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 Title Page
 Introduction
 Procedure
 Results and discussion
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 57-7
Title: Use of ground corn cobs in steer fattening rations
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073737/00001
 Material Information
Title: Use of ground corn cobs in steer fattening rations
Series Title: NFES
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corncobs   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 26, 1957."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073737
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83775352

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Procedure
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Acknowledgement
        Page 8
Full Text


-7 NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

February 26, 1957
NFES 57-7
USE OF GROUND CORN COBS IN STEER FATTENING RATIONS
By F. S. Baker, Jr.

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Steers fed liberal allowances of properly supplemented ground cobs and shucks
made cheaper gains than the controls given a full-feed of grain.

There was only a slight difference in favor of feeding ground cobs and shucks
with supplement for 90 days followed by 90 days on a full-feed of grain when com-
pared with feeding a half-grain and half-cob ration for the entire 180 days.

Steers fed the ground cobs required longer to finish and were less fat when
slaughtered than the controls which were fed a grain ration with no cobs.

Results indicate that a ground cob-supplement ration should not be fed for
as long as 90 days, and grain should be fed for longer than 90 days, if cattle are
to be carried to the U. S. choice grade. Similarly, if cobs are to be fed through-
out the fattening period to cattle carried to the choice grade, ground cobs should
be limited to a level lower than half the ration.

If ground cobs are used as liberally as in this trial, it appears that the
cattle should be fattened no further than the U. S. good grade.

Based on the foregoing results, the following rations are recommended for
steers to be fed to the U. S. good grade:

First 60-90 days
Ground cobs and shucks, self-fed
*2.50 to 2.75 lbs. special roughage supplement ---
1.00 lb. molasses
'.Salt, self-fed ^; "
Last 30-60 days 'iy
Ground snapped corn and citrus molasses, self-fed I
2.5 lbs. 41% c. s. meal
2.0 to 3.0 lbs. hay or ground cobs
Salt and bonemeal, self-fed

OR
120-150 days
Half-feed cobs and half-feed grain (Gr. sn. corn and citrus molasses)
*2.50 to 2.75 lbs. special roughage supplement
Salt, self-fed

See Page 3 for formula.

In this trial, 41% cottonseed meal as the sole protein supplement gave
slightly better results than a 40% mixed supplement.







NFES 57-7 cont'd.


INTRODUCTION
A number of experiments conducted in the past decade have demonstrated the
value of properly supplemented corn cobs and other poor quality roughages as energy
feeds for fattening cattle.1 Work at Purdue showed that if adequate protein,
minerals, vitamins, and a small quantity of readily available carbohydrates
(molasses) were supplied, cattle made surprisingly good gains with only ground
corn cobs as the remainder of the ration. Evidently if the bacteria in the rumen
or "paunch" could obtain the essential nutritional elements, they could break down
the poor quality roughages and make energy available to the animal. A supplement
known as "Purdue Supplement A" was designed to make up the deficiencies of poor
quality roughages such as ground corn cobs. This supplement consisted of the
following:

Per steer daily Per ton mix
Soybean oil meal 2.25 1287
Molasses feed (45% molasses) 1.00 572
Bonemeal 0.18 102
Salt 0.06 34
Vitamin A concentrate 0.01 5
3.50 2000
The value of adding alfalfa meal to the supplement was later shown; and urea was
satisfactorily substituted for part of the oil meal nitrogen, which in many cases
resulted in greater economy.

Because of the greater quantities of corn cobs becoming available in the
Southeast, it was considered timely to try ground corn cobs in a steer fattening
ration in this area.

The question of the relative value of mixed protein supplements and single
oil meals has concerned a number of local steer feeders. This prompted the com-
parison of the commonly used cottonseed meal and a mixed protein supplement in a
fattening ration.

PROCEDURE
The objectives of this feeding trial were: (1) to determine the value of a
liberal allowance of ground corn-cobs in a fattening ration; (2) to compare cob
feeding at the beginning of the fattening period followed by grain feeding with
half-cobs and half-grain throughout the entire period; and (3) to compare cottonseed
meal and a mixed protein supplement in a fattening ration.







1Beeson, W. M. and T. W. Perry. 1952. Balancing the Nutritional Deficiencies of
Roughages for Beef Steers. J. An. Sci. 11:501.

Burroughs, Wise, C. C. Culbertson, E. Ruf., W. Rapp and W. E. Hammond. 1952.
Cattle Supplements Using Cornstalks, Corncobs and Hay in Fattening Rations. Iowa
Agr. Exp. Sta. A. H. Lflt. 182.


-2-







NFES 57-7 cont'd.


