• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Study area
 Methods
 Results
 Discussion
 Research and management recomm...
 Literature cited
 Appendix A: Manatee counts and...
 Appendix B: Scar charts of all...






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Technical report no. 6-1
Title: Manatee use of two power plant effluents on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073785/00001
 Material Information
Title: Manatee use of two power plant effluents on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida
Series Title: Site-specific reduction of manatee boatbarge mortality report
Physical Description: 62 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kinnaird, M
Valade, J
Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: [1983]
 Subjects
Subject: Manatees -- Florida -- St. Johns River   ( lcsh )
West Indian manatee -- Florida -- St Johns River   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 16-17).
Statement of Responsibility: M. Kinnaird and J. Valade.
General Note: "Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service."
General Note: "August 1983."
General Note: "Cooperative agreement no. 14-16-0004-81-923."
General Note: On cover: "October 1983."
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073785
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001891646
oclc - 28321445
notis - AJW6875

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Table of Contents
        i
    List of Figures
        ii
    Acknowledgement
        iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Study area
        Page 1
    Methods
        Page 2
        Manatee surveys
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Air and water temperature
            Page 6
    Results
        Page 6
        Individual identification and resightings
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Movements
            Page 9
        Influence of air and water temperatures
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
    Discussion
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Research and management recommendations
        Page 15
    Literature cited
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Appendix A: Manatee counts and air and water temperatures...
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Appendix B: Scar charts of all individually identified manatees...
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
Full Text












Manatee Use of Two Power Plant Effluents


on the St. Johns River

in

Jacksonville, Florida


August 1983


M. Kinnaird' and J. Valade2

ICooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
117 Newins-Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

2P.O. Box 11635
Jacksonville, FL 32211



Prepared for:

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
75 Spring Street, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30303



Cooperative Agreement No. 14-16-0004-81-923

Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge Mortality Report No. 1











Table of Contents

Page

List of Figures ii

List of Tables ii

Acknowledgements iii

Introduction 1

Study Area 1

Methods 2

Manatee Surveys 2

Counts 2
Individual Identification 2
Long Distance Movements 6

Air and Water Temperatures 6

Results 6

Individual Identification and Resightings 6
Movements 9
Influence of Air and Water Temperatures 9

Discussion 12

Management Recommendations 15

Literature Cited 16

Appendix A 18

Appendix B 25











List of Figures

Figure Page

1. Location of Jacksonville industrial warm water outfalls 3

2. Kennedy Generating Station discharge area 4

3. Southside Generating Station discharge area 5

4. Number of manatees counted during surveys at Kennedy
Generating Station and Southside Generating Station 7

5. Frequency of individual sightings for both power plant
sites combined 8

6. Sighting dates of individually identified animals 10


List of Tables

1. Monthly percentages of the 1982/1983 seasonal total of
newly identified individuals and resightings 11

2. Number of manatees counted during surveys at the Kennedy
and Southside Generating Stations 19

3. Maximum, minimum and mean ambient air temperatures
(degrees C), Jacksonville International Airport 20

4. Survey results for the Kennedy Generating Station 21

5. Survey results for the Southside Generating Station 23








iii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank the Jacksonville Electric Authority for their
help and cooperation throughout the study. G. Rathbun kindly supplied camera
equipment. C. Beck and R. Bonde were helpful in supplying updated mortality
data and other information. Special thanks are extended to J. Reid who spent
many hours sorting, cataloging and matching slides. T. O'Shea, G. Rathbun,
J. Powell and J. Reid also invested time and strained eyes debating over and
examining slides. Constructive review of former drafts was generously
provided by R. Gregory, G. Rathbun, D. Peterson, D. Laist and T. O'Shea. D.
Stinson patiently typed each draft of the manuscript. This study was funded
by a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the
Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Support was provided by
the School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida.










INTRODUCTION


Manatee use of artificial warm water discharges as winter refuges is
well documented (Moore 1951, 1956; Layne 1965; Hartman 1974, 1979; Campbell
and Powell 1976; Irvine and Campbell 1978; Rose McCutcheon 1980; Shane 1981;
Packard 1982; and Rathbun et al. 1983). The recent proliferation of
industrial warm water effluents has resulted in the expansion of the manatees
winter range up the east coast of Florida as far north as Jacksonville
(Rathbun et al. 1983). Although it has been speculated that a few manatees
spend the winter in industrial outfalls in Georgia and along the
Florida-Georgia border, no known winter aggregations exist north of those
occurring in Jacksonville, Florida (Rathbun et al. 1983, Kinnaird 1983).

The St. Johns River originates in east-central Florida and flows north
approximately 400 kilometers, emptying into the Atlantic northeast of
Jacksonville. Manatees frequently occur in the northern (i.e. lower) reaches
of the St. Johns River throughout the warmer months (Moore 1951, Hartman
1974); however, manatees are sighted less frequently during the cooler months
(Hartman 1974). Most winter sightings in the northern St. Johns River occur
in the warm water effluents of two power generating stations and one
industrial plant (Hartman 1974, Valade unpubl. data).

Hartman (1974) suggests that the majority of manatees leave the St.
Johns River at the onset of winter and migrate south along the east coast of
Florida to warmer waters,,. Eberhardt (1982) speculated that those individual
manatees that winter in the Jacksonville area may be animals that traveled
from coastal summering areas to the north and south. Data collected by
Bengtson (1981) suggest that the winter population of manatees at Blue
Spring, a natural, warm water refuge approximately 170 km downstream may be
largely independent of animals wintering in the Jacksonville area.

Manatee winter aggregations at three sources of warm water discharge in
the Jacksonville area were briefly monitored in 1979 by Gicca (unpubl. data)
and in 1980 and 1981 by Valade (1980, unpubl. data). The frequency and
pattern of manatee use of these plants have not been documented for a
complete winter season and it is not known whether overwintering animals are
transient or resident individuals.

To provide a better basis for understanding manatee winter abundance and
habitat use patterns along the northern limit of the species' range, the
purposes of this study were to: a) document the degree and nature of manatee
use at two Jacksonville power plants, b) determine the influence of air and
water temperature on manatee use of the plants, c) identify and photograph
individual manatees observed in the outfalls, d) document site fidelity, and
e) document any local and/or long distance manatee movements.


STUDY AREA

The study area extends from the mouth of the St. Johns River to a point
approximately 55 kilometers upstream in St. Johns, Clay and Duval Counties,
Florida (Fig. 1). The area is believed to be the northern limit of the
manatees' winter range and includes at least five warm water refugia used
with varying degrees of frequency by manatees. The warm water effluents of










INTRODUCTION


Manatee use of artificial warm water discharges as winter refuges is
well documented (Moore 1951, 1956; Layne 1965; Hartman 1974, 1979; Campbell
and Powell 1976; Irvine and Campbell 1978; Rose McCutcheon 1980; Shane 1981;
Packard 1982; and Rathbun et al. 1983). The recent proliferation of
industrial warm water effluents has resulted in the expansion of the manatees
winter range up the east coast of Florida as far north as Jacksonville
(Rathbun et al. 1983). Although it has been speculated that a few manatees
spend the winter in industrial outfalls in Georgia and along the
Florida-Georgia border, no known winter aggregations exist north of those
occurring in Jacksonville, Florida (Rathbun et al. 1983, Kinnaird 1983).

The St. Johns River originates in east-central Florida and flows north
approximately 400 kilometers, emptying into the Atlantic northeast of
Jacksonville. Manatees frequently occur in the northern (i.e. lower) reaches
of the St. Johns River throughout the warmer months (Moore 1951, Hartman
1974); however, manatees are sighted less frequently during the cooler months
(Hartman 1974). Most winter sightings in the northern St. Johns River occur
in the warm water effluents of two power generating stations and one
industrial plant (Hartman 1974, Valade unpubl. data).

Hartman (1974) suggests that the majority of manatees leave the St.
Johns River at the onset of winter and migrate south along the east coast of
Florida to warmer waters,,. Eberhardt (1982) speculated that those individual
manatees that winter in the Jacksonville area may be animals that traveled
from coastal summering areas to the north and south. Data collected by
Bengtson (1981) suggest that the winter population of manatees at Blue
Spring, a natural, warm water refuge approximately 170 km downstream may be
largely independent of animals wintering in the Jacksonville area.

Manatee winter aggregations at three sources of warm water discharge in
the Jacksonville area were briefly monitored in 1979 by Gicca (unpubl. data)
and in 1980 and 1981 by Valade (1980, unpubl. data). The frequency and
pattern of manatee use of these plants have not been documented for a
complete winter season and it is not known whether overwintering animals are
transient or resident individuals.

To provide a better basis for understanding manatee winter abundance and
habitat use patterns along the northern limit of the species' range, the
purposes of this study were to: a) document the degree and nature of manatee
use at two Jacksonville power plants, b) determine the influence of air and
water temperature on manatee use of the plants, c) identify and photograph
individual manatees observed in the outfalls, d) document site fidelity, and
e) document any local and/or long distance manatee movements.


