Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 More about crack-free walls
 Commemorative medal for AIA...
 A tournament that became a...
 Goin is nominated to succeed...
 $300-million for schools in...
 Sixth regional AIA conference
 At Atlanta -- Price pinpoints...
 Conference citation
 Thin shells -- A compound of the...
 News and notes
 S-A regional council adopts...
 Advertisers' index
 Editorial: Live splinter or petrified...
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00035
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: May 1957
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00035
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    More about crack-free walls
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Commemorative medal for AIA centennial
        Page 4
        Page 5
    A tournament that became a tradition
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Goin is nominated to succeed Millkey
        Page 9
        Page 10
    $300-million for schools in Florida
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Sixth regional AIA conference
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    At Atlanta -- Price pinpoints progress
        Page 17
    Conference citation
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Thin shells -- A compound of the complex
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    News and notes
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    S-A regional council adopts by-laws
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Advertisers' index
        Page 35
    Editorial: Live splinter or petrified log?
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

May 1957


Florida architects were
outnumbered almost seven
to one. But they garnered
two of six design awards,
chairmanned the develop-
ment of new Regional By-
Laws and heard one of
their top-rank delegates
unanimously nominated as
director for the four-state
AIA district ...

...Now ready for use

This booklet has been prepared for the use of Florida AIA archi-
tects by a Special Committee of the Florida Association of
Architects. As a matter of public information, it is written in
layman's language about the architect and the services he can
render to those contemplating a building project... As such it
is a brief guide to better building and already six of Florida's
10 AIA Chapters are using it as part of their local public relations
program . This booklet is available in quantity only through
AIA Chapters in Florida. Single copies may be obtained for 15
cents (in coin) from the FAA Executive Secretary's office . .

ISI.PIC .... Irl ...ill. i lll sll cl i i -- .



Edgar S. Wortman
1122 North Dixie
Lake Worth

H. Samuel Kruse
Chamber of
Commerce Bldg.

M. T. Ironmonger
1261 E. LaI
Olas Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale

William B. Harvard Central Florida
Franklin S. Bunch North Florida
John Stetson . . South Florida
Immediate Past President
G. Clinton Gamble
Broward County William F. Bigoney, Jr.
John M. Evans
Daytona Beach .. Francis R. Walton
Florida Central Ernest T. H. Bowen, II
Robert H. Levison
Fla. North Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA
Sanford W. Goin, FAIA
Florida North Central Forrest R. Coxen
Florida South James E. Garland
Irving E. Horsey
Verner Johnson
Jacksonville . Taylor Hardwick
Ivan H. Smith
Mid-Florida ... . Hill Stiggins
Florida Northwest William S. Morrison
Palm Beach . . Harold A. Obst
Charles E. Duncan

Roger W. Sherman
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43
Phone: MOhawk 7-0421
MAY, 1957


Floridla Architect


MAY, 1957



More about Crack-free Walls ---........ .---------- 2

Commemorative Medal for AIA Centennial ------- 4

A Tournament that became A Tradition------ 6

Goin is Nominated to succeed Millkey------- 9

$300-Million for Schools in Florida .-----_------_-.. 11

Sixth Regional AIA Conference _____--- ----- 14

At Atlanta-Price Pinpoints Progress ---------- 17

Conference Citation ---------.--.--------- 18

Thin Shells-A Compound of the Complex --------- 21
By James O. Power

News and Notes-------------- --------_----- 24

S-A Regional Council Adopts By-Laws ------ --- 28

Advertisers' Index ___. -------_ -------_ 35

Editorial ____ ----------------------------- 36
Live Splinter or Petrified Log?

Of the six Florida firms which displayed some sixteen designs in
the architectural exhibit of the Reigonal Conference in Atlanta last
month, two received award recognition from the jury. One, Victor
Lundy, of Sarasota, won a merit award for a church; and Robert M.
Little, of Miami, received a citation for his medical association office
building. Shown is an interior view of the pro-cast concrete screen
which surrounds the second-floor offices of this building.

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE H. Samuel Kruse, Chairman, G. Clinton
Gamble, T. Trip Russell. Editor Roger W. Sherman.
The FLORIDA ARCHITECT is the Official Journal of the Florida Association of
Architects of the American Institute of Architects. It is owned and operated by the
Florida Association of Architects Inc. a Florida Corporation not for profit, and is
published monthly under the authority and direction of the F.A.A. Publication
Committee at 7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida. Telephone MOhawk 7-0421
. .Correspondence and editorial contributions are welcomed, but publication cannot
be guaranteed and all copy is subject to approval by the Publication Committee.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publication
Committee or the Florida Association of Architects. Editorial contents may be freely
reprinted by other official A.I.A. publications provided credit is accorded The
FLORIDA ARCHITECT and the author . Advertisements of products materials
and services adaptable for use in Florida are welcomed, but mention of names, or
illustrations of such materials and products, in either editorial or advertising
columns does not constitute endorsement by the Publication Committee or The
Florida Association of Architects . Address all communications to the Editor
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida.



tp&d features

In any type of commercial, industrial or
institutional building, the "plus" fea-
tures of an Executone Fully Intercom-
municating System can bring new effi-
ciency, lower operating costs to the owner.
This modern, electronic Intercom saves
money, time and effort-and is so flex-
ible it can be adapted to meet any
administrative or industrial need, An
Executone system can:
Reduce telephone traffic -Re-
lieves the system of "inside" calls
that clog lines, waste productive
Give complete privacy-Automatic
signals and automatic lock-out
permits "remote operation" but
assures individual call privacy.
Conference conversations-Master
and staff stations permit two-way
conversations with remotely located
personnel- either individually or
collectively. Calls can be received
from an unlimited number of sta-
tions; and many private conversa-
tions can be conducted simultan-
Grow with the need-Any number
of master or staff stations, ampli-
fied reproducers and special-pur-
pose relay stations may be added
at any time.
Your selection of Executone will assure
your client of the exclusive "plus" fea-
tures which will soon pay for the entire
system through the savings and added
convenience produced . For helpful
facts on Executone specification and lay-
out, call the Executone distributor near-
est you.

Chamberlain Audio Products
404 Eunice Street, Tampa
J. M. Coker & Associates
224 Alcaar Ave., Coral Gables
Executone Intercom Sales Co.
2070 Liberty St., Jacksonville
Orlando Intercom & Sound Systems
220 N. Orlando Ave., Winter Park

Though a high percentage of con-
crete masonry walls built during the
last fifty years are free from cracks
and are giving thoroughly satisfactory
service, the fact remains that when it
does occur, cracking has proved an
expensive nuisance to architect, con-
tractor and owner alike. Many fac-
tors can cause cracking, singly or in
combination. Poor design can do it
-failure to provide adequate expan-
sion joints, improper wall design, in-
adequate footings, to name a few.
Inadequate field supervision may also
be a cause-hurry-up construction,
wrongly-formulated mortar, improper
wall chasing. The masonry unit it-
self may be the villain because of
poor quality, thin face shells, insuffi-
cient strength. Or the nasty pheno-
menon may result from the crowning
result of natural forces such as ther-
mal volume changes or expansion
and contraction of various structural
All such factors are important.
They merit the top-drawer concern
of architectural engineers and specifi-
cation writers. But they are often
overwhelmed by the effect of volume
changes in concrete units resulting
from changes in the moisture con-
tent of such units. And for this rea-
son the Portland Cement Associa-
tion has bent its very considerable
research facilities toward investigat-
ing the varied influences of moisture
in concrete masonry units. It has
come up with some observations of
practical significance. And as a back-
ground to careful specifications these
observations are a guide to better
building design because they furnish
a basis for selection of more reliable
- less crackable concrete masonry
These PCA observations reach be-
hind the blocks themselves. Most
architects and specification men real-
ize that conscientious cement block
manufacturers have accepted new

standard dimensions for walls and
cores. The following is concerned
with factors which are not so obvious,
but about which every competent
specification writer should be in-
formed. These are factors of manu-
facture curing and drying opera-
tions which comprise two essential
steps in the production of acceptable
concrete masonry units.
Here is a brief review of essentials
in the curing and drying operations
necessary to produce concrete ma-
sonry units which will meet standard

To develop maximum strength and
durability, the concrete units, shortly
after they are molded, should be kept
continuously moist by some type of
water sprinkler device or placed in a
specially designed room or kiln where
an excess of moisture in the form of
fog or spray completely surrounds and
bathes the units. An adequate sup-
ply of moisture is absolutely essen-
tial throughout the curing period.
The time required for the concrete
to develop strength and durability
under these moist curing conditions
depends on the temperature at which
they are cured. At low temperatures
approaching freezing the hardening
process is very slow. As the tempera-
ture is raised, such as in a steam cur-
ing kiln, the curing process is acceler-
ated. Hence, curing temperatures
from 120 degree Fahrenheit to 180
degree Fahrenheit (at atmospheric
pressure) often have been used suc-
cessfully because both heat and mois-
ture could be supplied by saturated
steam from a low pressure boiler. So
long as an excess of moisture is main-
tained, the rate of hardening is in-
creased as the temperature is in-
Indications are that a satisfactorily
moist atmosphere can be maintained
(Continued on Page 4)

More About Crack-free Walls

There is more to the specification of concrete masonry units
than meets the eye. Here, as a result of PCA research, are im-
portant facts of manufacture which have a direct bearing on the
crack-free performance of the concrete masonry wall itself ..