INTRODUCTION
A number of experiments conducted in the past decade have demonstrated the
value of properly supplemented corn cobs and other poor quality roughages as energy
feeds for fattening cattle.1 Work at Purdue showed that if adequate protein,
minerals, vitamins, and a small quantity of readily available carbohydrates
(molasses) were supplied, cattle made surprisingly good gains with only ground
corn cobs as the remainder of the ration. Evidently if the bacteria in the rumen
or "paunch" could obtain the essential nutritional elements, they could break down
the poor quality roughages and make energy available to the animal. A supplement
known as "Purdue Supplement A" was designed to make up the deficiencies of poor
quality roughages such as ground corn cobs. This supplement consisted of the
following:

Per steer daily Per ton mix
Soybean oil meal 2.25 1287
Molasses feed (45% molasses) 1.00 572
Bonemeal 0.18 102
Salt 0.06 34
Vitamin A concentrate 0.01 5
3.50 2000
The value of adding alfalfa meal to the supplement was later shown; and urea was
satisfactorily substituted for part of the oil meal nitrogen, which in many cases
resulted in greater economy.

Because of the greater quantities of corn cobs becoming available in the
Southeast, it was considered timely to try ground corn cobs in a steer fattening
ration in this area.

The question of the relative value of mixed protein supplements and single
oil meals has concerned a number of local steer feeders. This prompted the com-
parison of the commonly used cottonseed meal and a mixed protein supplement in a
fattening ration.

PROCEDURE
The objectives of this feeding trial were: (1) to determine the value of a
liberal allowance of ground corn-cobs in a fattening ration; (2) to compare cob
feeding at the beginning of the fattening period followed by grain feeding with
half-cobs and half-grain throughout the entire period; and (3) to compare cottonseed
meal and a mixed protein supplement in a fattening ration.







1Beeson, W. M. and T. W. Perry. 1952. Balancing the Nutritional Deficiencies of
Roughages for Beef Steers. J. An. Sci. 11:501.

Burroughs, Wise, C. C. Culbertson, E. Ruf., W. Rapp and W. E. Hammond. 1952.
Cattle Supplements Using Cornstalks, Corncobs and Hay in Fattening Rations. Iowa
Agr. Exp. Sta. A. H. Lflt. 182.


-2-










NFES 57-7 cont'd.


The following rations were fed in dry lot:

Lot VII

First 90 days
Ground cobs and shucks, self-fed
1.0 lbs. citrus molasses
*Special roughage supplement

Second 90 days
Ground snapped corn and citrus molasses, self-fed
*Special roughage supplement
5.0 lbs. gr. cobs and shucks

Lot VIII

Entire 180 days
Ground snapped corn and citrus molasses, half-feed
Ground cobs and shucks, half-feed
*Special roughage supplement

Lot IX

Ground snapped corn and citrus molasses, self-fed
2.5 lbs. 41% cottonseed meal with stilbestrol
3.0 lbs. Coastal Bermuda hay
Salt and steamed bonemeal, self-fed

Lot X

Ground snapped corn and citrus molasses, self-fed
2.5 lbs. 40% mixed supplement with stilbestrol
3.0 lbs. Coastal Bermuda hay
Salt and steamed bonemeal, self-fed

*The special roughage supplement fed to Lots VII and VIII was similar to
Purdue Supplement A and consisted of the following:

Per head daily Per mix
41% cottonseed meal 2.49 2491
Stilbestrol premix 0.01 10
Salt 0.06 60
Bonemeal 0.18 180
NOPCO Vitamin A Powder (10,000 I.U./gm) 0.01 9
2.75 2750

The above mixture was pelleted. Citrus molasses was fed separately by pouring
on top of the dry feed. Free access was given to trace mineralized salt blocks.

Stilbestrol premix to supply 10 mg. stilbestrol per steer daily was added to
the cottonseed meal fed to Lot IX. The mixed protein supplement fed to Lot X
consisted of the following: 100 lbs. Urea 262, 200 lbs. 41% c. s. meal, 400 lbs.
rice bran, 100 lbs. dehydrated 17% alfalfa meal, 300 lbs. 36% linseed oil meal,
200 lbs. 44% soybean oil meal, 400 lbs. 55% meat scraps, 100 lbs. distillers






NFES 57-7 cont'd.


solubles, 50 lbs. defluorinated phosphate, 50 Ibs. Vita-Way Fortifier, 40 lbs.
ground limestone, 10 lbs. Stilbosol, 45 lbs. salt, and 5 lbs. vitamin A supplement.

Good to choice quality two-year-old Hereford steers were used for this trial.
These steers were shipped in from Wyoming by American Sumatra Tobacco Corporation
and grazed on improved pasture in Gadsden County from November until put on feed
in July. The cattle were very thin when put on pasture but made a good grass gain
and were in fair flesh when started on feed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tables 1 to 3-580 contain the results for the first half, last half, and
entire feeding period, respectively.

