Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 62-8
Title: Vegetable fertilizer tests
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073740/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vegetable fertilizer tests
Series Title: NFES mimeo report
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Young, H. W ( Harold William ), 1930-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- Testing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.W. Young.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 9, 1962."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073740
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83764011

Full Text
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NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
April 9, 1962


NFES MIMEO REPORT 62-8

VEGETABLE FERTILIZER TESTS

by H. W. Young/1
Assistant Horticulturist


At present recommendations for vegetable crops production in this area are
based upon research at the Gainesville, Florida, and Tifton, Georgia, Stations. A
series of exploratory field experiments was started in 1960 to determine fertili-
zation practices for local conditions. Although final conclusions cannot be made
at this time, it was considered desirable to report upon the progress to date.

Each test was planted in an area 150 x 50 feet which was divided into 3 blocks
and each block was diVided into 6 plots 25 x 16 2/3 feet in size. Six treatments
were made in the randomized blocks as specified in Table 1.

Table 1.--Fertilizer Tests.

No. Element or Material Used
Field Material Studied for Treatments
2 pH Hydrated lime and sulfur
3 Rates of 6-8-6 6-8-6
4 P205 Superphosphate
5 N Ammonium nitrate
6 Rates of manure Cattle manure
7 K20 Muriate of potash

Rather high rates of N, P and K were applied in addition to the differential
treatments. In part this was due to the applications of cattle manure used as a
source of organic matter. Beginning in the summer of 1961, cover crops of millet
or rye were substituted for the manure.


It was
differences
in the soil


expected that trials of this type would not immediately show definite
between treatments as previous treatments of the fields, as reflected
analyses, would be a source of variability.


pH Treatments

Soil test analyses of the pH plots are shown in Table 2 and treatments to
adjust the pH are shown in Table 3. Fertilization in addition to the pH adjustments
and yields of the various crops are shown in Table 4.


These tests are being conducted in cooperation with Dr. Robertson,
University of Florida.








-2-


Table 2.--Soil test


analyses of pH plots.


Averages of 3 plots.


Treatment
High lime

Moderate lime

Low lime

No treatment

Low sulphur

High sulphur


Date
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
a_-1 t-AI


5.8
7.1
5.4
6.2
5.4
5.9
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
4.8
I. A


P205
109
75
89
46
91
40
86
39
97
38
92
1,Q


K20O
336
218
310
193
310
176
363
178
320
169
343
11Q9


CaO
762
2679
629
1422
612
1002
565
462
501
462
490
126


222
225
158
160
164
150
126
92
102
80
110
25


Average before
treatment 12-11-59 5.4 28 230 364! 140









Table 3.--Treatments on the pH plots.
Pounds per acre applied (1)
Desired 80+ Hydrated
Treatment pH Sulphur Lime
High lime 6.8 3920
Moderate lime 6.3 1960
Low lime 5.8 980
No treatment 5.3
Low sulphur 4.8 327
High sulphur 4.3 653
(1) Treatments made on March 1, 1960, and again on February 1, 1961.


--










Table 4.--Yields on pH plots.


Year
Season
Crop
Variety

Date planted
Harvest
First
Last
Days to first
harvest
Harvest period
days


1960
Spring
Okra
Clemson


Spineless


4-12

6-16
6-28


13
Yield in
Pounds


Yi
B<


Treatment Per Acre Pe]
High lime 3601
Med lime 3115
Low lime 2933
No treatment 1452
Low sulphur 1887
High sulphur 1234
Row distance in feet 4
Fertilization to all pH plots in addition to
N 312
P205 201
K20 251
.0n ---


1960
Fall
Squash
Early Prolific
Straightheck
8-4


9-13
9-22


10
eld in
ishels
r Acre
36
96
99
98
85
96


1961
Spring
Eggplant
Fla. Mkt.

3-24 plants


6-8
7-19


42
Yield in
Bhushels
Per Acre
363
574
461
431
317
98


4 4
hydrated lime and sulphur treatments
46 296
-- 137
-- 189


MgO --- -

Results to date indicate a pH of about 6.0 has been best for okra, squash and
eggplant. Although no magnesium has been added to the plots, the soil analyses
indicate that the higher the pH the higher the MgO recorded in the soil test. It
may also be noted that the relationship of CaO to MgO (from the 8-15-61 soil
analyses) is 13:1 on the highest pH plots and 5:1 on the lowest pH.