&fo good costutin

1 Use Renore Concrete..
It's 5S ad pabe avia l evry hee is strong,
dua l andS frSa- S

2 .. Deig wit Prcs Cocet.
Prcs uis aevraie ovnet
efiin an economical.

3~~~~~~ .. Spcf -olsn Prcs ntS.
Thyr spcfial enieee fo ShighS S
pefomac an lo cot on an typ of job .

Backgr fo Specic atio n..

The increasing use of Hollostone is not accidental. Built into
each of Hollostone's many standard units is safe structural
design, quality-controlled manufacture, uniformity of surfacing
and dimensions . You can specify Hollostone with full con-
fidence. We'll be glad to prove it and to help you develop
precast unit layouts to meet all requirements of architect-
ural design and to save labor, time and money on the job ...

MAY, 1957 3


I W'

Finely wrought surfaces can do
much to give that final touch of
elegance to a carefully designed
interior. That's why Magic City
Woven Wood fabrics were first
created to provide designers
with a fine material that em-
bodies the warmth and intimacy
of fine woods with the color and
surface possibilities of various
natural, metallic and synthetic
fiber yarns.

Specify Magic City Woven Wood
for your finest jobs. Choose
from a wide selection the pat-
tern to provide just the degree
of colorful texture your interior
design may need. Or, if you
wish, design the pattern your-
self -and our expert wood-
weavers will produce it espe-
cially to your order.

297 N. E. 67th St., Miami, Florida

Crack-free Walls ...
(Continued from Page 2)

at temperatures somewhat above 140
degrees Fahrenheit, but the limiting
temperature appears to be about 170
degrees Fahrenhcit to 180 degrees
Fahrenheit even with well insulated
and relatively tight kilns. Tempera-
tures higher than 180 degrees Fahren-
heit arc difficult to maintain without
the sacrifice of the proper moisture
requirements which arc more import-
ant than the temperature to develop
the potential strength and durability
of the concrete. However, in the
pressure-tight chambers of autoclaves,
where there is no loss of vapor, tem-
peratures in the range of 350 degrees
Fahrenheit are commonly used at
pressures exceeding 150 p.(s.)i.
Concrete units will continue to
gain in strength over a long period so
long as proper moisture and tempera-
ture conditions are maintained.
When the concrete has been allowed
to become dry, the hardening process
stops and there will be no further
appreciable gain in strength unless
the block again becomes thoroughly
wet for a considerable period.
In plant practice the units are usu-
ally kept in the moist curing kiln
long enough to meet specification
strength requirements. If units fail
to have the required strength, the
curing must be continued in the
stockpile, but such curing will usually
develop a lower rate of strength gain.

It must be kept in mind that these
block, as they come from moist cur-
ing kilns, whether they are to be
moved to the stockpile or to the job,
contain a large excess of moisture and
definitely will not meet the dryness
requirement of standard specifica-
tions. Such block are not suitable
for use in either exterior or interior
construction where they may dry out
later, because as wet block dry out
they shrink in volume. This shrink-
age is one of the factors which tends
to cause cracking in the wall as-

Although aging of block under
proper curing conditions eliminates
a great amount of shrinkage capacity
due to chemical changes (carbona-
tion), the age of the block is no in-
surance against excessive moisture
content or a tendency to shrink.
Block six months old may still be un-
satisfactory because they are wet.
Providing well aged units arc used,
the moisture content of the block at
the time of laying is the controlling
factor. Block which appear quite dor
on the surface may still fail, by a
wide margin, to meet the dryncss re-
quirement of standard specifications.
While block in stockpiles and cov-
ered storage tend to dry out, particu-
larly during hot, dry seasons of the
cyar, very few manufacturers in met-
ropolitan areas find it practical to
maintain a sufficiently large stock to
(Continued on Page 6)


Commemorative Medal for AIA Centennial

Design for a gold medal to be presented to President Eisenhower by the AIA
during Centennial Celebration ceremonies this month in Washington. The
medal will also be cast in bronze for AIA members. Designer is Sidney Waugh,
Fellow and past president of the National Sculpture Society. Detail of the ob-
verse side stems from the AIA seal; that on the reverse being a free expres-
sion of the AIA's Centennial Theme.


7tcV7I Pe'di&"

for any roof design

ror wmee spans, metal acos are sTuray, easny
erected, and make an attractive ceiling while srv-
ing as a permanent form for perlite concrete


Weight of fresh perlite concrete depresses backing
paper about % in. to embed wire mesh in dab.
No other reinforcing needed.

** ,s ,-- tE4sOTUr f es

Low slump perlit concrete can be poured directly
over high-ribbed expanded metal lath either wire
tied or clipped to joists.


Decks like these are particularly
practical for Florida. They're inexpen-
sive, for use of Perlite can save up to
30% deadload in structures. And a
Perlite concrete roof provides both fire
safety and insulation to save insurance
and reduce air conditioning loads.

Perlite concrete has up to 70%
better insulation value and 58% less
weight than gypsum roof fill.

Specification, load and performance
data are available from your Sweet's Cat-
alog. From us you can get on-the-
spot consultation to help develop
greater fire safety and better insula-
tion for any type building.

Our new plant is now in the process of
development. When completed in the near
future, it will triple our present pro-
duction of Perlite Lightweight Aggregate.

Phone TU 8-8791 for facts

Cement-asbestos board or various glass fiber and
vegetable fiber formboards can be used with mesh-
reinforced perlite concrete. Underside makes at-
tractive ceiling.


MAY, 1957


Crack-free Walls ...
(Continued from Page 4)
insure adequately dried block. Con-
sequently, many manufacturers have
become convinced that a separate
drying operation, after moist curing,
is necessary to properly condition
block for the market.
Several manufacturers have experi-
mented with various methods for
drying the block after they have been
moist cured. Generally the block
remain in the curing kiln and hot air
is introduced with fans to carry away
the evaporated moisture through
properly placed vents.
In order to combine the moist cur-
ing and drying in one operation, a
number of out-of-state manufacturers
are using high pressure steam curing.
This method, known as "autoclav-
ing," can produce units, which meet
current specifications, ready for use
within 24 hours after molding. How-
ever, the initial cost of special cylin-

ders and equipment for high pressure
steam curing has been largely respon-
sible for many manufacturers striv-
ing to develop satisfactory methods of
moist curing and drying at a lower
over-all cost.
Existing ASTM specifications con-
tain requirements which limit the
moisture content of concrete masonry
units at time of delivery to 40 per
cent of the total absorption. Former
Federal Specifications limited this
moisture content to 30 per cent. A
new method of determining the mois-
ture condition of masonry units by
means of relative humidity recently
has been adopted by the Corps of
Engineers. This method incorporates
an instrument known as the "Menzel
Meter." The moisture condition can
easily be determined with this instru-
ment within a matter of minutes.
This "dryness" requirement too often
has been disregarded by architects,
engineers, manufacturers, contractors
and owners.

A Tournament That

Became A Tradition

How long does it take a pleasant
custom to become a tradition? If
you set the period at five years-or
ten or even twenty-five-then the An-
nual Golf Tournament and Dinner
held each summer by the F. GRAHAM
distinction of a tradition many years
ago. The event celebrated its thirty-
third birthday last year. This year
will be the thirty-fourth time that
architects in the vicinity of the AIA
South Atlantic District have been of-
fered a full day of fun and fellow-
ship at the personal invitation of
lanta who is now chairman of the
board of the company he founded
almost 50 years ago.
This event the Annual Golf
Tournament and Dinner for Archi-
tects and Architectural Draftsmen of
the Southeast-started 34 years ago
come June as a local gathering, in
Atlanta, of Mr. Williams' architect
friends. That first tournament
proved so successful from everybody's
point of view that it was repeated-
and since then it has grown into a
regional event that each year pulls

architects from half a dozen states
and plays host to hundreds.
You don't have to be a good golfer
to enjoy the day-long party. But it
helps if you have in mind copping
a cup. BOB LITTLE of Miami won
the cup one year, was runner-up an-
other time. But he isn't the only
good golfer among architects and ar-
chitectural draftsmen of this state.
And to all of these goes an invitation
to compete, or just play, or even to
merely trail along with the gallery.
The date is June 21, 1957; the
place, East Lake Country Club in
Atlanta, Georgia. Those who have at-
tended this golf party in former years
need no urging to juggle their calen-
dars around to take it in. Those who
haven't, may want more information
relative to details. If that's the case,
either Lou LEUDEMAN or CLINT
TERRY, the Williams' representatives
in Florida, can supply them. Call or
write to their office at 3709 Harlano
Street, Coral Gables, for whatever
additional facts you need-and their
personal echo of Mr. Williams' invi-
tation to enjoy the kind of field day
from which traditions grow.

11111 11 111,1 -------------- N NN N O MO U M

The illustration immediately above shows
section of new concrete divided four-lane
Freeway west of Lakeland (U. S. 17-92) -
the first construction in Florida's program
of Interstate thoroughfares.
This is a part of the nation-wide plan for
modern Freeways cost of initial construc-
tion to be borne 90 percent by the Federal
Government and 10 percent by the states;
upkeep will be wholly a state expense. Since
maintenance vitally affects state highway
budgets, most of the nation's traffic arteries
are concrete.

Experience has taught highway officials
that concrete is the only pavement that will
stand up, year after year, under the pound-
ing of constantly increasing traffic loads.
The inset shows Tampa's Bayshore Boule-
vard, built 20 years ago of concrete.
According to local authorities, during two
decades of heavy traffic the maintenance ex-
pense of this busy artery has been practically
nil. Since its construction, new methods of
impacting and vibrating concrete make it
denser and stronger. New type sawed joints
assure increased riding comfort and safety,
night and day, under all weather conditions.

