA CONVENTION
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First stop was to erect the two-story precast concrete columns.

Precast Concrete Units


Next, the second floor spandrel beams were lowered into position.


Cut Erection Time and Cost in

Philadelphia Housing Project

Use of precast concrete columns, floors and roof decks
for the 52 two-story buildings of the Liddonfield
Housing Project in Philadelphia made possible fast
construction at low cost per sq. ft. The 20 ft. wide
buildings, ranging in length from 150 to nearly 200
ft., went up at a rate of two a week. Photos show the
construction sequence employed.
Built for the Philadelphia Housing Authority, the
500,000 sq. ft. low-rent housing project consists of After rear walls were brought to second floor elevation, 3-ft. wide
412 firesafe dwelling units plus central-heating, com- precast concrete floor channels with 10-in. legs were placed across
the entire width of the buildings. Below is a view of the underside
munity and management buildings. Liddonfield Ar- of the floor showing how conduits pass through sleeves in the legs.
chitects of Philadelphia designed the project. Stoffiet
& Tillotson was the general contractor.
Fast, economical construction is possible in any
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227 North Main St., Orlando, Florida
A national organization to improve and extend the uses of portland cement
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Finished building. Precast roof slabs project 2 ft. to form sunshade. General view before roof spandrel beams and roof slabs were erected.


HHIi


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


F.A.A. OFFICERS 1957


President
Edgar S. Wortman
1122 North Dixie
Lake Worth


Secretary
H. Samuel Krus6
Chamber of
Commerce Bldg.
Miami


Treasurer
M. T. Ironmonger
1261 E. Las
Olas Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale


VICE-PRESIDENTS
William B. Harvard Central Florida
Franklin S. Bunch North Florida
John Stetson . . South Florida
DIRECTORS
Immediate Past President
G. Clinton Gamble
Broward County William F. Bigoney, Jr.
John M. Evans
Daytona Beach .. Francis R. Walton
Florida Central Ernest T. H. Bowen, II
Robert H. Levison
Fla. North Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA
Sanford W. Goin, FAIA
Florida North Central Forrest R. Coxen
Florida South . James E. Garland
Irving E. Horsey
Verner Johnson
Jacksonville Taylor Hardwick
Ivan H. Smith
Mid-Florida ... .Hill Stiggins
Florida Northwest William S. Morrison
Palm Beach . . Harold A. Obst
Charles E. Duncan


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Roger W. Sherman
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43
Phone: MOhawk 7-0421
JULY, 1957


74 a




Florilda Architect


VOLUME 7


JULY, 1957


NUMBER 7


CONTENTS


The Biennium Will Be Booming -- 4
A quickie report from Tallahassee

FAA Directors Meet at Clearwater _-------- 6

Good Architecture Is Good Government --- 8
By Henry R. Luce Editor-in-Chief, Time, Inc.

The Future of The City ___...--_-- ---- .------ _. 13
By Hon. Joseph S. Clark,
U. S. Senator (D) from Pennsylvania

Hostages to History ..--.---- -----------------.-- -.------ 15
By Dr. Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA
Dean, U/F College of Architecture and Fine Arts

At Long Last A New Home for the U/F
College of Architecture 17

News and Notes -- __ 24

Necrology John Edwin Petersen, AIA 29

Advertisers' Index -- 35

THE COVER
The Palm Beach Junior College is one of five now either completed
or nearing completion in Florida. The 1957 Legislature authorized an
additional six; and Florida's Junior College system will ultimately
include some 18 or 20 community educational plants providing two
years of college training, and in some cases additional facilities for
industrial arts training and adult education classes. The Palm Beach
unit was designed by Edgar S. Wortman and Hilliard T. Smith, Jr.,
AIA. Shown is the first of five units which when completed will
represent an expenditure of $1-million and will accommodate 750
students. The engineers were Shinn & Hutcheson, Inc., the general
contractor William A. Barbusse, Jr., Inc.



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE H. Samuel Krus6, Chairman, G. Clinton
Gamble, T. Trip Russell. Editor Roger W. Sherman.
The FLORIDA ARCHITECT is the Official Journal of the Florida Association of
Architects of the American Institute of Architects. It is owned and operated by the
Florida Association of Architects Inc. a Florida Corporation not for profit, and is
published monthly under the authority and direction of the F.A.A. Publication
Committee at 7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida. Telephone MOhawk 7-0421
. Correspondence and editorial contributions are welcomed, but publication cannot
be guaranteed and all copy is subject to approval by the Publication Committee.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publication
Committee or the Florida Association of Architects. Editorial contents may be freely
reprinted by other official A.I.A. publications provided credit is accorded The
FLORIDA ARCHITECT and the author . Advertisements of products materials
and services adaptable for use in Florida are welcomed. but mention of names, or
illustrations of such materials and products, in either editorial or advertising
columns does not constitute endorsement by the Publication Committee or The
Florida Association of Architects . Address all communications to the Editor
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida.
3







The Biennium Will Be Booming


It was a hard-working Legislature.
By the time of final adjournment -
extended a full week by the pressure of
business--some 3600 bills had been
given their introductory reading.
Though a great many of these were
local measures dealing with either
counties or municipalities -and so
assured of easy passage a large num-
ber were of general application and
thus required study by one of the
Legislatures 93 committees (40 in
the Senate, 53 in the House) charged
with doing the investigative work rel-
ative to the merits or otherwise -
of proposed general legislation.
This year legislators were further
burdened by consideration of consti-
tutional revisions. They adjourned
without completing this phase of the
1957 Session; and Governor Collins
will undoubtedly re-convene them in
the fall for the express purpose of com-
pleting constitutional redrafts.
It was, as always, a political Legis-
lature, too. But evidence is accumu-
lating that in some areas, at least, the
politics of stubborn sectionalism is
slowly giving way to realization that
the overall progress of a great and
growing State is an over-riding one.
It now seems probable that the spe-
cial-session this year will work out a
formula for re-apportionment that
will come closer to the practical ideal
of proportional representation on
which our democratic processes have


always been founded.
This matter of reapportionment
lies closer to the heart of Florida's
building industry than many architects
may realize. Especially, it involves a
matter of political control a bloc
of small counties against the large
counties. As that control now exists,
legislators from small counties can ef-
fectively block measures proposed by
the larger counties, many of which
could spell substantial progress for
this state. Road developments, pub-
lic improvements, home rule measures,
better school policies all these and
others have great meaning in heavily
populated areas, though some may
have little significance in sparsely
settled areas. And, since architects by
and large must make their living in
predominantly urban areas most of
which fall into the "large county"
category adequate representation
on a population basis as one means
for assuring sound future development
of the state is, or at least should be,
of important interest to each one.
It was a spend-and-tax Legislature,
above all. As finally passed, the ap-


propriation bill was almost 50 per-
cent higher, for the coming biennium,
than for the last one. But it reflected
general conviction of legislators -
and thus their constituents -that
growth of the State now necessitates
an increase in services. Much of the
appropriation represents expansion,
thus increases in operating expenses.
But more than $62-million has been
appropriated specifically for construc-
tion purposes which range from a
lath-house for horticultural purposes
at the U/F Agricultural Experiment
Station to a more than $10-million
building program based on a sweep-
ing re-organization of the State's
prison system.
Between these extremes lies a wide
variety of projects, a number of which
pre-suppose a continuing building and
development program which will prob-
ably require a high level of construc-
tion appropriation for many years to
come. University development is a
case in point. The U/F, for example,
got a little more than $8.6-million,
Florida State more than $3.5-million,
(Continued on Page s0)


Typical of the new education projects which the 1957 Legislative appropriations will shortly bring to reality is
this design for the Pensacola Junior College for which the Pensacola firm of Hart and Leitch were architects.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


Authorized expansion of school and public
work construction add up to a probable
$200-million for the next two years.


~kr~` . .-':
''




























This South Miami project suggests the design flexibility and job efficiency which result from use of Hollostone pre-cast units. It's
an industrial building for the Somerstein Land Company. Zurwelle-Whittaker were engineers and Charles T. Jones the builder.


FVeZn ?e x&i&tf ..

That's an important characteristic of the Hollostone system of construction.
The integrated use of such Hollostone units as pre-cast columns, cruciform
beams, L-beams, junior Twin-T slabs and roof and wall panels provides the
utmost flexibility in design. It also assures low-cost job efficiency . .


