Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 58-5
Title: Wintering stocker cattle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073736/00001
 Material Information
Title: Wintering stocker cattle
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 1, 1958."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073736
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83316143

Full Text





NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

June 1, 1958
NFES Mimeo Rpt. 58-5

WINTERING STOCKER CATTLE
by F. S. Baker, Jr.
'__ SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Argentine Bahia grass silage plus 3.0 pounds per head daily of a modified
Purdue A supplertent was not a satisfactory ration for wintering steer calves and
light yearlings. \ Cattle gains were slow, and costs of wintering and costs of gain
were excessive

Coastal Bermuda hay plus the modified Purdue A roughage supplement gave poor
results. Argentine Bahia hay, Coastal hay / 3.0 pounds ground snapped corn, and
hegari silage with the same supplement produced fairly good cattle gains but costs
were too highs

Ground cobs and shucks plus the supplement gave excellent results. The
pelleted modified Purdue A supplement consisted of 2.25 pounds 41% cottonseed meal,
0.25 pound citrus molasses, 0.25 pound alfalfa meal, 0.18 pound bonemeal, 0.06
pound salt, and 0.01 pound Vitamin A concentrate per head daily.

Supplementing frost-killed Bahia pasture with 4.5 pounds ground snapped corn
and 1.5 pounds cottonseed meal per head daily was not adequate to produce gain on
calves or yearlings until pasture clover began to grow in February.

Oats pasture produced excellent gains. Limiting oats grazing to li hours per
day and full-feeding grass hay greatly reduced cattle gains, but only one-third as
much oats pasture was required as with cattle that had free access to oats.

INTRODUCTION
In a 1956-57 wintering experiment with calves, neither Coastal Bermuda grass
silage nor Coastal Bermuda hay supplemented with a modified Purdue A supplement
gave satisfactory results.1 Calf gains were small, and costs of wintering and
costs of gain were excessive. Argentine Bahia hay gave somewhat better results
than Coastal Bermuda hay.

Hegari silage plus the Purdue A type supplement produced more winter gain than
grass silage or grass hay with the same supplement. As with the grass silage and
grass hay, costs were excessive with the hegari silage ration.

Ground cobs and shucks supplemented with the modified Purdue A supplement was
superior to grass silage or grass hay and the same supplement for wintering calves.
Gains on the cob ration were larger, and cost of wintering and cost of gain were
smaller. The cob ration produced the same winter gain as the hegarf silag'~aon
at a considerably lower cost for the ground cobs and shucks.


1 Baker, F. S., Jr. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-11. 1957. c V
'^^.^_^ -
'*-*'*'^ y'1'.






-2-
PROCEDURE
Fifty-four steer calves and light yearling steers (15 calves and 39 yearlings)
were selected for this experiment. The crossbred Hereford-Angus calves were from
the Station herd, while the Hereford, Angus, and crossbred yearlings were purchased
in South Georgia. The calves weighed approximately 425 and the yearlings 565 pounds
per head at the beginning of the trial. All were wintered to be used for further
grazing at the end of the winter.

The cattle were divided into nine approximately equal groups and fed as follows:

Iit_13.-Argentine Bahia silage, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement, and trace
mineralized block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 14.-Sagrain silage, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement,and trace mineralized
block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 15.-Argentine Bahia hay, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement, and trace minera-
lized block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 16.-Coastal Bermuda hay, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement, and trace minera-
lized block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 17.-Coastal Bermuda hay, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement, 3.0 pounds ground
snapped corn, and trace mineralized block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 18.-Ground cobs and shucks, 3.0 pounds roughage supplement, and.trace
mineralized block salt. (Dry Lot)
Lot 19.-4.5 pounds ground snapped corn, 1.5 pounds 41% cottonseed meal, and
minerals on frost-killed Bahia pasture. (Clover last 60 days of trial).

Lot 20.-Limited oats pasture (I1 hours per day), grass hay, and minerals.
Lot 21.-Free access to oats pasture and minerals.

Grass silage was cut from improved pasture at peak of growing season and stored
in a trench silo. Grass hays were cut in late summer from improved pasture. Sagrain
silage was ensiled in late summer in a trench silo. An unusual dry period occurred
in the latter part of July and throughout August, 1957, which undoubtedly resulted
in lower quality forages than are produced in many years. Fall-cut grass hays were
rather mature and stemmy, and the Sagrain silage contained only a small amount of
grain. Only the grass silage, made before the start of dry weather, was of high
quality.