MAY, 1957 7

Jalousie Windows
Awning Windows
Screen Doors
Extruded Aluminum
Sheets for light

cE I

0 0
0 Du C,
D '3

you're ready for some "for instances."

For Instance All the quality Vacol doors shown at
the left are designed as prime doors and will hold out the
weather, thanks to complete weatherstripping and care-
ful engineering. In addition, Vacol Sliding Glass Doors
are available for single or 1" dual glazing.

For Instance Vacol quality products have many
patented features including the beautifully massive push-
button lock and handle on the jalousie door.

For Instance All Vacol quality hardware is designed
for lifetime use like the concealed hinges with Oilite
bearings on the Jalousie Door and the Glass Panel Door.

For Instance There are so many quality features,
we've only been able to talk about a few. We'll be happy
to tell you more.



P. O. Box 430 Bradenton, Florida



AI lit BA Li i RAAB

Goin is Nominated

to Succeed Millkey

Regional Council delegates were unanimous in selecting
a Floridian and an AIA Fellow to represent interests of
the South Atlantic District on the AIA Board of Directors

For the first time since the Insti-
tute streamlined its national organi-
zation, a Florida architect will sit as
a member of the AIA Board of Di-
rectors. That became apparent on
April 6 when SANFORD W. GOING,
FAIA, was unanimously nominated as
Regional Director for the AIA's South
Atlantic District at the 1957 Regional
Conference at Atlanta. The AIA
director-elect is almost certain to be
elected for a three-year term to suc-
lanta, at the AIA Convention in
Washington in May, since nomina-
tion by a regional -council is tanta-
mount to the election of an AIA
His election will mark another mile-
stone along the road of public service
and service to the Institute which
Sanford Coin has been travelling
continuously for the past eleven years.
He became a Corporate Member in
1942 and since 1946 has been inti-
mately concerned with local Institute
affairs with the Florida Association
of Architects the principal medium
through which his active service to
the profession has been directed. Na-
tional recognition of this service was
accorded him in 1954 when he was
elevated to Institute Fellowship.
His personal interest in, and con-
tact with, professional affairs in Flor-
ida, however, reaches back many more
years than his own professional prac-
tice would indicate. As the son of
an architect who established his office
in Gainesville in 1911, the new AIA
Regional Director-elect attended many
FAA meetings years before he began
to take an active part in the conduct
of the organization. His association
MAY, 1957

with the FAA goes back to the time
when there was but one AIA Chapter
in the state and when such former
ADAMS were active in offices of the
FAA and were laying the basic foun-
dation for its future growth.
SANFORD W. COIN was one of the
small group of hard-working people
which, during 1946 and 1947, ac-
complished the delicate job of con-
solidating the AIA's unification
program in Florida.
The effect of this change was to
provide AIA Chapters in Florida with
a medium which could coordinate and
represent their professional interests
on a state-wide basis. It provided a
means for determining collective
policies for Florida's AIA chapters-
as well as acting on them which
had formerly not existed. Thus it
marked the real beginning of the FAA
as it now stands.
The Regional Director-elect
served as the FAA's secretary-treasurer'
during this period. In 1948 he became
its vice-president, was returned as
secretary-treasurer the following year
and in 1950 was elected to the first
of two successive terms as the FAA
president. During this period, the
FAA first retained a legal counsel
(1948) and initiated studies leading
to the employment of an executive
secretary. Sanford W. Coin was par-
ticularly active in both matters and
in 1952 was chairman of a state-wide
committee which raised a fund of
$10,000 to establish an FAA execu-
tive secretary's office.
He has been active also on various
FAA administrative groups, notably

Sanford W. Goin, FAIA

the Legislative Committee (since
1953) and the Education and Reg-
istration Committee of which he has
been chairman since 1955.
He has been equally active in
affairs of his home community of
Gainesville. He has served as a mem-
ber of the City Commission and City
Plan Board and on the Mayor's Citi-
zens Committee on Capital Improve-
ment. Currently he is a member of
the Alachua County Zoning Com-
mission and the Steering Committee
of the Florida Business Conference
and is a director of the Gainesville
Mutual Building and Loan Associ-
ation. For many years he has also
been active in Gainesville church and
charitable affairs.
The new AIA Director-elect had
this to say:
"In my opinion the office of Reg-
ional Director in the AIA should be
the straight line representing the
shortest distance between the mem-
bership in the region and the top
management in Washington.
"Though I have attended every Re-
gional Conference from the first one
in Atlanta in 1952 to this sixth Con-
ference back in Atlanta again, I do
not, at this time, have sufficient de-
tailed knowledge of the office to
enable an accurate statement as to
how I would propose to shorten the
distance between membership and
management. I merely set it as my
goal and promise to do my best to
accomplish it in the next three years."

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$300-Million for Schools in Florida

Buttressed by the findings of an impressive array of educa-
tional authorities, the Citizen's School Construction Com-
mittee documents a need for more than 12,000 classrooms
and suggests a method for financing their construction ..

Within the next five years Florida
will need to build public schools for
more pupils than existed throughout
the state nine short years ago. In
figures, this means that our school
population has doubled in the past
five years and by 1961 will total over
a million. It means that new school
plants will be needed to care for a
pupil capacity of 372,206 in addition
to the 636,237 for which educa-
tional facilities have already been
provided. It means also that the bill
for meeting these requirements will
reach the amazing total of $307,-
These facts and figures furnish the
controlling basis for a meaty report
on the state's school-building needs
submitted to Governor LEROY COL-
LINS in mid-March and released pub-
licly early last month. The report
was prepared by The Citizens'
School Construction Committee,
chairmanned by LAMARR SARRA, of
Jacksonville, and represents a care-
fully documented research of the
state's school-building needs for the
present and for the immediate fu-
ture. This research was conducted
by the Office of Public Instruction,
the Florida Association of County
School Superintendents, Florida
School Board Members' Association,
Florida Education Association, the
Continuing Educational Council of
Florida, the State Advisory Council
on Education and The Florida Asso-
ciation of Architects-a special com-
mittee of which was appointed last
January at the request of Chairman
Thus, the basic figures which the
report contains can be regarded as
reliable. In some areas of the state
they may even prove too conserva-
tive. They are considered as averages
MAY, 1957

only, developed from the growth-
trends of the state as these exist at
present. Should the current rate of
the state's population growth sud-
denly spurt-as a result, say, of ac-
celeration in industrial development
-these estimates of pupil capacity,
and the cost of providing school facili-
ties adequate for it, would neces-
sarily require upward revision.
But the sights are high enough as
it is. They are high enough to pre-
sent a prime challenge to those en-
trusted with the design and construc-
tion of school plants which must be
built in the next five years. And
they are certainly high enough to
pose complex financing questions-to
every state and county agency con-
cerned. In view of this last, the
Sara report was understandably con-
cerned with sources of financing quite
as much as with the extent of the
need for it.
On this point the report contained
a number of specific recommenda-
tions which may ultimately-though
not, probably, without considerable
opposition-be reflected in enabling
legislation. Briefly, and in substance,
the report recommended a program of
cooperative financing on the part of
the state and each county as may be
separately involved. It is most easily
explained in terms of an average cost
per pupil. This was determined to
be $800-a figure subject, of course,
to wide practical variations in terms
of location, plant classification, facili-
ties required, etc.
The financing proposal is that
$200 of this total average cost be
borne by the State from the general
revenue fund. This figure would be
matched by the county from the
auto tag revenue. The other half of

the cost would be met to the extent
of $190 through sale of State Board
of Education bonds, with the remain-
ing $210 being raised by counties
from ad valorem taxes.
An appendix to the Sara document
contains a complete transcript of the
report furnished his group by the
FAA Special Committee, chairman-
EDGAR S. WORTMAN, president of the
R. BROADFOOT and assisted by
Architect. This report, comprehen-
sive, though necessarily generalized,
was based on analysis of some 60
Florida schools from all sections of
the state. These ranged from simple
classroom units to complete high
schools and represented wide varia-
tions in materials' and methods of
Though hurriedly prepared (the
committee had a bare three weeks
from start to finish) the FAA report
is a soberly balanced survey of sig-
nificant points relative to the admin-
istrative planning of a school pro-
gram. The following quotes are in-
dicative of both its character and
ON FINDINGS: "Though existing
State Board regulations for class-
rooms relating to standards for ac-
creditation provide for certain mini-
mum areas of clear floor space, ex-
clusive of storage and toilet areas,
there are no regulations concerning
maximum gross areas, either in the
aggregate or on a per pupil basis."
"Variations in cost per square foot
are influenced by many factors other
than design. The greatest among
(Continued on Page 12l








