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 Materials and methods
 Reference






Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - NF 88-6
Title: Yield and lodging of corn hybrids in relation to starter fertilizer
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073728/00001
 Material Information
Title: Yield and lodging of corn hybrids in relation to starter fertilizer
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Teare, I. D ( Iwan Dale ), 1931-
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Kidd, B. T ( Brian T )
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subject: Hybrid corn -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4-5).
Statement of Responsibility: I.D. Teare, D.L. Wright and B.T. Kidd.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073728
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84000850

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Reference
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text
IOO


NFE5







YIELD AND LODGING OF CORN HYBRIDS IN RELATION
TO STARTER FERTILIZER











I. D. Teare*, D. L. Wright, and B. T. Kidd





L 60- C' V V r' d ?














I. D. Teare, D. L. Wright, and B. T. Kidd, North Florida Research and
Education Center, Route 3 Box 4370, Quincy, FL 32351. Contribution from the
Dep. of Agronomy, Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Florida Exp. Stn., Univ. of
Florida. Research Report NF 88-6. *Corresponding author.









INTRODUCTION


Placing small amounts of soluble fertilizers (particularly N and P) in
close proximity to the seed at corn planting (commonly referred to as starter
fertilizer application) has long been debated (Walker et al., 1984),
especially when the corn is grown under non-limiting conditions with irriga-
tion and fertilization for "maximum yield" (Wright and Rhoads, 1980). The
temperature differential at time of planting undoubtedly contributes to the
differences in N and P uptake by corn. In the lower coastal plains, optimum
corn planting dates range from late February to mid-March (Ball, 1981; Wright,
Teare and Kidd, 1988). As planting date is moved earlier to take advantage of
the increased yield potential, the soil temperature fluctuates widely and is
often low for several consecutive days and one can expect greater responses
from starter fertilizer containing N and P.
Slower than normal growth with low soil temperatures is probably due to a
combination of poor root growth (Knoll, et. al., 1964; Beauchamp and Lathwell,
1967) and low nutrient availability (Ketcheson, 1968; Reyes, et. al., 1977).
Poor seedling growth resulting from low nutrient availability in cold soils
can occur irrespective of residual soil fertility levels (Touchton and
Hargrove, 1983). Placing small amounts of starter fertilizer in close prox-
imity to the seed at planting will help alleviate the detrimental effects of
cool weather on early corn growth (Bates, et al., 1966; Ketcheson, 1968).
Nutrients used in starter fertilizer studies have consisted of various
N-P-K combinations, but a strict definable starter fertilizer combination does
not exist. Both N and P are considered to be primary ingredients in starter
fertilizers because of slow mineralization of organic to inorganic N (Cassman
and Munns, 1980) and slow release of solid to solution-phase-P (Arambarri, P.,
and 0. Talibudeen, 1959; Wallingford, W., 1978).
The objectives of this study were to determine if a starter fertilizer
containing N and P (ammonium polyphosphate, 10-34-0) would improve yield,
reduce lodging in high yield corn, and to determine how various hybrids would
interact with starter fertilizer in the subtropics.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


The study was planted 28 March 1985, 24 March 1986, and 16 Mar 1987 at the
North Florida Research and Education Center at Quincy, Florida, in a conven-
tional seedbed [Norfolk sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous thermic Typic









INTRODUCTION


Placing small amounts of soluble fertilizers (particularly N and P) in
close proximity to the seed at corn planting (commonly referred to as starter
fertilizer application) has long been debated (Walker et al., 1984),
especially when the corn is grown under non-limiting conditions with irriga-
tion and fertilization for "maximum yield" (Wright and Rhoads, 1980). The
temperature differential at time of planting undoubtedly contributes to the
differences in N and P uptake by corn. In the lower coastal plains, optimum
corn planting dates range from late February to mid-March (Ball, 1981; Wright,
Teare and Kidd, 1988). As planting date is moved earlier to take advantage of
the increased yield potential, the soil temperature fluctuates widely and is
often low for several consecutive days and one can expect greater responses
from starter fertilizer containing N and P.
Slower than normal growth with low soil temperatures is probably due to a
combination of poor root growth (Knoll, et. al., 1964; Beauchamp and Lathwell,
1967) and low nutrient availability (Ketcheson, 1968; Reyes, et. al., 1977).
Poor seedling growth resulting from low nutrient availability in cold soils
can occur irrespective of residual soil fertility levels (Touchton and
Hargrove, 1983). Placing small amounts of starter fertilizer in close prox-
imity to the seed at planting will help alleviate the detrimental effects of
cool weather on early corn growth (Bates, et al., 1966; Ketcheson, 1968).
Nutrients used in starter fertilizer studies have consisted of various
N-P-K combinations, but a strict definable starter fertilizer combination does
not exist. Both N and P are considered to be primary ingredients in starter
fertilizers because of slow mineralization of organic to inorganic N (Cassman
and Munns, 1980) and slow release of solid to solution-phase-P (Arambarri, P.,
and 0. Talibudeen, 1959; Wallingford, W., 1978).
The objectives of this study were to determine if a starter fertilizer
containing N and P (ammonium polyphosphate, 10-34-0) would improve yield,
reduce lodging in high yield corn, and to determine how various hybrids would
interact with starter fertilizer in the subtropics.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


