• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Decision softens Lien law
 Megginson named state school...
 A profession polices its pract...
 Glued laminated lumber
 FAA board of directors' meetin...
 1956 convention plans near...
 News and notes
 Book review
 State board registers 43
 Advertisers' index
 Producers' council program
 Back Cover






Title: Florida architect
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00026
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: August 1956
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Decision softens Lien law
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Megginson named state school architect
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    A profession polices its practice
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Glued laminated lumber
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    FAA board of directors' meeting
        Page 15
        Page 16
    1956 convention plans near completion
        Page 17
    News and notes
        Page 18
    Book review
        Page 19
    State board registers 43
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Advertisers' index
        Page 23
    Producers' council program
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text

W A A Flo


This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-
Association.

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
Uni versity- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.











I Iichitr
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August-1956


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OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


F.A.A. OFFICERS 1956


Secretary
Edgar S. Wortman
1122 North Dixie
Lake Worth



1 ,- .


President
G. Clinton Gamble
1407 E. Las
Olas Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale


Treasurer
M. T. Ironmonger
1261 E. Las
Olas Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale


VICE-PRESIDENTS
Franklin S. Bunch North
John Stetson . South
William B. Harvard Central


Florida
Florida
Florida


DIRECTORS
Broward County William F. Bigoney, Jr.
Daytona Beach .William R. Gomon
Florida Central Ernest T. H. Bowen, II
Florida North .Sanford W. Goin
Thomas Larrick
Fla. No. Central Albert P. Woodard
Florida South Edward G. Grafton
Irving E. Horsey
James E. Garland
Jacksonville George R. Fisher
Walter B. Schultz
Mid-Florida .. Francis H. Emerson
Palm Beach .. Frederick W. Kessler

EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Roger W. Sherman
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43
Phone: MOhawk 7-0421


e74




Florida Architect


VOLUME 6


AUGUST, 1956


NUMBER 8


CONTENTS

Decision Softens Lien Law _
By W. L. Blackwell, Jr.


Megginson Named State School Architect --

A Profession Polices Its Practice ---- ---


.------- 9


Glued Laminated Lumber __--------
By R. P. A. Johnson

FAA Board of Directors' Meeting


1956 Convention Plans Near Completion -


_17


News & Notes _-----....-----------------.------------ 18


__-_____-- ---------------------------- ----- 19


Book Review


State Board Registers 43 _-- --_-

Advertisers' Index _----


Producers' Council Program ..---- ....---- --------- 24


THE COVER
The new gymnasium designed by Griffin and Gomon for the Cocoa
High School is only one of many modern structures in which the
remarkable qualities of glued laminated lumber have been used to
produce striking, economical and intensely practical results. An
authoritative article on such qualities and more illustrations of
their application starts on page 9.




PUBLICATION COMMITTEE H. Samuel Krus6, Chairman, G. Clinton
Gamble, Igor B. Polevitzky. Editor -Roger W. Sherman.
The FLORIDA ARCHITECT is the Official Journal of the Florida Association of
Architects of the American Institute of Archiects. It is owned and operated by the
Florida Association of Architects Inc. a Florida Corporation not for profit, and is
published monthly under the authority and direction of the F.A.A. Publication
Committee at 7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida. Telephone MOhawk 7-0421
S. .Correspondence and editorial contributions are welcomed; but publication cannot
be guaranteed and all copy is subject to approval by the Publication Committee.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publication
Committee or the Florida Association of Architects. Editorial contents may be freely
reprinted by other official A.I.A. publications, provided credit is accorded The
FLORIDA ARCHITECT and the author Advertisements of products, materials
and services adaptable for use in Florida are welcomed; but mention of names, or
illustrations of such materials and products, in either editorial or advertising
columns does not constitute endorsement by the Publication Committee or The
Florida Association of Architects Address all communications to the Editor,
7225 S. W. 82nd Court, Miami 43, Florida.


AUGUST, 1956





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Decision Softens Lien Law


The 20 percent withholding clause is still there, but
an owner's liability for over-payment is lessened


BY W. L. BLACKWELL, JR.,
Blackwell, Walker & Gray, Attorneys


A recent decision by the Florida
Supreme Court relative to the Me-
chanic's Lien Law, clarifies for the
first time the intent and extent of that
much-criticized statute. The decision
centered on the "20 percent withhold-
ing" provision of the law; and though
it does not completely nullify that
provision, it does lessen an owner's
liability for over-payment to sub-con-
tractors and material suppliers in the
event of a suit to satisfy a lien.
The decision was rendered in the
case of Greenblatt vs. Goldin, not yet
published in the state reports, but
identifiable as Case No. 27,285, Flor-
ida Supreme Court, January Term,
1956. The case is of particular sig-
nificance and interest to every ele-
ment of the building industry, first
because the language of the law has
been the cause of considerable con-
cern to architects, contractors, mort-
gage lenders and attorneys; and, sec-
ond, because it constitutes the first
test of that part of the Mechanic's
Lien Law, Chapter 84.05, Subsection
11, which has been the chief cause
of this concern.
This case had its origin in Dade
County, based on a situation wherein
the facts were fairly clear. Briefly, the
plaintiff, Greenblatt, agreed to pay a
contractor approximately $35,000 for
a residence. The contract between
owner and builder authorized the
owner to withhold 10 percent of the
contract price prior to the time of
final payment. But when 90 percent
of the contract price had been paid,
the contractor suddenly abandoned
the project.
About that time the owner discov-
ered many outstanding bills for labor
and material supplied to the contrac-
tor but not paid for by him. Appar-
ently, no claims of lien or precaution-
ary notices were filed with the owner
until after the contractor had received
about $31,500, or the agreed 90 per-
cent of his contract. Faced with the
prospect of paying out some $12,500


in liens, the owner filed suit for a de-
termination of his rights.
The owner contended that the Me-
chanic's Lien Law, under whose pro-
visions the claims of lien had been
filed, was permissive only and did not
become activated unless the owner in-
corporated a bond requirement in his
contract.
The lower Court disagreed. Evi-
dently its opinion was that since the
owner had failed to comply fully with
the provisions of the statute, he must
suffer the full penalties prescribed in
it. Thus, a judgement was entered
in favor of the lienor for the full
amount of his claim without regard
to the amounts of other liens or the
sums paid by the owner to the gen-
eral contractors, other laborers or
material men.
On appeal, two questions were pre-
sented to the Supreme Court by the
owner:
1.-Does Chapter 84.05, Subsec-
tion 11, compel the owner to either re-
quire a bond from the general con-
tractor or withhold 20 percent of pay-
ments due under the contract?
2.-Is this section constitutional?
In answer to the first question, the
Court stated that the Legislature evi-
dently intended to provide for an
alternative method of payment under
the terms of a building contract. If
contract performance is not secured
by a bond, the owner is then required
to withhold 20 percent of the prog-
ress payments, even though a bond
had not been mentioned between
owner and contractor. That 20 per-
cent, the Court said, was evidently in-
tended to provide a buffer fund for
laborers and material men when no
performance bond was involved -
to give them first claim to this fund
in the event the contract was not car-
ried through.
Relative to the second question,
the Court declared the penalty pro-
vision of the Mechanic's Lien Law to
(Continued on Page 4)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT








H- oAo"ne'


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I.; i -' ,
ol ; k
4;ii
LL


Residence for Sumner L.Eddy, Jr., Homestead, Fla. Claence Parman, AIA, architect; Eddy Construction Corp., general
contractor. 12-inch Hobstone Twin-T units provide toor and roof deck with cantilevered balconies. Another portion
of the structure embodis a pool terrace canopy forced by 14-inch Twin-T units with 10-foot, tapered cantilevers.




deiy O- --



The smuoth, clean lines of Rollostone can offer a fresh approach to
many problems of design. Re-casting provides structural efficiency.
It also provides the designed with forms that in themselves reveal
their fictional values and suitability of purpose for the job ...