Rates of 6-8-6

Rates of 0, 1089, 2178, 3267, 4356, and 5445 pounds per acre of 6-8-6 were
applied to the plots during the period from 4-15-60 through 7-1-60. Soil test
analyses are given in Table 5. Fertilization in addition to the 6-8-6 applications
and yields of the various crops are shown in Table 6. A crop of millet was grown
preceding the spinach crop.


--


-----










Table 5.--Soil Test analyses of 6-8-6


Rates of
6-8-6 in


pounds
per acre
0

1089

2178

3267

4356

5445


Date
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61


Average before
treatment 12-11-59


pH
5.5
5.8
5.5
6.0
5.1
5.8
5.2
5.9
5.4
5.8
5.4
5.8


5.3


76
28
101
42
89
44
110
44
106
48
103
LO


K20
336
126
336
128
320
153
326
131
323
141
360
152


180


Table 6.--Yields on 6-8-6 plots.


Year 1960 1960-61 1961-62
Season Spring Winter Winter
Crop Eggplant Onion Spinach
Variety Fla. Mkt. Granex Virginia Savoy
Date planted 3-29 plants 10-14 12-5
Harvest
First 6-10 5-9 2-27
Last 7-7 5-9 2-27
Days to first
harvest 73 207 84
Harvest period
days 28 1 1
Pounds Yield in Yield in Yield in
Per Acre Bushels Pounds Bushels
6-8-6 Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre
0 413 2577 181
1089 308 1829 293
2178 392 1793 293
3267 250 1531 272
4356 384 2243 257
5445 304 2286 176
Row distance in feet & 4 14
Fertilization to all 6-8-6 plots in addition to 6-8-6 treatments
N 332 .138 148
P205 185 -
K20 225 --- 90
CaO 536 -
M1O 338 ---_ --


CaO
752
700
549
839
482
797
573
746
562
765
640
857


320


279
209
134
225
114
205
157
163
166
171
146
234


120


..


J _


-----


----


- -e -- ------CIL;--- L-


- ; i___l -1 I_


180


I


- -- I --


plots. Averages of 3 plots.











The first two crops on the 6-8-6 plots produced somewhat erratic yield
responses which suggested that soil variability was a factor in yield differences.
There were no significant yield differences. The last crop, winter spinach, showed
a significant increase of yield on the plots previously treated with 1089 and 2178
pounds of 6-8-6. The additional application of nitrogen and potash was necessary
to produce spinach of marketable quality.

P205 Treatments


Superphosphate treatments were made on April 15,
February 5, 1962, at rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and
Soil test-analyses of the plots are.given in Table 7.
the superphosphate treatments and yields oh the plots



Table 7.--Soil test analyses of the P205 plots. Aver;


Rates of
P205 in
pounds
per acre
0

40


120

160

200


Date
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61


PH
5.6
5.8
5.6
5.7
5.6
5.9
5.5
5.7
5.5
5.8
5.4
5.9


P205
73
47
79
43
79
45
76
42
91
45
82
50


1960; May 3, 1961, and
200 pounds of P205 per acre.
Fertilization in addition to
are shown in Table 8.


ages of 3 plots.


K20
356
190
383
229
333
255
346
225
373
193
293
184


CaO
453
874
522
923
445
871
440
937
442
797
515
993


MgX-0
164
270
186
276
146
238
126
238
117
205
178
234


'I--


-~------


-- --









Table 8.--Yields on P205 Plots.