STUDY AREA

The study area extends from the mouth of the St. Johns River to a point
approximately 55 kilometers upstream in St. Johns, Clay and Duval Counties,
Florida (Fig. 1). The area is believed to be the northern limit of the
manatees' winter range and includes at least five warm water refugia used
with varying degrees of frequency by manatees. The warm water effluents of








2


two Jacksonville Electric Authority generating stations were surveyed: the J.
Dillon Kennedy Generating Station and Southside Generating Station (Fig. 1).
A third warm water source from the Alton Packaging Corporation is located
immediately north of the Kennedy Generating Station. Manatees were monitored
here during previous winters, however during the winter of 1982/83 the
company would not grant permission to enter the grounds.

The J. Dillon Kennedy Generating Station (KGS) is located on the west
bank of the lower St. Johns River in the city of Jacksonville (Fig. 1). The
KGS is an oil-burning facility with three steam units. The average
generating capacity is 225 megawatts and the average daily discharge flow is
378,530 liters per minute (D. MacDonald, pers. comm.). The facility has two
separate warm water discharges: a main discharge partially enclosed by a
loading dock and bulkheads and a smaller discharge to the south that flows
directly into the river through a pipe one meter in diameter (Fig. 2).

The Southside Generating Station (SGS) is approximately four kilometers
south of Kennedy and is located on the south bank of the St. Johns River
(Fig. 1). This facility has five steam units with a 270 megawatt generating
capacity and an average daily discharge flow of 357,673 liters per minute (H.
Ponchard, pers. comm.). The warm water discharge is channelized by cement
bulkheads running in a north-south direction which empties into the river at
the northwest corner of the site (Fig. 3).


METHODS

Manatee Surveys

Sixty-two ground surveys of each power plant were conducted during the
study period from the bulkheads bordering the discharge area. Surveys were
conducted from 18 October 1982 to 14 April 1983. Initial surveys were made
on a weekly basis and were increased to three or more times weekly with the
onset of cold weather and increased numbers of manatees. Surveys were
conducted between 0800 and 1300 hours; the length of the survey varied from
one to two and one half hours at each site depending on the number of
manatees present. The data collected included manatee abundance, individual
identifications, air temperature and water temperature at discharge and river
locations.

Counts. Two methods were used to count manatees, depending on weather
conditions. Under adverse conditions (chop and/or glare on water), the
number of surfacings was counted during three five-minute intervals. The
number of surfacings in the discharge area per five-minute interval was
assumed to equal the number of manatees present. If conditions and
visibility were good, direct counts were made. Calves were counted
separately from adults and were defined as animals one-half or less the size
of an adult they closely accompany.

Individual identification. Individuals were identified using
morphological peculiarities, scar patterns caused by boat propellers and
barnacles, and other markings. Photographs and sketches of individuals
present in the outfalls facilitated re-identification. A sighting log for
each identified manatee was maintained. Individuals photographed and
identified during previous winters were included in the analysis.








2


two Jacksonville Electric Authority generating stations were surveyed: the J.
Dillon Kennedy Generating Station and Southside Generating Station (Fig. 1).
A third warm water source from the Alton Packaging Corporation is located
immediately north of the Kennedy Generating Station. Manatees were monitored
here during previous winters, however during the winter of 1982/83 the
company would not grant permission to enter the grounds.

The J. Dillon Kennedy Generating Station (KGS) is located on the west
bank of the lower St. Johns River in the city of Jacksonville (Fig. 1). The
KGS is an oil-burning facility with three steam units. The average
generating capacity is 225 megawatts and the average daily discharge flow is
378,530 liters per minute (D. MacDonald, pers. comm.). The facility has two
separate warm water discharges: a main discharge partially enclosed by a
loading dock and bulkheads and a smaller discharge to the south that flows
directly into the river through a pipe one meter in diameter (Fig. 2).

The Southside Generating Station (SGS) is approximately four kilometers
south of Kennedy and is located on the south bank of the St. Johns River
(Fig. 1). This facility has five steam units with a 270 megawatt generating
capacity and an average daily discharge flow of 357,673 liters per minute (H.
Ponchard, pers. comm.). The warm water discharge is channelized by cement
bulkheads running in a north-south direction which empties into the river at
the northwest corner of the site (Fig. 3).


METHODS

Manatee Surveys

Sixty-two ground surveys of each power plant were conducted during the
study period from the bulkheads bordering the discharge area. Surveys were
conducted from 18 October 1982 to 14 April 1983. Initial surveys were made
on a weekly basis and were increased to three or more times weekly with the
onset of cold weather and increased numbers of manatees. Surveys were
conducted between 0800 and 1300 hours; the length of the survey varied from
one to two and one half hours at each site depending on the number of
manatees present. The data collected included manatee abundance, individual
identifications, air temperature and water temperature at discharge and river
locations.

Counts. Two methods were used to count manatees, depending on weather
conditions. Under adverse conditions (chop and/or glare on water), the
number of surfacings was counted during three five-minute intervals. The
number of surfacings in the discharge area per five-minute interval was
assumed to equal the number of manatees present. If conditions and
visibility were good, direct counts were made. Calves were counted
separately from adults and were defined as animals one-half or less the size
of an adult they closely accompany.

Individual identification. Individuals were identified using
morphological peculiarities, scar patterns caused by boat propellers and
barnacles, and other markings. Photographs and sketches of individuals
present in the outfalls facilitated re-identification. A sighting log for
each identified manatee was maintained. Individuals photographed and
identified during previous winters were included in the analysis.














SSOUTHSIDE GENERATING
* KENNEDY GENERATING STATION
O ALTON PACKAGING CORPORATION
SNORTHSIDE GENERATING STATION
* ST. REGIS PAPER COMPANY (


Trout
River


ICW '


JAGKSONVILLE

Ortega .
River

Duval Co.
Clay Co.






Black
Creek


Green Cove Spgs.


I

3km



I. .


St. Johns Co.


Figure I. Location of Jacksonville industrial warm water outfalls.


Jax.
Int.
Air.























LOADING DOCK





MAIN DISCHARGE
Ibr.-.


LDscharge temperature --
taken here







ST. JOHNS
WATER INTAKE
RIVER
STRUCTURE R


.- -- -- Ambient river temperature
--- taken here
SOUTH DISCHARGE


Discharge temperature ,
taken here


Figure 2. KENNEDY GENERATING STATION DISCHARGE AREA


r-


m














Discharge temperature
taken here ---


ST. JOHNS
RIVER


Figure 3.

SOUTHSIDE
GENERATING STATION
DISCHARGE AREA


Discharge temperature
taken here


Discharge temperature
taken here











Long distance movements. All photographs taken of identifiable
individuals were forwarded to the Sirenia Project, USFWS, Gainesville,
Florida, and added to their statewide manatee photo catalogue. Manatee
movements were documented by comparing photographs of individual manatees
taken at the Jacksonville power plants with photographs taken of individuals
at other sites along the east coast of Florida.

Air and Water Temperatures

Mean daily air temperatures (OC) were obtained from the National Weather
Service at the Jacksonville International Airport (Fig. 1).

Effluent temperatures at the Kennedy Generating Station were recorded
for both main and southern discharges (Fig. 2). Temperatures were not
recorded at the southern discharge until 6 February 1983. Thereafter,
recordings at this site were subject to tidal influxes that occasionally
rendered the site inaccessible. Temperatures were recorded at three sites
along the discharge canal at the Southside Generating Station (Fig. 3) and
average temperature values were calculated. Ambient river temperatures were
taken at the water intake structures of both generating stations. The
Kendall's Tau test statistic (Siegel, 1956) was used to test for correlations
between the number of manatees present in the outfalls and air and water
temperatures.


RESULTS

A total of 224 manatee sightings were recorded for both plants; 135
(61%) from the Kennedy Generating Station and 88 (39%) from the Southside
Station. Twenty three (10%) of the total number of sightings were calves
(Appendix A, Table 2).

The number of daily manatee sightings ranged from zero to 11 at both
plants and varied throughout the season (Fig. 4). Manatee numbers at both
outfalls peaked early in the season (Oct.-Nov.). Manatee numbers varied at
both plants (0-10) during December and January and the number of sightings
began to decline towards the end of January. The Kennedy Generating Station
had a consistently higher number of sightings than did Southside and
experienced a second peak in sightings during the early spring (March-April).

Individual Identification and Resightings

A total of 44 individual manatees were identified, 20 of which were
verified by photographs and filed in the Sirenia Project manatee photo
catalogue. The remaining individuals were either 1) sketched and/or
photographed but were not entered into the catalogue because positive
identification could not be made or 2) had no scars and were unidentifiable
(Appendix B).

Two of the fourteen animals identified during previous winters were
re-sighted during this study. Thirty-two individuals (72%) were sighted only
once; the greatest number of sightings for any one individual was 7 (Fig. 5).
Four individuals (JX16, Jll, JX17 and JX18) were re-sighted within a period











Long distance movements. All photographs taken of identifiable
individuals were forwarded to the Sirenia Project, USFWS, Gainesville,
Florida, and added to their statewide manatee photo catalogue. Manatee
movements were documented by comparing photographs of individual manatees
taken at the Jacksonville power plants with photographs taken of individuals
at other sites along the east coast of Florida.