AUGUST, 1956









TEXTU





I %^<2


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Decision ...
(Continued from Page 2)
I E be unduly harsh and oppressive and
an unreasonable interference with the
private rights of an owner. It was
ft thus held to be void and of no effect.
The full impact of the Court's de-
Scision can be better appreciated by
reading the penalty clause of the law:
". If for any reason the owner
fails to comply with the requirements
of this section (i.e., withholding 20
percent of all payments) he shall be
liable for, and the property improved
shall be subject to, a lien in the full
amount of any an'd all outstanding
S: bills for labor, services, or materials
furnished for such improvement re-
gardless of the time elements set forth
S in this chapter."
On the basis of such sweeping.
language, an owner could, under cer-
tain circumstances, become liable for
i the entire amount of a building con-
'. tract even though he may have al-
Sready paid for it once. Even a cleri-
cal error wholly out of his control -
'like a mistake in addition-could put
an owner in the position of being
liable for claims of lien covering work
already paid for; and, construed liter-
ally, a simple violation might cause
him to pay twice for his property im-
provements.
rfaces can do Now, however, the owner's liabil-
final touch of ity is limited to 120 percent of his


George M. Megginson Named

as New State School Architect

GEORGE M. MEGGINSON has been
named State School Architect to suc-
ceed FORREST M. KELLEY, JR., who
assumed his new duties as staff archi-
tect for the Dade County Board of
Public Instruction July 1st. The ap-
pointment was made by THOMAS D. l "
BAILEY, superintendent of the State
Department of Education on June 21. '
The new State School Architect has "
been employed as an assistant in that s".
office for the past 20 months. Born
in Shreveport, La., 31 years ago, he
is registered as an architect in both
Illinois and Florida and is an Associ-
ate member of the Florida North V
(Continued on Page 16)
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


, I.


Finely wrought su
S much to give that


contract, not 200 percent as formerly.
The architect's efforts to safeguard
the interest of his client and his ad-
vice relative to contract disbursements
should still be tempered by the cir-
cumstances of each separate project.
It would appear that the owner may,
or may not, withhold 20 percent of
progress payments to the general con-
tractor. If he is sufficiently confident
of the contractor's integrity and finan-
cial stability, he may make any pay-
ments he wishes.
On the other hand, should he fail
to withhold the 20 percent provided
for in the law, he will be in the posi-
tion of having made improper pay-
ments. Therefore he may become li-
able for unpaid liens in excess of the
contract price but only up to the
limit of the 20 percent that should
have been withheld under the law.
The Greenblatt-Goldin decision
has greatly clarified the Lien Law. It
is now clear that an owner has a
choice of disbursing methods. First,
he can require that the contractor
furnish a performance bond in
which case he can pay the contractor
as he wishes. But if a bond is not
required, the owner must then with-
hold, under the law, 20 percent of all
progress payments or accept the
possibility of becoming liable for pay-
ments of liens up to 20 percent over
and above the amount of the original
contract.








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AUGUST, 1956 ASTER






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6 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





1?4aa 1/00, z(ae V Oa'ed 7'ef ..


A Profession Polices Its Practice



A behind-the-scenes report of what the State Board of Archi-
tecture is doing to enforce Florida's registration law and thus to
assure the public of high professional integrity and competence.


Just a few weeks ago two Circuit
Court judges signed their names to a
couple of legal documents. Each
document was titled "Final Decree
of Injunction"; and when the judges
laid down their pens, two more vio-
lators of Chapter 467 of the Florida
Statutes of 1955 had been permanently
"enjoined and restrained from prac-
ticing architecture, from holding him-
self out as an architect in the State of
Florida, and from offering to practice
architecture in this State."
Few people knew about the actions
which led up to the signing of those
injunction decrees; fewer still wit-
nessed the actual culmination. The
two decrees were signed within four
days of one another, one in Braden-
ton, the other in Orlando. Named
on each was the Florida State Board
of Architecture as plaintiff; and in
both instances the defendant was an
individual who insisted on practicing
architecture without a license in spite
of repeated warnings from the Board.
These two cases are not materially
different from others successfully
prosecuted by the State Board. But
they are the most recent ones. They
were carried along almost concurrent-
ly to their conclusion; and they are
now a matter of record constituting
an increasing weight of precedent be-
hind the State Board's work of ad-
ministering the law regulating the
practice of architecture and the some-
times thankless job of enforcing its
provisions.
Because such legal actions as the
Board is forced to take are carried on
quietly and without publicity, the
architectural profession in Florida is
generally unaware of what the Board
is constantly doing to enforce the
law toward the end of protecting
the public against results of techni-
cal incompetence and of protecting
AUGUST, 1956


the profession itself against unlawful
and dishonest practices within its own
ranks. Few may realize that the
Board's work of law enforcement is
constant. It is not dramatic, even
when it involves court action. But it
is thorough, unremitting, objective.
When it becomes subjective of ne-
cessity, the final conclusion is invar-
iably as definite and as specific as
those of the two cases already men-
tioned.
For none of the Board's law en-
forcement activity is undertaken light-
ly. And no case is slated for legal
prosecution without clear evidence of
violation based on a searching investi-
gation, or without unanimous ap-
proval of all Board members after
all other means to halt a violator have
been tried and failed,
Thus, behind every injunction de-
cree issued is a voluminous file of
facts and warnings and re-warnings
and discussions relative to both the
spirit and the letter of any apparent
violation of the state architectural
registration law. For every injunction
decreed and issued by a circuit court,
there have been some 25 "cases" that
the Board has variously .disposed of
without resort to legal action. They
range from setting right an innocent
and minor infraction of the statutes
to a stern warning that stops a poten-
tially serious and involved violation
before it is well started.
In all this a whimsical tilting at
windmills or a capricious abuse of
power has no part at all. Complaints
of all sorts come to the Board from
architects practicing in all sections of
the State. Every complaint is inves-
tigated. In many cases, fortunately,
a situation complained of can be
cleared up by a letter from the presi-
dent or secretary of the Board; and
in many such instances a simple clari-


fiction of the law is sufficient to do
the job. In many others a more de-
tailed personal interview has accom-
plished the result sought.
But other cases are not so simple.
Violations are repetitive; the situation
investigated indicates no apparent
disposition to abide by the provisions
of the law, in spite of knowledge con-
cerning them. Then the job of col-
lecting necessary evidence gets under-
way; and after the most careful con-
sideration of every available fact, the
Board finally authorizes legal action.
Even then a judge's signature on an
injunction decree may not be the
end result. Several situations involv-
ing serious and continued violations
have been cleared up merely by the
threat of legal action coupled with
realization on the part of the violator
that the Board's' evidence was con-
clusive and its right and ability to
conduct a successful prosecution well
established.
Right now, for example, three court
actions are pending. Nearly a dozen
more investigations which may lead
to injunction ].'p.reiclns are also
under way. In addition, some 25 al-
leged infractions of the State law are
now being studied as a preliminary
to whatever action the facts of each
case may indicate to be appropriate.
Law enforcement activities of the
Board are divided generally into two
broad classifications, registered and
non-registered violators of the State
law. In the first is included cases of
dishonest practice, improper use of
an architect's registration seal, gross
incompetency, negligence, etc. These
involve a hearing before the Board;
and the hearing itself may include
legal counsel, witnesses and whatever
evidence may be judged material to
the case. The State law gives the
S(Continued on Page 14)























































As a new material. willth
ilt own special -Irucitlral
and design chlaracteriltic.,
glued laminated lumber
suggests new design po..i-
bililie, of appurenill linm-
itles, range .. Out.sind-
ing proof i- the -ire of
llhe- low-bnllre--ed arche-
ol lime Jai-Alui Fronlon al
Sce-l Palm Beach. fur
which Spicer and (elhlerl.
Daitluna Beach, were ar-
ihitlects. Tlihe are the
largely glued luaniniled
arclhei in lie world. having
a clear .pan of 247 feel
with a center rise of 74
feel. Each archi a- erect-
ed in two !eclion-, hinged
at the top and base. Each
-ection measure. 1I bi
16-inches at lhe approxi-
male center, tapering to
11 by 20-inches at the
crown and babe.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


SiiW<-


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GLUED



LAMINATED



SLUMBER


By R. P. A. JOHNSON
Chief,' Division of Physics and Engineering,
Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.