"Staia W/aW f44. 4wt it"
TAMPA 8-0451
ORLANDO 2-4539
HIALEAH NEwton 4-6576

Schools for Florida ...
(Continued from Page 11)
these is probably location, since loca-
tion influences labor costs and site
conditions that influence founda-
tions, sewage disposal and water sup-
ply. Other influences are differences
in area building codes and labor and
market conditions at the exact time
of bidding."
pil served is the significant factor af-
fecting total cost to the public . .
Square foot costs do not reflect rela-
tive total cost to the public unless
related to area allowed per pupil . .
Variations in space per pupil allo-
cated in schools already constructed
indicate the need for developing ac-
ceptable and more equitable criteria
for allocation of such spaces in the
One conclusion neatly summed up
the arguments against stock plans or
legislated school building design like
this: "Change takes place too rapidly
to admit the advisability of any fixed
or continuing opinion (regardless of
how expert) concerning the relative
merits of materials and methods of
construction . Better planning and
over-all economy will be accom-
plished through flexibility of choice
in matters of materials and methods
of construction to suit the particular
time and occasion, rather than
through any recommended standards
which might be imposed by law and
fitting only the day and time in which
the legislation might be enacted."
lated general requirements for com-
plete elementary schools and com-
plete high schools. As to classrooms,
a multi-purpose unit was recom-
mended with "continued recognition
of 30 pupils as being an acceptable
class load for one teacher." With an
allowance of 40 square feet as an
average gross area per pupil, this
would provide a gross area for general
purpose classrooms of 1200 square
feet-or a net of 800 square feet of
clear floor space with allowance in
the gross for toilets, walls, corridors,
etc. "By considering the limits as
applying to the aggregate areas of all
classrooms rather tharr to any one
classroom, some flexibility would be
allowed to fit the space to the need,
while at the same time placing a
limitation on the total."
For complete elementary schools

-including library, cafetorium, cen-
tral heating plant, custodial facili-
ties and administrative suite-"the
area of such schools should be limited
to 60 square feet per pupil."
For complete high schools, size
limitations-on a per pupil area basis
-were recommended as: 120 square
feet for enrollments of 500 to 800;
100 square feet for enrollments of 800
to 1200; and 90 square feet for en-
rollments of 1200 and above. The
report recommended that ". . con-
struction of complete high schools
for enrollments of less than 500 be
avoided when possible."
The FAA report also took a
penetrating look at costs which re-
sulted in statements such as these:
"Contrary to popular concept, the
initial cost of a building falls far
short of representing total cost. The
total cost is the sum of initial cost,
plus the continuing costs of insurance,
maintenance and replacement over
the useful life of the building."
"A look at our relatively new pub-
lic buildings, including schools, will
reveal too many cases where 'cheap-
ness' was mistaken for economy. We
earnestly believe that this results from
unregulated competition over the
misused, misunderstood and often' mis-
quoted 'cost per square foot'. We be-
lieve that now is the time to prevent

the repetition of mistakes made in
the past and would most earnestly
recommend that all school boards
start keeping accurate records by
schools that would show every dollar
spent for insurance, maintainence,
utilities and replacements, year by
year. Such records would soon re-
veal the faults in existing buildings
that should not be repeated in new
buildings and would reveal the build-
ings which, over the long term, cost
the least."
Pointed out also was the fact that
construction costs are often confused
in the minds of both the public and
school officials with total costs-with
the result that other costs are too
often accorded scant consideration.
Such other costs-exclusive of land
cost-include site improvements, fur-
nishings and equipment and fees for
professional services. The report sug-
gested 15 per cent of the construc-
tion cost as a reasonable allowance
for these "other costs" relative to
classrooms only; and 20 per cent of
construction cost as a practical esti-
mating average for complete schools.

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MAY, 1957

1%, 1

Sixth Regional AIA Conference

At the Atlanta Biltmore Conference sessions were brief
and businesslike -- but the seminars were packed with
speeches. Results were a new set of Regional By-laws
and nomination of a Regional Director from Florida.

The three-day meeting at the At-
lanta Biltmore Hotel on April 4, 5
and 6, had been announced as the
1957 Regional Conference of The
South Atlantic District, AIA. But it
might well have been billed as a con-
vention of the Georgia Chapter,
with an assist from North and South
The Georgia Chapter was sponsor
of the affair; and Georgia chapter
members presided at all conference
meetings. Committee reports of the
Conference were given on the after-
noon of the opening day. Of the ten
Regional Committee Chairmen sched-
uled to report, five were from the
Georgia Chapter, three were from

South Carolina, one was from North
Carolina. The only committee chair-
man who had been named from all of
Florida's ten chapters was JOHN L. R.
GRAND, serving his second term as
head of the Chapter Affairs Commit-
Highlight of this meeting was
easily the address by BERYL PRICE,
Chairman of the AIA National Com-
mittee on Chapter Affairs-which is
reported elsewhere in this issue.
Most of the committee reports ap-
peared to be generalizations with
little constructive criticism which
might serve as a guide to developing
more comprehensive performance for
the future collective benefit of the

AIA District which these committees
have been set up to serve.
An exception was the report of
John L. R. Grand on Chapter Af-
fairs, which dealt specifically with
some points made by Beryl Price.
One was the need for more adequate
chapter organizational routine so
that new officers and committee
chairmen would know their jobs and
responsibilities better. Grand indi-
cated that the Institute will shortly
issue a revised Chapter Manual as a
practical aid in improving the mech-
anics of chapter operation. And he
cited the practice of the Central
New York Chapter as a helpful sug-
gestion for others. For each officer
and committee chairman the chap-
ter provides a loose-leaf notebook as
a working manual of the office. In
it are outlined the duties and respon-
sibilities of the office and current
notes, or reports, of the business con-
ducted during the year. When
changes in office personnel occur,
this manual is turned over to the
new official. Thus a continuity of
policy and procedure is established
as a firm basis for further progress-

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and as a practical check on both past
and current performance.
Grand spoke also of the high turn-
over in committee chairmen. He
urged chapter adoption of the re-
vised 1956 AIA policy by which the
AIA Board "recommends to each
chapter that the chairmen of chapter
committees which coordinate with
national committees of the same or
similar functions, be appointed for
three year terms." He echoed Price's
statement that communications be-
tween various units of the Institute,
particularly at chapter and regional
levels, should be improved.
The next day and one-half ex-
cept for a brief business session Friday
afternoon-were packed with speech-
es and panel discussions planned to
carry out the theme of the Confer-
ence, "Science, Intuition and Archi-
tecture." More than ten speeches
were delivered during this time-ex-
clusive of four panel discussions and
the remarks attendant on the presen-
tation of dignitaries and honor awards
during the Conference Dinner of
Friday evening. Among these was an
address by President LEON CHATE-

LAIN, JR., FAIA, which echoed, with
localized references, his thesis on the
current need for federation as "a new
layer of government" voiced at New
York during the February 23 Centen-
nial Celebration and reported in
substance in the March issue of The
Florida Architect.
Some of the speeches were both
penetrating and constructive. It is
hoped that they can be made avail-
able to Florida readers in future
issues of this publication.
The architectural exhibit included
43 submissions from 23 offices. Six-
teen exhibits were from Florida repre-
senting the work of seven offices. Of
the six awards given, three went to
Atlanta architects, two to Florida
firms and one to a North Carolina
architect. Honor Awards went to
WILLNER & MILLKEY, Atlanta, for a
fraternity house; and to STEVENS &
WILKINSON, Atlanta, for an educa-
tional building at the University of
won a Merit Award for an office
building; the other Merit Award go-
ing to VICTOR LUNDY, Sarasota, for
a Presbyterian church. Of the two

Citations given, one went to ROBERT
M. LITTLE, Miami, for his Medical
Association office building and the
other was won by F. CARTER WIL-
LIAMS of Raleigh, N. C., for the
School of Design building at the
North Carolina State College.
Total registration of the Confer-
ence was 600. Of this number, the
corporate architects' registration to-
taled 158--of which 21 were from
Florida. These included: from
Central Florida, ERNEST T. H.
Florida North, TURPIN C. BANNIS-
Jacksonville, ROBERT O. BROWARD
and A. EUGENE CELLAR; from Palm
Beach, JOHN STETSON and FAA Presi-
dent EDGAR S. WORTMAN; from
Florida South, ROBERT M. LITTLE;
from Florida Northwest, ULA M.
MANNING; and from Florida North

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MAY, 1957

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U.S. Patents Applied For

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At Atlanta... Price Pinpoints Progress

As Chairman of the Committee on Chapter Affairs, Beryl Price laid down the
line of Institute policy and sketched a formula for buttressing Chapter strength.