Air and Water Temperatures

Mean daily air temperatures (OC) were obtained from the National Weather
Service at the Jacksonville International Airport (Fig. 1).

Effluent temperatures at the Kennedy Generating Station were recorded
for both main and southern discharges (Fig. 2). Temperatures were not
recorded at the southern discharge until 6 February 1983. Thereafter,
recordings at this site were subject to tidal influxes that occasionally
rendered the site inaccessible. Temperatures were recorded at three sites
along the discharge canal at the Southside Generating Station (Fig. 3) and
average temperature values were calculated. Ambient river temperatures were
taken at the water intake structures of both generating stations. The
Kendall's Tau test statistic (Siegel, 1956) was used to test for correlations
between the number of manatees present in the outfalls and air and water
temperatures.


RESULTS

A total of 224 manatee sightings were recorded for both plants; 135
(61%) from the Kennedy Generating Station and 88 (39%) from the Southside
Station. Twenty three (10%) of the total number of sightings were calves
(Appendix A, Table 2).

The number of daily manatee sightings ranged from zero to 11 at both
plants and varied throughout the season (Fig. 4). Manatee numbers at both
outfalls peaked early in the season (Oct.-Nov.). Manatee numbers varied at
both plants (0-10) during December and January and the number of sightings
began to decline towards the end of January. The Kennedy Generating Station
had a consistently higher number of sightings than did Southside and
experienced a second peak in sightings during the early spring (March-April).

Individual Identification and Resightings

A total of 44 individual manatees were identified, 20 of which were
verified by photographs and filed in the Sirenia Project manatee photo
catalogue. The remaining individuals were either 1) sketched and/or
photographed but were not entered into the catalogue because positive
identification could not be made or 2) had no scars and were unidentifiable
(Appendix B).

Two of the fourteen animals identified during previous winters were
re-sighted during this study. Thirty-two individuals (72%) were sighted only
once; the greatest number of sightings for any one individual was 7 (Fig. 5).
Four individuals (JX16, Jll, JX17 and JX18) were re-sighted within a period











Long distance movements. All photographs taken of identifiable
individuals were forwarded to the Sirenia Project, USFWS, Gainesville,
Florida, and added to their statewide manatee photo catalogue. Manatee
movements were documented by comparing photographs of individual manatees
taken at the Jacksonville power plants with photographs taken of individuals
at other sites along the east coast of Florida.

Air and Water Temperatures

Mean daily air temperatures (OC) were obtained from the National Weather
Service at the Jacksonville International Airport (Fig. 1).

Effluent temperatures at the Kennedy Generating Station were recorded
for both main and southern discharges (Fig. 2). Temperatures were not
recorded at the southern discharge until 6 February 1983. Thereafter,
recordings at this site were subject to tidal influxes that occasionally
rendered the site inaccessible. Temperatures were recorded at three sites
along the discharge canal at the Southside Generating Station (Fig. 3) and
average temperature values were calculated. Ambient river temperatures were
taken at the water intake structures of both generating stations. The
Kendall's Tau test statistic (Siegel, 1956) was used to test for correlations
between the number of manatees present in the outfalls and air and water
temperatures.


RESULTS

A total of 224 manatee sightings were recorded for both plants; 135
(61%) from the Kennedy Generating Station and 88 (39%) from the Southside
Station. Twenty three (10%) of the total number of sightings were calves
(Appendix A, Table 2).

The number of daily manatee sightings ranged from zero to 11 at both
plants and varied throughout the season (Fig. 4). Manatee numbers at both
outfalls peaked early in the season (Oct.-Nov.). Manatee numbers varied at
both plants (0-10) during December and January and the number of sightings
began to decline towards the end of January. The Kennedy Generating Station
had a consistently higher number of sightings than did Southside and
experienced a second peak in sightings during the early spring (March-April).

Individual Identification and Resightings

A total of 44 individual manatees were identified, 20 of which were
verified by photographs and filed in the Sirenia Project manatee photo
catalogue. The remaining individuals were either 1) sketched and/or
photographed but were not entered into the catalogue because positive
identification could not be made or 2) had no scars and were unidentifiable
(Appendix B).

Two of the fourteen animals identified during previous winters were
re-sighted during this study. Thirty-two individuals (72%) were sighted only
once; the greatest number of sightings for any one individual was 7 (Fig. 5).
Four individuals (JX16, Jll, JX17 and JX18) were re-sighted within a period














Figure 4. Number of manatees counted during surveys at Kennedy Generatino
Station (solid line) and Southside Generating Station (broken line).

























10-

.U

z
5-
.1
0 .V *i


OCT NOV


1983


DEC JAN FEB MAR 'A





1982
















Figure 5. Frequency of individual sightings for both power plant sites
combined. Data include 14 individuals that were initially
identified prior to the winter of 1982/1983.


40-




30-

- 1






U.
0
S10-


1 2 3


#OF SIGHTINGS


4 5 6 7











of 10 to 30 days, with only two of the individuals re-sighted during the
coldest part of the season. Four additional individuals (JX14, JX2, J113 and
JX4) were re-sighted within periods from 31 to 75 days in length; however, in
all four cases 31 to 62 days passed between sightings (Fig. 6).

The percentage of newly identified individuals for the 1982/83 winter
season alone peaked, as would be expected, during the early months of
observation, declined during December and January and rose again slightly
during February. The percentage of resightings rose during November and
peaked in January when the percentage of newly identified individuals was at
a low (Table 1).

Movements

Local. Eight individuals were observed in both power plant discharges.
All eight animals made only one documented movement: six moved north from
Southside to Kennedy and two went south from Kennedy to Southside. Two
individuals observed in only one of the Jacksonville outfalls during the
winter of 1980/1981 returned during this study to an other discharge
location. A third individual identified in 1979/1980 returned and was
re-sighted in 1980/1981, having switched outfall locations. No round trip
circuits between the power plant sites could be verified with the
photographs.

Long distance. Long distance movements both to and from the
Jacksonville power plants were documented for four individuals. Only one
animal was photographed within the same season and the remainder were not
photographed in consecutive seasons. Manatee BSO1 was photographed in
January 1981 in the Alton Packaging Corp. discharge, one week after it had
been radio-tagged at Blue Spring Run. Animal (JX19), photographed in the
Kennedy Generating Station discharge in March 1980 and in the warm water
effluent of Alton Box Board in February 1981, was also photographed in the
Florida Power and Light Co. Pt. Everglades power plant discharge (550
kilometers south of the mouth of the St. Johns River) in February 1983. A
third animal was photographed in the Pt. Everglades outfall in December 1981,
and again in the Kennedy discharge in March 1983. Photographs of the fourth
animal (BC 191) were taken in the outfall of the Orlando Utilities Company,
Brevard Co. in January 1980 and in the Kennedy discharge in February 1983.

Influence of Air and Water Temperatures

Air temperatures ranged from a minimum of -3.80C to a maximum of 28.3C
and average daily temperatures ranged from 3.30C to 23.00C (Appendix A, Table
3). The number of manatees present in the Kennedy discharge increased
significantly with a decrease in the minimum, maximum and average daily air
temperatures, but the correlations were weak (Kendall's Tau = -0.23, -0.20
and -0.21 respectively, p < .05, N = 62). No significant correlations
existed between ambient air temperature and manatee numbers for either
Southside or both plants combined.

Ambient river temperatures ranged from 12.50C at both sites in January
to 27.00C and 29.00C in October at Southside and Kennedy respectively.
Discharge temperatures at Southside were on the average higher than the main











of 10 to 30 days, with only two of the individuals re-sighted during the
coldest part of the season. Four additional individuals (JX14, JX2, J113 and
JX4) were re-sighted within periods from 31 to 75 days in length; however, in
all four cases 31 to 62 days passed between sightings (Fig. 6).

The percentage of newly identified individuals for the 1982/83 winter
season alone peaked, as would be expected, during the early months of
observation, declined during December and January and rose again slightly
during February. The percentage of resightings rose during November and
peaked in January when the percentage of newly identified individuals was at
a low (Table 1).

Movements

Local. Eight individuals were observed in both power plant discharges.
All eight animals made only one documented movement: six moved north from
Southside to Kennedy and two went south from Kennedy to Southside. Two
individuals observed in only one of the Jacksonville outfalls during the
winter of 1980/1981 returned during this study to an other discharge
location. A third individual identified in 1979/1980 returned and was
re-sighted in 1980/1981, having switched outfall locations. No round trip
circuits between the power plant sites could be verified with the
photographs.

Long distance. Long distance movements both to and from the
Jacksonville power plants were documented for four individuals. Only one
animal was photographed within the same season and the remainder were not
photographed in consecutive seasons. Manatee BSO1 was photographed in
January 1981 in the Alton Packaging Corp. discharge, one week after it had
been radio-tagged at Blue Spring Run. Animal (JX19), photographed in the
Kennedy Generating Station discharge in March 1980 and in the warm water
effluent of Alton Box Board in February 1981, was also photographed in the
Florida Power and Light Co. Pt. Everglades power plant discharge (550
kilometers south of the mouth of the St. Johns River) in February 1983. A
third animal was photographed in the Pt. Everglades outfall in December 1981,
and again in the Kennedy discharge in March 1983. Photographs of the fourth
animal (BC 191) were taken in the outfall of the Orlando Utilities Company,
Brevard Co. in January 1980 and in the Kennedy discharge in February 1983.

Influence of Air and Water Temperatures

Air temperatures ranged from a minimum of -3.80C to a maximum of 28.3C
and average daily temperatures ranged from 3.30C to 23.00C (Appendix A, Table
3). The number of manatees present in the Kennedy discharge increased
significantly with a decrease in the minimum, maximum and average daily air
temperatures, but the correlations were weak (Kendall's Tau = -0.23, -0.20
and -0.21 respectively, p < .05, N = 62). No significant correlations
existed between ambient air temperature and manatee numbers for either
Southside or both plants combined.

Ambient river temperatures ranged from 12.50C at both sites in January
to 27.00C and 29.00C in October at Southside and Kennedy respectively.
Discharge temperatures at Southside were on the average higher than the main








10

INDIVIDUAL
iCc ,- CL CC C C. Cc


000 -000-N- 3 *i i





**- I *** ( ,

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0 Ul 0 -
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no
S-,





















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CL CC
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11


Table 1. Monthly percentages of the 1982/1983 seasonal total of newly
identified individuals and resightings. Totals include both
catalogued and noncatalogued individuals identified for the
first time during the 1982/1983 winter season.
MONTH % NEWLY IDENTIFIED INDIVIDUALS (N) % RESIGHTINGS (N)
OCT 13 (4) 4 (1)
NOV 40 (12) 28 (7)
DEC 23 (7) 8 (2)
JAN 7 (2) 52 (13)
FEB 10 (3) 4 (1)
MAR 7 (2) 4 (1)
APR 0 (0) 0 (0)
TOTAL 100 (30) 100 (25)











discharge at)Kennedy. However, the southern discharge at Kennedy had
consistently higher temperatures than the other two outfalls. Differences in
temperature between the river and the discharges ranged from 0.00C to 11.5C
at Southside and 1.00C to 19.5C at Kennedy (Appendix A, Tables 4 and 5).
The number of manatees present at both power plant effluents did not vary
significantly with ambient river temperature (Kendall's Tau = 0.15, p > .1, N
= 60). The number of manatees counted at the Kennedy discharge increased
significantly! as the temperature differences between the river and the
discharge increased but the relationship was weak (Kendall's Tau = 0.27, p =
.007, N = 586. This relationship did not exist for either Southside or the
combined data base for both plants.


DISCUSSION

The numbers of manatees counted during the winter in the warm water
effluents;of the Kennedy and Southside Generating Stations are much smaller
than those numbers reported for other warm water effluents further south (see
Rose and McPitcheon 1980). The low numbers are due most likely to the use of
these sites'by transient individuals. The extended periods of low water
temperatures characteristic of the northern reaches of the St. Johns River
during the winter most likely influence this transiency.

West tidian manatees are warm water, tropical animals and are at the
northern edge of their range in Florida (Hartman 1974). Manatee intolerance
to cold has been documented in the lab (Irvine 1983), and die-offs of
free-ranging animals have been shown to coincide with periods of severely
cold weather (O'Shea et al. in prep). Warm water effluents most likely
reduce^the'probability of cold-weather die-offs, but in northern areas, such
as theiSt. 'Johns River at Jacksonville, artificial warm water sources may
produce' insufficient heat during severely cold Florida weather (Campbell and
Irvine 19815).

Mean {iver water temperatures at Jacksonville average two to five
degrees centigrade lower than mean temperatures surrounding winter refugia
further soith (see Packard and Mulholland 1983). Although differences
between mean river temperatures at Jacksonville and Brevard County and Blue
Spring are not great (2-30C), the latter areas do not experience the extended
periods of low water temperatures as does Jacksonville.

Durir previous, more severe Florida winters, no manatees were observed
at the Jacksonville outfalls during the coldest part of the season (Valade,
1980). The warm water effluents of the Jacksonville power plants appeared to
provide efficient thermal buffers for manatees, during the mild winter of
1982/1983.. The Kennedy outfall may have been used more frequently than
Southside'%y manatees because of the greater overall thermal buffer created
-by the warm water effluent of the neighboring Alton Packaging Corporation.
Manatee numbers during the coldest part of the season may have been limited
because the animals must, at some point, leave the discharges and enter the
river to feed. Manatees subjected to waters with such low temperatures for a
,prolonged period are faced with extremely high metabolic costs and
_thermoregulatory demands (Irvine 1983).











The weak and insignificant correlations between manatee counts and air
and water temperatures may be due to 1) the small daily pool of animals from
which different arrays of numbers can be drawn on days of varying
temperatures, 2) the variation of ambient river temperatures due to the
influence of discharge water or 3) manatees at the Jacksonville power plants
not responding to decreasing temperatures as they do at other warm water
discharges. We hypothesize that the latter case is likely. Packard and
Mulholland (1983) showed that decreasing air temperatures were significantly
correlated with manatee counts for a sample of seven power plants over a
six-year period. Intake temperatures were also shown to be predictive of
manatee counts at four of the seven plants. However, regression models were
more predictive for southern plant sites than northern ones.

Survey counts reported for this study period, show that, in contrast to
more southerly plant sites, the Jacksonville plants are utilized by manatees
primarily when air and water temperatures initially drop at the beginning of
the winter season and again when temperatures rise towards the end of the
season. The cool early November and unseasonably warm November early
December of 1982 could account for these trends. O'Shea (pers. comm.)
reports similar trends in numbers of animals observed during standardized
surveys at Blue Spring, a winter refuge with an established resident
population. However, the winter of 1980/81 was not characterized by
dramatic, intermittent warming trends and Valade (unpubl. data) observed the
same relationship between manatee numbers and air and water temperatures as
in 1982/83. These peaks in manatee counts suggest that manatees may be using
the Jacksonville outfalls as "rest-stops" along their seasonal north-south
migration at the beginning and end of the winter season.

Powell and Rathbun (1983) documented a similar pattern of fall/spring
use by manatees at the Crystal River Power Plant, the most northerly
industrial outfall utilized by manatees on the west coast of Florida. The
small number of manatees observed during these times at the Crystal River
power plant are presumably composed of animals traveling to and from Kings
Bay, a natural warm water refuge at the headwaters of Crystal River (Powell
and Rathbun 1983). Spring and fall use by manatees of the Hercules Power
Plant in Georgia also has been documented (Rathbun et al. 1982).

The frequency of resightings of individuals identified at the
Jacksonville sites is extremely low compared to other artificial warm water
refugia (Packard 1981, Shane 1981). Some individuals possibly were not
resighted because of the turbid water conditions and limited visibility. It
is also likely that some individuals initially identified at Kennedy or
Southside frequented the outfall of the Alton Packaging Corporation,
immediately adjacent to Kennedy. Observations during aerial reconnaissance
flights within the period of this study verified manatee use of the Alton
Packaging Corp. effluent (six and three animals on 25 January and 9 February,
respectively) and documented manatee movement between Kennedy and Alton
(Kinnaird unpubl. data). Individuals have also been observed in the
discharges of both Kennedy and Alton Packaging Corp. during previous winters
(Valade, 1980). Even though some individuals may have been wintering at
Alton Packaging Corp., it is unlikely that the number was high. The proximity
of two warm water outfalls does not necessarily indicate that individual
manatees will frequent both sites. Shane (1981) documented very limited
movement of manatees between two power plants in Brevard County, situated











less than three kilometers apart. Northside Generating Station and St. Regis
Pulp and Paper Co. (Fig. 1) also discharge warm water into the St. Johns
River at Jacksonville but manatee sightings at these two outfalls are rare
(Valade, 1980).

The low frequency of multiple sightings coupled with the fact that no
individual manatees were observed consistently throughout the season, suggest
that very few manatees actually winter at the Jacksonville power plants and
that the population is composed primarily of transient individuals. The high
degree of transiency is, in turn, influenced by the low water temperatures,
preventing prolonged stays in the area by individual manatees.

It should be pointed out that although the winter population of manatees
at the Jacksonville plant sites is primarily transient, a small resident
population likely relys on these warm water discharges as winter refugia.
Three individuals showed site fidelity by returning to the plants during
different years. Therefore, these sites may play an important traditional
role (Bengtson 1981, O'Shea et al. in prep.) in annual manatee migratory
movements. Permanent shut-downs of the Jacksonville plants could therefore
have a substantial effect on manatee movements. Temporary shut-downs during
the winter would subject manatees to extremely low river water temperatures
with no nearby alternative warm water refuge.

Comparisons of photographs support Hartman's (1974) idea that manatees
migrate to and from Jacksonville along the east coast of Florida. These
photographs have also documented some of the longest known movements for
manatees (230 and 593 km). The fact that only one match was made between
Blue Spring and Jacksonville supports Bengtson's (1981) suggestion that
manatees wintering in Blue Spring may be largely independent of the winter
population in Jacksonville. However, it is possible that some mixing of the
Blue Spring and Jacksonville winter populations occurs during the warmer
months in the vicinity of the city of Green Cove Springs and Doctors Lake,
approximately 30 km south of Jacksonville. The high aerial counts of
manatees (up to 48) in this area during the warmer months (Kinnaird 1983) may
be due to animals from Blue Spring moving north and animals from Jacksonville
moving south. Bengtson (1981) followed three radio-collared manatees from
Blue Springs to the city of Green Cove Springs during the spring of 1979. It
is uncertain whether Jacksonville animals move into this area.

Several authors have suggested that manatees along the east coast of
Florida do not form discrete subpopulations (Shane 1981, Packard 1981) Data
presented by Rathbun et al. (1983) support this idea and also indicate that
manatees along the east coast may range as far as 1500 km. Although
Jacksonville may support only a very small resident winter population of
manatees, animals ranging throughout the east coast of Florida may
temporarily rely on the power plant sites during the winter months. This
has important management implications in that any negative impacts on
manatees in the lower St. Johns River (i.e. weed control, river front
development, boating activities, etc.) may have far ranging effects on the
entire east coast population. For example, the lower St. Johns River.hastbhe
second highest. umber of reported', bat/barge collision deaths in the state,
with a disproportionately high number of these cases falling in the adult
size class (0'Shea et al.... in prep,). All three warm water effluents known to
be frequented by manatees are located in the industrial river front of











Jacksonville, which is subjected to heavy commercial and recreational boating
activity. The shipping channel to Port Jacksonville is located on the west
side of the river where it passes almost immediately in front of the Kennedy
Generating Station and the Alton Packaging Corporation. Manatees traveling
between Southside and Kennedy or Alton are forced to maneuver from one bank
to the other through the shipping channel. Such a formidable barrier,
although impossible to alleviate completely, should not be viewed simply as a
problem of local impact, but rather one of potential regional impact. In
order to maintain an equilibrium population, manatees must maintain an
intrinsically high adult survivorship (Eberhardt 1982); a decrease in adult
survival as a result of boat collisions could contribute to a long term
population decline (O'Shea et al., in prep.).


RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

1) Draw up formal agreements between industry officials and the USFWS
Manatee Coordinator to allow continued monitoring and photographing of
individuals frequenting the Kennedy and Southside Generating Stations and
the Alton Box/Board Co. Data on the patterns of manatee use, individual
identification and site fidelity will provide a better basis for
understanding manatee winter abundance, habitat use and seasonal
migration patterns along the east coast of Florida. Occasional checks at
the Northside Generating Station and St. Regis Paper Company are also
necessary to see if patterns of plant use change and to gather additional
identification.

2) Establish slow speed zones in the vicinity of the Kennedy Generating
Station, Alton Packaging Corp. and the Southside Generating Station
to be effective from November to March of each year.

3) Schedule plant maintenance shut-downs during the late spring and summer
months. USFWS Manatee Coordinator should monitor any changes (potential
or otherwise) in the status of the warm water effluents and take into
consideration the possible effects on manatees.

4) Prohibit small recreational boats from entering the discharge areas
and prohibit fishing from the discharge shoreline.

5) Monitor the size and frequency and identify individuals of summer
aggregations of manatees in the Green Cove Springs/Doctors Lake vicinity.
Such data will improve our knowledge of manatee summer habitat use and
will give further insight to manatee movements.

6) Investigate the possibility of clearly marking and moving
the shipping channel during the next maintenance dredging, to the east
side of the river, away from the Alton Packaging Corporation and the
Kennedy Generating Station.

7) Investigate and encourage alternative modes of fuel delivery (i.e. rail
or truck) to the power plants.











Literature Cited

Bengtson, J. L. 1981. Ecology of Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the St.
Johns River, Florida. Doctoral thesis, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 126 pp.

Campbell, H. W. and Irvine, A. B. 1981. Manatee mortality during the
unusually cold winter of 1976-77. Pp. 86-91 in R. L. Brownell and K.
Ralls, eds. The West Indian Manatee in Florida Proc. Workshop, Orlando,
Florida, 27-29 March, 1978. Florida Dep. Nat. Resour. 154 pp.

Eberhardt, L. L. 1982. Censusing manatees. Prepared for U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service. Contract No. 14-16-0009-1544. Manatee Population
Research Report No. 1. Florida Coop. Fish and Wildlife Res. Unit.
Gainesville, Florida. 18 pp.

Hartman, D. S. 1974. Distribution, status and conservation of the manatee
in the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fish
and Wildlife Laboratory. Contract Report No. 14-16-0008-748.
NTIS Publication No. PB81-140725. 246 pp.

Hartman, D.S. 1979'. Ecology and behavior of the manatee (Trichechus
manatus) in Florida. The Am. Soc. of Mamm. Special Publication No. 5,
153 pp.

Irvine, A. B. and H. W. Campbell. 1978. Aerial census of the West Indian
manatee, Trichechus manatus, in the southeastern United States.
J. Mamm. 59:613-617.

Irvine, A. B. 1983. Manatee metabolism and its effluence on distribution
in Florida. Biological Conservation 25(1983)315-334.

- X Kinnaird, M. F. 1983. Aerial census of manatees and boats over the lower
St. Johns River and the northeast Intracoastal Waterway. Prepared for
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cooperative Agreement No.
14-16-0004-81-923. The Site-Specific Reduction of Manatee Boat/Barge
Mortality Report No. 2. Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research
Unit. Gainesville, Florida.

Layne, J. N. 1965. Observations on marine mammals in Florida Waters.
Bull. Florida State Museum. 9:131-181.

Moore, J. C. 1951. The range of the Florida manatee. Quart. J. Florida
Acad. Sci. 14:1-19.

Moore, J. C. 1956. Observations of manatees in aggregations. Am. Mus.
Novit. 1811:1-24.

O'Shea, T. J., C. A. Beck, R. K. Bonde, H. I. Kochman and D. K. Odell. 1983.
An analysis of manatee mortality patterns in Florida, 1976-1981. Draft
manuscript.











Packard, J. M. 1981. Abundance, distribution, and feeding habits of
manatees (Trichechus manatus) wintering between St. Lucie and Palm
Beach Inlets, Florida. Report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service. Contract No. 14-16-0004-80-105.

Packard, J. M. and R. Mulholland. 1983. Analysis of manatee aerial surveys:
a compilation and preliminary analysis of winter aerial surveys
conducted in Florida between 1977 and 1982. Prepared for U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service. Contract No. 14-16-0009-1544. Manatee Population
Research Report No. 2. Coop. Fish and Wildlife Res. Unit, Gainesville,
Florida.

Powell, J. A. and G. B. Rathbun. 1983. Distribution and abundance of
manatees along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 2-68 in
J. M. Packard, ed. Research/Management Plan for the Crystal River
Subpopulation of Manatees and their Coastal Habitat. Volume III.
Compendium. 302 pp.

Rathbun, G. B., R. K. Bonde and D. Clay. 1982. The status of the West
Indian Manatee on the atlantic coast north of Florida. Pp. 152-165
in R.R. Odom and J.W. Guthrie eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on
Nongame and Endangered Wildlife. Ga. Dept. of Nat. Resour.' Game and
Fish Div., Tech. Bull. WL5. 179 pp.

Rathbun, G. B., J. A. Powell and J. P. Reid. 1983. Movements of a.natees
(Trichechus manatus) using power plant effluents in Southern
Florida. Prepared for the Florida Power and Light Company under
FPL Purchase Order No. 88798-87154 (FWS Coop. Agr. No. 14-16-0009-
82-906).

Rose, P. M. and S. P. McCutcheon. 1980. Manatees (Trichechus manatus):
Abundance and distribution in and around several Florida power plant
effluents. Report prepared for Florida Power and Light Company.
Contract No. 31534-86626.

Shane, S. H. 1981. Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard County,
Florida: Abundance, distribution and use of power plant effluents.
Report prepared for Florida Power and Light Company. Contract No.
61532-86540. NTIS Publication No. PB81-147019. 244 pp.

Siegel, S. 1956. Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y., N.Y.

Valade, J. 1980. Observations of manatees in the thermal discharges of the
Jacksonville Electric Authority Generating stations and Alton Box/
Board Co. Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statement for the
JEA's proposed coal fired generating station at the eastport site.








18


APPENDIX A.

Manatee counts and air and water temperatures collected for all surveys
during the study.









19
TABLE 2. NUMBER OF MANATEES COUNTED DURING SURVEYS AT THE
KENNEDY AND SOUTHSIDE GENERATING STATIONS, JACKSONVILLFe
FLORIDA. THE NUMBER OF CALVES, ENCLOSED IN PARENTHESIS,
IS ALSO INCLUDED IN THE TOTAL NUMBER


uBS DATE KFNNEDY SOUTH TCTAL

1 101882 0 0 0
2 102832 5 8(2) 13
3 110282 0 0
4 110982 0 11(4) 11(4)
5 111182 4 8(2) 12(3
6 111382 4(1) 5(1) 9 1
7 111682 11 6(1) 17
8 111882 2 5 1)
9 112382 10(2) 0 10(2)
10 112982 0 0 0
11 120182 0 0 0
12 120382 0 0 0
13 120682 0 0 0
14 120882 0 2 2
15 121082 0 7(2) 7(2)
16 121582 5(2) 49(4)
17 121782 7(2 4 1 1 (2)
18 122082 9(1) 0 91
19 12218? 1 2 3
20 122782 5 2 7
21 122982 4 0 4
22 123182 4 5 9
23 010583 1 6 7
24 010633 3 0 3
25 010783 6 1 7
26 011083 5 3 8
27 011283 3 0 3
28 011483 5 0 5
29 011783 3 1 4
30 011983 3 2 5
31 012183 4 0 4
32 012483 0 0 0
33 012683 0 0 0
34 012883 3 0 3
35 013183 0 1 I
36 020283 0 0 0
37 020483 0 0 0
38 020783 0 0 0
39 020983 2 1 3
40 021183 2 0 2
41 021483 4 0 4
42 021683 0 0 0
43 021883 1 0 1
44 022083 0 0 0
45 022383 0 0 0
46 022683 0 1 1
47 022883 0 0 0
48 030283 0 1 1
49 030483 0 1 1
50 030783 0 0 0
51 031083 0 0 0
52 031283 6 0 6
53 031483 3 1 4
54 031683 1 0 1
55 032283 1 0 1
56 032583 6 0 6
57 032983 0 1 1
58 033183 2 1 3
59 040583 0 0 0
60 040783 0 0 0
61 041283 0 0 0
62 041483 0 0 0








TAbLE 3* MAXIMUMMINIMUM, AND MEAN AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURES
DEGREESS C), JACKSONVILLE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT.


OBS DATE MAXIMUM MINIMUM MEAN TOTAL MANATEES

1 101882 24.4 13.9 19.2 0
2 102882 23.9 9.4 16.7 13
3 110282 27.2 16.1 21.7 0
4 110982 22.2 10.0 16.1 11
5 111182 26.1 15.6 20.8 12
6 111332 20.6 6.7 13.6 9
7 111632 21.7 6.7 14.2 17
8 111882 25.6 16.7 21.1 5
9 112382 26.7 11.1 18.9 10
10 112982 27.2 18.9 23.1 0
11 120182 28.3 17.2 22.8 0
12 120382 27.2 16.7 21.9 0
13 120683 20.6 12.8 16.7 0
14 120882 18.3 14.4 16.4 2
15 121082 18.3 15.0 16.7 7
16 121582 22.8 13.3 18.1 9
17 121782 11.7 0.6 6.1 11
18 122082 15.6 0.6 8.1 9
19 122182 17.8 0.6 9.2 3
20 122782 25.6 13.9 19.7 7
21 122982 23.9 13.9 18.9 4
22 123182 13.9 10.6 12.2 9
23 010583 12.2 6 1 9.2 7
24 010683 16.1 2.8 9.4 3
25 010783 19.4 0.6 10.0 7
26 011083 13.< 10.0 11.9 8
27 011283 9.4 0.6 5.0 3
28 011483 16.1 -3.3 6.4 5
29 011783 15.0 -3.9 5.6 4
30 011983 9.4 -2.8 3.3 5
31 012183 17.8 7.2 12.5 4
32 012483 13.9 1.1 7.5 0
33 012683 16.1 0.0 8.1 0
34 012883 11.1 3.9 7.5 3
35 013183 22.2 7.2 14.7 1
36 020283 21.7 14.4 18.1 0
37 020483 14.4 -0.6 6.9 0
38 020783 14.4 3.3 3.9 0
39 020983 17.8 -2.2 7.8 3
40 021183 16.7 4.4 10.6 2
41 021483 14.4 2.8 8.6 4
42 021683 18.3 5.6 11.9 0
43 021883 20.0 4.4 12.2 1
44 022083 22.2 5.6 13.9 0
45 022383 20.0 0,4 14.7 0
46 022683 8.3 1.7 5.0 1
47 022883 20.0 11.7 1508 0
48 030283 25.0 6.1 15.6 1
49 030483 25.6 8.9 17.2 1
50 030783 20.6 13.3 16.9 0
51 031083 17.8 4.4 11.1 0
52 031283 17.2 1.7 9.4 6
53 031483 19.4 2.8 11.1 4
54 031683 23.3 15.0 19,2 1
55 032283 16.7 2.2 9.4 1
56 03258 3 16.7 2.2 9,4 6
57 032983 19.4 3.3 11.4 1
58 033183 18.3 3.3 13.3 3
59 040583 27.8 11.7 19.7 0
60 040783 27.8 16.7 22.2 0
61 041283 22.8 8R, 15.P 0
62 041433 25.0 16.7 20. 0











Table 4. Survey results for the Kennedy Generating Station, Jacksonville, FL,
October 1982 April 1983. Blanks denote missing data.


Survey
Date

18 Oct
28 Oct
2 Nov
9 Nov
11 Nov
13 Nov
16 Nov
18 Nov
23 Nov
29 Nov
1 Dec
3 Dec
6 Dec
8 Dec
10 Dec
15 Dec
17 Dec
20 Dec
21 Dec
27 Dec
29 Dec
31 Dec
5 Jan
6 Jan
7 Jan
10 Jan
12 Jan
14 Jan
17 Jan
19 Jan
21 Jan
24 Jan
26 Jan
28 Jan
31 Jan
2 Feb
4 Feb
7 Feb
9 Feb
11 Feb
14 Feb


No. of
Manatees


a.
Ambient
River T
(C)

29.0
21:5
23.0
21.5
-
16.0
21.5
20.5
22.0
24.0
22.0
24.0

21.0
20.0
18.0
17.5
15.0
14.0
16.2
16.0
17.0
15.0
15.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
14.5
13.0
13.0
13.0
12.5
17.0
12.5
13.5
15.0
15.0
13.5
14.0
14.0
15.5


b.
Main
Discharge
T (C)

31.0
24.5
24.0
23.0

20.0
24.0
22.5
28.0
25.0
23.0
24.0

23.0
21.5
21.0
28.0
21.0
20.0
19.5
21.0
19.0
23.0
20.0
23.0
20.0
19.0
17.5
16.0
16.0
16.5
18.0
17.5
16.0
17.5
20.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
21.0
20.0


b-a
AT

2.0
3.0
1.0
1.5

4.0
2.5
2.0
6.0
1.0
1.0
0.0

2.0
1.5
3.0
10.5
6.0
6.0
3.3
5.0
2.0
8.0
5.0
9.0
5.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
5.5
0.5
3.5
4.0
5.0
2.0
3.5
4.0
7.0
4.5


c.
South
Discharge
T (oC)



































25.0
34.0
33.0
33.5
33.0


c-a
AT2


10.0
19.0
19.5
19.5
19.0












Table 4. (Cont'd.)


Survey
Date


Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr


No. of
Manatees

0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
3
1
1
6
0
2
0
0
0
0


a.
Ambient
River T
(C)

15.5
13.5
14.0
14.5
14.5
14.5
16.0
16.0
18.0
18.5
15.0
16.0
16.0
18.0
17.0
17.5
18.0
23.5
21.0
22.0
22.0


b.
Main
Discharge
T (C)

19.0
18.0
19.0
19.5
19.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
20.0
20.0

18.7
21.0
24.5
24.5
21.0
20.0
27.0
26.0
26.0
26.0


c.
South
Discharge
T (C)



29.5
33.5
31.0



29.0
30.0



33.0
33.0



31.0


b-a
AT

3.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
3.5
2.5
3.0
2.0
1.5

2.7
5.0
6.5
7.5
3.5
2.0
3.5
5.0
4.0
4.0


c-a
AT2



15.5
19.0
16.5



11.0
11.5



15.0
16.0



10.0












Table 5. Survey results
Jacksonville,
Blanks denote


Survey
Date


Oct
Oct
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb


No. of
Manatees

0
8
0
11
8
5
6
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
7
4
4
0
2
2
0
5
6
0
1
3
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0


for the Southsi
Florida, October
missing data.
a
Ambient
River T
(C)

27.0

24.0
23.0

17.0
21.0
22.0
23.0
25.0
25.0
24.0

24.0

18.0
17.0
15.0
13.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
15.0
14.5
15.0
15.0
14.5
14.0
13.0
13.5
12.5
12.8
13.0
12.5
13.5
15.0
13.5
13.5
13.5
14.5
12.8
13.0


de Generating Station,
1982 April 1983.


b
Discharge T
(C)

28.5
24.0
26.0
26.0

24.0
21.0
22.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
24.0

28.0

21.0
24.0
19.0
18.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
21.0
17.0
20.0
24.5
21.0
18.0
15.3
20.0
15.5
18.5
18.5
21.0
25.0
23.0
17.3
17.5
18.3
20.3
20.0
21.0


b-a
AT
(C)

1.5

2.0
3.0

7.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
1.0
0.0

4.0

3.0
7.0
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
6.0
2.5
5.0
9.5
6.5
4.0
2.3
6.5
3.0
5.7
5.5
8.5
11.5
8.0
3.8
4.0
4.8
5.8
7.2
8.0











Table 5. (Cont'd.)

a
Ambient b b-a
Survey No. of River T Discharge T AT
Date Manatees (oC) (oC) (OC)

18 Feb 0 14.0 19.0 5.0
20 Feb 0 15.0 22.3 7.3
23 Feb 0 16.0 23.5 7.5
26 Feb 1 15.0 21.6 6.6
28 Feb 0 14.5 23.0 8.5
2 Mar 1 15.0 23.5 8.5
4 Mar 1 17.0 28.0 11.0
7 Mar 0 18.0 25.7 7.7
10 Mar 0 24.5
12 Mar 0 15.0
14 Mar 1 -
16 Mar 0 16.0 18.0 2.0
22 Mar 0 17.5 26.0 8.5
25 Mar 0 17.0 23.5 6.5
29 Mar 1 17.5 21.0 3.5
31 Mar 1 18.0 23.0 5.0
5 Apr 0 -
7 Apr 0 22.0 30.0 8.0
12 Apr 0 22.0 27.0 5.0
14 Apr 0 22.0 28.0 6.0







25


APPENDIX B.

Scar charts of all individually identified manatees. Where more than two
identification numbers are present, the first is a personal code used by
Valade and the following are numbers used in the Sirenia Project photo
catalogue. Where no photographs were taken or photographs were not distinct
enough for cataloging, the letters DU (distinct unknown file) are noted.










National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.1. 16th Ave., Room 250
GainesYille, Florida 32601

Pleas sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches. f


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-2,

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


ID/Field No.


Condition of scar:


O Fresh (open)

O Recent, but healing

SHealing (white)

C Healed

Total length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns

/

Observations by:



Date


Comments



0- SGS


7' / LQ


~
-~ -~
J


20










National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ave., RoM 250
Gainesvilla, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 7'7 nuL

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)
3 Recent, but healing

X Healing (white)

O Healed
Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:

~kj^/sc.^'


Date

Corrnents'



//& &. K.GlSw




BQd yj^> .7ro<^>^


r









National Fish i Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Aye., Rooa 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Ploaen, nstch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. C//,,? L. 0

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

] Recent, but healing

)(Healing (white)

o Healed

Total length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns



Observations by:



Date

Commentsr

// /- GS

'~//

UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


0









National Fish a Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.E. 16th Ave., Roon 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and Earkings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. /I C..

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

O Recent, but healing

) Healing (white)
C Healed

Total length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns

4 a


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



Date //; _

Comments'


- --- ----









National Fish A Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.B. 16th Ave., Rooa 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. '/- 5

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

Q Recent, but healing

Healing (white)

O Healed

Total length of animal .

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



Date /3 J3 X6-S

Comment:' "./ .f









National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ave., Room 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

SPease sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 'f/i ? -/

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

O Recent, but healing

/ Healing (white)

D Healed
Total length of animal --

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:



Date

Coanments
Vks4/Ig?- K&S'
ckv /op3e k 1g C
i77O C y4- I -o




has A..2-"e Soqr,-/


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (IHT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


S.









National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.l. 16th Ave., oo 250
Gainesville, Florida 52601

Pleao sketch all visible scars .
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. aa_7 C-0

Condition of scar:

C0 Fresh (open)

g Recent, but healing

Healing (white)

o Healed

Total length of animal __

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



Date nt_// /- /
Comments-.


O

I


................................................


O










national Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 U.I. 16th Aye., Roa 250
Gainesvills, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. .7/0' l

Condition of scar:

Fresh (open)

C ReLent, but healing

Healing (white)

Healed

Total length of animal /

Total number of scar patterns


/

Observations by:



Date nts
Comments-


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


-5


O










National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ave., Roca 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Plor.s sketch all visible scars.
and markings en silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. / T

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

C Recent, but healing

y Healing (white)

Healed

.al length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:


Date
Comments*


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


/,/ A/- -6cS


:,/4/? -KGJ


/oS/-f ^

Z///AI-3 6-
.3Y/7/ A^6-.



^~J^l7 74,/jB e
4


3


r








National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.1. 16th Ave., Roon 250
CGinesville, Florida 32601

Plcas sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. C// C -

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing

X Healing (white)

3 Healed

Total length of animal _

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



DCommentse c E
Comments,








National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ave., Roon 2S0
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Plc. e sketch all visible scars
and markings cn silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 7/// l-

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing

X Healing (white)

o Healed

Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



Date

Comments~




/////I S6Ss
u f-l/sz. /CG-^








National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ay,, Room 250
7ainesville, Florida 32601

lease sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. z// /-

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing

/ Healing (white)

C Healed

Total length of animal .

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 CINT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



S-Comments
Date r z

Commentn-


N









National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
412 N.I. 16th Ave., Roo 250
Gainesville, Florid. 32601 MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS
Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. '//. .
Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)
SRecent, but healing

Healing (white)

O Healed
Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:


Date i/ S. _
Comment* ////23/?- S363

"1 hftZ- kC-S

4,12 S-2 IC6

/iZ//3 6-S
/ ?/1A3- /ic&

// / / S'- / ^/ ^ -- ^^









National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 NH.. 16th Ayv., Room 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 7/ .7 X.

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

0 Recent, but healing

X Healing (white)

C Healed

Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:



Date zi/// b- 4-<_

Comments'


N








National Fish 1 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N... 16th Ays., Room 250
ainesville, Florida 32601

Pleas sketch all visible scars
and markints on silhouettes
provided, The uAe of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. C//. -TX.
Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing

x Healing (white)
o Healed

Total length of animal _

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:


Date _//// A'

Comments'
/i/o/3S2-AC3




J/^/S/3- /(G-


o








National Fish & Wildlife Laborat
412 N.2. 16th Ave., Roon 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 79//f, 7/3

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

3 Recent, but healing

} Healing (white)

O Healed

Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:






j_ I /ac" l -... on
Date

Comment,-. a








caQd).

n/t///6/ SGS

/2//7/?H trljS


Ory


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


- -









National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Aye., Room 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please :ketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 7//7 7 T

Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)

% Recent, but healing

Healing (white)

C Healed

Total length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:



Date

Comments








/ A8
/OM2 2- SCIS

/ ///V &tS





1//01; 3S


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


t


O
4


''







National Fish I Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Aye., Roon 250
Cainesville, Florida 32601

Please s,.tcr- all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. // T, .

Condition of scar:

O Fresh (open)
^ Recent, but healing

>( Healing (white)

C3 Healed

STotal length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns



Observations by:



Date

Comments,' / (g

//S2 s gsas





-/%^^/- Y<:<


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS







National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.I. 16th Ave., Rooa 250
Gainesvills, Plorids 32601

Pleas sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
p~'vided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. //2q -X /O

Condition of scar: J- /

o Fresh (open) /2

o Recent, but healing
Healing (white)

e' Healed
Total length of animal

Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:


Date 4'J/(30/- *U_____

Comment:; ~ ? /. //

Sadr


q/ 2 S S6-3


2// //3 c-S
^


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS







NationAl Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.E. 16th AY., Roo 250S
Cainesyills, Florida 32601
Please sketch all visible r-ars
and markinis on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, koep-
ing your d. wings to scale
with the M-natoe sketches. C
7l/Field No. 7/ I ./ /1 "
Condition of scar:
0 Fresh (open)
O Recent, but healing
Healing (white)
SHealed
Total length of animal _
Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:


Date e* S&___
Commrnnts.

(


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


-7


...........








National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.E. 16th Ave., Room 250
Gainesvill., Florida 52601

Please sketch all visible scars
kti markikt. on illhouOltt*
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing y',r drawings; be
as accurate ri possible, keep-
ing your dra wings to scale
with the mr:,atee sketches.

Ti/Field No. *7 J)/14

Condition of scar:

[ Fresh (open)

j Recent, but healing

l Healing (white)

o Healed

Total length of animal _

Total number of scar patterns



Observations by:



Date

Comment:; :


/t/-zf/YZ- KG6l S





f/s/3- SG.3


'//o/ 3- K-S 5
3 &C-


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


-q








National Fish & Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.B. 16th Ave., Room 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Please sketch all visible scars-
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing your drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.
ID/Field No. /; K T X/
Condition of scar:

0 Fresh (open)
C Recent, but healing

Q Healing (white)
SHealed
Total length of animal -
Total number of scar patterns


K


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Observations by:


Date
Comments: ;/ 4 S 6f/7 -

darr, rMn3 SS' v.

* 7idC/ /t2l-f"t/c, ov#_-

l/d 2,,r/ of







/'k/27 3- ?3


/11/3- S


114/83-' 3 S








National Fish & Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.B. 16th Ave., Room 250
Gainesvills, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
and markings on silhouettes
provided. The use of body
refernnca points will aid in
analyzinLg our drawings; be
as accurate as possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

ID/Field No. 4 T -

Condition of scar: O~-

O Frc.h (opcn)

C Recent, but healing

Healin; (white)

C Healed

Total length of animal

Total number of scar pattern-,



Observations by:



Date

Comment:;




/1.,h,1 z 3- IG5

/2/ 32 tS-S



4//PFS- Se-;

//!3-*> K s <


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


4















/ / /1/
/








National Fish Wildlife Laboratory
412 .i. 16th Ar9e., Roan 250
Gainesvillv, florida 32601

Plao.-'e sketch all visible scars
and nsrkin-s on silhouettes
provided. Thi use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing ycur. drawings; be
as accuraLa possible, keep-
ing your draw' ;s to scale
wi'h the manp'. sketches. /


ID Ti'ld No.


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


_2s /L


Condition of scar:


0. Fresh (open)


o Recent, but healing

X Healing (white) o/n / itir-d scafr

O Healed

Total length of animal *vZSOc~ /

Total number of scar patterns
__ _<-


Observations by:



Date f-/C /-S__

Comments' 7//7/ j- A39

J< 5- &GS


7
,1


r


0








National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.2. 16h Ayo., Roam 250
.G-.inesvills, florida 32601
rBl-.i sketch all visible scars
.nd r.~zin-. cn silhouettes
provided. Th. use of body
reference point will aid in
annlyzi.ng -cur drawings; be
zs accurate a' possible, keep-
ing your drawings to scale
with the mEnatee sketches.
In/'ield No. () ,
Condition of scar:
O Fresh (open)
o Recent, but healing
Healing (white)
SHealed G,
Total length of animal -
Total number of scar patterns


Observations by:


Date _/ J A,(a
Comments '

(


UNDER PERHMT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-2A)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS








National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 H.1. 16th Aye., Room 250
CainesvillA, Florida 32601

Plooas sketch all visible scars
and narkinrs on silhouettes
Frvoyidd. The u:.s of body
reference points will aid in
analyzir7 rour drawings; be
ps accurate s possible, keep-
ing your d: .ngs to scale
w.th the -.natoc skctch.s.

ID/Field No. '7/ ,

Condition of scar:

o. Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing

X Healing (white) //ejvy ('0oo(
D Healed

Total length of animal f_. i

Total number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


/ --
Observntions bv:



Date .'/. dL

CommRents, ~J cap~y2



'n!47r'. cc? (21 adlZ


,,










National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.n. 16th Ave., PRom 250
(G'.insvillc, Florin 32601

Please sketch all visible scars-
ar rmirkings on silhouettes
provided. Th: uso of body
reference points will aid in
analyzlng ) ur drawings; be
as accurate :s possible, keep-
ing your dr-.wings to scale
with the manatee sketches.

D//Field No. f'Z ~ D

Condition of scar:

[ Fresh (open)

] Recent, but healing

Healing (white)

{ Helalcd

Total length of animal -

Total number of scar 7"tterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Obsenrvtions by:



Date

Corzrvnt:;

jcS -A,4





011~C3- 3 tg
4 6-S



/4 6- 5


/


__ __


t








National Fish & Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.B. 16th Ave., Room 250
Cainesvill, Florida 32601

Plense oketch all visible scars
and r-rkin.s on silhouettes
provided. T,- use of body
reference points will aid in
analyzing y..:- drawings; be
as --curato a: -ossible, keep-
ing your draw' gs to scale
with the '-acoe sketches.

'' ild N.Y2/

Condition of scar:

C Fresh (open)

P Recent, but healing

l:aling (white)

C Healed

Total lcIgth of animal -

Tot-l number of scar patterns



Obscr'vat ions by:



Date n2 '_

Com/ircnt:;

/ /zY- KG&S




/ // g./3/ S2


54


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS









National Fish & Wildlife Laboratory UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (CIT-24)
412 N.n. 16th Avo., Room 250
Gaincsville, Florida 32501 MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS

Plerso sketch all visible scars
and mr.rkings on silh,'ttes
provided. The use c: body /
r-fcr=nc, points will aid in.
an.lyzinr, y drawings; be
as nccurate r-. possible, keep-
ing your draw' .gs to scale
with the r'.natoc sketches. /

P7" -iCld No. -7/30 .(1/

Condition of scar:

o Fresh (open)

SRecent, but healing

/ Healing (whitc)

o HW'-led
Total length of animal -

Total number of scar patterns



Ob:.:rvntions by:



Dae -


. . .................... ......... 1- 1 ................................... ......







National Fish & Wildlifo Laboratory
412 N.E. 16th Ave., Room 250
Gaincsville, Florida 32501
Please sketch all visible scars-
and nmarings cn silhouettess
provided. The use of body
r'fesrr.co points will aid in
analyzing your '-awinzs; be
as accurate as r tble, keep-
ing your drawinr .o scale
with the ranat;- s.etches.
1" eld No. -721/ *-T I
mndition of scar:
l Fresh (open)

SReccent, b-:t healing
\/ Hearing (white)

C] Healed
Total length of animal -

Total number of scar pattr-ns
e Y


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


Ob s ~n rv ons by:




Comi Cnt.:;




1 -/

//IC/Q.a. <^^^~c

oT-/, on /,/_./
^ooo'.2y ,~u^- ,'^


/'/C/Q --).


),

;----


....... ....... ......................... ......


~








National Fish A Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.,. 16th Ave., Rooa 250
GfincvMill, PFlorida 52601
Plcr.s sketch 11 visible .cars
rad marxins: on silhouettes
F-ovid:d. The use of body
refcrenc? points -ill aid in
&nalyzinG your drnaings; be
as accurate s possible, koep-
f': your drc ings to sca.l
with the mar.toe shktches.

IP'iold No. __7'/4 */_U
. edition of scar:

C Fresh (open)
SReccent, but healing

Healing (white)

Healcd

Total length of animal -

Total numblcr of scar patterns


Obsernations by:


Date -/'1b,/g*- S


7(


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


..........













~------/







National Fish A Wildlife Laboratory
412 N.B. 16th Ayv., Roca 250
C.inc:villr, Flcrida 32601

l'1oa1s akotch all vsible)o sCl'A
and a;rkin2s on silhouettes
provided. Tho uos of body
reference points will aid in
analyzlnh your drawings; be
as accur:zt. -. possible, koop-
in- your dr ings to scale
with the mp -toe sketches.


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24:

MANATEE SCAR PATTER:S


, 'C
oV


I/ri ;d ld No.


Condition of zcar:

C Fresh (open)

o Recent, but healing


Healing (white)

< IHealed

Total length of animal

Total nu-nber of scar patterns



Observations by:

J^ ^l'- __ _


Date ...X2 Y-

Cornranct Q (


~L~LL










*~iO-..l FI:h lildlifo Laboratory UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-2")
:412 NH.. 16th Av., Poon 250
. GinTville, Flori ida 32501 MANATEE SCAR PATITER;S

SPl-..'-" 'keth nil visible sc.s
.-: r -.rin,3 cn cil~?-ttte3
pro:.v''ed. Thu uso cf b'dy
refe-r-e.=- i -t. will aid in
S'anal.ny.i y-', -'o _ins; be ,_-
as 2:cu~r.at. ~es -e, kccp-
in': ;-;:,r dr wing .. sc-le
















Trt-: :ngth cf .:,...al






;Ob::rtio.ns by:
] n -c- ''*-





-* \ -.- t.i--.,_l _-,-










Dat __________

















/-


oK








National Fish 4 Wildlife Laboratory
41Z N.2. 6th AvS., IRoom 250
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Please sketch all visible scars
r.d narkin.: cn silhouettes
provided. The use of body
refjTenc. r-;nr. will aid in
rn-.l;'zlng youL '-.wings; be
as accurate as : sible, kcep-
Ji| your dlrawine- to srsl .
wi'.h the 1-- .oc sketches.

Ir .:ield No. ,/ '_'.

Condition of scar:

o Fresh (open)

-j Recent, but L.;-ling

/ Healing (r:ite)
o lcaled

Total length of animal -

Tot2l number of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (INT-24)
MANATEE SCAR PATTERNS


** /

Obscrvan.icns by:



aCo t,
Dc 741 '_____


iC//


f~-TT



__ __,'








National Fish & Wildlife Laboratory
412 NH.. 16th Ave., Room 250
Clinesville, Florida 32601

Pleonr- -keth r.ll visible scars
.nd -makings cn 5ilholiettes
provided. The use of body
refrtence p'i-.ts will aid i''
analyzing ycur d~-"'nqs; be
as accurate as poss' 'e, keep-
ing ycur d--wings t -cale
with t'e me rnt- ..,tch-s.

I No.

Con .ion of scnr:

Fresh (open)
Zj recent, but healing

I'-.iling (w.i tc)



Total Icerth of animal

Total numb.or of scar patterns


UNDER PERMIT: PRT 2-3058 (lrT-24)

MANATEE SCAR PATTRMlNS


Observ'aions by:




Ccricnt:;;
'S/-2 /33 S^


r7, "




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