JULY, 1957 5








FAA Directors Meet at Clearwater


This year's third meeting of the
FAA Board of Directors was held Sat-
turday, June 1 in the Fort Harrison
Hotel, Clearwater. Chief reason for
selecting this particular meeting place
was to give Board members opportun-
ity to learn, at first hand the facili-
ties of the Hotel which will become
headquarters for the FAA's 43rd An-
nual Convention in November.
The meeting started with the usual
luncheon at 12:30 and was called to
order promptly thereafter. There
were few interim committee reports
offered. In the absence of the FAA
Executive Secretary, FRANKLIN S.
BUNCH, FAA Vice-president and
member of the Legislative Commit-
tee, outlined briefly the nature and
progress of FAA activities at Talla-
hassee. A detailed report of the Leg-
islative Committee was necessarily
postponed until the next Board meet-
ing in August.
In his double capacity as an FAA
Director and Dean of the U/F Col-
lege of Architecture and Fine Arts,
TURPIN C. BANNISTER, FAIA, reported
that plans are now underway for the
establishment of a research founda-
tion in Gainesville. The project is
now in the exploratory stage only.
But it would involve a research pro-
gram relative to performance of prod-
ucts and building design under condi-
tions encountered in Florida. Support
for the program would come partially
from the University, partially from
the various organized groups within
the building industry.
AIA Regional Director SANFORD W.
GOIN, FAIA, outlined for the Board
the changes in regional operation
which will come about as a result of
the adoption of Regional By-Laws at
the Atlanta Conference (see Florida
Architect for May, 1957). He noted
that the By-Laws call for one repre-
sentative from each Chapter as mem-


bership of the Regional Council.
Votes cast by each Council member
would be based on corporate member-
ship in each chapter under the for-
mula designated in the AIA By-Laws.
The Board heard and approved
plans for the 43rd Annual Convention
presented by Convention Chairman
ROBERT H. LEVISON. Levison indi-
cated that work of the Host Chapter
committee was progressing satisfactor-
ily and that a first-class Convention
could be expected.
FRANCIS R. WALTON of Daytona
Beach introduced the subject of a
new type of inter-chapter communica-
tion. There was need, he said, for
better communication between archi-
tects of Florida on matters of special,
even confidential nature. He proposed
setting up a form of simple news
letter for mailing to all AIA corporate
members as frequently as needed.
President EDGAR S. WORTMAN stated
that the matter would be investigated
and action reported for the Board's
decision at a later date. (Subsequent-
ly the FAA President sent a letter and
questionnaire on this subject to all
AIA corporate members.)
The matter of enforcing the archi-
tects' law through State Board action
was introduced. BENMONT TENCH,
JR., FAA counsel and legislative in-
vestigator for the State Board, an-
swered questions on this point by
sketching the procedures by which
violations of the architects' law must
be, and are being handled. Tench
outlined the various steps necessary to
reveal violations, to obtain proof that
violations have actually taken place
and to bring the perpetrators to court.
He noted the fact that architects
themselves must be counted upon to
help the meager State Board person-
nel to maintain a constant enforce-
ment program and outlined the spe-
cific steps necessary in this connection.


OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the Florida Association of Architects shall be to unite
the architectural profession within the State of Florida to promote and forward
the objectives of the The American Institute of Architects; to stimulate and
encourage continual improvement within the profession; to cooperate with
the other professions; to promote and participate in the matters of general
public welfare, and represent and act for the architectural profession in the
State; and to promote educational and public relations programs for the
advancement of the profession.

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







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GOOD



ARCHITECTURE



IS



GOOD



GOVERNMENT



By HENRY R. LUCE
Editor-in-Chief, Time, Inc.



The author of this article was the chief speaker at the
Annual Dinner of the AIA during the Centennial Cel-
ebration at Washington in May. His address is repro-
duced here completely except for introductory
paragraphs. In one Mr. Luce explained hi initial
interest in architecture and also set the theme for his
address. He said: "A quarter of a century ago when
America was deep in that traumatic episode known as
.the Great Depresioe, I came across LeCorbuser's
famous dictum: 'Either you will have architecture, or
you will have revolution.' Not being sure which I
preferred, but knowing that I was loaded up with
revolution, I went out and bought the ARCHITEC-
TURAL FORUM. And then what happened? What
happened was, we just got more revolution revo-
lution in architecture."


The major premise of my remarks
tonight is that the 20th Century Revo-
lution of Architecture has been ac-
complished. And it has been accom-
plished mainly in America-no matter
how great our debt to European
genius. The Founding Fathers of the
Revolution in Architecture, the great
and the colleagues of the great-many
of them are in this room tonight.
I salute you. If I should live to an
old age and my grandchildren should
ask me where I was and what I did
during these world-shaking decades of
the mid-Twentieth Century, I will tell
them that on May 16, 1957, in Wash-
ington, D. C., there was celebrated
the 100th Anniversary of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects. And I was
there. If that doesn't sound as excit-
ing to my grandchildren as might
the mention of war or interplanetary
travel-then I will explain to them
that, here, on this occasion, I shook
hands with the men who gave the
shape to their America, the men who
raised the towers toward the sky, who
stretched the roofs across the land,
who formed the facade-the face-
that their America presents to all the
world. And I am sure I will be able
to add-these were the men who, in
the fullness of time, made God's
country a splendid habitation for
God's most fortunate children.
Is this wishful thinking? Objective
facts support my prophecy.
The American Revolution in Archi-
tecture has been accomplished at a
providential moment. For it comes
precisely at the moment when there
is taking place, and is about to take
place, the most staggering mass of
building ever done on this planet.
The quantitative projections must
be more vividly in your minds and
imaginations than in mine. There are
tens of millions of prosperous Ameri-
cans to be housed and rehoused. A
quarter of a century from now, only
a small fraction of the houses which
now stand will be tolerable to the
Americans who in 1976 celebrate the
200th Anniversary of this nation. And
besides houses, there is everything else
to build-factories, offices, stores,


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT









schools, churches, airports, sports
arenas, parks, playgrounds, places of
art and entertainment-the list is end-
less, as varied as American life itself.
And let's by no means forget high-
ways-a great symbol of a continental
and democratic people. This moving
of the earth and making the waters
to flow-this is the picture of modern
men, of the American, making a new
dwelling place on earth.
Well within a decade this picture
of a whole new physical environment
for Americans will be in the imagina-
tions of the people. It will even be in
the algebra of politicians.
But you may say, granted the hun-
dreds of billions of dollars, granted
the billions of tons of iron and con-
crete and glass that will be put in
place, granted the billions of rivets
that will hold the millions of girders,
et cetera, et cetera, what guarantee
is there that any appreciable part of
all this will express good architecture?
Does not a lot of evidence so far
point to ugliness rather than beauty?
I must now take account of two
things-the appalling amount of ugli-
ness in the American scene at this
moment and the degradation of demo-
cratic taste.
Nor do we have to go to our
friends in Europe to hold a mirror
up to us and find ourselves to be
horrifying monsters of bad taste.
We find outraged critics right here
at home. Thank God we do. In fact,
the most readable description of ugly
America is to be found right in the
4 Architectural Forum, written by an
esteemed colleague, Mary Mix Foley.
In one sweeping phrase she speaks
of "this mess that is man-made Ameri-
ca." In her catalogue of horror she
lists "...nineteenth-century buildings
modernized at street level with
chrome, glass, and neon-the restau-
rant in the derby hat, the candy-
striped motel and the frozen-custard
stand, dripping silvered concrete
icicles . "Probably never in the
t history of the human race," she con-
tinues, "has a culture equaled ours
in the dreariness and corrupted fan-
tasy of a major part of its buildings."


The whole story is even more apall-
ing. For dreariness and ugliness were
not thrust upon the American people;
they chose it, they, the freest people
in history. To quote Mrs. Foley once
more: "In no previous culture have
people in general been so free to
choose what they like with so little
deference to authority."
Here I am prophesying a splendid
age of architecture on a continental
scale. What chance is there for archi-
tecture if the will of the American
people is for ugliness?
This cry of distress raises many more
questions of philosophy and sociology
than I can even venture to list to-
night. There is implicit, for one thing,
the old question as to whether De-
mocracy is, after all, any good. None
of the world's great architecture up to
now, none of the architecture that
American tourists go to see every year
-none of it arose at the wave of the
magic wand of Democracy. Except
Periclean Greece, you might say. But
then you might also say the Parthe-
non, that wonder of light in the
shining sun, is really a monument to
the fall of Greek Democracy which
was in any case a very short-lived
affair. As for the Versailles of Louis
XIV-retat c'est mai; as for the Tai
Mahal, as for the Great Wall of
China so infinitely romantic, as for
the Mayan temples, as for the stately
Homes of England-you go on with
the list-nearly all of majesty or
beauty in architecture springs from
Imperial Autocracy or from Aristo-
cracy with a very capital "A".
Is then our choice between Demo-
cracy and Architecture? Is real politi-
cal freedom incompatible with per-
vasive beauty?
These are big questions. In the
phrase made famous by Dr. Tillich,
they are even "ultimate questions."
I shall not attempt ultimate answers.
But there is one answer which can
be given-an answer drawn from the
experience and character of the Ameri-
can people.
Stated in briefest terms, my argu-
ment-and prophecy-is this. First,
for 200 years, the American people


have been faithful to one dominant
purpose-na:mcl., to the establish-
ment of a form of government. Sec-
ondly, that purpose has now been ful-
filled and we are at present seized
by a broader challenge, namely the
shaping of a civilization. Third, we
will meet that broader challenge too;
we will succeed in creating the first
modern, technological, humane, pros-
perous and reverent civilization. This
creative response to challenge will be
most vividly expressed in and by
architecture.
Having told you what I'm going
to say, let me now try to say it.
The founding of the United States
of America was an event unique in all
history. As is stated in a famous pas-
sage of our national scripture, this
nation was conceived in liberty and
dedicated . Dedicated to what?
Dedicated to a proposition. What
proposition? That all men are created
equal? That's one way of putting it.
More precisely, dedicated to the estab-
lishment of a form of government.
A form of government which, while
profoundly recognizing the frailty of
human nature, should nevertheless
seek a realization of all political wis-
dom-the balance of liberty and jus-
tice, the balance of freedom and
equality, the balance of individualism
and social cooperation.
Here is how a poet puts the Ameri-
can proposition Walt Whitman:
"Sole among nationalities, those
States have assumed the task to put
in forms of lasting practicality and
on areas of amplitude rivaling the
physical cosmos, the moral political
speculations of the ages, the demo-
cratic republican principle . ."
This task was providentially begun
by our Founding Fathers-the most
remarkable group of men ever brought
together for the making of a nation.
And now after 200 years, here in
this City of Washington, we can say
that, to an extraordinary degree, we
and our forefathers have carried out
our tremendous purpose. Today our
America is an amazing example of
functioning law and order-in all the
turbulent flow of our commerce and
(Continued on Page 10)