Glued-laminated lumber is an as-
sembly made by bonding layers of
lumber or veneer so that the grain
direction of all laminations is es-
sentially parallel. Thus is differs from
plywood, in which the layers of veneer,
or of veneer and lumber, are cross-
banded, usually with the grain di-
rections of adjacent layers at right
angles.
It has a number of advantages over
solid lumber or timbers. Perhaps
those of greatest significance are:
1-Essentially unlimited size pos-
sibilities. This is of particular impor-
tance in view of the diminishing
stands of virgin timber that furnish
the large sizes required for such struc-
tural members as girders and bridge
stringers.
2-Improved utilization of our
timber resources. Standard commercial
sizes of lumber, which would other-
wise have little or no structural appli-
cation, can be used to produce large
structural members. Further, lower
grades of lumber than are used in
the outer, higher stressed laminations
can be utilized in the inner, lower
stressed laminations of beams and
arches without seriously affecting the
strength of the member.
3-Freedom from severe checking.
Since the laminations are generally
thin enough to be readily seasoned
without severe seasoning degrade, and
since gluing requirements necessitate
relatively low moisture contents, the
checks and other defects commonly


associated with large one-piece mem-
bers can be avoided. Furthermore,
dimensional changes after installa-
tion of the members in a structure
are reduced, which eliminates or
reduces the cost of tightening bolts
and other joint fastenings.
4-Possibility of designing with
stresses based on the dry strength of
wood. The initial dryness of the lam-
inations permits, where dry conditions
prevail in service, the use of design
stresses based on the dry strength
of the wood. The added strength, as
compared with large, one-piece mem-
bers, depends on the strength property
in question, but in some cases is quite
large (up to nearly 40 percent).
5-Architectural effects not ps-
sible with solid timber. Arches and


curved beams of large cross section,
which are not possible with solid
timber, lend themselves to a variety
of architectural treatment and thus
open new markets to wood.
6-Possibility of designing constant-
strength members. In designing with
laminated wood, it is possible to vary
the cross section of the member to fit,
more or less exactly, : ;-nh stress
requirements at different points.
Certain limitations must also be
considered in comparing laminated
with solid members. Cost of a lam-
inated member is greater than that
of a solid member because of pro-
cedures involved in preparing the
lumber and in constructing the mem-
ber. The importance of the glue joint
(Continued on Page 11)


This authoritative study of the architectural possibilities of glued-laminated
timber was first presented as part of a technical seminar at the South Atlantic
States AIA Regional Council, Durham, N. C., in April.
It is reproduced here because laminated lumber is virtually a new material,
a modern tool of design that is rot only widely adaptable if., .-conditions in
Florida, but should also challenge the imagination and design ingenuity of
Florida architects. It is a product with a practical value born of urgency. The
scarcities of materials during World War II and the tremendous technical
advancements in adhesives were its parents; and in little more than a decade
it has grown in breadth of potential use and design until it has become, as
of now, a new form of an age-old material that can immeasurably broaden the
horizon of any imaginative designer.
This article is by no means a technical treatise on glued-laminated timber.
But what it contains can lead to a fuller understanding of the material. And
to that extent it may suggest ways in which one of our important native
materials may, in a new form, provide solutions to a wide range of problems
in which design and structure are uniquely merged.


AUGUST, 1956 9































Glued laminated construction was used
for framing both auditorium and gym-
nasium buildings of the Cocoa High
School. Griffin and Gomon, the ar-
chitects, used segmental arches with
a 128-foot span and 26-foot rise for
the gymnasium (left above) and a
series of three-hinged arches, joined
by a single crown connection, for the
auditorium (right, above).





Use of weatherproof glues and weath-
er-resistant wood laminations made it
practical to expose the base extremi-
ties of the gymnasium arches, left,
thus permitting use of an inexpensive
curtain wall for the side enclosures of
the building.




























The same principle of exposing the
legs of arches and closing the interior
space with curtain-wall construction
has been utilized in the gymnasium,
left. In this case, however, eight con-
tinuous-curve arches with a 96-foot
span have been joined at the crown
to form a domed structure.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


*- 'jr~a*11.,
-L~L; '~ L:;r~R`JC

~c~ 4~ ~~~
Lii~XI. I--1*~ '"





to the strength of the member neces-
sitates special equipment, facilities,
and skills not needed to produce solid
members. Also, large curved members
may be difficult to ship by common
carriers.

Adhesives and Fabrication
Obviously, the bond between the
laminations is of primary importance.
Without that bond there would be
no structure, but only a group of
laminations incapable of serving a
useful structural purpose. It follows,
then, that an adhesive must be chosen
that will furnish such a bond, not
only initially, but over a period of
years in service. There is, apparently,
a reluctance among engineers and
architects to have faith in any struc-
ture that depends upon glue for'its
structural integrity. Where this is
true, it is probable that experience
has been limited to the older wood-
working glues, such as are commonly
used in furniture. Many such ad-
hesives will, under adverse conditions,
fail completely.
Today, a wide range of adhesives
is available to satisfy nearly any serv-
ice condition from mild to extreme.
Furthermore, these are far beyond, the
laboratory and are in rather wide
practical use.
Perhaps the most important of the
new adhesives, from the standpoint
of the structural laminating industry,
are the resorcinol resins and the mix-
tures or blends of phenol and re-
sorsinol resins. On low-density species,
resorcinol-resin adhesives may be cured
adequately for many purposes at room
temperature. Phenol-resorcinol blends
and resorcinol resins on high-density
species require curing at elevated tem-
peratures if the laminated item is
to withstand severe service.
Proper selection of an adhesive,
however, is only one step in insuring
a good glue bond. The best glue,
improperly used, may prove a com-
plete disappointment. Adequate tech-
niques of use involve a variety of
factors. Among the more important
are: uniform seasoning of the lumber
and surfacing of laminations; proper
mixing and spreading of glue; ade-
quate and uniform application of
pressure; and proper curing of the
glue, which includes proper tem-
peratures and time under pressure
as well as adequate control of the
relative humidity during curing. The
AUGUST, 1956


variety and character of these factors
will generally require special plant
equipment and special skills. Ordi-
narily, this will preclude on-site fab-
rication, particularly for important
structural members.
A question may well be raised as
to the fatigue-resistance of glued
joints. The evidence on this point
is reassuring. A series of fatigue tests-
including tests both for shear along
the glued joint and for tension per-
pendicular to the glued joint-pro-
duced no evidence that the joint
tended to deteriorate from fatigue any
faster than the wood around it.