Clover in the frost-killed Bahia pasture (Lot 19) began to grow in late fall
but was not large enough to furnish grazing until after mid-February during the last
60 days of the trial. C.ld weather slowed the growth of oats somewhat, but adequate
winter moisture resulted in better than average oats pasture, especially for the
last 60 days of the trial.

Following was the pelleted roughage supplement fed (pounds):
Per head daily Per ton
41% cottonseed meal 2.25 1500
Citrus molasses 0.25 167
Alfalfa meal 0.25 166
Steamed bonemeal 0.18 120
Salt 0.06 40
Vitamin A concentrate 0.01 _
3.00 2000
The various roughages were self-fed. Free access was given to trace minera-
lized salt blocks, and to salt and steamed bonemeal for Lots 19, 20, and 21.






-3-
The initial weights of the cattle were not shrunk. Final weights were shrunk
4 per cent for Lots 13 18 that were driven about 1/2 mile to the scales and 5 per
cent for Lots 19 21 that were driven only a short distance to the scales.
Shrinking the final and not the initial weights was done in an effort to overcome
the effect of fill acquired during the experimental period.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of the first 70 days are given in Table 1-543. Results are reported
for this period because practically no clover was available to Lot 19, and cold
weather limited growth of oats pasture throughout-the period (Lots 20 and 21).
During the subsequent 52-day period (Table 2-543), clover was available to Lot 19
and oats grAing was abundant. Table 3-543 contains the results for the entire 122
days.

As in the preceding year with Coastal Bermuda grass silage,2 gains from Argen-
tine Bahia grass silage were poor and costs were excessive (Lot 13). Evidently the
moisture content of the silage was so high that the calves and light yearlings
could not consume enough silage to get sufficient nutrients. Also, much of the
nutritive value of the silage may have been lost in the press juice that drained
from the trench silo. It is probable that a supplement consisting of about 5.0
pounds of ground snapped corn and 1.0 pound of cottonseed meal per head daily might
have given better results at about the same cost as the 3.0 pounds of roughage
supplement used in this trial. This is supported by a 1955 study of various
supplements to grass silage.3 However, it does not appear likely that grass silage
could be economically supplemented to produce results superior to those obtained
from grass hay. Because of the higher cost involved in feeding silage and greater
waste in storage, it appears that the practice of making hay in preference to grass
silage is justified.

As in the preceding year, late-cut Bermuda hay supplemented with only the
roughage supplement gave poor results (Lot 16). Argentine Bahia hay cut at the
same stage of maturity again produced larger and more economical gains (Lot 15)
than the Coastal Bermuda hay. In fact, the Coastal Bermuda hay supplemented with
both 3.0 pounds of ground snapped corn and 3.0 pounds roughage supplement (Lot 17)
gave about the same results as the Bahia hay and only the roughage supplement (Lot
15). As with grass silage, results of a previous trial indicate that 5.0 pounds
ground snapped corn and 1.0 pound cottonseed meal might give better gains at about
the same cost as the roughage supplement used in this study.5

Sagrain silage (Lot 14) gave larger and cheaper gains than grass silage.
Total cost for the winter for the Sagrain silage and cost of gain were excessive,
however. As previously stated, dry weather reduced the quantity of grain in the
Sagrain, thereby lowering the quality of the silage and undoubtedly contributing
to the poorer results from this silage as compared to those from grain sorghum
silage in the past.







2 See Footnote 1, page 1.
SBaker, F. S., Jr. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 55-6. 1955.
4 See Footnote 1, page 1.
NFES Progress Report. 1954.






Table.: 1-543. 1957-1958 Wintering Trial First 70 Days
Bahia Sagrain Bahia Coastal Coastal Gr. cobs Frosted Limited Oats Oats
Silage Silage Hay Hay Hay / & Shucks Pasture / Pasture / Pasture
/ Sup. / Sup. / Sup. / Sup. Sup. & Corn / Sup;. Corn & Pro- Coastal hay
tein Sup.
Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15 L 6 L 16 Lot 17 Lot 18 Lot 19 Lot 20 Lot 21


Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average gain
Average daily gain
Average Feed for 70 Days:
Silage
Hay or ground cobs
Roughage supplement
Ground snapped corn
41% cottonseed meal
Oats pasture (acres)
Cost
Cost with ground cobs @ $20
Average Daily Ration:
SSilage
SHay or ground cobs
Roughage supplement
Ground snapped corr
41% cottonseed meal
Oats pasture (acres)
Cost
Cost with ground cobs @ $20
Feed Per 1CO Pounds Gain:
Silage
Hay or ground cobs
Roughage supplement
Ground snapped corn
41% cottonseed meal
Oats pasture (acres)
Cost
Cost with ground cobs @ $20