JULY, 1957






Good Architecture...
(Continued from. Page 9)
our daily life. Today America is an
amazing example of liberty.Of course
we must keep everlastingly vigilant to
keep it so-and we will. We will work
at it. We will not be deterred either
by smugness or by fear, by the atomic
bomb or any other terror.
So here we are, here is the plateau
we have reached after so long a strug-
gle. And now what? Now we are not
satisfied. We are enjoying immense
prosperity, widely spread among our
people, and yet we are not satisfied
with the quality of American life.
If too many Americans seem con-
tented, that is an illusion. Millions of
us are grateful, as we ought to be,
for the blessings we enjoy. But divine
discontent is at work everywhere. We
must have more and better education,
says this one. We must have more
and better medicine, says another. And
mental health. Yes, and though we go
to church in tens of millions, we must
seek deeper spirituality. So it goes.
All of this I have summarized by
saying that we are challenged to build
a civilization. Another way of putting
it is to say: we must build a better
Americal
A curious fact strikes one at this
stage. When an American today hears
the words "build a better America"
he will grasp the meaning more readily
in a figurative than in a literal sense.
"Let's have better education," he will
say, "more pay for teachers, more
scholarships-but let's not spend too
much money on 'bricks and mortar'!"
Today the American people are
"sold" on education, as they always
have been. They are sold on medi-
cine, yes, and culture, too. Witness,
in the last 20 years, the tremendous
increase in the enjoyment of music,
of the theatre, of painting-from Gi-
otto to Picasso to the Sunday painter
And now comes Architecture. To
use an American expression of elegant
lineage, the American people are be-
ginning "to get the word"-about
Architecture.
It's up to us to send out the word
more vigorously. You have accom-
plished the American Revolution in
Architecture. Now it's for editors and
good citizens to make known the
news of that revolution.
We couldn't have done this 20 or
30 years ago. The revolution was un-


der way then. But there weren't
enough actual buildings to show it.
And those that were, seemed odd. But
now you've given us the buildings-
enough of them. And to millions of
Americans they don't seem queer; on
the contrary, they seem right.
Furthermore, millions of Ameri-
cans, not only the professionals, have
begun to see that in our 20th Cen-
tury, architecture is more than a
building here and there, vitally im-
portant though each good building is.
Architecture is a whole city. Architec-
ture is the whole sweep of the Ameri-
can continent.
That is my answer to the night-
mare doubts about the Derby Hat and
the candy-striped motel. Not that all
ugliness will be abolished. This is in-
deed a free country and a man must
be free to sin against beauty just as
he is free to sin against truth. We
will not have a State with a capital
"S" retat, to Stato, Das Reich -
we do not have, we will not have,
any State to decree our morals, our
religion, our culture, our taste.
But we do work at these things-
and they work on us. The ideal will
not leave us be. It nags us, prods us,
inspires us. The vision of the good,
the true and, yes, of the beautiful,
is like our conscience-it catches up
with us sooner or later.
Today, the vision of good archi-
tecture has been held up before us,
the vision spreads. There is the
conviction that architecture is essen-
tial to the physical and spiritual
health of this nation. The vision and
the conviction will spread-and as
they do, ugliness will recede and grace
and worth will grow.
I have spoken of the Revolution in
Architecture, but I have not defined
it. Perhaps it is best defined in terms
of an extraordinary affirmation: Good
architecture is good economics.
Modem architecture did not grow
up in the palaces of Emperors or
Maharajahs. It was not designed to
proclaim pomp and glory-except the
glory of a free and self-respecting
people. Modern architecture, or at
least a large part of it, grew up in
response to the people's needs. They
were badly housed: let us build good,
clean, economical housing. That is
only one example of the fact that
modern architecture is not the serv-
ant of imperial luxury or of aristo-
cratic vanity: it has to meet an


economic test and its chance for fresh-
ness and vitality was in making use
of the vast wealth of material and
technology produced in a profit-and-
loss economy.
To be sure, a great deal of bad
building is being done and people
make money out of bad building.
But the affirmation remains. I am
speaking of the idea which is now
implanted in our civilization: good
architecture is good economics.
Tonight in this capital city of
Washington, let me make a further
affirmation: Good architecture is good
government.
Good architecture is good govern-
ment for a number of reasons. First
of all, in our age, good government
is required to be good economics.
Your ears have recently been as-
saulted by an uproarious hubbub about
the Eisenhower budget. One might
suppose from all this that the Eisen-
hower economics or the Eisenhower
government or both are so bad that
they can only be a prelude to the
deluge. After us, after us modern
Republicans, the deluge-or, at least
-the hair-curl. There is evidently a
degree of exaggeration in all this up-
roar. I am sure you are not unduly
alarmed, for it must be apparent that
one purpose of all this righteous in-
dignation about economy is not so
much to save the Republic as it is
to liquidate modern Republicans.
That being the case I am proud to
accept the label Modern Republican,
and I will make the modest assertion
that we modern Republicans have
no intention of being liquidated. We
will be around for a long time, mod-
ern Republicans and modern Demo-
crats, the cheerful companions of
American progress. Yes, we will have
modern Republicanism and modern
architecture
Still, this digression into current
politics points up one great and good
fact about our age. Good government
in our age must meet the economic
test.
But Government is more than eco-
nomics. Government must stand for
things, for principles, for ideals. Gov-
ernment must be a symbol. And archi-
tecture is, above all, the symbolizing
art.
I would be the last ever to agree
that human life is bounded and pre-
(Continued on Page 32)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT






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what










THE FUTURE OF THE CITY


By Hon. JOSEPH S. CLARK,
U. S. Senator (D), Pennsylvania


As one of the chief speakers at the civic problems
session of the AIA Centennial Celebration, Senator
Clark delivered one of the most cogent and practi-
cal addresses of the entire Convention. It is repro-
duced here in full and deserves the most thoughtful
attention of every architect interested in the cur-
rent trends and future development of his community.


You ask two questions:
First: Will the city continue as a
meeting and working place, or sur-
render to decentralization? My answer
is both will happen.
Second: How can the city be re-
stored? My answer is only by spend-
ing a lot of money, changing a lot
of laws and eliminating an enormous
amount of lag and apathy.
Let me elaborate the answers.
The city will continue as a meet-
Sing and working place because wher-
ever people go to exchange ideas, con-
duct business and continue the de-
velopment of western civilization,
there a city springs up.
For the immediate future, the con-
tinuance of our present cities is as-
sured simply by the economics of
housing. For some time the rate of
new housing construction has been
less than enough just to take care
of new family generation and to re-
place substandard dwellings. The
prospect for the future shows little
chance of improvement. So people
will continue to live in cities for the
simple reason that there is nowhere
else for them to go. There is a grave
question, of course, as to what kind
of cities they will be; but in any
case our central cities will continue
to house at least as many people as
are there now. So there can be no
surrender to decentralization in the
absolute sense.
On the other hand, there is no
alternative but to continue the fringe
development that is now going on.
JULY, 1957


Catherine Bauer recently pointed out
that, even with the most optimistic
assumptions as to urban renewal, we
can expect to house in our Central
cities only 17 million more people
of the total population increase esti-
mated at 55 million in the next 20
years. Thus, at least two-thirds of
our population growth must be housed
outside the core cities of our metro-
politan areas. In other words, the
metropolitan explosion cannot be
stopped. It is inevitable; there just
isn't the room in the central city,
even if there was a great demand for
skyscraper dwellings. Nor is it likely
there will be a mass movement back
to the farms.
So it seems pointless to talk about
radical new patterns in the distribu-
tion of population. We are going to
have central cities and rapidly grow-
ing fringe areas which surround and
swallow many smaller cities. It is en-
tirely possible that within another gen-
eration the remaining gaps will be
filled in in the continuous urban and
suburban belt reaching from Portland,
Maine to Alexandria, Virginia. The
problem is to make of these inevitable
concentrations as civilized an environ-
ment as possible.
What's wrong now is familiar to
all of us: The decay of the older areas
of central cities; blight and slums;
the flight of the middle class to the
suburbs; the vicious circle created as
creative people desert the central city,
leaving a leadership vacuum filled by
those less skilled culturally, economi-


cally and politically. And on the other
hand, the often barren life in the sub-
urbs: inadequate community organi-
zation; the haphazard provision of
services through inadequate special
districts; and the oppressive prob-
lems of transportation and communi-
cation-traffic bottlenecks, lack of
downtown parking and consequent
strangulation of the commercial areas
in the central cities. This is not a
pretty picture; but most of you, I
suspect, will agree that it is not over-
drawn.
What can we do about it? You ask:
"How can the city be restored?" I
suggest three things are needed; more
money, changes in political structure
and elimination of political lag.
First, money. Our central cities
are in mortal danger not only through
strangulation from traffic congestion
but through financial starvation and
attrition. The city, still the hub and
nerve center of the area, must provide
more and more services at increasing
costs not only for the people who live
in it but for those who work in it,
use its facilities, but no longer live,
vote and pay taxes there. Moreover,
the people who can best afford to
sustain the increasing cost of main-
taining and improving the city's facili-
ties are the very ones who have moved
to the suburbs.
Some recently published figures on
the Washington area illustrate this
point. They reveal that the average
family income for families living with-
(Continued on Page 35)







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Hostages to History



At the 0ooth Anniversary Meeting of the Florida North
Chapter, U-F Dean TURPIN C. BANNISTER, FAIA, docu-
mented the background of the Institute and its growth as a
great professional organization. Through the scholar's easy
familiarity with historical facts, he showed that the archi-
tectural profession is closely bound to the traditional past
even as it stands on the threshold of a beckoning future.