Factors Affecting Strength
Lamination Quality: The same
characteristics, such as knots and
cross grain, that reduce strength of
solid timbers will also affect strength
of laminated members. There are,
however, additional factors peculiar
to laminated construction that must
be considered. A strength-reducing
feature, such as-a knot, must neces-
sarily have less effect on strength if
it is located in a region of low stress-
such as that near the neutral plane
of a beam-than if it is located in
a region of high stress. Tests have
confirmed the view that substantial
amounts of relatively low-grade ma-
terial can be placed in the central
portion of a beam or arch without
serious effect on the overall strength.
Thus, even though some of the lam-
inations in a beam made of high-grade
lumber are replaced by laminations
of a lower grade, it is possible to
maintain a considerable proportion
of the strength of the beam. Con-
versely, the strength of a beam of
low-grade laminations can be im-
proved by substituting a few high-
grade laminations at the top and
bottom of the beam.
Obviously, it is unlikely that large
knots will tend to concentrate at the
critical section of a laminated mem-
ber; and therefore the dispersion of
knots in laminated members should
have an advantageous effect on
strength. Some proposed design pro-
cedures assign a more or less arbitrary
evaluation to this effect. It is possible,
however, with sufficient knowledge
of the occurrence of knots within a
grade, to establish mathematical
estimates of this effect for members
containing various numbers of lami-
nations. Allowable design stresses


computed in this manner are some-
what higher than for solid timbers of
comparable grade. Cross-grain re-
quirements, therefore, must be more
rigid than for solid timbers in order
to justify these allowable stresses.
End Joints: In laminated mem-
bers of considerable size, pieces of
lumber must be joined end to end
to provide laminations of sufficient
length. These joints are an important
factor in determining the strength of
laminated members. Since stress can-
not be transferred across a butt joint,
such a joint represents an ineffective
area and additional cross section must
be provided to compensate for it -
which is a wasteful procedure.
What is not so obvious is that a
butt joint is a serious source of stress
concentration, not only with respect
to shear stress in the interlaminar
joints adjacent to it, but also with
respect to longitudinal stress in the
adjacent laminations. Butt joints are
not commonly used in important
structural members; but where they
are, account must be taken of both
the ineffective area they represent
and their stress-concentrating effects.
On the other hand, scarf joints, in
which the sloping ends of two pieces
are joined with glue, are effective
means of joining the ends of pieces
to form laminations of required
length. Even so, experience and re-
search have indicated that scarf joints
should not be considered fully ef-
fective. Definite reductions in work-
ing. stresses are recommended when
scarf joints are used, and the reduc-
tion should be greater for steeper
scarf slopes. For example, it is recom-
mended that, when stressed in tension,
a scarf joint with a slope of 1 in 12
be stressed to not more than 90 per-
cent of the stress that would be
permitted in an uncut lamination. At
a slope of 1 in 5, the co-rre;pondiing
percentage is only 65 percent.
Edge joints, which may be required
to provide sufficient width, are gen-
erally of little importance from the .
standpoint of strength, except in ver-
tically laminated members, where
they have an effect on shear resistance.
In horizontally laminated members,
edge joints are frequently not glued.

Stresses Induced by Bending:
Bending laminations to a curved form
induces stress in them. Often, a cal-
(Continued on Page 12)


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Typical of the use of glued laminated arches for church or meeting hall
roofs is the interior of the Church of the Resurrection at Biscayne Park,
for which Robert K. Frese, Miami, was architect.


Laminated Lumber...
(Continued from Page 11)

culation of the stress induced indicates
that it is well up toward-and some-
times beyond-the proportional limit
stress of the material. From this, it
would appear that the stress permis-
sable in the finished member would
be considerably reduced. Tests have
shown, however, that this stress is
largely relieved, and that the reduc-
tion in working stress is generally
moderate.
A related factor, not encountered
in ordinary timber design, must be
considered when deep, sharply curved
members are involved. In such mem-


bers, stresses computed by ordinary
methods for flexure members will be
in error by an amount depending
upon the ratio of center-line radius
to depth of member. In many curved
laminated members, this factor will
be of little or no consequence and
can be neglected. In other members,
however, the error may be of con-
siderable magnitude.
For example, at a radius-depth ratio
of 6, the error will be about 5 percent,
but at a radius-depth ratio of 3, it
will be about 11 percent, with rapidly
increasing percentage errors as the
ratio of radius to depth becomes
smaller. Since the relation of error
to ratio is readily plotted, such a
plot might well be kept handy and


27!
=1776,7 X ... v


On the exterior of the Church of the Resurrection, arch framing and
roof construction have been exposed as integral parts of the building
design a practical matter since the glued laminated units usually
require no unsightly mechanical connectors for efficient use.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





used in designing for a quickoch.ck
as to -whether the, error involved in
use of ordinary formulas. is oafcon-
sequence.
Height and Form of Bending
Members: It has long been known
that stresses in wood beams, as, com-
puted by conventional methods, are
affected by both form and height of
the cross section. This has led to
development of form factors to be
applied to the usual bending equation.
The effect of height has heretofore
been relatively unimportant, since the
depth that could be realized in solid
timbers has been limited. In lami-
nated construction, however, this lim-
itation has been removed, and beams
and arches of considerable depth are
common. Members 2 to 4 feet deep
are not uncommon; and one member
with a depth of about 7 feet has
been projected. Consideration of the F i;-t
effect of height as well as of the h
form factor thus assumes some im- r 8 o r r
portance in design of laminated con- r -
structions. This interior view of the West Palm Beach Jai-Alai Fronton indicates the
In general, methods of structural scale of the huge glue laminated segmental arches which are low-buttressed
analysis applicable to structures of at the base and hinged at the crown. Arches are spaced 16 feet on centers,
are braced by two series of horizontal purlins on each side and are roofed
other materials are applicable also to with solid 4 by 5-inch wood decking of western red cedar. Arches them-
(Continued on Page 21) selves are laminated with Southern pine.




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AUGUST, 1956 13





State Board .
(Continued from Page 7)
Board power to subpoena both docu-
ments and witnesses to prove its case;
and the penalty is revocation of an
architect's registration certificate -
temporarily or permanently, according
to the unanimous judgment of the
Board in view of the facts presented
in each specific case.
Conclusive proof is often difficult
to assemble in such cases. Obviously
the Board cannot hold a hearing until,
and unless, its evidence does appear
to be. conclusive. In the recent past a
registration was permanently revoked
- but only after a temporary revoca-
tion five years before had failed to
call a halt to a list of continued and
flagrant violations. In another case,
completely conclusive evidence had
been assembled, a date for the Board
hearing set, subpoenas of documents
and witnesses prepared. Some two
weeks prior to the scheduled hearing
the registration of the architect in-
volved was voluntarily cancelled to
all appearances an admission of the


facts which the Board was prepared
to prove.
Most cases involving various types
of mal-practice by registered architects
develop in areas where city ordinances
require employment of an architect
substantially in conformation with
State law provisions. Those involving
non-registered individuals who are
illegally practicing architecture mostly
develop in cities where no such or-
dinances exist, or in areas which are
relatively new, are incompletely de-
veloped, or are growing rapidly. For
example, injunctions have been grant-
ed in Pensacola, in Orlando, Naples,
Bradenton, St. Petersburg, Fort My-
ers and Sarasota.
The point of all this to the rank
and file of the architectural profession
in Florida seems quite clear. It is
that the State Board of Architecture
is, in fact if not in legal terms, a
real, personal representative of each
individual architect. Its official charge
is to carry out the provisions of the
State registration law; and the 1953
amendment to that law gave the
Board power to enforce the law


through civil proceedings. Thus, from
a practical professional viewpoint, the
Board now acts through a full range
of function. It maintains the tech-
nical standards of architecture in this
State through its power of examina-
tion and registration; and it maintains
the standards of good professional
practice through judicious exercise of
its law enforcement powers.
Obviously, the State Board of Ar-
chitecture as any of Florida's regu-
latory boards exists fundamentally
as a needed and continual protec-
tion for the public. And that is cer-
tainly as it should be. Architectural
service is a public service. In the in-
terests of public safety, health and
comfort, that service must be tech-
nically competent, it must be exper-
ienced and reliable, it must be honest
and careful. Every architect worthy
of the name would have it no other
way. The State Board of Architecture
is but the official extension of this
professional attitude; and all its poli-
cies, procedures, actions and decisions
are pointed to activating this attitude
in terms of the public good.