The study was planted 28 March 1985, 24 March 1986, and 16 Mar 1987 at the
North Florida Research and Education Center at Quincy, Florida, in a conven-
tional seedbed [Norfolk sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous thermic Typic








Paleudult)] using the plow-layer system of management for high yield irrigated
corn (Wright and Rhoads, 1980). The area was fertilized 25 Feb 1985, 3 Mar
1986, and 16 Mar 1987 with 100 lb/A of 5-10-15. Ammonium polyphosphate
(10-34-0) was applied on the surface of the row at planting at 10 g/A as the
starter fertilizer. Zinc, Mn, Cu, and B chelates were applied to all plots at
3 qt/A. Dual (1 1/2 pt/A) and Aatrex (1 1/2 qt/A) were applied on 29 March
1985, 14 April 1986, and 21 April 1987. Rows were 23 feet long and trimmed to
20 feet for harvest. Corn was irrigated whenever tensiometers placed at 6-
inch level indicated 0.02 MPa. A 25% N solution with 3% S was applied in a
band near the row on 18 April 1985, 24 April 1986, and 26 May 1987 at 125
lb/A. Paraquat was applied as a directed spray for weed control on 8 May all
years at 1 pt/A plus X-77. Another 100 lb/A was injected through the irriga-
tion system with 1 lb/A of B on 13 May all years. Corn plants were thinned
around the first of April each year to 30,000 plants/A. Orthene was applied
at 4 Ib/A through the irrigation system about 20 June for stink bug control
all years.
Grain yields were harvested from the two center rows (20 feet long) by
combine and weighed and grain moisture was determined with a Burrows model 700
digital moisture computer and corrected to 15.5% moisture.
Lodging scores were calculated approximately 3 weeks before harvest each
year by counting the numbers of leaning or horizontal stalks and dividing by
the number of stalks per row x 100.
Field design of this experiment was a split plot with the main plots being
starter or no-starter fertilizer and the subplots being hybrids. The
experiment was replicated four times in 1985 and five times for 1986 and 1987.
Yield and lodging scores for each hybrid are shown in tables 1, 2, 3, and
a summary across all hybrids in table 4. Using starter fertilizer (10-34-0)
reduced lodging percentages and increased yields.








REFERENCES


Arambarri, P., and 0. Talibudeen. 1959. Factors influencing the isotopically
exchangeable phosphate in soils. Part III. The effect of temperature in
some calcareous soils. Plant Soil 11:364-376.
Ball, D. M. 1981. Alabama 1981 production guide for non-irrigated corn for
grain. Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University, Auburn,
Alabama.
Bates, T. E., M. H. Miller, and D. Singh. 1966. Fertilizer placed with corn
seed reexamined. Crops Soils 18:20.
Beauchamp, E. G., and D. J. Lathwell. 1967. Root-zone temperature effects on
the early development of maize. Plant Soil 26:224-234.
Cassman, K. G., and D. N. Munns. 1980. Nitrogen mineralization as affected
by soil moisture, temperature, and depth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
44:1233-1237.
Ketcheson, J. W. 1957. Some effects of soil temperature on phosphorous
requirements of young corn plants in the greenhouse. J. Soil Sci.
37:41-47.
Ketcheson, J. W. 1968. Effect of controlled air and soil temperature and
starter fertilizer on growth and nutrient composition of corn (Zea mays
L.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 32:531-534.
Knoll, H. A., D. J. Lathwell, and N. C. Brady. 1964. The influence of
root-zone temperature on the growth and nutrient composition of corn (Zea
mays L.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:400-403.
Reyes, D. M., L. H. Stolzy, and C. K. Labanauskas. 1977. Temperature and
oxygen effects in soil on nutrient uptake in jojoba seedlings. Agron. J.
69:647-650.
Touchton, J. T., and W. L. Hargrove. 1983. Grain sorghum response to starter
fertilizers. Better Crops Plant Food 67:1-3.
Walker, M. E., T. C. Keisling, H. L. Balay, and G. A. Slappey. 1984. Compar-
ison of starter fertilizer materials and their placement with broadcast
fertilizer for corn. Fertilizer Issues 1(3):44-49.
Wallingford, W. 1978. Phosphorus in starter fertilizer. In Phosphorus for
Agriculture, p. 62-79. Potash/Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, GA.