Turpin C. Bannister, MA, PhD, FAIA


We gather today to celebrate-to-
gether with our colleagues throughout
the land-the hundredth birthday of
the American Institute of Architects.
It is a joyful privilege to express, on
this memorable day, our warm grati-
tude not only to the original mem-
bers who on February 23, 1857, joined
to create The Institute, but also to
their many successors who across ten
decades have brought it to its present
strength, maturity and usefulness.
It is difficult for us to realize how
novel and pioneering a century ago
was the very idea of a profession.
Down the years, ordinary buildings
had been designed by the same artis-
ans-the master masons and carpen-
ters-who built them. These crafts-
men formed guilds by which they
regulated work, competition and
prices; supervised the training of ap-
prentices; and aided members in the
emergencies of life. London's Wor-
shipful Company of Carpenters,
chartered in the late 13th century,
was typical. In 1724 it served as the
model for the Carpenters' Company
of Philadelphia, probably the oldest
such group in the American colonies.
Although the avowed purpose of the
Philadelphia group was to obtain "in-
struction in the science of architec-
ture", and although its architectural
library was easily the finest in the
colonies, its primary function was to
guard the business interests of its
members. Its price book, listing stand-
ard charges for all phases of construc-
tion, was so secret that even President
JULY, 1957


Jefferson could not procure a copy.
Latrobe complained bitterly against
the company's monopoly of building
and its members' practice of furnish-
ing plans as a part of the construction
contract.
In contrast to these ordinary artisan-
designed buildings, large complex pro-
jects for monarchs, nobles, and ec-
clesiastic had commanded, even in
the Middle Ages, the services of true
architects, men who joined to prac-
tical skills a high order of knowledge,
judgment and creative genius. PIERRE
DE MONTEREAU not only designed and
supervised the Sainte Chapelle for
Louis IX, but he was continually on
the move carrying out numerous royal
commissions. Though such men no
doubt enjoyed stimulating contacts
as members of princely courts, they
were too few in number and too
isolated to form a professional group.
During the Renaissance, however,
when architecture came to be recog-
nized as a fine art, architects joined
painters and sculptors in the new
academies of art by means of which
royal patrons fostered the new style
against the opposition of the ultra-
conservative guild masters.
In 1671, Colbert and Louis XIV
assembled their royal architects into
the first solely architectural group,
the Academie Royal d'Architecture.
At regular weekly meetings, its mem-
bers investigated and expanded tech-
nical knowledge. Classes in theoretical
subjects were organized for members'
pupils. The Academie thus presaged


many professional characteristics; but
it was not yet a professional group
in the modern sense, because its mem-
bers were all appointed and were paid
to attend.
It was the social revolution of the
18th century which created new needs
and conditions which could no longer
be satisfied by traditional means. The
rising middle class attained new pros-
perity, sought higher living standards,
and could support a large number of
practitioners of the learned arts. In-
evitably, individual practitioners felt
the need of contact with their col-
leagues. Soon professional groups ap-
peared, first as local societies and then
as regional and national organiza-
tions. In England, the lawyers came
together in 1739, the civil engineers
in 1771, and the veterinarians in 1791.
Gradually there arose the modern
concept of a profession based on the
principle that society, in order to
secure the learned and enlightened
services it requires, accords special sta-
tus and privileges to those practi-
tioners who voluntarily bind them-
selves as a group to maintain stan-
dards of performance advantageous
to society. This has come to mean
that a profession emerges only when
it assumes three obligations. First, it
must establish conditions which will
enable its members to serve both
clients and society on the highest
level of effectiveness. Second, it must
strive to raise the competence of its
members by expanding technical
(Continued on Page 17)








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16 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


/A






Hostages to History
(Continued from Page 15)
knowledge and skills. And third, it
must assure society of the continuing
availability of its service through the
constant renewal of its personnel by
recruiting and training a steady and
sufficient flow of new members.
The first tentative groups of this
kind among architects were formed in
London in 1791 and 1806, and in
Paris in 1812. The first permanent
national group was the Society for
the Propagation of Architecture in
Holland, founded in 1819. Most im-
portant, however, was the organizing
in 1834 of the Institute of British
Architects whose members were to
be "architects of unimpeachable char-
acter, educated for and following their
profession, and free from conflicting
relations with trade . (which de-
stroys) implicit confidence on the
part of the public . ." At first, the
membership was drawn from metro-
politan London, but in time the Insti-
tue attained national scope and be-
came the RIBA. Swiss architects
joined forces in 1837, and three years
later, French practitioners founded
their Soci6t6 Centrale.
In the youthful United States, al-
though only a handful of architects
could eke out a precarious existence,
they followed a similar professional
evolution. Several participated in the
fine arts societies which appeared in
Philadelphia and New York just after
1800. Slowly, along the eastern sea-
board a new desire for buildings more
consonant with the wider needs and
ambitions of the expanding nation
demanded architectural services in
greater quantity and quality. Slowly,
such opportunities attracted men of
special talent and created a growing
body of increasingly competent prac-
titioners.
This trend, accentuated sharply by
Sthe building boom of the early 30's,
came to a preliminary climax in
1836 when, on December 6, eleven
architects gathered at the Astor House
in New York to form the American
Institution of Architects, the first
Strictly professional group in this
country. The seven New York mem-
bers included the THOMAS THOMASES,
father and son, specialists in commer-
cial projects, IsAIAH ROGERS, creator
in numerous cities of the first luxury
hotels, and ALEXANDER JACKSON
(Continued on Page 19)
)ULY, 1957


At Long Last A New Home for

U-F College of Architecture


Complete facilities for the U/F College of Architecture and Fine Arts are
shown in this preliminary schematic developed about three years ago. Current
appropriation would provide for about half the 200,000 square feet which
will ultimately be required. Total cost will bo about $3-million.


For more than twenty-five years -
since a College of Architecture was
first established at the University of
Florida -a permanent headquarters
adequate to College needs, has been
a constant dream of faculty, students
and alumni alike. Now it appears that
this dream will, at long last, become
a near-future reality.
At the 1957 Legislature, a $1.5-mil-
lion appropriation was approved by
committees of both Houses; and the
needed sum was included in the over-
all appropriation bill which was fin-
ally passed by both Houses and ap-
proved as law by Governor Collins.
Further, it is fairly certain that con-
struction can be started at the earliest
practical moment. The new building
is on the first priority list of appro-
priations which calls for immediate
action, barring presently unforseen
conditions which might force post-
ponement.
Present plans call for the building


of what will be roughly half of what
will ultimately be needed by the Col-
lege. But in another year it should
be possible to clear the campus of
the . depressing, unsanitary,
poorly-arranged, scattered, ill-ventilat-
ed, crowded, inefficient, unsafe" tem-
porary shacks which have housed Col-
lege facilities and personnel ever since
they were abandoned at the close of
World War II.
Victory in the fight to turn dream
into reality must be shared by many
persons, contractors as well as archi-
tects. The architects' program, prior
and during the 1955 Legislature was
headed by former dean William T.
Arnett, John L. R. Grand and San-
ford W. Coin, FAIA, chairman of
the FAA Committee of Education.
In the Legislature, credit must go to
Senate President William B. Shands
and Representative Ralph Turling-
ton for their constant interest and
productive help.


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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


~'T;C~
r- LICIPQT'
3- d~L-~~~~ IT






Hostages to History ...
(Continued from Page 17)
DAVIs, who with ITHIEL TOWN, had
established the country's first partner-
ship for architectural practice. From
Philadelphia came JOHN HAVILAND,
whose Eastern State Penitentiary was
the first American building to draw
first-hand inspection by European
architects. The fact that Haviland was
also the first American architect to
be elected a corresponding member
of the British Institute seems to indi-
cate that the American group was
prompted to action by the recent ex-
ample of their British colleagues.
Despite an auspicious beginning, the
venture proved abortive. The cessa-
tion of building caused by the panic
of 1837 absorbed architects' energies
in a bitter struggle to survive. The
emergence of a permanent professional
organization lay two decades away.
In the 1850's, the architectural
scene saw rapid progress. During the
decade urban population grew from
35 to 62 millions. A prodigious volume
of building was reflected in the
doubling of the number of architects
-the census enumerated 591 in 1850
and 1263 in 1860. No doubt most
of these lacked many qualifications,
but certainly the number of compe-
tent practitioners had also increased
greatly. More than ever, leading archi-
tects felt the need of association to
protect the reputation of the profes-
sion against untrained pretenders Thus
the stage was set for the great event
we celebrate today.
On February 23, 1857, thirteen
pioneers assembled in RICHARD UP-
JOHN'S office in New York. Upjohn
himself, trained in Britain, had be-
come through his masterpiece, the
third Trinity Church in New York,
an acknowledged leader. Among the
group was his son and worthy asso-
ciate, RICHARD MERRILL UPJOHN;
and at least one other, CHARLES BAB-
COCK, was a valuable assistant in his
office. Another leader was the youth-
ful RICHARD MORRIS HUNT, only re-
cently returned from Paris where he
had been the first American student
in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Already
Hunt was building one of the most
influential practices in the country
and already he was conducting in his
office of Ecole-like atelier for the train-
ing of his assistants. Another mem-
ber, LEOPOLD EIDLITZ, represented
the contribution of German archi-