At the beginning of the AIA's sec-
ond century, the Institute's overall
program has been shifted into high
gear; and it is up to each AIA chap-
ter to step-up its individual progress
accordingly. This was the burden
of the talk given before delegates to
the Regional Conference in Atlanta
as the highlight of the general meet-
ing on the afternoon of the opening
day, April 4. The speaker was
BERYL PRICE of Philadelphia and Ft.
As chairman of the AIA's national
Committee on Chapter Affairs, Price
spoke authoritatively about Institute
policies and programs. He touched
on the need for better liaison be-
tween chapters, regions and national
AIA headquarters. But most of his
remarks were aimed at the chapter
level; and in blunt terms he sketched
a clear outline of activities needed to
give chapters greater internal strength
and also to increase the effectiveness
of their professional influence on
community affairs.
Though he did not stress the point,
it was obvious that much of what he
said concerned the public relations
of the architectural profession as
much as it did the elements of its
local organization.
But Price did dwell on the need
for improving internal relations be-
tween various units of the Institute.
He called for "good will" between
state, regional and national groups,
deplored the "loss of contact" of AIA
headquarters and officials with both
chapter administrations and indivi-
dual members. He called for im-
provement in chapter organization
and operation as the first step toward
avoiding possible danger in the fu-
ture; and, in effect, he pledged full
cooperation of the Institute staff and
line to help bring this about.
The AIA committee chairman em-
phasized his conviction that chapter
strength was the prime basis for con-
tinuing progress by the AIA. And
MAY, 1957

he spelled out a formula recom-
mended for achieving it. Chapters,
he said, should first be strong numer-
ically, with 100 members as "an ab-
solute minimum." Each such chap-
ter should be served by a paid, full-
time executive-a combination of
secretary-director and public relations
man. Each chapter, also, said Price,
should maintain constant and close
contact with all its membership and
organize its area into small local
groups, linked to the chapter through
greater individual participation in
AIA affairs and through the force of
personal interest resulting from bet-
ter chapter programs and a widened
contact with community affairs.
Relative to this last point, Price
touched on the emphasis that the
Institute's chapter program is now
giving to education. He advocated
that all possible steps be taken to pro-
mote the teaching of architecture in
secondary schools. He called for a
closer relation between chapters and
regional schools of architecture and
urged chapter membership to take
the initiative in fostering closer ties
between their professional organiza-
tion and individual students.
Price also advocated development
of a speakers' bureau in each chapter
and touched on the necessity for
maintaining constant and cordial con-
tact with other elements of the con-
struction industry. He urged exten-
sion of present joint cooperative ac-
tivities; and he extended his meaning
to cover office employees. He urged
that conscious effort be made to keep
office log books and called for stimu-
lation of individual interests on the
part of students, draftsmen and asso-
ciate members.
In outlining how chapters could
build their strength along lines men-
tioned, Price named four points of
attack. He spoke first of the "power"
behind the vertical committee struc-
ture and urged that each chapter ad-
ministration do everything possible

to vitalize work of committees, thus
producing a greater participation in
Institute affairs-a force, said Price,
which has been largely responsible
for the amazingly rapid growth, to
twice their former size, of California
He named as another factor closer
and more constant participation in
professional publication activities,
characterizing this as a "vitally im-
portant" part of chapter activity and
the most practical means for develop-
ing needed improvements in com-
munications between all elements of
professional organization. A third
means for achieving chapter strength,
both internally and from a public re-
lations viewpoint, is an exhibit pro-
gram. Price strongly recommended
that architectural exhibits and various
types of cooperative shows become
one of the chapter's major concerns.
He advocated greater frequency for
local exhibits and called for greater
use of ingenuity to improve the qual-
ity of their presentation and to whet
the public's interest in them.
Finally he suggested that chap-
ters undertake a program of seminars,
or chapter round-tables on a variety
of technical matters. He spoke of
the importance of discussing the ap-
plication of new products and con-
struction methods to problems of de-
sign and urged that the wide educa-
tional possibilities of this field of in-
terest be utilized more extensively
than at present.
In summary Price pointed to
"splintering" of chapters-the break-
up of one large, strong chapter into
several smaller ones-as one of the
dangers of the future. It could be
avoided, he said, by maintaining
chapter strength through creation of
greater member interest, by adhering
to the Institute's chapter-regional-na-
tional program for committee activi-
ties and by fostering close and con-
stant liaison between chapters, reg-
ional staffs and AIA headquarters.


Office Building for

Dade County

Medical Association,

Miami, Florida

Robert M. Little, Architect

Photos by Thibedeau Studio

Planned to provide working
space for the administrative staff
of a professional organization, the
design-objective was to cloak this
special-purpose building with a
distinctive and pride-worthy char-
acter. At the same time interest
of economy had to be served; anA
possibilities of growth embodied in
structural provisions for an addi-
tional office floor.
Thus, every detail has been de-
veloped to provide the utmost flek.
ibility of use. In addition to offices
planned for maximum adaptability
in terms of size and arrangement
through use of movable partitions
the building provides an assembly%
room to accommodate membership
groups up to 50 in either formal
or informal meetings. This area
can be variously adapted for con
ferences, seminars or staff gather
ings. It is completely equipped tc
permit showing of films or east
serving of catered meals when re.
quired. Near it is storage for chairs
and equipment for lectures anc
film shows.

Opposite page a central patio with sur-
rounding offices replaces the usual buildin-
lobby. Walls are of gray cement brick, witi
plywood paneling in movable partitions
Floors are vinyl tile in offices, steel-trowelec
cement in patio and second floor exterior
corridors. Ceilings throughout are surface
with acoustical plaster.

Detail from the northeast. East and west
walls of first floor are precast panels of
light-weight reinforced concrete surfaced
with pink river gravel. North-side'is a con-
tinuous window wall (top photo) incorporat-
ing aluminum frames, porcelain enameled
steel panels and wood-louvered jalousies.
Second floor is screened by pierced concrete


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Thin Shells... A Compound of the Complex


A design-conscious engineer discussed the possibilities of thin-shell
construction at the April meeting of the Florida South Chapter and
voiced some timely cautions relative to practical problems involved.

In 1933 a German engineer named
FINSTERWALDER published a paper
which outlined a mathematical solu-
tion for the design of shell roofs.
Rarely has a development of this na-
ture offered such breathtaking possi-
bilities to architecture. Now, period-
icals are filled with examples which
capture the admiration and excite the
imagination. Who can fail to be
thrilled by the work of TORROJA,
CANDELA, NERVI and the rest?
But "thin shell" is not the open
sesame of architecture. The problems
peculiar to this type of construction
are unusual and often exasperating.
This brief discussion concerns some
of these problems.
A good place to start any discussion
is with a definition; but unfortunate-
ly, there is no good single definition
of thin shell concrete. Thus all con-
crete structures which depend on
their shape rather than their thickness
for their strength and stiffness may
be roughly classified as follows:
1. Folded or hipped plates. These
are nothing more than slabs cor-
rugated to increase their depth
and stiffness. All surfaces are
planes. These are very popu-
lar because they are relatively
economical to form.
2. The cylinder or barrel. The
change to a surface curved in
one direction gives us a better
stress picture and allows us to
reduce our slab thickness, but
at the disadvantage of compli-
cating the formwork.
3. The dome or sphere. Now we
have curvature in both direc-
tions which is ideal structurally,
but even more expensive to
form than the barrel.
4. The hyperbolic paraboloid or
warped surface. Did you ever
wonder where the magic was in
this shape? It's simple; we get
curvature in both directions plus
a property that simplifies form-
ing. These surfaces will con-
MAY, 1957

tain a series of straight lines,
which means that they can be
formed with straight members.
Economy will obviously be one of
our major considerations. Let's face
one fact immediately. Thin shell con-
crete is not going to compete econo-
mically with bar joists and gypsum.
I suspect that in almost all cases you
will find that first costs will not favor
thin shell over comparable systems in
steel and wood. The differential,
however, is often surprisingly small
and may be overcome when the ad-
vantages of easier maintenance and
higher fire resistance are considered.
It may well be that thin shell con-
crete will offer the only solution
where a specific appearance is de-
sired. In any event, it should be re-
membered that even a relatively large
increase in the cost of the roof may
well be a small percentage increase
in the cost of the building.
The key to economy in shell, or
indeed, in any concrete construction,
is the formwork. The economy of
the formwork will depend primarily
on the simplicity of the forms and on
the number of reuses possible. An-
other point to remember is that con-
crete poured on steep slopes requires
forming on both faces. Slopes up to
40 to 45 degrees can be poured with-
out top forming. In continuous bar-
rel structures economies are possible
by making the formwork moveable.
In such cases it is important to keep
the under surface free from obstruc-
tions so that the forms may be
dropped slightly and moved intact to
the next bay.
Now let us assume that you are
designing a building to be enclosed
in a dome and that a shape has been
selected which satisfies all the require-
ments of esthetics, structure and econ-
omy. Visualize, if you will, that clean
unencumbered surface functional,
efficient and satisfying. Perhaps it is
only 3 inches thick over much of its

Our troubles are only beginning.
How about the roof insulation? The
dome at M.I.T. is encased in a two-
inch layer of non-structural concrete
poured on two inches of rigid insula-
tion, all of this over the structural
slab. How about roofing? Of the
several possibilities, none appear to be
entirely satisfactory. Then, too, there
is the problem of disposing of roof
water. Where will we locate the cool-
ing tower? On top of the dome? How
about elevator penthouses and the
Exterior walls and windows present
two problems. First, we must frame
to curved surfaces and, second, we
must design this framing to accom-
modate the very appreciable thermal
movements of the shell. If interior
partitions are required, will it be pos-
sible to divide the shell into segments
without sacrificing the desired visual
Lighting is no small problem.
Where will the fixtures be located?
Off hand, the most logical place
would appear to be at the underside
of the shell. But will it be possible
to efficiently provide from there a
glare-free light pattern of the intens-
ity desired? Furthermore, consider
the poor devil who has to change the
lamps One solution of this problem
is to make the fixtures accessible from
the exterior. But this means another
flashing problem and our friend still
has to scale the roof.
It is always something of a shock
when we stop to enumerate the
countless pipes, ducts and pieces of
mechanical equipment which we
customarily hide above a ceiling.
What will we do with them in this
case? Shall we expose them or shall
we provide a hung ceiling and face
the gnawing suspicion that we could
have achieved the same effect with
more conventional framing at less
cost and without all these headaches?
(Continued on Page ss)

