Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 55-6
Title: Various supplements to coastal bermuda grass and grain sorghum silages for wintering calves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073739/00001
 Material Information
Title: Various supplements to coastal bermuda grass and grain sorghum silages for wintering calves
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Calves -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bermuda grass -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 14, 1955."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073739
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83771738

Full Text





NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
QUINCY, FLORIDA

June 14, 1955

NFES Mimeo Rpt. 55-6

VARIOUS SUPPLEIMETS TO COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS AND GRAIN SORGHUM
SILAGES FOR WINTERING CALVES.

by F. S. Baker, Jr.
Assistant Animal Husbandman

Silage is increasing in importance as a feed for wintering calves in the North
Florida Area. Considerable tonnages of corn and sorghum, and grass silage from im-
proved pasture grasses are being stored each year in trench silos.

In the past, grass and legume hays with various supplements have been tried
for wintering steer calves which were later grazed and finished in dry lot the follow-
ing year. Adding 2 pounds or 5 pounds citrus molasses to either Coastal Bermuda or
peanut hay resulted in increased calf gains that easily paid for the cost of the
molasses.-

PROCEDURE

In the trial reported herein Angus, grade Angus, and Angus-Hereford crossbred
steer and heifer calves were divided as equally as possible into five groups. The
following rations were fed:


Lot I
Silage self-fed
------------
Mineral mixture self-fed

Lot III
Silage self-fed
--------------
5.0 lbs. citrus molasses per head daily
Mineral mixture self-fed


Lot II
Silage self-fed
1.5 Ibs. 41% C.S. .meal per head daily
Mineral mixture self-fed

Lot IV
Silage self-fed
1.5 Ibs. 41% C.S. meal per head daily
5.0 lbs. citrus molasses per head daily
Mineral mixture self-fed


Lot V
Silage self-fed
1.5 Ibs. 41f C.S. meal per head daily
5.0 lbs. blackstrap molasses per head daily
Mineral mixture self-fed

Grass silage made from a well-fertilized Coastal Bermuda pasture was fed the
first 49 days. This grass was chopped and stored in a trench silo without a pre-
servative. Grain sorghum silage made from hegari was fed the last 84 days of the trial.

The mineral mixture consisted of equal weights of salt and steamed bonpl

The cattle were fed in small dry lots with access to shelter.

1Unpublished data, North Florida Experiment Station. NOV 16 5



18&Is RAIR,











RESULTS

Results of the 49-day grass silpge trial, 84-day grain sorghum silage trial,
and the combined results of the 133-day feeding period are shown in Table 1-543.

Grass Silage Period.- Calves made fair gains (0.76 lb. per head daily) on grass
silpge with only a mineral supplement (Lot I). Cost of gain from this ration was
moderate. It should be noted, however, that rather large calves were used and the
trial was continued for only 49 days.

Calves fed grass silage and minerals with either 1.5 lbs. cottonseed pellets,
or 5.0 lbs. citrus molasses (Lots II & III) made good gains with a moderate feed cost
per 100 pounds gain. Calves given the protein supplement ate somewhat more silage
and total feed than those fed the molasses.

Calves fed 5.0 lbs. of either citrus or blackstrap molasses, 1.5 lbs. cottonseed
pellets,silage, and minerals (Lot IV and V) made excellent gains. Feed costs per 100
pounds gain were lower for these rations than for any of the others, but feed costs
per head were of course higher for Lots IV and V. If calves are to be grazed after
wintering, large gains are often undesirable because less gain is made during the
subsequent pasture season. Because pasture gain is generally cheaper than gain during
the winter, it is usually advisable to winter cattle at a level that will promote
only moderate gain. Because of the need for only a moderate gain in many cases, the
total feed cost for the winter period may be more important than the feed cost of 100
pounds gain during this period.