tectural education to our scene. Still
another, FREDERICK A. PETERSEN, was
the architect of Cooper Union, in
which he introduced to this country
many prophetic innovations, such as
incombustible hollow-tile floors. Thus,
the original membership itself sym-
bolized American assimilation of
diverse traditions which have en-
riched and stimulated our technical
and cultural progress.
The Articles of Incorporation of the
new Institute stated that "The object
of this society is to elevate the archi-
tectural profession as such, and to
perfect its members practically and
scientifically." Meetings, held first in
Upjohn's office and later in quarters
at New York University, were devoted
to technical papers and discussions.
As new members were admitted, they
were drawn from other seaboard cities
as well. But as they soon found regular
attendance difficult, Philadelphia prac-
titioners formed in 1861 a comparable
Pennsylvania Institute of Architects
to serve their local needs.
Fortunately, these struggling In-
stitutes survived the Panic of 1857
and suspensions caused by the War
Between the States. When peace re-
turned, New York members averted
the danger of numerous separate
groups by adopting in March, 1867,
the principle of local chapters united
within an all-embracing nation-wide
Institute. The New York group re-
organized as the first chapter, but
when the first convention met in
October, members in other cities were
already planning to establish similar
units. The Philadelphia and Chicago
chapters were admitted in 1869, and
a year later came those in Boston,
Baltimore, and Cincinnati. Then fol-
lowed Rhode Island in 1875, San
Francisco in 1881 and, six years later,
Washington, Central New York, and
Michigan.
This is not the place to recount
at length the slow, but steady evolu-
tion of The Institute during its first
century. It would comprise a fascinat-
ing story, but unfortunately no one
has yet undertaken the long and
laborious task of digging it out from
obscure sources. Nevertheless, cer-
tain accomplishments stand as monu-
ments to those devoted members who
have believed with Theodore Roose-
velt, that "Every man owes some of
his time to the upbuilding of the pro-
fession to which he belongs." It is


appropriate here to recognize a few
of these achievements as they relate
to the obligations of a profession.
First was The Institute's role in
defining the profession. For many de-
cades Institute membership remained
one of the most important gauges of
professional qualifications. In the
1920 census, for example, 18,000
persons claimed the title of architect,
but only about 1200, 7 percent, were
members of The Instiute. This meth-
od of determination has been largely
superseded by registration laws se-
cured by the initiative of the several
state societies. And The Institute has
given strong support to such regula-
tion, both as a national body and
through its members in their respec-
tive states. Thus, by the 1940's, as
registration became universal, The
Institute could safely absorb a much
larger proportion of aspirants. In 1950,
membership represented 44 per cent
of all registered architects in the
United States. Today, the ratio is
more than 52 per cent. In a very real
sense, therefore, Institute membership
has come to be recognized by laymen
as a significant mark of professional
competence.
From its earliest years, The Insti-
tute strove to establish conditions
which would permit all architects to
render effective service. Its first con-
vention attacked the evils of unregu-
lated competitions. Over the years,
this scourge-unprofitable for either
client or practitioner has been
brought under control. The Institute
has also made great contributions to
the perfecting of procedures of prac-
tice. Since 1888, its committees have
developed through successive studies
and revisions Standard Forms of con-
struction contract documents. Its
definition of the rights and duties of
client, architect and contractor has
done much to clarify and regularize
these complex relationships. The im-
portance of these and many other in-
novations can be easily appreciated
if one tries to conceive of practicing
today without them.
The Institute has likewise striven to
raise the competence of its members
by fostering the expansion of profes-
sional knowledge and skill. Its meet-
ings and publications have from the
first ranged a vast gamut of topics
pertinent to the materials and meth-
ods of construction, the planning Of
(Continued on Page 20)


JULY, 1957









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Hostages to History...
(Continued from Page 19)
diverse building types, the solution
of aesthetic problems, and the rela-
tion to architecture of the kindred
arts of community planning, land-
scape design, painting, sculpture, and
the decorative crafts. While technical
matters have naturally been para-
mount, it is important to note that
The Institute has never failed to stress
the concept that architects must also
cultivate understanding and discrimin-
ation in the realms of mind and spirit.
Finally, The Institute has main-
tained from its inception an intimate
concern for the highest quality of
professional education and training.
The first convention proposed the
founding of a national school of archi-
tecture which would combine meth-
ods developed at the French Ecole
and the German polytechnics. When
instruction was eventually assumed
by the several collegiate schools, The
Institute gave them all its whole-
hearted and indispensable support.
We today can take legitimate pride
in The Institute's splendid record of
achievement toward goals conceived
on the highest level of professional
service. If, as we face a new and
second century, we seem impatient
and dissatisfied with our past, this is
indeed a tribute to our predecessors
who by their thought and effort have
prepared the vantage point for even
bolder dreams. Fine as the record is,
it can be for us only a challenge to
equal their devotion, energy, and
vision.
The watchword of our centennial
observation is "A New Century
Beckons." The phrase is meant to
stress tomorrow's potentialities rather
than yesterday's victories. We face the
future immeasurably stronger and
more confident than could our pre-
decessors. The unification movement
of the past decade has marshalled at
last a membership large and strong
enough to undertake a program of
professional development heretofore
impossible. In the past, the breadth
and complexity of architecture has
all too often frustrated attempts to
resolve its more intricate problems.
Today, we are beginning to glimpse
the possibilities of systematic investi-
gation and, today, we are beginning
to enjoy unprecedented resources with
which to implement such research.


It is not difficult to predict that we
will yet see a major deepening of
architectural knowledge which will
undergird a new flowering of the
creative spirit of the art.
Today, our look into an honorable
past reveals how very brief a century
has been and how recently evolved
are the conditions which we now take
for granted. We in Florida can per-
haps appreciate this rapidity of change
more than most of our colleagues. In
1912, when a good number of our
present members were already youths,
there were only about 42 qualified
practitioners in the state. On Decem-
ber 14th of that year, twenty-one of
them met at Jacksonville to form the
Florida Association of Architects, the
state's first professional society. In May
1915, the group succeeded in obtain-
ing a registration act to protect the
public against unqualified pretenders.
In 1921, the Florida Chapter of The
Institute was established, and in
1925, the University of Florida
initiated its curriculum in architecture.
Three decades later, the phenomenal
growth of the state has been paralleled
by an equally extraordinary expansion
of the profession. Thus, through per-
sonal experiences gained in our own
life-time, we can grasp more fully the
import of this remarkable transforma-
tion. It is not too much to hope that
the profession in this state is now
ready to assume a leading role in the
further development of architecture
during The Institute's second century.
As we in this nation and state
face the second century of our pro-
fession, it would be well for us to
recall the special mission of our art
to minister to the minds and souls, as
well as to the bodies, of men. It was
Cassiodorus, chancellor of Theodoric,
who about 500 expressed this fact so
eloquently for the emperor in com-
missioning the architect of the im-
perial court:
"This is a work of great importance
which I give you, for it will be your
duty to fulfill by your art my strong
desire to mark my reign with many
new edifices. Whether it be the re-
building of a city or the construction
of a castle or a praetorium, it will be
for you to translate these projects into
realities. This is an honorable service
worthy of any man's ambition, to
leave to future ages monuments which
will stir men's admiration.
(Continued on Page S2)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT












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Concrete walls are precast
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Floors and roof consist of 48' prestressed
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JULY, 1957 21


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Hostages to History...
(Continued from Page 20)

"It will bc your duty to direct mason, Bcman td'
sculptor, painter, and those who work
in stone, bronze, plaster and mosaic.
What they know not you must teach
them; what they find difficult, you
must solve. Behold what varied knowl- I
edge you must master; but, if their
labor ends in satisfaction, their suc-
cess will be your eulogy, the most
abundant and flattering reward that
any heart can wish."
In more modern tcrms, Walt \hit- .
man voiced the same sentiment::i
"When the materials are all pre- -
pared and ready, the architects .i: k
shall appear;
I swear to you the architects shall
appear without fail; j. WM. evNUM
I swear to you they will understand PresIdent
you and justify you;
The greatest among them will be
he who best knows you, and ipARRETT N E
encloses all and is faithful to all;
lie and the rest shall not forget you,
they shall perceive that you are FIELDS LANE
not an iota less than they; Mana er
You shall be fully glorified in them."



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JULY, 1957







News & Notes


Florida Central
The Florida Central's formula of
Executive Board meeting plus Chap-
ter meeting plus discussion seminar
plus evening dinncr-with-spcaker -
the latter preceded by a cocktail party
--continues to be a successful one.
Latest proof was the Chapter meeting
of Saturday, June 8, which was
marked by an afternoon panel discus-
sion on "Ethics and Professional Prac-
tice" and an after-dinner address by
DEAN TURPIN C. BANNISTER, FAIA.
Panelists A. WYNN HOWELL, AN-
THONY L. PULLARA and J. BRUCE
SMITH centered their remarks on the
difficulties of adhering strictly to the
AIA's Mandatory Rule No. 3. Their
conclusion joined by participants
from the floor--was that a definite
fee schedule was desirable to avoid
possible competitive complications
relative to the award and acceptance
of commissions. THOMAS V. TALIEY
acted as panel moderator.
The Chapter heard a progress re-
port on 1957 Convention plans by


ELLIOITT B. IADLEY. And it voted to
purchase 20 AIA Centennial Medals
for presentation to mayors of cities in
the Chapter's area who had pro-
claimed an official Architects' Week
and to officials of the Sarasota Sav-
ings and Loan Assoc. for establishing
an exhibit gallery in their new build-
ing.
The Chapter Auxiliary also met to
plan for Convention activities. Mem-
bers voted to invite the Mid-Florida
Auxilliary to become co-hostesses at
the Convention. Mrs. A. WYNN
HOWELL is chairman of the Auxiliary
Convention Committee with the ex-
ecutive board as members. Mrs. EL-
L.olrr B. IADLEY presided at the bus-
iness meeting, and later, with Mrs.
ARCHIE A. PARISH, gave a detailed re-
port of the ladies' activities at the
Washington AIA Convention.

