• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Acknowledgement
 Reference






Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - NF 88-8
Title: Tillage methods in relation to soil resistance and soybean yield
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073731/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tillage methods in relation to soil resistance and soybean yield
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, E
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subject: Soybean -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tillage -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
Statement of Responsibility: E. Brown ... et al..
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073731
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83807703

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Acknowledgement
        Page 6
    Reference
        Page 7
Full Text
100

N FES


JUN 07 1988
University of Florida





Tillage Methods in Relation to Soil Resistance
and Soybean Yield


E. Brown, B. T. Kidd, D. L. Wright ,
and I. D. Teare



















E. Brown, B. T. Kidd, D. L. Wright, and I. D. Teare, Agronomy Dept.; North
Florida Research and Education Center. Contribution from the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Route 3, Box 4370, Quincy,
FL 32351. Research Report NF 88-8. *Corresponding author.


Central Science I
Library
JU 0 18l









INTRODUCTION
Studies in the southeastern coastal plain region of the U.S. have identi-
fied the formation of tillage pans (Kashirad et al., 1967) in sandy soils that
reduce or restrict root development below the pan (Campbell et al., 1974,
Taylor and Bruce, 1968). Plants grown in soils containing such tillage pans
can experience moisture stress because of the restricted rooting volume, if
rainfall is low with no irrigation.
Tillage pans can be broken by subsoiling, which opens the subsoil and
increases the amount of water and nutrients available for plant use. Root
growth will occur below the pan (Reicosky et al., 1977) and soybean (Glycine
max L. Merr.) yields in dry years increase over non-subsoiled plots (Parker et
al., 1975). Soil resistance greater than 200 lbs/sq inch restricts root ex-
tension below the tillage pans (Wright et al., 1982). Tillage methods have
not produced consistent results and probably depends on location and soil
type.
The objective of this study was to determine how tillage methods effect
soybean yields and subsequent formation of tillage pans as measured by soil
resistance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
On November 15, 1982 three different tillage methods were used in seedbed
preparation for wheat in 20 ft wide x 210 ft long plots on Norfolk sandy loam
(fine-loamy siliceous thermic Typic Paleudult) at Quincy, Florida. The three
tillage methods were, chiselL/, harrow, bottom plow, and a fourth strip was
left as it was for a no-till!/ treatment. The tillage treatment plots were
all fertilized with 500 lbs/A of 5-10-15 fertilizer and then they were appro-
priately tilled. On November 19, 1982 a Tye Pasture Pleaserl/ drill was used
to plant Florida 301 wheat @ 100 lbs/A in 10 inch rows over all tillage treat-
ments in order to determine how wheat yields were affected by preplant tillage
methods.
Six penetrometer readings were taken at two different dates from all the
tillage treatments in order to determine if the resistance of the soil was
affected by tillages over the wheat growing period. The first set of record-
ings were taken on January 10, 1983 and the second set were taken when the



L/Chisel Plow, John Deere, Dept. S/P, 1400 3rd Ave., Moline, IL 61265.
!/Brown Ro Till, Brown Mfg., Rt. 3, Box 339, Ozark, AL 36360.
3/The Tye Company Tye Pasture Pleaser Box 218, Lockney, TX 79241.









INTRODUCTION
Studies in the southeastern coastal plain region of the U.S. have identi-
fied the formation of tillage pans (Kashirad et al., 1967) in sandy soils that
reduce or restrict root development below the pan (Campbell et al., 1974,
Taylor and Bruce, 1968). Plants grown in soils containing such tillage pans
can experience moisture stress because of the restricted rooting volume, if
rainfall is low with no irrigation.
Tillage pans can be broken by subsoiling, which opens the subsoil and
increases the amount of water and nutrients available for plant use. Root
growth will occur below the pan (Reicosky et al., 1977) and soybean (Glycine
max L. Merr.) yields in dry years increase over non-subsoiled plots (Parker et
al., 1975). Soil resistance greater than 200 lbs/sq inch restricts root ex-
tension below the tillage pans (Wright et al., 1982). Tillage methods have
not produced consistent results and probably depends on location and soil
type.
The objective of this study was to determine how tillage methods effect
soybean yields and subsequent formation of tillage pans as measured by soil
resistance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
On November 15, 1982 three different tillage methods were used in seedbed
preparation for wheat in 20 ft wide x 210 ft long plots on Norfolk sandy loam
(fine-loamy siliceous thermic Typic Paleudult) at Quincy, Florida. The three
tillage methods were, chiselL/, harrow, bottom plow, and a fourth strip was
left as it was for a no-till!/ treatment. The tillage treatment plots were
all fertilized with 500 lbs/A of 5-10-15 fertilizer and then they were appro-
priately tilled. On November 19, 1982 a Tye Pasture Pleaserl/ drill was used
to plant Florida 301 wheat @ 100 lbs/A in 10 inch rows over all tillage treat-
ments in order to determine how wheat yields were affected by preplant tillage
methods.
Six penetrometer readings were taken at two different dates from all the
tillage treatments in order to determine if the resistance of the soil was
affected by tillages over the wheat growing period. The first set of record-
ings were taken on January 10, 1983 and the second set were taken when the