Grain Sorghum Silage Period.- Calves on silage and minerals (Lot I) lost weight
when fed grain sorghum silage. The calves ate more silage per day while on grain
sorghum silage than when fed grass silage, but lost 0.47 lb. per day on grain sorghum
silage compared to a gain of 0.74 lb. per day on grass silage.

Calves fed 1.5 lbs. cottonseed pellets per head daily, grain sorghum silage,
and minerals (Lot II) made as satisfactory gains as during the preceding grass silage
period. However, they ate more grain sorghum silage and the cost of gain was some-
what higher than when grass silage was fed.

In contrast to results during the grass silpge period, calves fed 5.0 lbs.
citrus molasses, grain sorghum silage, and minerals (Lot III) lost weight. Like grain
sorghum silage alone (Lot I), grain sorghum silage with only molasses supplement was
an unsatisfactory wintering ration.

Calves fed 5.0 lbs. per head daily of either citrus on blackstrap molasses,
1.5 Ibs. 41% cottonseed pellets, grain sorghum silage, and minerals (Lots IV and V)
continued to make exceptionally good gains, as they did during the preceding grass
silage period. The fact that gains were not quite as high during the grain sorghum
silage period as during the grass silage period was probably because the calves were
in better flesh at the beginning of the former period. As with the other rations,
the calves ate more grain sorghum than grass silage and costs of gain were higher
with grain sorghum silage.

Grass and Grain Sorghum Silage.- While no direct comparison can be made between
grass and grain sorghum silages based on the results of this trial, certain observations
can be made.











Calves made fair gains on good grass silage and minerals (Lot I) for a 7-week
period. When changed to grain sorghum silage, these calves ate more silage but lost
weight.

Either grass or grain sorghum silage, 1.5 lbs. per head daily 41% cottonseed
pellets, and minerals (Lot II) gave satisfactory gains. Calves ate more grain sorghum
silage and cost of gain was greater with grain sorghum silage.

Calves fed grass silage and 5.0 lbs. citrus molasses (Lot III) per head daily
made good gains for a 7-week period, but when changed to grain sorghum silage, they
lost weight.
lbs.
Both grass and grain sorghum silages supplemented with 1.5/cottonseed pellets,
5.0 lbs. of either citrus or blackstrap molasses, and minerals (Lots IV & V) gave
exceptionally good gains. These calves were in such good flesh at the end of the
winter that they probably will not make satisfactory gains on pasture during the
summer. They were carrying enough flesh to grade top commercial to good when taken
off trial. Probably calves wintered at this level should be placed on feed at the
end of the silage feeding period.

SUMMARY

Calves ate less grass silage than grain sorghum silage.

Grass silage with only mineral supplement gave fair gains.

Grass silege supplemented with eigher 1.5 lbs. 41% cottonseed pellets or 5.0
lbs. citrus molasses (both with minerals) gave satisfactory calf gains.

Grass silpge plus 1.5 lbs. cottonseed pellets and 5.0 lbs. of either citrus or
blackstrap molasses gave excellent gains.

Grain sorghum silage with only mineral supplement, or with 5.0 lbs. citrus
molasses and minerals was unsatisfactory as a wintering ration for calves. Calves
on these rations lost weight.

A ration of grain sorghum silage plus 1.5 lbs. 41%o cottonseed pellets and
minerals gave satisfactory calf gains.

Grain sorghum silage, 5.0 lbs. of either citrus or blackstrap molasses, 1.5 Ibs.
41% cottonseed pellets, and minerals produced good calf gains. Calves on these rations
were probably carrying too much flesh at the end of the winter to make satisfactory
gains during the subsequent pasture period.






Table 1-543. Various supplements to grass and grain sorghum silage for wintering steer calves.