Ground cobs and shucks in the ration.--Adding ground cobs and shucks to the
ration resulted in lower but cheaper gains during both the first 90 days and over
the entire fattening period (Lots VI and VIII compared with Lots IX and X). Steers
fed the cobs made particularly economical gains during the first 90 days of the
fattening period (Table 1-580). At the completion of this period, most Lot VII
steers would have graded U. S. standard and Lot VIII steers would have graded about
half good and half standard, based on appraisal by experienced cattle buyers.
Feeding cobs for 90 days followed by 90 days on grain (Lot VII) gave only slightly
better results than 180 days on half grain and half cobs (Lot VIII). This does
not agree too closely with results at the Missouri Station where there was a much
greater difference in favor of feeding most of the roughage at the beginning of
the fattening period.2

Thc liberal feeding of cobs (Lots VII and VIII) gave cheaper gains, but the
cob feeding prevented the cattle from attaining enough finish to grade U. S. choice.
It can be seen that half of the carcasses from steers in Lots IX and X graded choice
after a 148-day feeding period while only one of the 16 steers in Lots VII and VIII
yielded a choice carcass after 181 days on feed. If the carcasses of the cattle
in Lots IX and X had had the degree of marbling indicated by the very heavy outside
fat cover, more would have graded choice. This heavy outside cover can possibly be
explained by the fact that the cattle were allowed to get very thin during the
winter preceding fattening, which resulted in heavier outside fat, smaller eye
muscle, and less marbling after the cattle were finished later in the feedlot.
Work at the Missouri Station shows that if cattle do not make satisfactory winter gai;
the carcass quality may be adversely affected when the cattle are finished as much
as one year later.3 Apparently this occurs even though poorly wintered cattle are
subsequently fed so as to compensate for the winter weight loss before they are
slaughtered. If the fat distribution had been better, most of the Lot IX and X
carcasses would undoubtedly have graded choice, thereby giving a greater difference





2 Weaver, L. A. and A. J. Dyer. 1954. Fattening Two-Year-Old Steers. Mo. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 627.

3 Brady, D. E., J. E. Comfort, J. F. Lasley, and W. F. Pfander. 1955. Reports on
Beef Cattle Experiments. Mo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 652: 26.


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NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
Table 1-580: First Three Months' Period.

Lot VII Lot VIII Lot IX Lot X (Mixed
1/2 feed (C.S.Meal) Protein Supp
Full-Feed Cobs and Full-feed Full-feed
Cobs 1/2 feed grain grain grain
Number of steers 8 8 8 8
Number days 89 89 89 89
Average initial weight 734.5 738.6 814.0 811.0
Average final weight 879.1 905.5 1008.0 985.0
Average gain 144.6 166.9 194.0 174.0
Average daily gain 1.63 1.88 2.18 1.96

Average daily ration:
Ground snapped corn --- 4.96 10.46 10.46
Citrus molasses 1.00 4.96 11.67 11.38
Protein supplement 2.75 2.75 2.50 2.50
Gr. cobs & shucks 17.02 10.15 -- ---
Coastal Bermuda hay --- --- 3.35 3.26

Feed consumed per 100 lbs. gain:

Ground snapped corn --- 265 480 535
Citrus molasses 62 265 535 582
Protein supplement 169 147 115 128
Gr. cobs & shucks 1048 541 -- --
Coastal Bermuda hay --- --- 154 167
Salt -- -- 2 2
Steamed bonemeal -- --- 1 2
Mineral mixture 7 2 --

*Feed costs per 100 lbs. gain: $22.08 $25.66

Gr. cobs & shucks @ $6.50 $11.88 $16.46
Gr. cobs & shucks @ $12. $14.76 $17.95
Gr. cobs & shucks @ $15. $16.33 $18.76

* Feed prices used: Gr. sn. corn, $35 ton; citrus molasses, $27.50; 41% c.s. meal
plus stilbestrol, $75; mixed protein supp. (Lot X), $95; protein supplement
(Lots VII and VIII), $86; gr. cobs and shucks, see above; Coastal hay, $25; salt,
$30; steamed bonemeal, $90; mineral mixture, $100.


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NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
Table 2-580: Second Three Months' Period.