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14 THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT'






FAA Directors Hold
Meeting at Palm Beach

The Sea Breeze Hotel at Palm
Beach was the site of the FAA Board
of Directors' meeting on July 21. The
meeting started traditionally with
luncheon at 12:30 and adjourned at
5:15. Attendance totaled 20, with
all Chapters represented except Day-
tona Beach, Florida North Central
and the newly-formed Northwest
Chapter in the Pensacola area.
With a few exceptions the meeting
followed the pattern of a routine con-
sideration of mid-year committee re-
ports, of which these were some high-
lights:
Architect Engineer Relations:
South Florida Vice-President JOHN
STETSON reported that the FES had
accepted the FAA-FES Agreement
(published in two parts, in the March,
1955, and the February, 1956, issues
of The Florida Architect) with the
provision that the phrase "sub-profes-
sional" be changed to "associate" and
that the sentence indicating that the
agreement supercedes prior documents
be omitted. The Board voted to re-
affirm its former acceptance of the
document subject to these revisions
proposed by the engineers.
Education: SANFORD W. GOING,
FAIA, reported that an appointment
of a Dean for the College of Archi-
tecture and Allied Arts at the U/F to
succeed WILLIAM T. ARNETT had not
yet been made; but that some an-
nouncement on the matter was looked
for in the near future.
The Board did make two important
decisions, however. One was the au-
thorization of an Executive Commit-
tee of the Board to act with full power
for the Board at any tine between
regularly scheduled meetings. As sug-
gested by BENMONT TENCH, JR., FAA
legal counsel, this Executive Commit-
tee will consist of the FAA president
and secretary and the three FAA sec-
tional vice-presidents. Any two mem-
bers, and the president will constitute
a quorum. The measure was adopted
unanimously; and it was evident that
Board members considered it as both
a practical and desirable method of
streamlining administrative activities
and expediting decisions on interim
matters requiring official Board
action.
(Continued on Page 16)
AUGUST, 1956


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Directors Meet ...
(Continued from Page 15)
The second action was taken rela-
tive to development of a new promo-
tional publication for use by general
FAA membership in all sections of the
State. The booklet "Presenting Your
Architect" is now out of print and a
new one is needed. To develop it
President CLINTON GAMBLE appoint-
ed a committee consisting of TRIP
RUSSELL, VERNOR JOHNSON and him-
self as representing the FAA Publi-
cations Committee. This group will
work with the FAA Executive Secre-
tary to prepare a format and copy for
approval by the Board at its next
regular meeting.
Some discussion of FAA committee
organization also took place. The Pres-
ident made clear that, in line with
AIA recommendations on "vertical"
committee arrangements, future stand-
ing committees of the FAA would
comprise the chairmen of similar
committees in each chapter. In small
chapters, where various committee
functions have been combined, ap-
pointments would be made after con-
ference with chapter presidents.

ATTENTION ALL CHAPTERS!
The FAA Board has instructed
the Executive Secretary to inves-
tigate facilities throughout the
state which might be fully adequate
for FAA Conventions-which have
now outgrown all but sizable and
complete accommodations. If your
Chapter wishes to become a Con-
vention Host, notify the FAA Ex-
ecutive Secretary.


Megginson Named ...
(Continued from Page 4)
Central Chapter, AIA. He was grad-
uated from the University of Illinois
school of architecture after prior uni-
versity training in both the liberal
arts and civil engineering fields.
Prior to his present connection he
worked for Coin and Moore, Gaines-
ville, after architectural experience in
Illinois which included a year's service
as administrative assistant to the State
Supervising Architect. He was on ac-
tive duty with the U. S. Navy for over
two years. Unmarried, he is a mem-
ber of the Masonic Lodge and the
Tallahassee Junior Chamber of Com-
merce.
In a brief comment on his appoint-
ment, Megginson pledged a continua-
tion of Forrest Kelley's policies.


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THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





Convention Plans Nearing
Completion. Theme To Be
"Planning for Automobiles"

With the time, place and theme
of the FAA's 42nd Annual Conven-
tion now definitely set, plans for mak-
ing the gathering one of the biggest
and best in history are now well along
toward final polishing. Some details
are still necessarily undecided. But
the general pattern of the meetings
which will be held November 8, 9
and 10, at the Seville Hotel, Miami
Beach--has now jelled sufficiently
to permit a progress report, according
to EDWARD G. GRAFTON, who heads
the Convention Committee.
Theme of the three-day meeting
will be "Planning for the Automo-
bile" a general subject chosen by
the Committee as pointing up one of
the most important design factors
with which any architect must deal.
Program Chairman IGOR B. POLE-
VITZKY, FAIA, has arranged for two
provocative, and fact-packed seminar
sessions, to develop the theme. As
now proposed, these will include talks
and discussions on the part that auto-
motive transportation is playing in
the economic design of both com-
munities and various types of struc-
tures.
At least two prominent speakers
will be on hand to explore two wide-
ly divergent phases of the theme topic.
One will be HENRY S. CHURCHILL,
FAIA, of Philadelphia, a long-time
student of architectural economics
and a specialist in the field of com-
munity planning and development.
Another will be GEORGE DEVLIN, of
National Garages, Inc., a technical
expert in the economic and structural
problems involved in the planning of
automobile parking, storage and serv-
ice facilities.
Other VIP's who will take active
part in the Convention program are
AIA President LEON CHATELAIN, JR.,
AIA Executive Director EDMUND L.
PURVES and AIA Regional Director
HERBERT C. MILLKEY.
The Seville Hote Convention
headquarters, has announced special
daily rates of $8 single, and $10, $12
and $14 double per person. Reserva-
tions will be made on a first-come,
first-served basis and should be made
as soon as possible directly to the Se-
ville Hotel, Miami Beach.
AUGUST, 1956


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rials properly installed. That's min-
imum. And you have the right
to expect it from any electrical
contractor worthy of the name.
But with Satchwell, Service means
something more.
It means the diversified technical
knowledge needed to complete any
job given us from repairing a
lamp (our smallest) to the layout
and installation of the complex
electrical services and controls for
a huge paper mill. This, a recent
job, was one of our largest, with
the electrical work alone running
over $1,500,000.
Then there's experience. Our com-
pany has been in business continu-
ously for 39 years-since 1917.
Our technical staff represents an
aggregate of more than 100 years
in their special fields of electrical
work. We know what quality is,
how to get it, how to build it into
all our jobs.
There's good organization, too.
That means team work, coordina-
tion between staff and field men,
keeping pace with schedules -
and keeping job performance high
and job costs low at the same
time.
That's what Service means to
Satchwell. It can mean the same
for ouL if you'll let us figure your
next job.



SATCHWELL

ELECTRIC
CONSTRUCTION
S COMPANY, INC.
2922 Old St. Augustine Rd., Jacksonville
P. 0. Box 5777 Phones FL9-1643-4-5


News & Notes


Florida Central
Less than a year ago the Florida
Central Chapter was split numerically
by the formation of the Mid-Florida
Chapter in the Orlando area. At the
time it seemed that the division might
act like a Sunday punch to the Cen-
tral Chapter's organization. Mem-
bers of the newly-formed Mid-Florida
group had been on the committee
roster of the parent group. The split
occurred just when a new Chapter
administration was due to take over.
For a period a snafu situation was the
order of the day; and not until April
of this year was it possible to untangle
the snarl of conflicting appointments
and get a new Chapter show on the
road under its own independent power.
Since then, however, the Central
Chapter has shown a vitality and prog-
ress that is little short of amazing.
Membership has surged up so that
the roster now stands at nearly what
it was when the group division oc-
curred. The cohesive quality of the
membership was never better; and the
most recent quarterly Chapter meet-
ing--held in the re-furbished (by
WILLIAM B. HARVARD) Suwannee
Hotel at St. Petersburg--drew an
all-time record attendance, approved
the admission of nine new members
and aired plans for even greater and