Year
Season
Crop
Variety

Date planted
Harvest
First
Last
Days to harvest
Harvest period days
Pounds P205
Per Acre


1960
Spring
Squash
Early Prolific
Straightneck
3-29


5-17
6-16
49
_31
Yield in
Bushels
Per Acre
363


1961
Spring
Okra
Clemson Spineless

4-18


6-29
7-14
72
16
Yield in
Pounds
Per Acre
3296


40 343 2519
80 351 3934
120 373 2417
160 314 3143
200 368 1894
Row distance in feet 4 4
Fertilization to all the plots in addition to P20 Treatments
N 295 272
P205 105 105
K20 228 228
CaO 268 536
M___0 .169 338

Inconsistent responses to the P205 treatments indicate that either an optimum
of all nutrients were present or soil variability was a factor. Soil analyses have
failed to indicate any great change in the P205 levels. However, a winter crop of
Granex onions, not yet harvested, is exhibiting response to the treatments.

Nitrogen Treatments

Ammonium nitrate treatments were applied to both the 1960 and 1961 spring
crops. The rates of N in pounds per acre were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150. Soil
test analyses of the plots are given in Table 9. Fertilization in addition to the
nitrogen treatments and yields are shown in Table 10.


----


---


I


- -










Table 9.--Soil test analyses of the nitrogen plots.


Rate of N


in pounds
per acre
0

30

60

90

120

150


Date
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61
7-1-60
8-15-61


aHi
6.1
6.4
6.1
6.3
5.9
6.4
6.0
6.2
6.0
6.2
6.1
6.3


-P--P5-
79
36
94
39
63
35
62
32
86
39
81
36


346
199
336
219
333
258
323
239
360
225
353
232


CaO
757
1170
786
1035
709
1208
644
1054
604
1058
738
1049


Table 10.--Yield on nitrogen plots.


Year
Season
Crop
Variety

Date planted
Harvest
First
Last
Days to harvest
Harvest period -


1960
Spring
Cucumber
Ashley

3-29

5-24
6-10
56


1960
Fall
Okra
Clemson
Spineless
8-5

10-6
11-16
62


1961
Spring
Squash
Early Prolific
Straightneck
3-8


5-9
6-16
62


1961
Fall
Eggplant
Fla. Mkt.

8-14 plants


11-3
12-1
81


days _18 42 39 29
Pounds Yield in Yield in Yield in Yield in
of N Bushels Pounds Bushels Bushels
Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre
0 348 4552 557 27
30 403 4399 615 11
60 348 4283 604 32
90 403 4508 519 39
120 371 4973 645 74
150 379 4552 500 29
Row distance in feet 4 4 _
Fertilization to all nitrogen plots in addition to ammonium nitrate treatments
N 180 46 250 46
P205 127 -- 137 --
K20 269 -- 189
CaO 536 -- 536
MgO 338 -- 338


to
268
340
257
277
245
334
225
277
257
329
248
292


~--I -- -- -- .-- -


- .1 _~_ __


---


Averages of 3 plots.











Rates of nitrogen applications have failed to give consistent or significant
responses with the exception of the fall 1961 crop of eggplant (Table 10). This
was a poor crop because ok inadequate fruit set, therefore, definite conclusions
should not be drawn.

Since organic matter was needed on these plots, manure was applied in 1960 and
1961i Apparentiy the nitrogen present in the mahtUe was adequate to produce the
crops. (Table 10).

Manure Treatments

Cattle manure was applied at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 tohs per
acre on March 1, 1960. Soil test analyses of the plots are given in Table 11.
Fertilization to all the plots in addition to the manure treatments and yields are
shown in Table 12.

Table 11.--Soil test analyses of the manure plots. Averages of 3 plots.


Rate in Tons
of manure
per acre Date pH P205 KO0 CaO Mg0
0 8-15-61 6.0 25 165 778 202
5 8-15-61 6.0 31 143 876 213
10 8-15-61 6.0 30 162 857 222
15 8-15-61 6.0 30 148 871 217
20 8-15-61 6.1 32 169 923 233
25 8-15-61 5.8 31 149 811 222

Average of
all plots 12-11-59 5.4 32 210 420 160


~~I~


_ _11_1








Table 12.--Yield on Manure Plots.