Thin Shells ...
(Continued from Page 21)
Concave surfaces present a per-
plexing problem in acoustics. They
focus sound waves just as the reflector
in an automobile headlight focuses
light rays. A cylinder is bad, a dome
is worse. We may find that at the
center of the dome we will get 10
to 12 distinct echoes. Acoustic tile
or plaster is inadequate to overcome
this alone. Acoustic baffles or clouds
hung from the shell to break up con-
centrations of sound waves were used
in the M.I.T. dome to overcome this
Now let's outline some of the prob-
lems of the structural engineer. Your
structural engineer is by neither train-
ing nor inclination, a mathematician.
Thin shells require him to cope with
mathematics far more complex than
anything previously demanded. As
late as 1923, DISCHINGER, one of the
pioneers of shell construction, aban-
doned, or rather deferred, an attempt
to design a shell to cover a rectangu-
lar area because the mathematical dif-
ficulties of computation were too
great for solution. Since that time,

progress has been made in the direc-
tion of providing a method of ana-
lysis which does not require the en-
gineer to deal in abstract mathemat-
ical terms rather than the physical
properties of the structure which
have a real and familiar meaning to
him. But by no stretch of the im-
agination could present day methods
be called simple.
Beyond complexity there is even
a greater problem. There are vast un-
explored areas where questions are not
only unanswered, but unasked. And
there appears to be a growing uneasi-
ness about the complex mathematical
structure which has been erected on
assumptions known to be question-
able, if not invalid.
Shall we then limit our buildings
to shapes which may be calculated
by means of the theory of elasticity?
Have we less courage, less intuition
than those who built Sancta Sophia
1300 years before Finsterwalder?
Listen to FELIX CANDELA, "I am
wondering," he says, "what could be
the progress of mankind if nobody
were allowed to perform any jump
or movement without a previous
mathematical determination of the

force that must be asked from a cer-
tain muscle." If I understand him
correctly, the essence of his argument
is that we should use mathematics as
a tool but that we should not accept
it as a limitation.
This is a courageous philosophy
and, certainly, Candela has proved a
mighty champion of it. Unfortun-
ately, there are few of us who are
willing to accept the risks inherent
in it. Never forget that the magnifi-
cent accomplishment of Sancta
Sophia was successful only after two
unsuccessful attempts.
After this recital you might suspect
that I am trying to discourage the use
of thin shells. Such is far from the
truth. But I do urge you to consi-
der the pitfalls which will beset you
when you embark on a path which
is at least unfamiliar and quite pos-
sibly uncharted. Consult your engi-
neers and your estimator early in the
job and work with them. Recognize,
too, that in every stage from the con-
ception through the construction you
and your engineers will be called
upon to expend a great deal more
time and effort than is ordinarily re-

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News & Notes

Note from Tallahassee
The first three weeks of the legis-
lative front have been quiet so far as
the direct interests of architects are
concerned. Present indications are
that both House and Senate will ap-
prove an appropriation bill contain-
ing funds needed for construction of
an architectural school building at the
U/F at Gainesville. But it is too
early yet to estimate the fate of the
Governor's school financing program
or to know what total of construction
funds for State work will be finally
Also, legislators will not complete
consideration of the new Proposed
Constitution for several more weeks.
Parts of this might have some effect
on future administration of the pres-
ent registration law. Thus the FAA
Legislative Committee, chairmaned by
JAMES K. POWNALL is watching leg-
islative developments closely and is
prepared to move quickly and decisive-
ly if, and when, necessary to protect
the interests of the profession.

Broward County Chapter
The third week in May was tenta-
tively chosen for a Ft. Lauderdale
Architects' Week as part of the
Broward County Chapter's Centen-
nial Observance program at the April

Professional P/R
In Broward County
As part of the Broward
Builders' Exchange Home
Show, held in the War
Memorial Auditorium at
Ft. Lauderdale March 19-
23 was this exhibit booth,
erected and staffed by
members of the Broward
County Chapter. Design-
ed by Paul R. John, ar-
chitect of Pompano
Beach, the booth was
erected by Morton and
Clark Ironmonger, Wil-
liam P. Plumb, Paul R.
John, John Evans and
Preston Stevens of Robert
Hansen's office.

luncheon meeting of the Chapter.
Members accepted a recommendation
by committee-chairman WILLIAM F.
BIGONEY that in place of a single
commemorative dinner, a week-long
program be sponsored by the Chapter
to include speeches, panel discussions,
film showings, etc.
Success of the Chapter's participa-
tion in the Broward Builders' Ex-
change show led to the tentative de-
cision to set up a 10-man Exhibition
Committee to handle future exhibits.
The Chapter will be represented at
the National Convention in Wash-
ington by President MORTON IRON-
ERT E. HANSEN and one other cor-

Typical of Centennial Observance parties across the nation was this meeting
of the Palm Beach Chapter held in the Polo Club at West Palm Beach Febru-
ary 23. Highlight of the evening was an informal talk by C. Herrick Ham-
mond, FAIA (standing, left) past president of the Institute, a former architect
of Chicago and now a resident, with a "retirement practice" of Del Ray Beach.
Mr. Hammond reminisced entertainingly on an association with the Institute
dating back more than 45 years.

porate member, not yet named. The
Chapter authorized appropriation of
$100 for each member as partial re-
imbursement of Convention expenses.

Florida Central Chapter
FAA President EDGAR S. WORT-
MAN, AIA Director-elect SANFORD W.
COIN, FAIA, and AGC President
FRANK J. ROONEY were among the
honored guests attending a business-
and-seminar meeting of the Florida
Central Chapter held the afternoon
and evening of April 13. Hosts to
Chapter members and guests total-
ing about 100 at the afternoon panel
discussion were the Sarasota-Bra-
denton Association of Architects and
the Sarasota General Contractors As-
sociation. Headquarters for the pro-
gram was the Orange Blossom Hotel
in Sarasota.
The Chapter business meeting fol-
lowed a luncheon meeting of the Ex-
ecutive Committee. Among commit-
tee reports ELLIOTT B. HADLEY, as
the Chapter's P/R chairman, urged
extensive use of the AIA film, "Archi-
tecture, USA", recently purchased by
the Chapter, noting that the script
which is part of the film presentation
precludes the need for an experienced
speaker during the film's showing be-
fore any type of audience.
Announcement was also made that
Clearwater had been tentatively se-
lected as the site for the 1958 S-A
AIA Regional bnference next April.
However, a possible lack of hotel and
display faciliieS at that season next
year may fQrcea change in that se-
lection. Investigation will be made
(Continued on Page 26)

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MAY, 1957 2




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News & Notes
(Continued from Page 24)
and a definite report made available
to the Regional Council shortly.
The afternoon seminar a frank
and constructive discussion of archi-
tect-contractor problems was mod-
erated by WILLIAM A. MCRAE, mem-
ber of a Lakeland legal firm. The
panel of architects included ARCHIE
EDWARD J. SEIBERT for the architects;
and T. T. WATSON for the contract-
Following a cocktail hour at 6:30
more than 125 architects and con-
tractors with their wives attended a
buffet dinner and listened to FRANK
J. ROONEY discuss the growth and in-
creasingly broad opportunities for the
construction industry. The ladies,
under the sponsorship of the Chap-
ter's Auxiliary, had spent the after-
noon to good advantage. After a talk
by MRS. BARBARA DAME, architectural
critic, they were guests at a fashion

New Pensacola Office
Opening of a new office for the
practice of architecture has been an-
nounced by WM. DUDLEY HUNT, JR.
The office will handle all types of
architectural work and will be located
(Continued on Page 27)

Louis Skidmore, senior partner of the
firm of Skidmore, Owings and Mer-
rill and now a resident of Florida, will
be awarded the AIA Gold Medal at
the annual AIA banquet to be held
May 16 in Washington, D. C. The
award was voted him by AIA direc-
tors in recognition of his leadership
"in the formation and conduct of a
firm which has made outstanding
contributions to the profession of

News & Notes-
(Continued from Page 26)
at 1320 North 15th Avenue, Pensa-
cola. Mr. Hunt, formerly a resident
of Pensacola, will also maintain his
present office in New Orleans where
he has practiced for several years.

Wortman on AIA Committee
FAA President EDGAR S. WORT-
MAN, has been named a member of
the AIA-NSPE Sub-committee of the
1957 AIA Committee on Collabora-
tion of Design Professions. Duties of
the Sub-committee, which includes
seven men, chairmaned by ROY E.
LARSON, FAIA, of Philadelphia, is to
cooperate with engineers in matters
of interest to both professions.

Florida Scores Again
Again this year Florida was in the
running after judgment of the AIA's
4th Annual Journalism Awards Com-
petition. FREDERIC SHERMAN, Real
Estate Editor of the Miami Herald
won an honorable mention for his
story, published December 16 last
year, "Happy Hut that Suits the
Scene". The winning story was one
of a series which Sherman has been
running in the Sunday editions in an
effort to demonstrate to the public
the qualities, in planning and design,
which make a house good architect-
uray and therefore an unusually
good example of a sound real estate
Last year The Herald won one of
two top awards in the AIA competi-
tion. The other was won by Douglas
Doubleday of the St. Petersburg

AIA Convention Report
Scheduled for June Issue
Plans are now being perfected to
assure as full as possible a news cov-
erage of business and events of the
AIA's Centennial Celebration meet-
ing at Washington, D. C., in the June
issue of The Florida Architect. As last
year at Los Angeles, effort will be
made to bring an overall, interpreta-
tive account of the Convention to
those Florida architects unable to at-
tend it. In addition, it is hoped that
this magazine can also carry some of
the significant speeches and seminar
discussions which will mark this once-
in-a-century conclave.
A story of the significant legislative
developments will be a feature of the
July issue.
MAY, 1957

** NA

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clay tie ar dipae in ou ai-odtoe stdo Ou** r
qulfe person ar red to cone wih achtcs
buldr an ow es Se us fo h* eti ie n iesrie


S-A Regional Council Adopts By-Laws

Since an appointment at the 1956 Regional Conference a committee with representa-
tives from four states has been working to develop by-laws for the AIA South Atlantic
District regional organization. Headed by John L. R. Grand, the committee surveyed
material from other districts, finally completed a final draft for presentation to the 1957
Regional conference in Atlanta last month. Published here for the first time are the
By-Laws as approved and adopted by the S-A Regional Council, AIA, on April 5, 1957.