Central Chapter President Roland
W. Sellew congratulates St. Peters-
burg Times writer Douglas Double-
day on receipt of the 1956 AIA
Journalism Award.
more specific progress in the months
to come.
That July 14 meeting, lasting from
luncheon for the executive commit-
tee, through dinner for everybody, in-
cluding wives and guests, may be one
of the last quarterly meetings the
Chapter will hold. Plans are now un-
der way to schedule at least six meet-
ings a year, with at least two of these
"party nights".
If this gathering was a quarterly
swan-song, it was a successful one.
Present was BENMONT TENCH, JR.,
FAA legal counsel, to discuss legal









ii




Nelson Poynter, pub-
lisher of the St. Peters-
burg Times and one of
low' Central Chapter July
1 4th meeting's honored
i guests, explains to one
,'il of the Chapter's many
,:- pretty guests the pro-
Sjected plans for the
Mullett Key develop-
S'"i. ment as visioned by the
'.1. \i:ii: St. Petersburg Society
of Archtiects.
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


~iSaJj~i~ti





ways and means of interest to every
Chapter member. And present also
at the evening dinner meeting were
honor guests NELSON POYNTER,
owner, publisher and editor of the St.
Petersburg Times; DOUGLAS DOUBLE-
DAY, one of his star feature writers,
there to receive an AIA journalism
award; and GEORGE TAYLOE Ross,
executive director of Interama, there,
with MRS. Ross, to tell dinner guests
about the design and progress of that
gargantuan idea.
Among committee reports was the
significant news, from ANTHONY PUL-
LARA, that the Chapter had joined
with engineers and general contract-
ors in the formation of a joint FAA-
AGC-FES Cooperative Committee.
Working with Pullara will be WM. A.
WATSON, for the FES, and ANGEL
RENON representing the AGC.

Florida South
Highlight of the July 10 meeting,
at Harvey's Restaurant in Miami, of
a near-record representation of the
Florida South Chapter was, by all
odds, the discussion on the recent Su-
preme Court Mechanic's Lien Law


decision. The subject was introduced
by PAUL HINDS, a Chapter dinner
guest and Executive Manager of the
South Florida Chapter, AGC. Spurred
by EDWARD M. FLEMING, newly-
elected AGC chapter president, the
subject was turned over to W. L.
BLACKWELL, JR., member of the legal
firm of BLACKWELL, WALKER & GRAY,
counsel for Miami's First Federal
Savings and Loan Company and an
acknowledged expert in construction
legalities.
The full text of Mr. Blackwell's
talk is carried elsewhere in this is-
sue (turn to page 2). It provoked a
discussion from almost every section
of the floor--and from the general
contractor guests as well as the archi-
tect members. One guest said, "Sup-
ply houses and sub-contractors cannot
afford the 20 percent holdback the
law specifies" -but was reminded
that it was due to the support of these
very organizations that the Lien Law
amendment incorporating the much-
criticized holdback provision was
pushed through the 1953 legislature.
Blackwell did a creditable job of
patiently answering queries relative to
implications of the Court's decision.


One of his statements sums up the
present situation on the Lien Law as
he sees it.
"Penalties cf the law," said the at-
torney, "Were generally felt to be too
harsh at least by owners and those
whose job it is to advise owners. The
Supreme Court decision has con-
firmed that feeling. In effect, the
law's sharpest teeth have been drawn.
Owners must still, under the law,
comply with the 20 percent holdback
provision. But their liability is now
definitely limited.
"That in itself is an improvement.
But in my opinion the 20 percent pro-
vision is probably here to stay."-

Book Review
"Planning Functional College Housing"
To those building designers who
firmly expect to undertake the job of
developing a project for the adequate
housing of college students, a new
book, recently published by the Bu-
reau of Publications, Teachers Col-
lege, Columbia University, will un-
doubtedly be of interest.
Its author is HAROLD C. RIKER,
ED.D., Director of Housing at the
(Continued on Page 20)


I II1111111I I I I l I I I 1111111111111111111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


I 7aoo-Neew Paeel Beatya

le wTwevet-fot Plywood !

You've always wanted to use beau-
tifully figured fine hardwood panels
in full, twelve-foot lengths but
without the penalty of premium
prices for special orders ... Now you
can do so! They're here in Florida
for immediate delivery several
varieties of beautiful hardwoods.
Full Height Westag Plywood Panels are available
"WESTAG" in both exterior and interior grades
Beautiful! and all usually specified thicknesses.




I A. H. RAMSEY AN

CU 71 N. W. 11th TERRACE, MIA
= Service to Florida's west coast is from our warehouse a

i VlllllllllllllllllT, lllll 19 5 IIIIIIII6l lllllll ll IIIIll lll Il
AUGUST, 1956


: .
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:
!~".
.r
::
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: :
: ; 3ir~
:I I. Ei;.
:
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DSONS, INC.

MI---FRanklin 3-0811
it Palmetto Call Palmetto 2-1011





News & Notes
(Continued from Page 19)
University of Florida; and the avowed
purpose of the volume, as set forth
in the author's preface, is to "build
out of theory and practice a frame-
work for the support of better plan-
ning and use, to present ideas for the
satisfaction of deeper thinking, and
to develop a particular point of view
toward student housing."
To carry out this purpose a great
many generalities are presented in
some 214 text pages-exclusive of an
appendix and a remarkably complete
reference bibliography. But however
stimulating the text may be to the
eager student of housing as an ab-
stract interest, it may prove to be
something less than specifically help-
ful to the technical professional with
a problem before him which calls for
an immediate solution.
There is undoubtedly need for a
book on this general subject. But a
practising architect might well wish
that Dr. Riker had seen fit to spend
more effort at fact tabulation than at
theorizing and had presented his per-
tinent material in more graphic than
verbal phraseology.


State Board Grants
43 New Registrations

A total of 43 new architectural reg-
istrations have been issued by the
State Board of Architecture since
June 14, according to an announce-
ment from the Board's office in Ft.
Lauderdale. Of these, 34 were issued
to residents of Florida. Registrations
for out-of-state architects included two
each from Massachusetts and Alabama
and one each from Georgia, Louisiana,
No. Carolina, Ohio and Rhode Island.
Florida registrations were:
Clearwater
ROBERT E. TURNER; BARNARD W.
HARTMAN, JR.
Delray Beach
ROBBINS L. CONN
Ft. Lauderdale
LYNN A. AUBEL; MARGARET R.
BURGGRAF; GEORGE R. CARNAHAN;
GEORGE M. POLK, JR.; RICHARD C.
REILLY.
Gainesville
JOHN B. MARION


Hollywood
JOHN E. MAY
Jacksonville
LESLIE T. ELLIAS; ALLEN D. FRYE;
JOHN R. GRAVELY; ROBERT L.
HARE; JAMES A. MCDONALD; DI-
ANE J. MILAM; ROBBIE F. NURN-
BERGER
Marathon Shores
WILLIAM M. WEIDEMEYER
Miami
ALFRED F. ANDERSON; WILLIAM
H. ARTHUR; LOWRY M. BELL, JR.;
DONALD H. FORFAR; GFORGE F.
REED, JR.; GERALD W. WEST
Miami Beach
JAMES G. HUNDLEY, JR.
Naples
RICHARD W. MORRIS
Pompano Beach
PAUL R. JOHN, III; CORA L. WELLS
St. Petersburg
JAMES W. NEET
Sarasota
JOHN E. CARLSON
Tallahassee
PAUL A. McKINLEY
Tampa
JOSEPH C. RUSSELLO
Winter Haven
ALF O. BARTH; JOSEPH E. CARLISLE


FITS


ALMOST ANY SPACE...



AN ELECTRIC

WATER HEATER

For flexibility in planning... specify
ELECTRIC water heaters. They
tuck away anywhere need no
special flues or vents. They elimin-
ate heat radiation designed to
heat the water, NOT the house. Im-
portant, too... electric water heaters
are clean, safe, fast and economical.


FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT





Laminated Lumber...
(Continued from Page 13)
structures of laminated wood. Assign-
ment of the correct working stresses,
however, involves special consider-
ations, some of which are common
to all timbers and some peculiar to
laminated members.
In timber design, past practice has
been to assign "basic stresses" to
the various species and to compute
working stresses for particular grades
by multiplying the basic stress by a
factor called the strength ratio. The
basic stress represents, essentially, the
working stress applicable to a defect-
free piece. It is derived from average
properties of the species by applying
factors that adjust laboratory test re-
sults to actual conditions of use. The
strength ratio represents the propor-
tion of the strength of a defect-free
piece that remains after taking into
account the effect of strength-reduc-
ing features. In developing working
stresses for laminated members, the
same system is used.
Basic stresses for laminated timbers
under service conditions that involve
a high moisture content are the same
as for solid timbers. That is, they
are based on the strength of wood
in the green condition. One of the
advantages of a laminated member is
that it can be made of laminations
small enough in cross section to be
seasoned readily before assembly and
thus form a member seasoned through-
out and free from the tendency to
check and distort after erection. Ob-
viously, such a member also may be
sufficiently dry throughout to justify
the use of stresses based on the higher
strength of dry material-but only if
the conditions of service are such as
to maintain a low moisture content
in the member throughout its service.
Accordingly, the Forest Products Lab-
oratory recommends a second set of
basic stresses for structures that will
see service under dry conditions.
As mentioned earlier, a concen-
tration of large knots in a laminated
member is unlikely. Means have been
found for predicting the probability
of occurrence of any given concen-
tration. Thus, once a suitable proba-
bility is chosen (a calculated risk, if
you will), the corresponding knot con-
centration is known, and a strength
ratio can be assigned from available
(Continued on Page 22)
AUGUST, 1956


Ornamental Castings of Quality


In Your
Files .

You can select
many standard
decorative
units from
our Catalog 52,
AIA File No.
15; or write us
for a new one.


Architectural use of fine metal castings is centuries
old but also modern as today! Our craftsmen work
in gray iron, bronze or aluminum. They will produce
special castings from your designs or you can
specify from a wide range of traditional patterns
in gray iron from stock.


FLORIDA FOUNDRY
- & PATTERN WORKS


3737. N. W. 43rd Street
Miami, Florida


STANDARD JOISTS STRUCTURAL


LONG SPANS


* SUPERSPANS


SPECIAL TRUSSES


Fabrication and Erection
to Exact Specifications by


VULKAN


FLORIDA DIVISION VULKAN, INC,.


75 W. 31st STREET, HIALEAH


TUXEDO 7-2647







* BUILDERS' ROSTER .

Contracting firms listed below have either been recommended by practicing architects in their
locality or are trade association members of recognized standing. AGC-Associated General
Contractors; FAEC-Florida Association of Electrical Contractors; ACI-Amer. Concrete Institute;
NCMA-Natl. Concrete Masonry Assoc.; NRMCA-Natl. Ready-mixed Concrete Assoc.; FCPA-
Florida Concrete Products Assoc. C-Person to contact.


- CHARLOTTE COUNTY
GENERAL
Cleveland Construction Co., Inc.
Harborview Rd., Punta Gorda
Phone: NE 2-5911
C-Roy C. Young, Pres.-AGC

SDADE COUNTY
GENERAL
Avant Construction Co., Inc.
360 N.W. 27th Ave., Miami
Phone: NE 5-2409
C-John L. Avant, Pres.-AGC
Edward M. Fleming Construction
Co., Inc.
4121 N.W. 25th St., Miami 42
Phone: NE 5-0791
C-Ed. M. Fleming, Pres.-AGC
PAVING, GRADING
T. J. James Construction Co.
1700 N.W. 119th St., Miami
Phone: MU 8-8621
C-Randolph Young, Gen. Mgr.-AGC

- PALM BEACH COUNTY -
GENERAL
Arnold Construction Co.
S'te 7, Murray Bid., Palm Beach
Phone: TE 2-4267
C-W. H. Arnold, Pres.-AGC
Paul & Son, Inc.
921 Ortega Rd., W. Palm Beach
Phone TE 2-3716
C-P. D. Crickenberger, Pres.


CONCRETE MASONRY
Shirley Brothers, Inc.
N. Canal Pt. Rd., Pahokee
Phone: Pahokee 7185
C-Claude L. Shirley, Pres.-AGC
AGC assoc. NRMCA; FCPA; NCMA
PLASTERING
J. A. Tompkins
1102 North A, Lake Worth
Phone: JU 2-6790
C-J. A. Tompkins, Owner-AGC
ELECTRICAL
Arrow Electric Company
501 Palm St., W. Palm Beach
Phone: TE 3-8424
C-V. L. Burkhardt, Pres.-AGC
Assoc.; FAEC
PINELLAS COUNTY
GENERAL
A. P. Hennessy & Sons, Inc.
2300 22d St. N., St. Petersburg
Phone: 7-0308
C-L. J. Hennessy, Pres.-AGC

VOLUSIA COUNTY
CONCRETE MASONRY
Quillian's Concrete
3rd St. F.E.C., Daytona Beach
Phone: CL 3-8113
C-Hugo Quillian, Partner-AGC
Assoc. NCMA; FSPA; NRMCA. ACI

- GEORGIA-Fulton County -
GENERAL
Beers Construction Company
70 Ellis St., N.E., Atlanta 3
Phone: AL 0555
C-E. M. Eastman, V.-Pres.-AGC


Laminated Lumber ...
(Continued from Page 21)
data. From this strength ratio, the
proper design stress can be determined,
and the end-point type and limiting
values of grain slope may be assigned
to correspond.
Design stresses published by the
lumber industry have been developed
on this basis.
Fire Resistance
Fire resistance of materials the
architect uses is of primary concern
to him, particularly in places of public
assemblage, such as schools. What,
then, can be said of the fire resistance
of laminated timber?
We all acknowledge that wood will
burn. We know also that wood is
a good insulator, so that temperatures
only a short distance inward from the
zone of char are far below those where
the wood is burning. In a large timber,
therefore, the rate of reduction of
cross section is low and the conse-
quent loss of strength is slow. It is
this characteristic that gave the old-
mill-type construction its high rating
for fire resistance.
(Continued on facing page)
III11 1111111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlll ll Il111111 l il11111 1 IIIIIIl IIIIIIIIIll1 1 1 '

SERVING FLORIDA

ARCHITECTS & BUILDERS

REINFORCING STEEL
BAR JOISTS
STEEL SASH
ALUMINUM SASH
JALOUSIES
STEEL DOORS & FRAMES
MISC. IRON AND
ALUMI NUM
ORNAMENTAL IRON
STEEL ROOF DECK
STEELTEX
HIGHWAY PRODUCTS
COMPLETE ENGINEER-
ING SERVICE
MODERN FABRICATING
FACILITIES


FLORIDA STEEL
PRODUCTS, INC.


TAMPA 8-4824
ORLANDO 2-4539
JACKSONVILLE ELgin 5-1662

llllll THE FLORIDA ARCHITECTllllllllll ll
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


I~ tt I n4e


DISTRIBUTING COMPANY OF FLORIDA
2433 Central Avenue St. Petersburg, Florida
WRITE FOR FREE MANUAL AND A.I.A. FILE FOLDER.