L/Chisel Plow, John Deere, Dept. S/P, 1400 3rd Ave., Moline, IL 61265.
!/Brown Ro Till, Brown Mfg., Rt. 3, Box 339, Ozark, AL 36360.
3/The Tye Company Tye Pasture Pleaser Box 218, Lockney, TX 79241.









wheat was maturing on April 19, 1983. The resistance of the soil in pounds
per square inch was calculated from the soil surface to 18 inch below the
surface, in 2 inch increments from the 6 penetrometer graphs for each tillage.
The wheat was side-dressed with 210 lbs/A of ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) or
70 lbs/A ai N on January 26, 1983. Three rows by 8 ft long or 20 sq ft of
wheat was hand havested into bundles from 4 sections of each tillage treatment
on May 19, 1983. The wheat bundles were placed in a greenhouse to dry for 7
days. The wheat was then threshed and the grain was cleaned. A total weight
of the wheat grain was obtained, then a half pound subsample was taken and
placed in a Burrow's 700 Digital Moisture Computer4/ to determine the percent-
age moisture of the grain. Bushel per acre yields were calculated and cor-
rected for moisture content so one bushel at 13% moisture was 60 lbs.
The remaining wheat in the field was combined-/ from each treatment on
May 25, 1983 and all of the wheat stubble was burned off of the plot the
following day.
Two different planters (one with subsoilers and one without) were used to
plant the soybeans across the original wheat tillage plots in order to deter-
mine which preplant wheat tillage method was the most beneficial for high soy-
bean yields. The Brown Ro Till planter with subsoilers was used to plant the
Centennial soybeans in two sections in an east-west direction for the sub-
soiled treatments. The John Deere Max Emergre Planter- without subsoilers,
were used to plant two other 20-row no-subsoiled soybean sections across the
original four tillage treatments on the wheat with the same soybean cultivar.
Herbicide treatments on the soybean began with a broadcast spraying on
the date of planting (May 31) with a tank mix of Lasso (2-Chloro-2'-6'-
diethyl-N-(methoxy-methyl)-acetanilide) @ 2 qt/A, Sencor (4-Amino-6-(1,l-
dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-l,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one) @ 8 pt/A and Paraquat
(1,l'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) 1 pt/A to try and control the weeds. On
July 1 the soybean were direct sprayed with Butoxone 24 DB (4-(2,4-Dichloro-
phenoxy)butyric acid) @ 1 pt/A and Lorox (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-l-
methylurea) @ 1 lb/A to try and control the morning glories. A second post-
emergence direct spraying of Blazer (Sodium 5-{2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-
phenoxy}-2-nitrobenzoate) @ 2 pts/A and Poast (2-[l-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-


Burrow's 700 Digital Moisture Computer, 1316 Sherman Ave., Evanston, IL
60204.
!/Gleaner E. Combine, Allis Chalmers, Box 512, Milwaukee, WI 53201.
6/John Deere, Max Emergre Planter, Dept. S/P, 1400 3rd Ave., Moline, IL 61265.









(ethylthio)-propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-l-one) @ 1 pt/A was necessary in
order to control the weeds.
Insecticide treatments on the soybeans consisted of a tank mix of Dimilin
(l-(-4-chlorophenyl) 3-(2,6 difluorobenzoyl) urea) @ 2 oz ai/A and Methyl
Parathion (0,0-dimethyl-0-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) @ 1 pt/A on August
26 to control velvetbean caterpillars and stink bugs. A second broadcast
spraying of Orthene (Dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) @ 1 1/3 Ibs/A and
Dimilin (l-(-4-chlorophenyl) 3-(2,6 difluorobenzoyl) urea) @ 1 oz ai/A was
needed to control the stink bug population on September 23.
A Gleaner E Combine was used on October 28, 1983 to harvest two areas 3
rows by 10 feet long for each wheat tillage and soybean subsoiled and non-
subsoiled treatment area. A total weight of the soybean harvested by the com-
bine was obtained. The moisture percentage of the soybean was obtained with a
half pound subsample of the soybean that was placed in the Burrows 700 Digital
Moisture Computer. Bushel per acre soybean yields were then calculated and
corrected to 13.0% moisture.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of this study are shown in Table 1. The treatments were
analyzed using the Waller-Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The test indicates
that subsoiling treatments were not significant. However, subsoiling did
increase yields in all tillage treatments except the bottom plowed treatment.
The trend of higher soybean yields when subsoiled are in agreement with
Kamprath et al., (1978) and Rhoads, (1977). Subsoiling probably increased the
available water and nutrients to the plant by allowing greater root prolifer-
ation below the tillage pan.

Table 1. Soybean mean- yields in relation to tillage-- and subsoiling,
treatments, 1983.