Florida South
The June llth dinner meeting at
the Park Lane in Coral Gables was
highlighted by an architectural travel-


talk by LESTER PANCOAST, who re-
cently returned from an extensive
foreign tour. lie showed many color-
slides -some of them magnificent
shots from India, Thailand and
Japan and accompanied the showing
with a running commentary on archi-
tectural characteristics of the countries
he visited. His material ranged from
modest workers' homes in Siam to
the huge new city which LECORBUSI-
ER is carving of concrete in India. In-
cluded were some especially fine shots
of Japanese temples and teahouses.
At the request of President \VAHL
SNYDER, TRIP RUSSELL, SANM KRUSE
and IIERBERT SAVAGE reported in-
formally on the AIA Centennial Cele-
bration at Washington. A brief com-
nent on results of FAA legislative
activity was given by the FAA Exec-
utive Secretary.

Broward Chapter
More than 250 persons were guests
of the Chapter's three-day Centennial
(Continued on Page 27)


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News & Notes
(Continued from Page 24)


Anniversary Observance at its opening
Tuesday evening, May 29. The party
was held at the Coral Sands Hotel,
Ft. Lauderdale and included a recep-
tion at which slides of the AIA's
Washington Centennial Celebration
and a color sound film were shown.
Later, refreshments were served to
the group which included decorators,
engineers, builders, press represent-
atives, civic officials and local business
executives.
The AIA Convention slides were
from pictures taken by JOHN EVANS,
Chapter secretary and included ex-
amples of design award winners, build-
ing products exhibits and Convention
S personalities. As he showed the slides,
Evans gave a running commentary on
the Centennial Celebration program.
The other sound and color film was
titled "Communications Primer", an
abstraction by CHARLES and RAY
EAMES, obtained from the Museum
of Modern Art in New York.
The exhibit remained open to the
public for the next two days. It was
L


designed by the Chapter's associate
members and comprised mounted
photos of the AIA design award win-
ners for the past three years. It was
visited by several hundred people.

Grafton Named to AIA P/R
EDWARD G. GRAFTON, last year's
FAA Convention Committee chair-
man for the Florida South Chapter,
has been named as the South Atlantic
Region's member of the important
AIA Committee on Public Relations,
according to a recent announcement
by Regional Director SANFORD W.
COIN.
A number of other Florida archi-
tects were also recently named as
members of national AIA committees.
CLINTON GAMBLE, immediate past-
president of the FAA was re-appoint-
ed as chairman of the Hurricane Com-
mittee. Also appointed to the mem-
bership of the Hurricane Committee
were JOHN STETSON, Palm Beach, and
EARNEST T. H. BOWEN, II, Florida
Central.


Edward G. Grafton


Other National AIA Committee-
men from Florida include FAA Presi-
dent EDGAR S. WORTMAN, appointed
earlier this year to the AIA Com-
mittee on Collaboration of Design
Professions; and JOHN L. R. GRAND
who for some years has served as a
hard-working member of the import-
ant Chapter Affairs Committee.
(Continued on Page 28)


IN& P ., Imk 4&zw~d ijdlwrrn" rtS~
'an dMw wowaft ciid 06mbe OPcriOrq"W
of wee4c wMA mm k ts bo ".-l. i
ofAl dwurmfi -
.~i~dlCfw~~wusguinhi I"~
kldwquV~bpbd, i LI


SALES OFiC t
WOW & 4)Y'kd

4--. V .rt


JULY, 1957






A Change
is Comina...


News & Notes
(Coinin ued from Page 27)


Watch for it here



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IlLst gun Flf 01 I


F~ i U !
INTERIOR DESIGNR


FAA Committees Named
FAA President EDGAR S. WVORT-
MAN has announced appointments for
two FAA Committees. One, on Reso-
lutions, includes JACK MOORE, chair-
man, KENNETH JACOBSON and ELLI-
OTT B. HADLEY. Its duties are: "To
consider resolutions as submitted; de-
velop other resolutions as deemed ad-
visable; and to ascertain that all reso-
lutions are properly drafted and pro-
cessed for presentation in accordance
with the policy adopted at the 1956
FAA Convention."
The other is an FAA Convention
Committee with members serving one,
two and three years to permit reten-
tion of informed membership as re-
appointments are made from year to
year. Members are: ERNEST T. H.
BOWEN, II, three \cars; VERNER
JOHNSON, two years; FRANCIS R. WAL-
TON, one year. Duties of this com-
mittee are: "To work with the FAA
Executive Secretary on matters rela-
tive to planning future FAA Conven-
tions, including: 1 . Investigate
sites and accommodations; 2 ... Study


and recommend themes and programs;
3 . Establish operating budgets;
4 . Aid the host chapter in de-
termining local convention policy and
development."


Palm Beach Party
Through the generous hospitality of
JOHN H. CROUSE, Palm Beach dealer
for the York Corporation, 27 Chap-
ter members, their wives and six "dis-
tinguished guests" enjoyed a unique
and memorable evening. At 7:00
PM they boarded the "Paddlewheel
Queen" a Mississippi River Ferry
type boat for the start of a four-
hour moonlight cruise on the Inland
\Waternay, from one end of Lake
Worth to the other.
On board there was music, there
was food a dinner of superb barbe-
cued chicken and all during the
evening there were refreshments, light
and otherwise. On the broad top deck
couples danced as the shores slipped
quietly by and the moon came up
strong and full and silver.


Blood Bank Project Becomes

Student Design Competition


Drawings for a new building proposed for the Gainesville Blood Bank became
a design project at the U/F College of Architecture and Fine Arts; and the
project turned into a design competition when the Bank's management offered
prizes for the best designs. Winners were: L. C. George, first; Raymond Malles,
second; Eoghan Kelley, third. Work of Craig Lindenlow was awarded honorable
mention. Pictured above are sponsors and winners of the competition, left to
right: P. M. Torracca, head, Department of Architecture; Dean Turpin C. Ban-
nister, FAIA; H. P. Constans, vice-pres., John Henry Thomas Memorial Blood
Bank; Miss Virginia Morgan, Blood Bank supervisor; L. C. George, Raymond
Malles and Eoghan Kelley, prize winners; Sadi Koruturk, associate professor.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





News & Notes
(Continued from Page 28)


Paul M. Rudolph, Sarasota, was re-
cently named to a top-level position
at the Yale University School of Arch-
itecture and Design. Effective next
February, he will become the new
Chairman of the School's Department
of Architecture. As one of the nation's
outstanding young architects Rudolph
has skyrocketed to national promi-
nonce for his highly unconvention and
imaginative design and for his contri-
butions to a wide range of professional
journals here and abroad. Born in
Kentucky in 1918, the new depart-
ment head was graduated from Ala-
bama Polytechnic Institute in 1940
and received his M.Arch. degree in
1947 from Harvard University.



JOHN EDWIN PETERSEN, AIA, died
suddenly at his home June 6. Born
in Chicago in 1903, he received a
B.S. and M.S. from Armour Institute
and a diploma from the Beaux Arts,
France. He was awarded a painting
scholarship by the Chicago Art Insti-
tute, the Columbia President's schol-
arship, design medals in Beaux Arts;
and he was a finalist in the 1929 Paris
Prize Competition. He had been a
member of the firm of Petersen and
Shuflin since 1949 and was chief de-
signer of the Dupont Plaza building
now under construction. Prior to his
Miami residence he had taught de-
sign at both Armour Institute and the
Ecole Des Beaux Arts at Fontaine-
bleu. During World War II he served
as Combat Intelligence Officer,
USAF, and later was active in Miami
civic affairs. He was a member of
the Florida South Chapter and served
as president in 1952.