525
545
19
0.28

2813

210


$19.89


40.19

3.00


14,550

1,086


528
584
57
0.81

3313

210



$21.88


S47.33

3.00



$0.313


5,864

372


5"27
571
45
0.64


856
210



$17.11



.12.22
3.00



$0.244



1,923
472


527
541
15
0.21


840
210


$16.86



11.99
3.00



$0.241



5,597
1,400


$102.89 9 38.74 $ 38.46 $112.37
--- --- --- ---


527y
581
54
0.77


802
210
210


$20.66



11.46
3.00
3.00


$0.295



1,495
391
391


$ 38.51


52-7
597
70
1.00


989
210



$13.49
$18.44


14.12
3.00



$o.193
$0.263


1,419
301



$ 19.34
8 26,43


526
525
-1
-0.02


226

315
105

$12.08



3.22

4.50
1.50

$0.172




Loss


518
-7
-0.10


733



0.20
$14.51



10.48



0.0029
$0.207


527
625
98
1.40


0.60
$21.21







0.0086
$0.303


Loss


0.611
$21.60


Foed Prices: Silage, $8 ton; hay, $20; ground cobs & shucks, $10 and $20; roughage supplement, $80; ground snapped corn, $40;
41% cottonseed meal, $65; salt, $30; bonemeal, $90; trace mineral salt, $100; oats pasture, $35 acre.
-ugha ge suppleimnt: 2.25 lbs. 41% c.s. meal, 0.25 lb. citrus mnlcsSpeo, 0.25 lb. alfalfa meal, 0.18 lb. bonemeal, 0.06 lb.
salt, 0.01 lb. vitamin concentrate.
e 2:3 costs inrclud co's of minerals not shown in tablc.







fable 2-543. 1957-1958 Wintering Trial, Last
Bahia
Silage
/ Sup.


52 days.
Sagrain
Silage
/ Sup.


Bahia
hay
/ Sup.


Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
Average initial weight 545 584 571
average final weight 591 630 645
Average gain 46 46 74
Average daily gain 0.88 0.88 1.43
Average Feed for 52 Days:
Silage 2221 3033 --
Hay or ground ccbs & shucks -- -- 795
Roughage supplement 156 156 156
Ground snapped corn -- -- --
41% cottonseed meal -- -- --
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) -- -- --
*-Cost $15.42 $18.65 $14.33
Cost with ground cobs 0 $20 --- --
Average Daily Ration:
Silage 42.71 58.32 ---
Hay or ground cobs & shucks --- -- .i'.29
Roughage supplement 3.CO 3.00 3.00
Ground snapped corn -- --
41% cottonseed meal -- -- -
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) -- -- --
**Cost $0.297 $0.359 $0.276
Cost with ground cobs @ $20 -- --- -
Feed Per 1CO Pounds gain:
Silage 4828 6592 ---
Hay or ground cobs & shucks --- --- 1072
Roughage supplement 339 339 210
Ground snapped corn -- -- --
41% cottonseed meal -- -- --
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) -- -- --
-,-Cost $33.52 $40.53 $19.32
Cost with ground cobs @ $20. -- --- --
- aed Prices: See Table 1-543.
SClover pasture throughout 52 day period.
Above costs include costs of minerals not shown in table.


Coastal Coastal
hay Hay /
/ Sup. Sup. & Corn


Lot 16
542
562
20
0.38


700
156



$13.31



13.46
3.00


Lot 17
581
646
65
1.25


680
156
156


$16.20



13.03
3.00
3.00


$0.256 $0.312


3499
780


$66,54


1049
241
241


$25.00


---
$15.24
$21.25


Frosted* Limited Oats
Pasture Pasture /
Corn & Coastal
otein Sup. hay
.ot 19 Lot 20
525 518
635 560
111 42
2.13 0.81


Gr. cobs
& shucks
/ Sup.