1111111111111111111111111111111111111111





Large laminated timbers differ from
large solid timbers only in that the
former are made up of layers joined
with glue. Any difference in fire be-
havior, therefore, could result only
from characteristics of the glue. Tests
have shown that adhesives of the
phenol and resorcinol type are not
affected by fire. Casein, however, is
readily weakened. Before casein glue
can be affected, its temperature has
to be raised sufficiently to cause it
to deteriorate. Insulation provided by
the wood prevents the temperature
in a glue joint attacked only from
the edge from being raised signif-
icantly more than a minor distance
beyond the charred zone.
When a lamination is burned
through its thickness, though, a case-
in joint will deteriorate and permit
the char to drop off, exposing a fresh
surface to the fire. At an estimated
rate of char of 1V2 inches per hour,
even a 4-inch lamination will require
about one-half hour to burn through.
A laminated member with 112-inch
(nominal 2-inch) laminations would
thus be equivalent in fire resistance
to solid members of the same actual
size with a fire resistance up to one
hour.



ADVERTISERS' INDEX

Aluminum Insulating Co., Inc. 15
Armor-Flex Products 24
Belmar Drapes .. 16
Bruce Equipment Company 2
Builders' Roster . 22
Burnup & Sims, Inc. .. 6
Decor Shutters . 16
Dunan Brick Yards 3rd Cover
Electrend Distributing Co. 22
Florida Foundry . 21
Florida Power & Light Co. 20
Florida Steel Products Co. 22
George C. Griffin . 12
Hollostone of Miami .. 3
Interstate
Tile & Marble Co. 17
Leap Concrete .. 5
Magic City Shade
& Drapery Corp. 4
Maule . 2nd Cover
Palmer Electric Co. .. 24
Perlite, Inc. ... 13
A. H. Ramsey & Son, Inc. 19
Satchwell Electric
Construction Co. 18
Southern Venetian Blind Co. 16
Unit Structures . 14
Vulkan, Inc. .. 21
F. Graham Williams 23

AUGUST, 1956


F. GRAHAM
JOHN F. HALLMAN, President
MARK P. J. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.
FRANK D. WILLIAMS, Vice-Pres.


WILLIAMS, Chairman
JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres.
JAMES H. BARRON, JR., Secy-Treas.
JOSEPH A. COLE, Vice-Pres.


ESTABLISHED 1910


F. GRAHAM WILLIAMS CO.
INCORPORATED


"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"


A llT A ,ITT A


ELGIN 1084 A IL.
LONG DISTANCE 470






FACE BRICK

HANDMADE BRICK

"VITRICOTTA" PAVERS
GRANITE

LIMESTONE

ALBERENE STONE

SERPENTINE STONE

BRIAR HILL STONE

CRAB ORCHARD FLAGSTONE
CRAB ORCHARD RUBBLE STONE
CRAB ORCHARD STONE ROOFING


L A 1--. 1690 BOULEVARD, N. E.
OFFICES AND YARD






PENNSYLVANIA WILLIAMSTONE
"NOR-CARLA BLUESTONE"
STRUCTURAL CERAMIC
GLAZED TILE
SALT GLAZED TILE
UNGLAZED FACING TILE
HOLLOW TILE

ALUMINUM WINDOWS

ARCHITECTURAL BRONZE
AND ALUMINUM
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA

BUCKINGHAM AND VERMONT
SLATE FOR ROOFS AND FLOORS

ERIE PORCELAIN ENAMELING


We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
quality and service to the ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS and
OWNERS on any of the many Beautiful and Permanent Building
Materials we handle. Write, wire or telephone us COLLECT for
complete information, samples and prices.





Represented in Florida by
LEUDEMAN and TERRY
3709 Harlano Street


Coral Gables, Florida


Telephone No. 83-6554


\J





IIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII11111111111111111111111111111111

DISTINCTIVE
VERSATILE
ENDURING
"Immediate
Delivery"

Exclusive Distributors-
Dade, Broward, Monroe Counties


America's most versatile
translucent Fiberglas Paneling
made in
continu-
ous rolls



ARMOR-FLEX PRODUCTS
WHOLESALE FACTORY DISTRIBUTORS
Phone JA 2-3204
2111 S. Andrews Ave.
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.
IllIIIllll lllIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIlllli llllI ll IIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


2ca~ru


It assures you and your
client of high performance
and fair dealing in every
phase of electrical work .
Contracting Fixtures ..
Appliances Heating
.Air Conditioning.


PALMER ELECTRIC

COMPANY


316 W. Colonial
Phone 5-7551
ORLANDO


523 Park Ave., No.
Phone 5-4471
WINTER PARK


Producers' Council Program


Dean M. Jolley
Late in June, meetings of both
Jacksonville and Miami Chapters pro-
duced a new slate of officers for both
groups. In Jacksonville, at Deeb's
Steer Room, the following were elect-
ed: DEAN M. JOLLEY, president; EM-
METT H. JONES, 1st vice-president and
program chairman; FREDERICK H.
BAUMER, 2nd vice-president and
membership chairman; and JOHN H.
McCORMACK, secretary-treasurer.
In Miami, the election meeting was
held at the Coral Gables Country


Nicholas Nordone


Emmett H. Jones


Club with these results: NICHOLAS
NORDONE, president; FRED W. CON-
NELL, vice-president; ALLEN KERN,
secretary; and 0. CABOT KYLE, treas-
urer.
Fiscal years for both Chapters start
in July; thus these new officers will
serve a 1956-1957 term. Retiring pres-
ident in Jacksonville was GEORGE P.
COYLE; and in Miami GOSPER Sis-
TRUNK had held his Chapter's top spot
during the past year.
Activities in both Producers' Coun-
cil chapters are planned primarily for
the fall, winter and spring months.
New administrations will shortly ap-
point chairmen of various special com-
mittees to develop these activities for
the coming year. It is anticipated that
the same general pattern as in the past
will be followed during the coming
year a series of "informational
meetings" for architects and design-
ing engineers, and a "table-top" ex-
hibit in which all Council member-
representatives can participate.


THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT


O. Cabot Kyle


Fred W. Connell


mammiumummmmeasuman


om








IU N1


BRICK


Specialists In

DECORATIVE MASONRY MATERIALS

FOR WALLS, WALKS AND FLOORS

MATERIALS OF CLAY, SHALE

CONCRETE AND NATURAL STONE




Manufacturers Of


S/upded Brick
(A Concrete Product)

In The Following Color Ranges

OYSTER WHITE .. CHARCOAL CHALK WHITE

RAINBOW RANGE TAN RANGE RED RANGE PINK RANGE

GRAY RANGE .. TAUPE RANGE .. GREEN RANGE
*T.M. REG.


St&C#lted S"C sold in Florida by:
Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company .....Avon Park, Fla.
Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company ........- Bartow, Fla
Fort Myers Ready-Mix Concrete, Inc -a....-...- .. Fort Myers, Fla.
Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company -..-- Frostproof, Fla.
Baird Hardware Company ..............---... Gainesville, Fla.
Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company Haines City, Fla.
Florida-Georgia Brick & Tile Company Jacksonville, Fla.
Strunk Lumber Yard .......... ........Key West, Fla.


Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company Lake Wales, Fla.
Grassy Key Builders' Supply Company ...... Marathon, Fla.
Gandy Block & Supply Company --- Melbourne, Fla.
C. J. Jones Lumber Company ... .. .Naples, Fla.
Marion Hardware Company ......- -----............ -- Ocala, Fla.
Townsend Sash, Door & Lumber Company....... Sebring, Fla.
Tallahassee Builders' Supply ......... ........- Tallahassee, Fla.
Burnup & Sims, Inc... --. ... West Palm Beach, Fla.


DUNAN BRICK YARDS, PHONE TU 7-1525, MIAMI, FLORIDA
INCORPORATED











RESERVE

YOUR

ROOM

AT ONCE! "

The Seville Hotel, Miami Beach, is headquarters for the 1956 FAA Convention

November 8th, 9th and 10th -- those are dates to check
on your calendar now! It's not a bit too early to earmark
a trip to Miami Beach this fall -- a trip for fellowship
and fun as well as professional affairs... A great Con-
vention is being planned. Facilities for it are the finest.
Start now on your own plans to take full advantage of them.


42ND ANNUAL FAA CONVENTION1




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