Year 1961 1960-61
Season Spring Winter
Crop Pepper Cabbage
Variety Yolo Wonder Round Dutch
Date planted 3-29 plants 10-14
Harvest
First 6-3 3-24
Last 7-15 4-3
Days to harvest 66 161
Harvest period days 43 _11
Tons Manure Yield in Yield in
Per Bushels Pounds
Acre Per Acre Per Acre
0 319 13743
5 365 14098
10 353 15383
15 302 16298
20 313 15187
25 285 15246
Row distance in feet 4 ___
Fertilization to al plots in addition to the manure treatments
S132 92
P205 96
K20 86
CaO 268
MgO 169 _.-.-_

Although large yield differehdes were hot present, the data suggest that
between 5 and 15 tons of manute were beneficial to the yields 6f peppei and cabbage
(Table 12).

K20 Treatments

Treatments of muriate of potash were made on May 2, 1960, and May 3, 1961.
The rates used in pounds of K20 per acre were 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125. Soil
test analyses of the plots are given in Table 13. Fertilization to all the plots
in addition to the muriate of potash treatments and yields are shown in Table 14.

Table 13.--Soil test analyses of the K20 plots.

Rate of
K20 in
Pounds
Per Acre Date pH_ P2P 2_zQCaQ._. Ngf
0 8-15-61 6.1 35 229 972 292
25 8-15-61 5.9 30 254 862 296
50 8-15-61 5.9 34 272 857 262
75 8-15-61 5.9 37 288 904 253
100 8-15-61 6.0 32 310 988 285
125 8-15-61 6.1 40 306 1112 312
Overall
sample 12-11-59 5.6 28 200 __522 18C





-10-


Table 14.--Yield on K20 Plots.

Year 1960 1961 1961
Season Summer Spring Fall
Crop Sweet Potato Cucumber Okra
Variety Georgia Red Marketer Clemson
Spine3ess
Date Planted 4-28 4-18 8-11
Harvest
First 11-7-60 6-8 10-8
Last 11-7-60 6-30 10-31
Days to harvest 193 51 58
Harvest period -
_davs 1 23 24
Pounds of Yield in Bushels Per Acre Yield in Yield in
K20 Too Bushels Pounds
Per Acre Marketable Cracks Large Small Total Per Acre Per AcreQ
0 142.7 52.6 16.9 7.6 219.8 298 726
25 139.7 90.8 79.8 5.6 315.9 318 588
50 168.4 161.3 74.0 4.5 408.2 271 784
75 141.6 80.0 39.5 8.8 269.9 386 704
100 139.2 61.4 54.7 5.3 260.6 278 595
125 213.8 106.3 56.8 5.8 386.7 309 682
Row distance
in feet 4 4 4
Fertilization to all the plots in addition to the KpO treatments
N 250 226 46
P205 216 216
K20 165 165
CaO --- 538
Mgb_ --- -1___ 336

A previous treatment with dolomite lime caused considerable yield variability
in the K20 tests as evidenced by the soil tests in Table 13. The soil analyses
made on 8-15-61 reflected the differences in the K20 treatments but they were not
as pronounced as might be expected.

From the data it would appear that sufficient K20 was available on all plots.
As shown in Table 14 the overall fertilization (largely manure) furnished con-
siderable K20.
General

In addition to the trends indicated above, several general observations might
be noted. In most cases the results of the treatments did not become evident
until the second crop year. The soil analyses reflect the pH changes rapidly; but
have not indicated the magnitude of the applications of P205, 6-8-6 and K20 treat-
ments.

With the limited data available, it would appear that present University of
Florida Extension Service vegetable fertilizer recommendations for this area are
adequate for fields not previously cropped or fertilized for vegetables. Further
work is needed to determine the affects of repeated vegetable cropping and
fertilization on the same fields. This work will be continued.
HWY
300 CC
4/9/62




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