Lot 18
597
666
69
1.32


827
156



$10. 50
$14.63


15.91
3.CO



$0.202
$0.231


1202
227


/
Pr<
LJ


--~- I --


Oats
Pasture


Lot 21
625
758
132
2.54






O./:.CO
$14.17







0.008
$0.272







0.302
$10.71


1CO

234
78
1.250
$14.70



2.12

4.50
1.50
0.024
$0.282



100

212
71
1.130
$13.32


469



0.133
$ 9.52



9.03



0.003
$0. 184



1117



0.317
$22.66


~--------~-^-------







TaDble L--ftr45. XU3e-A,!30 JHc.rK-A J.9 Z-j0g. -


Sagrain
Silage
/ Sup.

Lot 14


rr ahia


Bahia
Silage
up.Lot 13
Lot 13


Bahia
Hay
/ Sup.


Lot


Average initial weight 52b 528 32
Average final weight 591 630 64!
Average gain 65 103 1(
Average daily gain 0.54 0.84
Average Feed for 122 Days:
Silage 5034 6346 -
Hay or ground cobs & shucks 165:
Roughage supplement 366 366 36d
Ground snapped corn -- -
41% cottonseed meal -
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) .-- -- -
**Cost $35.32 $40.53 $3:
Cost with ground cobs @ $20 -- -
Average Daily Ration:
Silage .41.26 52.02 -
Hay or ground cobs & shucks --
Roughage supplement 3.00 3.00
Ground snapped corn -- -
41% cottonseed meal -- -- -
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) -
**Cost $0.289 $0.332 $0
Cost with ground cobs @ $20 -
Feed Per 1CO Pounds Gain:
Silage -7705 6191
Hay or ground cobs & shucks -- 139
Roughage supplement 560 357 30
Ground snapped corn --
41% cottonseed meal -
Oats or permanent pasture (acres) -- -
**Cost $54.07 $39.54 $2(
Cost with ground cobs @ $20 -- --
Feed Prices: Table 1-543.
* Clover in pasture last 60 days.
** Above costs include cost of minerals not shown in table.


15
7
5

0.9'


1
6
-


1.44



3.53
3.00



.258


1
8


6.48


$30.16



12.62
3.00



$o.247



4398
1046



$86.17


Gr. cobs Frosted* Limited Oats 0 t
& Shucks Pasture Pasture / Pas
/ Sup. / Corn & Coastal
C.s. meal Hay
Lot 18 Lot 19 Lot 20 Lot
527 526 525 52
666 635 560 75:
139 109 35 231
1.14 0.89 0.28


----


Coastal
Hay
/ Sup.

Lot 16
527
562
35
7 0,38


1539
366


I


I


Coastal
Hay /
Corn &
Sup.
Lot 17
527
646
119
0.97


1482
366
366


$36.87



12.15
3.00
3.CO


$0.302



1251
309
309


$31.10


II


1816
366
U--
---
$23.99
$33.07
I--
14.88
3.00



$0.197
$0.271


1311
264
$-17
---

$17.32
$23.88


336

549
183
1.25
$26.77



2.75

4.50
1.50
0.0100
$0.219



307

503
168
1.150
$24.55


1203



0.33
$23.93



9.86



0. 027
$0.196



3469



0.962
$69.35


1.00
$35.38



---
I--


0.00819
$0.290







0.434
$15.35


C------






-7-


Ground cobs and shucks with the roughage supplement (Lot 18) for the second
year gave the best results of the rations fed in dry lot. Gains from the ground
cob ration were larger and more economical than those from the various hay or
silage rations. Cattle fed the ground cobs were very thrifty at the end of the
winter. It appears that the roughage supplement used was highly satisfactory for
ground cobs and shucks.

In an effort to devise a ration with a low total cost for the winter it was
decided to try a limited feed of grain, and hay as needed, for cattle left on
permanent pasture after frost. As shown in Tables 1 and 2-543, the cattle on this
ration (Lot 19) failed to gain until clover growth began in the spring. Gains after
clover began to grow were rapid, and the overall results for the entire 122 day
wintering period were fairly satisfactory (Table 3-543). If clover is not included
in the pasture program, it appears the 6.0 pounds gain per head daily would not be
an adequate rate of supplementation for cattle on frost-killed pasture.

As shown in Tables 1 and 2-543, gains from both the limited (Lot 20) and free-
access (Lot 21) oats grazing were considerably higher for the last 52 than for the
first 70 days. This was due to the extremely favorable weather during the last
52 days at which time the oats pasture made very rapid growth. It will be noted that
only one-third as much oats were required for the limited as for the free-access
grazing. It should be pointed out that results from the free-access grazing were
exceptionally satisfactory and the best recorded in recent years at the Station.




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