Lot I
Silage alone


Grass
silage


Number steers
Number days

Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain
Feed (average -ounds):
Silage
41 C.S. pellets
Citrus molasses
Blackstrap molasses
Mineral mixture
Feed cost
Feed (average daily ration):
Silage
414 C.S. pellets
Citrus molasses
Blackstrap molasses
Mineral mixture


5
49

507.8
544.8
37.0
0.76

1456



6.0
$6.02

29.71



0.12


Feed cost $0.1227
Feed poundss ner 103 -oonds asin):
Silage 3935
41o C.S. pellets --
Citrus molasses
Blackstrap molasses --
Mineral mixture 16.22
Feed cost $16.27


Grain
sorghum
silage


5
84

544.8
505.5
-39.3
-0.47

3030



19.7
$12.76

36.07



0.23


Winter:


5
133

507.8 :
505.5 :
-2.3
-0.02:

4486



25.7
$18.78

33.73:


0.19
--


$0.1518 $0.1411


Loss
1!
II


I:


Lot II


Silege protein
Grain
Grass sorghum
silage silage


5
49

493.2 5
545.3 6
52.1
1.06

1420
73.5


6.0
$8.82

28.98
1.50
--
--
0.12
$0.1798


Loss : 2726
1 : 141
" : ---

" : 11.51
" : $16.91


5
84

45.3
16.4
71.1
0.85

3530
126.0


19.7
$19.8C


Lot III
:Silage / cit. mol.


:Grass
Winter: silage

5 5
133. 49

493.2: 501.8
616.4: 552.5
123.2: 50.7
0.93: 1.03

4950 : 1046
199.5: --
-- 245


25.7:
$28.62:


42.02 37.22.
1.50 1.50.


0.23. 0.19
$0.2356 $0.2151

4965 4018
177 162


27.7 20.90
$27.84 $23.23


10.0
$7.57


Grain
sorghum
silage


5
84

552.5
509.8
-42.7
-0.51

1886

420

24.0
$13.57


21.35 22.45
-- -
5.00 5.oo

S0.20 0.29
$: 0.1544 $0.1617


: 2063

483

19.70
S$14.93


Silage
: / cit.


Grass
Winter: silage


5 : 5
133 :49

501.8 494.4
509.8: 589.0
/ 8.0 : 94.6
S0.06: 1.93

2932 1193
-73.5
665 245

34.0 : 6.0
$21.15 $10.97


22.04: 21

5.00o


4.3
1.5C
5.o0c
1-5(S
5 .0C


Lot IV


/ protein sup.


mol.
Grain
sorghum
l^a


5
84

589.0
676.3
87.3
1.04

3136
126.0
420

18.5
$23.43

5 37.33
1.50
5.00


0.26. 0.12 0.22
$0.1591' $0.2238 $0.2790


Loss 36,645
It --
" 8313

" 425.00
" $264.30


1262
78
259

6.34
$11.61


3592
144
481

21.19
$26.83


SilE
; ,


Lot V
ige / protein sup.
)lackstrap mol.
Grain
ss sorghum
ge silage Wint


SSUD.-


32.55: 25.41
1.50: 1.50
5.oo00 --
-- : 5.00
0.18: 0.12
$0.2587.$0.2407


2380
110
366

13.47
$18.92


1505
89

296
7.25
$14.26


:


+ t

Gra,
Winter :silt

5 :4
133 :49

494.4 522
676.3 604
181.9 82
1.37 1

4329: 121
199.5:
665: -
-- : 21
24.5'
$34.41 $:


522.0
699.6
177.6


.0
.8
.8
.69


1.34

4382
199.5

665
20.3
$36.15

32.95
1.50

5.00
0.15
$0.2718

2467
112

374
11.40
$20.35


Feed prices: Silrge, $E.00 ton: 41l C.S. pellets, $80 ton; citrus molasses, $25 ton; blackstrap molasses, $30 ton; mineral mixture, $65 ton.


er


1.13

3137
126.0

420
14.3
$24.35

37.35
1.50

5.00
0.17
$0.2899

3307
133

443
15.01
$25.67


45
73.5

45
6.0
11.80


4
84

604.8
699.6
94.9


S-4 e C _


4
133


)




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