NT H B C x PR>F = 0.3231


Subsoiled 41.6 38.0 35.2 36.7 37.9 a
Not-Subsoiled 40.0 33.8 35.7 33.1 35.6 a
x 40.8 35.9 35.4 34.9
PR>F = 0.1263 a ab ab b


- Lower case letters in rows or columns indicate significance. Mean values
followed with the same letter are not significantly different at the proba-
bility indicated.

*/NT = No Till, H = Harrowed, B = Bottom Plowed, C = Chiseled.









Tillage treatments were significant at the 13% level of probability, with
the no-tillage subsoiled combination producing the highest yield. Hovermale
et al. (1978) had similar results with no-till subsoiled soybean planted after
wheat. The bottom plowed subsoiled treatment produced the lowest yields of
all the treatments in the study which contradicts findings by Kamprath et al.,
(1978) and supports Rhoads (1977) statement that tillage methods used should
be based upon research in that particular area.
We did not allow water stress in the plants but scheduled irrigations when
tensiometers read 60 cb, the rainfall and irrigation events for the growing
season are shown in Table 2. This may be the reason why subsoiling treatments
were insignificant. The differences observed are probably due to increased
nutrient availability and not increased water availability.


Table 2. Rainfall and irrigation amounts in relation to time, 1983. Rainfall
in solid bar, irrigation in alternate solid bar.


15 31 15 31 15 31 15 31 15 31 15
MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER
GROWING SEASON, 1983






Soil penetrometer readings were taken on two different dates for all til-
lage treatments in order to measure the effect of tillage on soil resistance
and its effect on the soil volume available for the following crop of soybean
(Table 3).









Table 3. Soil resistance measurements taken 2 and 6 months after tillage
treatment, 15 November, 1982.


Soil depth Bottom Chisel
(inches) plow Harrow plow No-Till


1-10-83 ----- Mean soil resistance in lbs/sq in.-------

2 46 42 25 8
4 54 75 46 8
6 83 133 133 8
8 79 270 220 62
10 79 420 383 120
12 175 388 329 183
14 188 350 250 125
16 192 262 238 108
18 192 254 229 96


4-19-83 ----- Mean soil resistance in lbs/sq in.-------

2 37 41 29 79
4 58 79 58 100
6 100 170 120 120
8 100 242 220 154
10 96 296 275 220
12 162 229 262 283
14 229 229 275 275
16 220 246 242 238
18 250 220 233 225


-/Wright et al., 1982 indicated soil resistance greater than 200 lbs/sq in.
inhibits root penetration.

In conclusion, the subsoiling treatment did increase soybean yields
(though not significantly) in this study, which is probably because of a com-
bination of root proliferation below the tillage pan and increased nutrient
availability. No tillage produced soybean that yielded more than all other
tillage treatments but was only significantly greater than the chiseled treat-
ment.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Our thanks to Dr. James Clair, Statistical Consultant for North Florida
Research and Education Center, University of Florida. Dr. Clair is currently
working in Biometric Research, at the Merch Sharp Dohme Research Lab.,
Westpoint, PA.









1. Campbell, R. B., D.
parties and tillage
Soil Water Conserv.


REFERENCES
C. Reicosky, and C. W. Doty. 1974. Physical pro-
of paleudults in the southeastern coastal plains. J.
29:220-224.


2. Hovermale, C. H., H. M. Camper, and M. W. Alexander. 1979.
small grain stubble height and mulch on no-tillage soybean
Agron. J. 71:644-647.


3. Kamprath, E. J., D. K. Cassel, H. D. Gross, and D. W. Dibb.
lage effects on biomass production and moisture utilization
on coastal plain soils. Agron. J. 71:1001-1005.


Effects of
production.



1979. Til-
by soybeans


4. Kashirad, A. J., J. G. A. Fiskell, W. W. Carlisle, and C. E. Hutton.
1967. Tillage pan characterization of selected coastal plain soils.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31 (4):534-541.


5. Martin, C. K., D. K. Cassel, and E. J. Kamprath. 1979. Irrigation and
tillage effects on soybean yields in a coastal plain soil. Agron. J.
71:592-594.


6. Parker, M. B., N. A. Minton, D. L. Brooks, and C. F. Perry. 1975.
bean yields and lance nematode population as affected by subsoiling,
utility, and nematicide treatments. Agron. J. 67:663-666.


Soy-
fer-


7. Reicosky, D. C., D. K. Cassel, R. L. Blevin, W. R. Gill, and G. J.
Naderman. 1977. Conservation tillage in the southeast. J. Soil. Water
Conserv. 32:13-19.


8. Rhoads, F. M. 1977. Response of soybean to subsoiling in North Florida.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 37:151-154.


9. Taylor, H. M., and R. R. Bruce. 1968. Effect of soil strength on root
growth and crop yield in the southern U.S. 9th Cong. Soil Soc. Trans.
11:803-811.


10. Wright, D. L., R. D. Barnett, and M. A. Eason. 1982.
lage methods and previous crop on wheat production.
132, IFAS, NFREC, Quincy, FL.


Influence of til-
Agron. Facts No.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs