Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 55-1
Title: Steer fattening trials in North Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073745/00001
 Material Information
Title: Steer fattening trials in North Florida
Series Title: NFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Weight -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 25, 1954."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073745
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82960289

Full Text


fin


TORT FLOBIDIA EXPZRIIMTT STATION
QUINCY, jORIDA

October 25, 1954

TFES iimeo Report -i

STEER FATTENING TRIALS IT NORTH FLORIDA

by F. S, Baker, Jr.
Assistant Animal Rusbandman

Fattening steers in dry lot in the shade tobacco area of ITorth Florida was
begun a number of years ago mainly to furnish manure for the tobacco crop, Rations
used until recently consisted largely of locally grown corn, cottonseed meal and
cottonseed hulls from oil mills in the Southeast, and peanut hay from nearby
peanut.growing sections, The size of the local corn crop limited the number of
steers that could be fed. as very little grain was shipped into the area for cattle
feeding,

In 1949, the North Florida Experiment Station initiated a series of steer
feeding trials to determine the value of citrus molasses as a replacement for part
of the corn in fattening rations* iiolasses is available in large quantities at
concentrate plants in South Florida (present production is about 50,000 tons
annually according to the State Department of Agriculture), and liberal use of the
molasses in steer fattening rations was indicated, Consequently, citrus molasses
was tried as a replacement for a substantial portion of the corn in the ration
(onewthird, onewhalf, and two.thirds.)

Scarcity of oil meal in certain years made it timely to try urea as a partial
substitute for the oil meal, Because of results obtained in other states urea
was tried in amounts to furnish onerhalf of the supplementary nitrogen,

The solvent extraction method of processing cottonseed meal is replacing the
-older hydraulic method at many oil mills. With the increased supply of solvent meal,
It was considered timely to compare solvent and hydraulic process meals in steer
fattening rations,

Slackstrap and citrus molasses are both available in this area, consequently
it was considered edvispble to compare the two molasses,

REPLACING GROTUD SMAPPED CORNT VIT CITHI.S MOASSES

EQUAL PARTS COFl AID iviM SSES

Most of the experimental work prior to the beginning of these trials indicated
that molasses should not be used to replace more than onephalf of the concentrates
in a fattening ration2. Because of the relatively low cost of molasses in most years,
it was considered desirable to feed the maximum level of molasses that would produce
satisfactory feedlot gains. On the basis of the previous work, an equal weight of
corn and molasses appeared to be the highest level of molasses that would give good
results, and seven trials have been conducted comparing a ration containing equal
parts corn and molasses with a ground snapped corn ration containing no molasses.
Results of this comparison are shown in Table 1. The con eand cottonseed meal used
Jour. An. Science 6rg45, Ioxa Ext, Circ. 176.
,2., Morrison, PFB, 1948 Feeds and Feeding. 21 st, ed*








*2-


Table 1. Replacing an Equal Weight Ground Snapped Corn with Citrus Molasses
(Average 7 trials),


Lot I
Ground Sn. corn

Cottonseed meal
Ea I


Lot II
Equal part* Gr. Sn.
corn & citrus molasses
Cottonseed meal
Ha-


Number of steers
Number of days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration (poMsp)l:


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
416 Cottonseed meal
Hay

feed consumed ner 100Q

Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% Cottonseed meal
Hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost

Market weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yied
Average fe'ier grade
Carcass grades


14.50

2.49
5.07


9.59
9.59
2.53
3.98


a~t~ds nin~i .uI..


729
-
127
259
1,7
2,3
$23.33


847
505
59,67
High Good
7 Choice
3 Good


399
399
108
175
1,2
1.0
$19.51


862
521
60,50
High Good
8 Choice
2 Good


10
108
661
876
211
1.98


10
99
662
893
231
2.37











Table 2, Replacing two-thirds of the ground snapped corn with citrus molasses.
(Average 4 trials).


Lot I
Gr. Sn. Corn

C. S. meal
Hay


Lot II
Equal parts gr. sn.
corn & citrus mol.
Cottonseed meal
Hay


Lot III
One part gr. sn. corn
& 2 parts citrus mol.
Cottonseed meal
Hay


Number of steers
Number of days 1
Average initial weight 7
Average final weight 9
Average gain 1
Average daily gain

Averae daily rption (nounds):


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41l Cottonseed meal
Hay


7
00
'20
'06
86
1.92


Feed Consumed per 100 pounds A. in .


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
416 Cottonseed meal
Hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost

Market weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Average feeder grade
Carcass grades


795

131
251
1.7
2.1
$25.03


871
522
59.92
High Good
4 Choice
3 Good


448
448
101
115
1.2
1.0
$19.67


888
541
60.84
High good
5 Choice
2 Good


314
627
122
209
1.8
1.3
$20.96


843
521
60.18
High good
4 Choice
3 Good


7
84
722
928
206
2.47


15.25

2.48
4.72


7
92
712
902
190
2.04


6.39
12.79
2.48
4.19


11.06
11.06
2.48
2.78








-4-


Table 3. Limited Quantity of Citrus Molasses. (Average 2 trials).


Lot I
Gr. Sn. Corn

Cotton S. meal
Hay


Lot II
Equal parts gr. sn.
corn & citrus mol.
Cottonseed meal
Hay


Lot III
Gr. Sn. Corn & lim-
ited citrus molasses
Cottonseed meal
HaS


Number steers
Number days
Average initial weight 6
Average final weight 8
Average gain 2
Average daily gain

Average daily ration (pounds):


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41 Cottonseed meal
Bay


9
98
'91
'97
06
2.12


Pounds feed Per 100 pounds gain:


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% Cottonseed meal
Hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost

Market weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Average feeder grade
Carcass grades


779

115
255
1.3
1.8
$23.87


879
517
58.75
High good
6 Choice
3 Good


437
437
103
161
1.0
0.9
$21.12


904
538
59.58
High good
6 Choice
3 Good


622
244
103
163
0.7
1.7
$22.15


902
538
59.69
High good
6 Choice
3 Good


9
98
691
924
233
2.37


16.48

2.44
5.31


9
96
692
919
227
2.38


14.79
5.78
2.44
3.87


10.37
10.37
2.44
3.80


1 I I1 I I






Table 4. T1rea as a substitute for part of oil meal nitrogen. (Average of 2 trials).


Lot I Lot II
Ground sn. corn Ground sn. corn

Cottonseed meal Cottonseed meal
Urea "262"
Hay Hay


Lot III
Equal parts gr. sn.
corn & citrus mol.
Cottonseed meal

Hay


Lot IV
Equal parts gr. sn.
corn & citrus mol.
Cottonseed meal
Urea "262"
Hay


Number of steers
Number of days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain


Average daily ration (pounds):


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
415 Cottonseed meal
Urea "262"
lay


Pounds feed per 100 pounds gain :.4'(i


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
b.l) Cottonseed meal
Urea "262"
Hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost
Market weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Average feeder grade
Carcass grades


668

114

320
1.8
2.1
$23.23
854
499
58.41
High good
11 Choice
2 good


751

58
8.7
299
2.3
2.1
$23.13
850
502
59.16
High good
13 Choice


357
357
109

256
1.3
1.0
$21.67
878
520
59.36
High good
10 Choice
3 good


396
396
58
8.7
241
1.7
1.7
$21.60
870
518
59.60
High good
13 Choice


13
123
621
867
247
2.02


13
123
623
868
245
2.01


13
123
620
894
274
2.27


13
123
620
883
263
2.18


13.93

2.30

6.44


15.18

1.15
0.172
5.98


8.27
8.27
2.44

5.56


8.80
8.80
1.23
0.184
4.98








-6-


in these trials were mixed and the molasses was poured on top with no attempt to
incorporate it in the dry feed.

As shown in these results, replacing one-half of the ground snapped corn with
citrus molasses (Lot II) resulted in higher feed consumption, larger gains, cheaper
gains, slightly higher carcass yields, and equal carcass grades. The molasses-fed
cattle also finished 9 days earlier on the average. This comparison clearly shows
that in most years citrus molasses should replace an equal weight of ground snapped
corn in steer fattening rations in Torth Florida.

TWO PARTS MOLASSES ATD ONE PART COURT

The low cost of molasses in some years prompted the trial of a higher level
of molasses than corn. A ration of two parts molasses and one part corn has been
included in four trials, and results are given in Table 2.

Cattle fed the higher molasses ration (Lot III) ate less concentrates and
made slower gains than those fed equal parts corn and molasses (Lot II), but the
cost of gain from the two rations did not differ greatly. Carcass grades and yields
of the steers in Lot III were satisfactory.

When compared with steers not fed molasses (Lot I), the cattle in Lot III
gained slightly faster, ate somewhat more feed, made cheaper gains, yielded slightly
more, and graded as high in the carcass.

From these results, it appears that a ration with two parts molasses to one
part corn would be satisfactory in years when corn prices are relatively high. In
the last two trials the high molasses ration has given the cheapest gain of any of
the rations tried in this experiment.

LIMITED QUANTITY OF MOLASSES

Shortly after the outbreak of the Korean War, the price of molasses rose
because of large quantities being diverted to the manufacture of industrial alcohol.
In the event that future prices prevent the use of large amounts of molasses, a ration
containing limited quantities (about half as much molasses as corn) ,was tried. This
ration produced about as much gain as a ration with equal parts corn and molasses,
but the cost of gain for the former was greater (Table 3). As with higher levels of
molasses, the ration (Lot III) was superior to the control (Lot I) which contained
corn without molasses.

UREA AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR PART OF THE OIL MEL

Bacteria in the paunch of cattle can utilize nitrogen in urea to make protein.
These bacteria are in turn digested furnishing protein to the animal. Since feeding
trials in other states1 had shown that urea could be used to replace part of the
oil meal normally fed as a protein supplement, it was considered timely to try urea
in the type of ration used by local feeders.

In these trials, which are reported in Table 4, urea "262" was substituted for
one-half of the oil meal nitrogen with and without citrus molasses in the ration.
The urea "262" was added to the 41- cottonseed meal at the rate of 15 pounds urea to
100 pounds cottonseed meal. The urea fortified meal -ws then mixed with the ground

1Jour. An. Sci. 6:445, Iowa Ext. Circ 176.








-7-


Table 5. Hydraulic versus Solvent Process Cottonseed meal. (Average 2 trials).


Lot I
Gr. sn. corn
C.S. meal (hydraulic)
Hay


Lot II
Gr. Sn. corn
C.S. meal (Solvent)
Hay


Number of head
Number of days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:
Ground snapped corn
41 Cottonseed meal
Hay

Pounds feed Der 100 lbs. gain:
Ground snapped corn
41% Cottonseed meal
Hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Cost


Average market weight
Average carcass weight
Carcass yield
Average feeder grade
U.S. Carcass grades


876
529
60.38
Low Choice
5 Choice
2 Good


881
533
59.31
Low Choice
2 Choice
5 Good


7
105
724
902
185
1.85


14.82
2.50
4.65


798
137
254
2.1
2.1
$24.50


7
102
726
917
192
1.94


15.86
2.50
5.03


815
130
258
1.7
0.4
$24.48








-8-


Table 6. Citrus versus "lackstrap Molasses (one trial).


Lot I
Equal prts. gr. sn.
corn & citrus mol.
4lfo CS meal
Haey


Lot II
Equal prts. gr. sn.
corn & blackstrap mol.
41 CS meal
Hay


Number of head
Number of days
Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain

Average daily ration:
Ground snapped corn
Molasses
41 Cottonseed meal
Kudzu hay

Average lbs. feed per 100 lbs. gain:
Ground snapped corn
Molasses
41) Cottonseed meal
Kudzu hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal

Feed Cost 100 lbs. gain


Average market weight
Average carcass weight
Carcass yield
Average feeder grade
U. S. carcass grades


842
511
60.72
High good
4 choice
4 good


8
90
679
881
202
2.24


9.96
9.96
2.50
3.72


444
444
111
166
1.40
1.00

$19.92


8
104
675
887
212
2.04


9.54
9.54
2.50
5.15


468
468
123
253
1.50
0.70

$24.49


845
507
59.92
High good
5 choice
3 good











snapped corn portion of the ration.
*(Tpie 4) )
The results show that cattle fed urea/gained about as well as those getting all
their supplemental nitrogen from cottonseed meal. There was no saving in cost of
gain where urea was fed. From these results it appears that urea should be used
only when oil meals are scarce and relatively high in price. The cost of handling
might make it infeasible to use urea in some years.

HYDRAULIC VERSUS SOLVENTT PROCESS COTTON\SEED ivMEAL

Table 5 contains the results of a comparison between rations containing hydraulic
and solvent process cottonseed meals. Steers given solvent process meal ate slightly
more feed and gained slightly faster at approximately the same cost per 100 pounds
gain as steers fed hydraulic meal. In contrast to results obtained with shelled corn
rations at the Alabama Station4, the solvent process ration produced lower carcass
grades and yields than the hydraulic meal ration. This can possibly be explained by
the fact that ground snapped corn was fed in the rations of this experiment, and the
fat content of the hydraulic meal was probably of more importance in the energy content
of the entire ration than with the shelled corn ration fed in Alabama.

CITRUS VERSUS BLACKSTRAP i4OLASSES

Table 6 contains the results of one trial comparing citrus and blackstrap
molasses in a fattening ration when the molasses were fed in equal proportions with
ground snapped corn. In this one trial, the citrus molasses gave somewhat better
results.

SUiiMiARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Replacing an equal weight of snapped corn with citrus molasses in steer
fattening rations resulted in higher feed consumption, larger gains, cheaper gains,
earlier finish, and slightly higher carcass yields.

lihen two-thirds of the corn was replaced with molasses, results were satis-
factory if molasses was cheap in relation to the price of corn.

LWhere only one-third of the corn was replaced with molasses, gains were larger
and less expensive than from corn with no molasses. However, the ration of equal
parts corn and molasses wps superior to either.

Urea was successfully used as a substitute for one-half of the oil meal nitrogen,
but this did not result in a substantial saving in feed cost.


Solvent process cottonseed meal produced as good feedlot gains as hydraulic
process meal, but steers fed the hydraulic meal yielded and graded higher.
In one trial, citrus molasses gave somewhat better results than blackstrap when
both were fed in the same proportion as ground snapped corn.


4Gregory, Keith. 1953. Personal Communication.




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