JULY, 1957


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Biennium Booming...
(Continued from Page 4)
Florida A & M just under $3-million.
And in Tampa $8-million will be spent
shortly on the start of a brand new
4-year college--with another on the
east coast well beyond the talking
stage and the subject for a matching
appropriation, possibly in 1959.
Expansion of the Junior College
system is another case. Five plants al-
ready exist. The Legislature authorized
six at this session; and based on de-
veloping population needs, Florida
may ultimately have some 20 Junior
Colleges, ranging in facility-cost from
$1-million up. Their development
will be supervised by the State De-
partment of Education through the
local school boards in counties where-
in they will be built--though some
effort was made in the House to place
them in the jurisdiction of the Board
of Control.
As a matter of fact, provision for
vastly expanded public school con-
struction was a major concern during
this legislative session. By and large,
the Legislature accepted the principles
laid down in the Sara Report (see
Florida Architect, May, 1957, page
11). A bill authorizing that $36-mil-
lion be raised to be matched by county
funds passed both Houses- and was
later implemented by the provision of
additional taxes. Based on the Sara
formula for school-construction fin-
ancing, this would make possible a
total of some $144-million for new
public schools during the next two
years.
Thus the 1957 Legislature gave the
affirmative nod to what may amount
to about $200-million dollars in new
state and county construction in the
1957-59 biennium. In doing so the
law-makers signified approval of the
principles behind much of that over-
all figure; and thus they at least im-
plied approval of continuing for the
future a similar policy of expanded
expenditures geared to the rate and
trend of the State's growth.
But on some other matters they
showed a curious reluctance to be as
far-seeing. As at the 1955 Legislature,
permissive legislation relative to plan-
ning and zoning for counties and
municipalities failed to become law.
It fared somewhat better than at the
last session, however, since two bills
were approved by a committee of the
(Continued on Facing Page)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT







House and finally were passed by that
body. But in the Senate they were
referred to a sub-committee -and
there they languished and died during
the final hectic two weeks before the
session ended.
Another forward-looking proposal
received even rougher treatment. This
was a bill amending the State Consti-
tution to permit municipalities to ac-
quire, by eminent domain, slum or
blighted areas for the purpose of re-
development by private agencies. It
was designed, of course, to permit
Florida cities to clean themselves of
decay and deadwood and to be
helped in doing so through waiting
cooperation of the Federal Urban Re-
development Program. Florida remains
one of the few states which has not
passed enabling legislation along these
lines. But, in spite of the fact that
the bill was permissive and in no way
mandatory the hook on which ap-
proval of many a mediocre or even a
bad bill has been hung it got short
shrift from the House Committee on
Constitutional Amendments which at
the time was ears-deep in the bewild-
ering cross-currents of constitutional
revisions.
Another measure which passed the
House but failed in the Senate is quite
probably being used in some quarters
as an example of a curious penny-
wise-pound-foolish attitude that all
legislatures appear to assume on occa-
sion. This would have provided the
State Road Department with some
$30-million with which to acquire
rights-of-way for the State's highway
program which is subject to tremend-
ous expansion under terms of the Fed-
eral participation plan. The most tell-
ing argument for the bill was the
possibility of planning the road pro-
gram ahead, thus making it possible
to acquire rights-of-way at the Road
Department's leisure- and before
undue publicity or the pressure of
deadlines operated to inflate prices.
Proponents of the bill estimated
that it would save future State tax-
payers at least $300-million in land
costs alone, not to mention possible
other millions of savings in lowered
construction costs through choice of
rights of way better adapted to high-
way development and use. But the
- bugaboo of added taxes necessary to
make the measure work scared an al-
ready tax-shy Senate. What looked to
be a real start toward sound economic
planning died aborning.
JULY, 1957










































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Good Architecture ...
(Continued from Page 10)
scribed by economics. Let us clearly
rjcect the economic interpretation of
history or of life-a narrow, wretched
philosophy shared by Marxists and
robber barons. Life is more than
economics! And so is architecture!
You would be miserable if you felt
you could never express anything but
economics. And indeed perhaps you
do often feel miserable, because you
feel bound in an economic straight-
jacket. Never fear-life will burst that
straight-jacket. But also, rejoice that
as modern architects you can express
good economics. I do not say you
always do, but you can. And that
makes you contemporary servants
of our present and future needs.
But will you be given the chance
to transcend economics, the chance
to express the non-economic, the
more-than-economic character and
aspirations of the American nation?
That is what we must mainly strive
for, now to get buildings, many of
them, big and little, which point be-
yond themselves to the best in Ameri-
can life. The chance to express more
than economics must be given you
by the home-builders of America, by
the industrial corporations, by the uni-
versities-and notably by Govern-
ment in all its many branches, federal
and local.
The relation of Government to
architecture may be put under two
heads. Most importantly, perhaps,
there is the effect of Government
laws and policy on architecture. Gov-
ernment's influence for better or for
worse is enormous in terms of urban
renewal, city planning, housing policy,
even the lowly local building codes.
All Americans who wish to build a
better America must learn how to
teach politicians that bad architecture
is bad politics. I believe this can and
will be done.
There is one powerful lobby missing
from the American scene,-the lobby
for architecture. Let us try to develop
a powerful lobby for architecture. Not
for hand-cuts, for favors; but for good
architecture as such. When that is
done the better and beautiful America
will be in sight.
But Government is itself a big
builder. It is in its own buildings
that Government has the duty-and
the right! to symbolize what Gov-
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


ES I f %I ERNAIAWN A L :%I R 1'()R I
I f -1 R ',I I N L B 11 1 L 1) 1 N G


\0)1. Ot N f B (''A R 1) OF

'I A f R I M A N, J 1
R 11 1 R I 'i N k 6 1
P C R T C I I r k I



I P f 1 1 1) A D, 1 1) 7


I







ernment stands for. This is the propo-
sition which brings together the
threads of my thought tonight.
We applaud the founders of this
capital city because they laid out a
magnificent city plan. But they did
something else, equally important.
They fixed on a style of architecture
to symbolize the great American de-
termination to establish a form of
government. The choice of style was
the classical Greco-Roman style-the
natural and perfect choice for that
time. To be sure Rome did not sym-
bolize democracy or liberty in our
hard-won sense of the word. But it did
symbolize Good Government-it sym-
bolized order, law, and equal justice
under law.
What the Founding Fathers said
and what Jacksonian Democracy said
was this: We will have a government
of free men, we will even have a
democracy, and we will prove that a
democracy does not have to slide into
chaos and tyranny. We will prove
that you can have a democratic gov-
ernment which will be both honorable
and honored. We will prove that a
nation of free men can be dignified,
maintaining self-respect at home and
respect throughout the world.
That is what our forefathers said
S150 years ago; they said it partly as
fact, partly as bold aspiration. They
said it symbolically.
Today, America has the same thing
to say-in greater fact and in greater
aspiration. We, too, must say it sym-
bolically. And we have more to say,
new things to say-the determination
to build a great civilization. We must
say the old and the new in new
language-your own language, the
architectural language of the 20th
Century.
We are already doing it. Witness
the new American embassy buildings.
Some of the new embassies are tri-
umphs of modern architecture. They
are also great acts of statesmanship.
The Department of State deserves,
I think, an award from this Institute
not only for the buildings themselves
but for the magnificent directive
S under which they are being built. The
Department of State has written a
Magna Carta of fresh, imaginative
architecture-and architecture of sym-
bolism symbolizing the dignity of this
Republic and its profound concern
for all mankind.
(Continued on Page 84)
JULY, 1957


F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS, Chairman
JOHN F. HALLMAN, President JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres.
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. JAMES H. BARRON, JR., Secy-Treas.
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. JOSEPH A. COLE, Vice-Pres.





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- CHARLOTTE COUNTY -
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Cleveland Construction Co., Inc.
Harborview Rd., Punta Gorda
Phone: NE 2-5911
C-Roy C. Young, Pres.-AGC
DADE COUNTY
GENERAL
Avant Construction Co., Inc.
360 N.W. 27th Ave., Miami
Phone: NE 5-2409
C-John L. Avant, Pres.-AGC

Edward M. Fleming Construction
Co., Inc.
4121 N.W. 25th St., Miami 42
Phone: NE 5-0791
C--Ed. M. Fleming, Pres.-AGC
PAVING, GRADING
T. J. James Construction Co.
1700 N.W. 119th St., Miami
Phone: MU 8-8621
C-Randolph Young, Gen. Mgr.-AGC
--- DUVAL COUNTY --
INDUSTRIAL f HEAVY
Henry G. Dupree Co.
1125 Kings Ave., Jacksonville
Phone: FL 9-6622
C-Henry G. DuPree, Pres.-AGC

- PALM BEACH COUNTY -
GENERAL
Arnold Construction Co.
S'te 7, Murray Bid., Palm Beach
Phone: TE 2-4267
C-W. H. Arnold, Pres.-AGC


Paul & Son, Inc.
921 Ortega Rd., W.Palm Beach
Phone TE 2-3716
C-P. D. Crickenberger, Pres.
CONCRETE MASONRY
Shirley Brothers, Inc.
N. Canal Pt. Rd., Pahokee
Phone: Pahokee 7185
C-Claude L. Shirley, Pres.-AGC
AGC assoc. NRMCA; FCPA; NCMA
PLASTERING
J. A. Tompkins
1102 North A, Lake Worth
Phone: JU 2-6790
C-J. A. Tompkins, Owner-AGC
ELECTRICAL
Arrow Electric Company
501 Palm St., W. Palm Beach
Phone: TE 3-8424
C-V. L. Burkhardt, Pres.-AGC
Assoc.; FAEC
PINELLAS COUNTY -
GENERAL
A. P. Hennessy & Sons, Inc.
2300 22d St. N., St. Petersburg
Phone: 7-0308
C-L. J. Hennessy, Pres.-AGC
VOLUSIA COUNTY
CONCRETE MASONRY
Quillian's Concrete
3rd St. F.E.C., Daytona Beach
Phone: CL 3-8113
C-Hugo Quillian, Partner-AGC
Assoc. NCMA; FSPA; NRMCA. ACI
- GEORGIA-Fulton County -
GENERAL
Beers Construction Company
70 Ellis St., N.E., Atlanta 3
Phone: AL 0555
C-E. M. Eastman, V.-Pres.-AGC


Good Architecture ...
(Continued from Page 38)
What we have done abroad we must
do at home. We must do it here in
Washington and down to every
county courthouse and postoffice.
No one architect can tell another
how to express, how to symbolize, a
great virtue or a great aspiration. And
certainly a layman cannot. This sort
of expression is an act of inspiration.
But the architect who touches Gov-
ernment has a duty to steep himself
in the meaning of America. The citi-
zen and politician has a duty to pray
that out of the architect's profound
understanding of America will come
the inspiration to express what we
want to say as a nation.
What do we want to say? Perhaps
it could all be put in two words. We
want to say Democracy and we want
to say Dignity.
Modern architecture can certainly
express Democracy. We say Democra-
cy by requiring that buildings meet
an economic test-the test of wise,
farsighted economics. We say De-
mocracy by buildings which are frank,
open and unaffected. Our welcoming
shopping centers, our cheerful new
schools, our glass front banks, all
emphatically say Democracy.
And what about Dignity? I choose
that word because in World War II
and after, the phrase most commonly
used to express what we fought for
was the Dignity of Man. It may not
be your favorite phrase or mine, be-
cause it so readily reminds that most
often man exhibits himself as a most
undignified animal. Yet right there
perhaps is the clue. Man is not a
noble savage-and never was. He is a
created creature having implanted in
him the power to create nobility. He
is a striving creature. We Americans
are striving creatures. We have
achieved magnificently. And now we
have set out upon a magnificent ad-
venture. To express step by step, the
progress of that adventure, to express
it in fact and in aspiration-so to do
will be the fulfillment of the Ameri-
can Revolution of Architecture.
In the dawning light of that fulfill-
ment, I salute you. I salute you in
faith and in hope. In reasoned faith
in our own fellow-Americans. In con-
fident hope that the divine discontent
which has led us to this hour will
abide with us now and forever.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


1111111111111111111111111111111111111111






Future of the City ...
(Continued from Page 18)
in the District of Columbia in 1956
was S4,900; but in the surrounding
area it was $6,773-or over one-third
higher-and ranged up to $7,735 in
Montgomery County, Maryland. I
suspect the same relative income levels
hold true for other metropolitan areas.
As the city's costs go up, its tax
resources go down. Those who move
in are poorer than those who move
out. Moreover, in the competition
with State and Federal governments
for tax revenues, local government
comes off a poor third. Business, look-
ing for lower tax rates, is following
the flight to the suburbs. The city
is left with the problems of providing
the needs and services required for
civilized living, without the money to
cope with them.
I don't believe the way out of this
financial dilemma will come through
local taxing systems-even as they
may be revised. Wealth is too un-
equally distributed; its location bears
too little relation to the need for
services. Hence the property tax is
unfair and relatively unproductive as
well as relatively inflexible. And there
is hardly any other kind of tax avail-
able which can be well administered
on a local basis. Local sales taxes
drive business outside the taxing juris-
diction. Graduated income taxes have
been largely pre-empted by State and
Federal governments.
There are only two alternatives:
One is to establish a new level of
government, a fourth layer, that will
correspond geographically to the
new community the metropolitan
area. The other is to use the larger
jurisdictions that already exist-the
State and Federal governments, and
in practical fact that means the Fed-
eral government, because the States
are as limited in their financial re-
sources as are the cities.
All the evidence I have seen indi-
cates that despite the current outcry,
the Federal budget is less of a strain
on the national tax base than local
budgets are on local tax resources.
Since 1946, State and local taxes per
capital have risen three times as fast
as Federal taxes, and State and local
debt-which is a rough measure of
the excess of need over resources-has
also risen much faster than the Fed-
eral debt.
That is why it seems to me that
JULY, 1957


the economy campaign now being
waged by some powerful organiza-
tions in this country is totally mis-
guided when it is directed against
those parts of the Federal budget
which would relieve the burden on
local taxpayers-for example, Fed-
eral aid to education. Equally mis-
guided have been the Administration's
cuts in urban renewal, which is a
splendid example of something that
could not be done at all if the com-
munities had to rely on their own tax
resources.
The second obstacle to restoration
of the city is obsolete governmental
structure.
The legal and political framework
in which we struggle to provide for the
city of the future is sometimes our
own worst enemy, when it should be
our greatest ally.
What would we do if we were the
Founding Fathers and were creating
a national political structure in this
year 1957 instead of 1787? Of course,
we would still create a Federal sys-
tem, but would we have 48 States-
plus two more-with the present
boundaries? Of course not. We would
pay attention to the natural boun-
daries of metropolitan communities---
and knowing how these change, we
might even try to make possible some
adjushnent from time to time in
boundaries.
But we are the captives of the
mistakes, as well as the beneficiaries
of the wisdom, of the Founding
Fathers and their successors. We can't
do much about illogical State boun-
daries in our lifetime. We can only try
to moderate their effects.
In the meantime, there is great
opportunity for political invention at
the local level. Instead of the un-
imaginative labyrinth of special and
ad hoc bodies created in our metro-
politan areas, let's continue to search
for new approaches to metropolitan
government, for the need is great. I
favor and applaud such developments
as those being worked out in Toronto
and Montreal, in Dade County, Flori-
da, and Allegheny County in Penn-
sylvania. And, in seeking larger juris-
dictions, let's use intelligently the larg-
er jurisdictions that already exist-
the county; for problems which cross
county lines, the State; and for metro-
politan problems that are characteris-
(Continued on Page s6)


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Future of the City ...
(Continued from Page 35)
tically interstate, the Federal govern-
ment.
If this last sounds like a danger-
ous invasion of our honored tradition
of local home rule, consider what's
happened in highways.
Very few of our communities had
made any real start in building the
metropolitan highway system of the
future until the new Federal highway
program was enacted. Now super
highways within metropolitan areas
are an accepted part of the interstate
system. Communities have the where-
withal to get these highways built, yet
local control over the location of the
highways is not truly lessened. City
authorities participate to the full in
these decisions. Under Federal leader-
ship we have improvised a de facto
metropolitan structure for highway
building which is working.
The same evolution is evident in
regard to metropolitan water supplies.
Municipal water supply has already
become an important factor in Fed-
eral river development projects; even-
tually, it may be the major factor.
But to use our higher levels of
government as we should in the solu-
tion of urban problems, two other
political reforms are required:
1. We must bring the State legis-
latures up to date, so that the tail
of the rural counties stops wagging
the dog of our huge urban populations.
2. We must re-orient a Federal
government superbly equipped to deal
with the nineteenth century problems
of agriculture and natural resources,
and hardly equipped at all to deal
with the urban society which today it
largely represents.
A Federal government which does
not pay as much attention to urbi-
culture as to agriculture, to the con-
servation of cities as to soil, to the
movement of people and goods within
as well as between cities is not adapted
to twentieth century America. One
immediate step that I am proposing
is the creation of a Department of
Urban Affairs with cabinet status, in
which will be placed such programs
as housing, urban renewal, community
facilities and probably civil defense-
those functions where the Federal
government is dealing most directly
and exclusively with urban concerns.
The third obstacle to restoring the


city I have called political lag. Thomas
Jefferson warned that, "the laws and
institutions must go hand in hand
with the progress of the human
mind . ."
We must overcome the lag that
separates the politician from the plan-
ner-your calling from mine. But
remember that the successful poli-
tician reflects the people as well as
leads them. Overcoming the political
lag means educating not just the po-
liticians but the public.
This is a task where your profession
has an extraordinary responsibility.
You architects and planners, after all,
are ready to move, anxious to make
things better than they are. Whether
public opinion is aroused will depend
to a great extent on how much you,
yourselves, take part in the process
of communicating to the people your
conception of the better city, and
how well you succeed.
When public opinion is aroused-
as any politician will tell you-things
do get done. When politicians, plan-
ners and the people work together-
as they did in Philadelphia-toward
the common goal of making the city
a better place in which to live and
work and play, they make a future
for the city.
The restoration of the American
city is perhaps man's greatest chal-
lenge today in his age-old battle to
control and shape the environment
in which he lives. The struggle be-
tween man and his surroundings-
both those he found and those lie
made himself-is the stuff of which
history is made. Along the path of
this struggle, civilizations have come
and gone.
And in many ways, the city is
civilization.
The city is more than form; it is
substance, life, spirit. Streets, build-
ings and facilities exist for a purpose;
they came into being because people
need them to lead the type of exis-
tence which they preferred to any
other.
And the desire to live in cities, the
desire for urban culture-these will
continue as long as civilization lasts.
Your vision and ideas and action will
have a great and perhaps a decisive
influence in determining how well
these desires will be met-and, thus,
in determining the degree to which
our daily living is truly civilized.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT
























Elements Ornamentales....

That's the name of the really beautiful grille tile we import from the Caribbean.
They're of hard-burned red shale, with the occasional kiln marks and slight color
variations which make for just the right amount of texture in the finished wall.
The one used in the Miami building shown above is one of several patterns made
in Panama. Another series of patterns somewhat lighter in color and more
delicate in scale is imported from Venezuela . .


IUAN I


BRICK

DUNAN BRICK YARDS, INCORPORATED
Phone TU 7-1525 MIAMI, FLORIDA






THE O9
ALL-ALUMINUM
1 AWNING WINDOW


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*4t


VERSATILITY UNLIMITED

The inspired designs of today's modern buildings, reflect advanced
architectural concepts, in the use of new materials and construction
technique. Modern fenestration, typified by Miami Window installations
in many of the nation's finest schools, churches, hospitals, commercial
and industrial buildings, have given their architects new freedom of
expression from the limitations imposed by less versatile windows.
Miami, the original all aluminum awning window has proven
in over one million installations, its superiority in: design ...
engineering advancements ... in manufacturing excellence and
constantly maintained quality. It is the finest window of its type
ever manufactured. Constant improvement, through intensive
engineering and research effort will continue to keep it so.


Miami Window Corporation engineering department welcomes
the opportunity to translate your sketches into working
drawings, there is no obligation.


miami window corpora
P. O. BOX 877 INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT BRANCH, MIAMI 48,


THE miami
LIFETIME
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FLORIDA


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