Article I-Name
The name of the organization shall
be the South Atlantic Regional Coun-
cil of the American Institute of Ar-

Article II--Objects
The objects of the South Atlantic
Regional Council of the American
Institute of Architects shall be those
of The Institute; and, in addition,
within the territory of the regional
district fixed by The Board of The
Institute, the Regional Council shall:
A-Promote the purposes of The
B-Foster cooperation between the
Chapters and The Institute;
C-Unify and- coordinate the ef-
forts of the members;
D-Counsel with and assist the
Regional Director;
E-Provide a forum for discussion
of regional matters and Chap-
ter and regional views upon In-
stitute policy;
F-Elect Regional Judiciary mem-
bers (and alternates) and,
G-Nominate the district's candi-
date for the office of Regional
Director in accordance with
the provisions of these and
The Institute's by-laws.
H-Use the powers delegated by
The Institute to effect these

Article III-
Membership and Voting
Each chapter of the Institute with-
in the territory of the South Atlantic
Regional District shall be represented
on the Council by only one voting
Each voting member shall cast the
number of votes which the Secretary

of The Institute, determined as the
number which his chapter was en-
titled to have accredited at the last
preceding meeting of The Institute.
Council members shall be elected
in the same manner and shall have
the same qualifications and duties as
member-delegates to meetings of The
Each voting member shall serve a
term of one year or until his succes-
sor has qualified.

Article IV-
Officers and Their Duties
The regional Director shall be the
Chairman and Presiding officer of the
Regional Council.
The Secretary of the host chapter
for the annual meeting and the Re-
gional Conference shall also serve as
Council Secretary, and shall be a non-
voting, ex-officio member of the Re-
gional Council.
The Secretary shall keep a record
of all meetings of the Council and
the Regional Conference during his
term of office, and shall have custody
of, and shall keep in good order, all
property and records of the Council
except the records and books of ac-
count in custody of the Treasurer,
and shall perform all duties usual and
incidental to his office.
A Treasurer of the Council shall be
elected for a three year term to run
concurrently with the term of office
of the Regional Director. The Treas-
urer shall be a non-voting ex-officio
member of the Council, and shall be
from the same Chapter as the Region-
al Director.
The Regional Director and the
Treasurer shall be jointly empowered
to make all necessary banking ar-
rangements for the Council, and the
Treasurer shall exercise general super-
vision of the Council's financial af-
fairs, maintaining its financial rec-
ords and books of account, and per-

form all duties usual and incidental
to his office.

Article V-Meetings
The Regional Council shall hold
at least one meeting each year, held
at the same time as the Regional Con-
Special Meetings may be held on
call of the Regional Director or by a
quorum of the Council.
A quorum of the Council shall con-
sist of a number of members, repre-
senting chapters from at least three
states, who together are entitled to
cast a majority of the total vote of
the Council.
Notices of meetings shall be served
on council members and chapters
stating the time and place of meet-
ing not less than thirty days prior to
the opening session.

Article VI-
Conduct of Meetings
Parliamentary procedure governing
the conduct of all meetings shall be
that set forth in the latest edition of
"Robert's Rules of Order" when not
inconsistent with these By-laws.

Article VII-
Regional Conference
A Regional Conference shall be
held annually at the time and place
selected by the Council, if not deter-
mined by the preceding conference.
The sponsoring chapter shall be
known as the host chapter, and shall
make all arrangements for the con-

Article VIII-Committees
Section 1-Classes of Committees
Regional Standing Committees
shall be established to correspond
with Board Committees designated as
vertical committees by The Institute
Board. Special Committees may be
(Continued on Page 31)


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10 lS1



Regional By-Laws ...
(Continued from Page 28)
established by the Council or the Re-
gional Director.
Section 2-Regional
Committee Members
The Standing Committees shall be
composed of the chairmen of the
chapter committees of the district
performing the same functions as the
regional committee. Whenever func-
tions are combined at chapter level,
the chairmen of the chapter commit-
tee will serve as a member of each of
the regional committees he represents
functionally at the chapter level.
Members of The Institute vertical
committees, elected by The Board,
shall be members of the correspond-
ing regional committees, and shall
serve as their chairmen.
Every special committee shall ex-
pire with the adjournment of the An-
nual meeting of the Council, but any
thereof may be re-created.
Members of special committees
shall be appointed by the Regional
Director. Their terms of office shall
expire with the committee.

Article IX-Finances
Expenses of the Council shall be
met by funds derived from the fol-
A-Funds appropriated by the
American Institute of Archi-
tects for the use of this region;
B-Proceeds of Regional Confer-
ences in excess of expenses
C-Per capital contributions from
constituent component chap-
ters as they may mutually
Authority to Expend and Disburse
A-No member, officer, director,
committee, jury, department, em-
ployee, agent, or representative of The
Regional Council shall have any right,
authority, or power to expend any
money of The Regional Council, to
incur any liability for, and in, its be-
half, or to make any commitment
which will, or may be, deemed to bind
or involve The Regional Council in
any expense or financial liability, un-
less such expenditure, liability, or
commitment has been authorized by
The Regional Council or by a spe-
cific resolution at a duly called meet-
ing of The Regional Council has
(Continued on Page 82)
MAY, 1957

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Regional By-Laws...
(Continued from Page 31)
made an appropriation to pay the
same and has authorized the mem-
ber, officer, director, committee, jury,
department, employee, agent, or rep-
resentative to make the expenditure
or commitment or to incur the obliga-
tion. Nor shall any said person, jury,
committee or department have any
right, authority, or power to incur
any expense or obligation on account
of any specific appropriation in ex-
cess of the unexpended and unencum-
bered balance of such specific appro-
B-The Treasurer shall not have
right or authority to pay any expense
or obligation for, or in behalf of, The
Regional Council unless an appropria-
tion to pay such expense or obliga-
tion has been duly made by The Re-
gional Council; nor shall he pay any
expense or obligation on account of
any specific appropriation in excess of
the unexpended and unencumbered
balance of such specific appropria-
Funds derived from the proceeds
of a Regional Conference may be
shared with the host chapter, the
amounts accruing to each to be de-
termined by the Council. Funds paid
into the treasury of the Council from
proceeds of regional conferences
should be used primarily in financing
succeeding conferences, and secondar-
ily in financing operations of the
The Regional Council shall not
have any title or interest in the prop-
erty of any chapter nor be liable for
any debt incurred by any chapter; and
conversely, no chapter shall have any
title or interest in the property of the
Regional Council, nor shall it be li-
able for any debt incurred by the Re-
gional Council.

Article X-Nominations
for Regional Director
Section 1.
Nominations by Chapters
Three months prior to the Council
meeting at the Regional Conference
preceding each meeting of The Insti-
tute at which the office of the Re-
gional Director is to become vacant,
each chapter of the South Atlantic
District shall submit to the Regional
Director the name of the candidate
(Continued on Page S3)

which said chapter wishes the Coun-
cil to place in nomination for the of-
fice of Regional Director. On receipt
of the names of the candidates, the
Regional Director shall advise the
various chapters of the persons so
nominated for the office and shall
present such names as have been
nominated by the chapters to the
Council at the next regular meeting
of the Council. Nothing herein con-
tained shall prevent the nomination
of a nominee for Regional Director
from the floor of the Regional Coun-
cil in the manner hereinafter provid-
ed in these by-laws.

Section 2.
Nominations from the Floor
Nominations of any corporate mem-
ber eligible to hold the office may be
proposed by any council member, and
if the nomination is seconded by
council members representing two
other chapters of the District, then
the member's name shall be added to
those previously submitted for con-
sideration of the Council in deter-
mining the official nominee of the
Council for the office of Regional

Article XI-Regional
Judiciary Committee
Section 1-Duties
The duties of the Regional Judici-
ary Committee shall be to conduct
initial hearings on charges of unpro-
fessional conduct against corporate
members of the District which have
been referred to it by The Institute.
All such hearings and procedures shall
be in strict accordance with the By-
Laws of The Institute and the Pro-
cedural Rules of The Board.
Section 2-Composition
The Regional Judiciary Committee
shall be composed of three corporate
members and one alternate, the mem-
bers to serve for staggered three-year
terms and the alternate a one-year
term. Members and alternate shall
be members in good standing in The
Institute and each shall be from a dif-
ferent chapter in the District. No
officer, or director, of The Institute
shall be eligible for service on the Re-
gional Judiciary Committee.
Section 3-Election of Members
A-Nomination by Chapters or
Petition: Any Chapter execu-
tive committee or group of five
(Continued on Page 84)
MAY, 1957

JOHN F. HALLMAN, President JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres.
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres. JAMES H. BARRON, JR., Secy-Treas.