Lot VII Lot VIII Lot IX Lot X
1/2 feed cobs (C.S.Meal) (Mixed Protein
Full-feed and 1/2 Full-feed Supp.) Full-
grain feed grain grain feed grain
Number of steers 8 8 8 8
Number of days 92 92 59 59
Average initial weight 879.1 905.5 1008.0 985.0
Average final weight 1068.3 1055.5 1150.0 1120.4
Average gain 189.1 150.0 142.0 135.4
Average daily gain 2.06 1.63 2.41 2.29

Average daily ration:

Ground snapped corn 11.91 6.14 13.99 14.04
Citrus molasses 6.69 3.52 11.42 11.13
Protein supplement 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Ground cobs and shucks 5.00 10.26 --
Coastal hay --- 2.60 2.80

Feed consumed per 100 lbs. gain:

Ground snapped corn 579 377 581 612
Citrus molasses 325 216 475 485
Protein supplement 122 153 104 109
Ground cobs and shucks 243 629 --
Coastal hay -- -- 108 122
Salt --- 2 1
Steamed bonemeal --- 1 1
Mineral mixture 2 2 --

*Feed cost per 100 lbs. gain: $22.03 $24.16

Grn. cobs & shucks @ $6.50 $20.74 $18.29
Grn. cobs & shucks @ $12. $21.41 $20.02
Grn. cobs & shucks @ $15. $21.77 $20.97


* Feed prices used: Gr. sn. corn, $35 ton; citrus molasses, $27.50; 41% c.s. meal
and stilbestrol, $75; mixed protein supplement (Lot X), $95; protein supplement
(Lots VII and VIII), $86; gr. cobs and shucks, see above; coastal hay, $25; salt,
$30; steamed bonemeal, $90; mineral mixture, $100.


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NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
Table 3-580: Results entire fattening period.

Lot VII Lot VIII Lot IX Lot X
Full-feed cobs 1/2 feed cobs (C.S. Meal) (Mixed Pro-
Followed by and 1/2 Full-feed tein Supp.)
Full-feed feed grain grain Full-feed
grain grain
Number steers 8 8 8 8
Number days 181 181 148 148
Average initial weight 734.5 738.6 814.0 811.0
Average final weight 1068.3 1055.5- 1150.0 1120.4
Average gain 333.8 316.9 336.0 309.4
Average daily gain 1.84 1.75 2.27 2.09

Average carcass weight 651.6 644.0 717.3 704.4
Average carcass yield 61.00 61.01 62.37 62.87
Carcass grades 1 Ave. choice
1 Low choice 3 Low choice 4 Low choj
3 High good 4 High good 3 High good 2 High goc
4 Ave. good 4 Ave. good 1 Ave. good 1 Ave. goc
1 Lowr good
**Market value cwt. carcasses $30.21 $30.00 $33.07 $33.04
**Market value cwt. on foot $18.43 $18.30 $20.63 $20,77

Average daily ration:

Ground snapped corn 6.05 5.56 11.87 11.89
Citrus molasses 3.89 4.23 11.57 11.28
Protein supplement 2.62 2.62 2.50 2.50
Ground cobs and shucks 10.91 10.21 -- --
Coastal hay -- --- 3.05 3.08

Feed consumed per 100 lbs. gain:

Ground snapped corn 328 318 523 569
Citrus molasses 211 242 510 540
Protein supplement 142 150 110 120
Ground cobs and shucks 592 583 --- --
Coastal hay --- --- 134 147
Salt -- --- 2 1
Steamed bonemeal -- -- 1 2
Mineral mixture 4 2

*Feed cost per 100 lbs. Rain: $22.05 $25.04

Gr. cobs & shucks @ $6.50 $16.87 $17.34
Gr. cobs & shucks @ $12. $18.50 $18.95
Gr. cobs & shucks @ $15. $19.39 $19.82

*Feed prices used: Ground snapped corn, $35 ton; citrus molasses, $27.50; 41%
c.s. meal and stilbestrol, $75; mixed protein supplement (Lot X), $95; protein
supplement (Lota-VII & VIII), $86; ground cobs and shucks, see above; coastal
hay, $25; salt, $30; steamed bonemeal, $90; mineral mixture, $100.

- Choice carcasses, December 28, 1956 (Lots IX and X), $35; Good carcasses, $31.
Choice carcasses, January 30, 1957 (Lots VII and VIII), $31.50; Good carcasses, $30






NFES 57-7 cont'd.


between these and the carcasses from the cob-fed cattle in Lots VII and VIII. The
latter definitely lacked the finish of the cattle in Lots IX and X. Perhaps cattle
fed liberal allowances of ground cobs or other low quality roughage should either
be fed the roughage for a shorter period (with a longer grain feeding period) or
else the cattle should be fed only to the U. S. good grade.

Comparison of cottonseed meal and mixed protein supplement.--The mixed protein
supplement used in this trial failed to give any advantage over straight cottonseed
meal. In fact the latter produced somewhat better results, but results from one
test should not be considered conclusive.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

American Sumatra Tobacco Corporation, Quincy, furnished the cattle for this
trial.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, supplied the stilbestrol premix.

Suber-Edwards Packing Company, Quincy, cooperated in slaughtering the cattle
and assisted in collecting carcass data.





FSB
2/26/57
300 cc


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