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Cleveland Construction Co., Inc.
Harborview Rd., Punta Gorda
Phone: NE 2-5911
C-Roy C. Young, Pres.-AGC
Avant Construction Co., Inc.
360 N.W. 27th Ave., Miami
Phone: NE 5-2409
C-John L. Avant, Pres.-AGC

Edward M. Fleming Construction
Co., Inc.
4121 N.W. 25th St., Miami 42
Phone: NE 5-0791
C--Ed. M. Fleming, Pres.-AGC
T. J. James Construction Co.
1700 N.W. 119th St., Miami
Phone: MU 8-8621
C-Randolph Young, Gen. Mgr.-AGC
Henry G. Dupree Co.
1125 Kings Ave., Jacksonville
Phone: FL 9-6622
C-Henry G. DuPree, Pres.-AGC

Arnold Construction Co.
S'te 7, Murray Bid., Palm Beach
Phone: TE 2-4267
C-W. H. Arnold, Pres.-AGC

Paul & Son, Inc.
921 Ortega Rd., W. Palm Beach
Phone TE 2-3716
C-P. D. Crickenberger, Pres.
Shirley Brothers, Inc.
N. Canal Pt. Rd., Pahokee
Phone: Pahokee 7185
C-Claude L. Shirley, Pres.-AGC
J. A. Tompkins
1102 North A, Lake Worth
Phone: JU 2-6790
C-J. A. Tompkins, Owner-AGC
Arrow Electric Company
501 Palm St., W. Palm Beach
Phone: TE 3-8424
C-V. L. Burkhardt, Pres.-AGC
Assoc.; FAEC
A. P. Hennessy 6 Sons, Inc.
2300 22d St. N., St. Petersburg
Phone: 7-0308
C-L. J. Hennessy, Pres.-AGC
Quillian's Concrete
3rd St. F.E.C., Daytona Beach
Phone: CL 3-8113
C-Hugo Quillian, Partner-AGC
- GEORGIA-Fulton County -
Beers Construction Company
70 Ellis St., N.E., Atlanta 3
Phone: AL 0555
C-E. M. Eastman, V.-Pres.-AGC

Regional By-Laws
(Continued from Page 38)
corporate members of a Chap-
ter may nominate an eligible
corporate member for service
on the Regional Judiciary Com-
mittee. Nominations shall be
forwarded to the Regional Di-
rector 30 days in advance of
the Regional Council meeting
at which an election shall take
B-Nominations from the Floor:
Nominations from the floor at
any Regional Council meeting
may be made for a member of
the Regional Judiciary Com-
mittee by any council member;
and if said member is eligible
to serve on the committee, and
his nomination is seconded by
council members representing
two other chapters of the Dis-
trict, then his name shall be
added to those previously nom-
Section 4-Chairman
The senior member shall be chair-
man during his last year of service.
Section 5-Meetings
The Regional Judiciary Committee
shall normally hold a meeting to con-
duct hearings one day in advance of
the annual Regional Conference, pro-
vided it has cases before it referred
to it by The Institute. Other meet-
ings of the Committee shall be held
whenever The Institute directs.
Expenses of the Committee mem-
bers at meetings to conduct hearings
will be reimbursed by The Institute
in the manner and amount as pre-
scribed for such reimbursement of
expenses by the Treasurer of The In-

Article XII-Amendments
These by-laws may be amended at
any meeting of the Regional Council
by an affirmative vote of not less
than two-thirds of all the votes ac-
credited to be cast at the meeting on
any question not relating to the prop-
erty of The Institute or its chapters,
provided that each council member
shall have received notice of the meet-
ing at which it is to be voted upon
not less than 30 days prior to the date
of the meeting. Further, no amend-
ment shall be submitted for a vote
that would directly or indirectly null-
ify or contravene any act or policy of
The Institute.

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MAY, 1957

FAA Directors' Meeting
Advanced to June 1st
Date for the FAA Board of Di-
rectors' third meeting of the year has
finally been set for June 1st, 1957.
The Fort Harrison Hotel in Clear-
water has been named as the place
for the meeting which will be called
to order by President EDGAR S.
WORTMAN immediately after lunch.
The customary Directors' luncheon
will start promptly at 12:30. The
meeting date was advanced to avoid
conflict with the regular mid-year
meeting of the State Board.

Ador Sales, Inc . .. 16
Aluminum Insulating Co., Inc. 15
Anderson Manufacturing Co. 8
Associated Elevator Supply, Inc. 35
Bruce Equipment Company 35
Builders' Roster .... 34
Dallett Equipment Co. . 29
Dunan Brick Yards Third Cover
Electrend Distributing Co. . 34
Executone Distributors .. 2
Florida General Supply Corp. 20
Florida Fountry & Pat. Works 32
Florida Portland Cement . 7
Florida Home Heating Institute 30
Florida Power & Light Co. 22
Florida Steel Corp... . 12
George C. Griffin Co. . 6
Graham Industries, Inc.. . 25
Hollostone Co. of Miami . 3
Hamilton Plywood . . 25
Interstate Marble & Tile Co. 27
Magic City Shade & Drap. Co. 4
Mutschler Kitchens of Florida 13
Perlite, Inc . . 5
Portland Cement Association 23
Prescolite Mfg. Co.. .. 35
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc.. 31
Sistrunk . . 32
Stylon of Miami . .. .10
Thompson Door Company . 26
Unit Structures . .. 14
F. Graham Williams .. 33


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~~ 4-

Live Splinter or Petrified Log?

In his meaty discussion of Institute policies during
the Regional Conference at Atlanta last month, BERYL
PRICE, dynamic chairman of the AIA's Chapter Affairs
Committee, undoubtedly voiced many convictions of
thoughtful AIA members interested in the continued
development of the Institute's strength and influence.
As reported elsewhere in this issue, his speech was full
of practical inspiration. But it is open to question
whether all of his statements relative to current organiza-
tional policies, particularly at both chapter and regional
levels, could be whole-heartedly accepted by all AIA mem-
bers in Florida.
Among these was a statement that a membership
of 100 was "an absolute minimum" for what he called
a "strong" chapter. He decried the "splintering" of
Chapters into smaller groups and implied that such
splinter chapters did not contain the inherent strength
of interest necessary for vigorous operation as an AIA
Now, there may be strength as well as safety in
mere numbers. But experience has not always borne
out that thesis. Mere numbers can also hide apathy and
lethargy; and it is certainly true that more can often be
accomplished by a few souls dedicated enough to be
vigorous and vocal than by ten or even a hundred times
as many whose interest is cold to the point of inactivity.
The worth of a high interest in a small group has shown
itself countless times in countless situations. And the
growth of AIA membership in Florida is a particular case
in point.
As a matter of historical fact, practically all of Florida's
10 AIA chapters are "splinters"-offshoots from a single
chapter, and originally formed by small, but energetic,
groups who saw the need for a more vigorous application
of AIA policies and influences in specific local areas
throughout the State. As recently as last year this process
produced three new chapters. It may yet produce another
one from the Florida Central Chapter-which, within a
single year, has more than gained back the membership
it lost through formation of the Mid-Florida Chapter
formerly listed on its roster.
No . the criterion, it seems to us, is not an

arbitrary, numerical one. It is a need in a locality-
whether that locality is a single city, a metropolitan area,
a county or a state. The growth of the architectural
profession in Florida has highlighted a whole series of
local needs; and local chapters have naturally been
formed to fill them.
Part of Beryl Price's argument must, of course, be
granted. In the small chapter, personnel is often not
large enough to staff all committees without doubling
up. In theory, of course, that is not good-even though
the AIA recognizes the possibility and has suggested a
committee combination for small as well as large chapters.
But practically, here in Florida, AIA affairs are handled
about as well in the eight small chapters as they are
in the two larger ones.
As to our small chapters' impact on community affairs,
it is proving to be a real one of increasing importance.
In Pensacola, in Orlando and particularly in Jacksonville
the new, small chapters are achieving public recognition
for the architectural profession which was formerly lack-
ing. Each is growing in numbers as well as in public
stature, though probably none will. ever reach the 100-
member mark which the AIA Chapter Afairs Committee
chairman sets as a desirable minimum.
Maybe our AIA set up in Florida is just another
indication of the fact that "Florida is Different." Each
Chapter as a member of The Florida Association of
Architects, is an integral part of a body which reinforces,
at the state level, the local influence of the Chapter
itself. With plans for an increasing service now under
way, the FAA will more and more give to its member
chapters the strength which added numbers might, in
some cases, otherwise provide them. As liaison between
the FAA and its chapter-members grows closer, the work
of the FAA will serve as both a buttress to, and an
extension of, each Chapter's local activities.
In Florida, at least, interest and initiative are gen-
erally favored over mere size. In a region which is
expanding as dynamically as is the Sunshine State, a
group of live and sprouting splinters is much preferable
than a single petrified log, however large.


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A New Century Beckons...

Centennial Celebration,
May 14 to 17, 1957
Washington, D. C.

The 89th Annual Convention
of the
American Institute of Architects



"Our present responsibility is broad . Today, the architect must consider, simul-
taneously, man's physical environment in relation to his new social aspirations
and spiritual n~is; to a host of new contrivances which afford him new comfort
and leisure time; to new problems of traffic flow, land use and urban congestion;
even to the problem of shielding him, not from the elements alone, but from the
hazards of a world whose skill at making weapons has outstripped its ability to
live without them . Our vast new knowledge of the nature of matter must be
matched by an equivalent understanding of the nature of man. The architect can
and must contribute to a closure of this gap in knowledge..."

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