Wright, D. L., I. D. Teare, and B. T. Kidd. 1987. Phenological events of
corn in relation to time of planting. Research Report No. NF 87-3 from
North Florida Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy, FL, Univ. of Florida, Agr. Exp.
Stn., IFAS.
Wright, D. L., and F. M. Rhoads. 1980. Management practices for 300 bushel
corn. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser., Agronomy Facts 108:1-7.










Table 1. Corn grain
fertilizer


yield of 22 hybrids in relation to starter or no starter
application, 1985. Quincy, FL.


No Starter Starter
Yield Lodging Yield Lodging
Company Hybrid bu/A % Company Hybrid bu/A %


Pioneer
AgriTech
DeKalb
O's Gold
Sunbelt
Paymaster
Jacques
AgriTech
NK
Coker
Jacques
Asgrow
Pioneer
McCurdy
McCurdy
Paymaster
NK
Sunbelt
Funks
Funks
DeKalb
Coker


3165
925
748
5509
1880
8990
247
900
9581
21
8400
777
3320
7800
8150
7990
508
1802
4614
4733
XL71
8680


204
203
196
196
194
187
184
183
183
181
179
176
172
170
169
167
164
159
157
150
149
132


Sunbelt
Jacques
McCurdy
Funks
O's Gold
Coker
AgriTech
DeKalb
Jacques
NK
Funks
Asgrow
Pioneer
Paymaster
AgriTech
Sunbelt
Pioneer
DeKalb
Paymaster
Coker
NK
McCurdy


1880
247
8510
4733
5509
21
925
748
8400
9581
4614
777
3320
8990
900
1802
3165
XL71
7990
8680
508
7800


220
216
209
196
195
194
192
191
189
187
185
184
177
175
174
173
166
161
159
141
139
131


a Corn yields


corrected to 15.5% moisture.








Table 2. Corn grain yield of 26 hybrids in relation to starter or no start
fertilizer application, 1986. Quincy, FL.


No Starter Starter
Yield Lodging Yield Lodging
Company Hybrid bu/A % Company Hybrid bu/A %


Jacques
Jacques
Coker
Asgrow
O's Gold
Pioneer
DeKalb
AgriTech
McCurdy
Jacques
McCurdy
Sunbelt
McCurdy
Pioneer
AgriTech
Paymaster
Asgrow
Sunbelt
Funks
NK
Funks
DeKalb
Paymaster
Pioneer
Coker
NK


8700
JX 247
21
RX 892
5509
3192
DK 748
GK 925
8172
8400
84AA
1880
7800
3320
GK 900
7990
RX 777
1802
4733
PX 9581
G 4614
XL 71
8900
3165
8680
508


238
238
232
226
226
216
216
216
210
202
200
200
195
189
187
187
186
186
182
182
180
179
176
172
172
136


O's Gold
Jacques
Asgrow
Jacques
AgriTech
Coker
DeKalb
Pioneer
Paymaster
McCurdy
McCurdy
Asgrow
Sunbelt
Jacques
AgriTech
Funks
McCurdy
Pioneer
Paymaster
Sunbelt
Funks
NK
DeKalb
Pioneer
Coker
NK


5509
JX 247
RX 892
8700
GK 925
21
DK 748
3192
8900
7800
84AA
RX 777
1880
8400
GK 900
G 4733
8172
3320
7990
1802
G 4614
PX 9581
XL 71
3165
8680
508


244
243
233
231
225
221
220
216
215
215
209
208
208
207
206
206
197
196
193
190
188
186
184
184
174
129


6
9
3
9
9
8
8
1
20
7
17
4
9
14
11
7
34
10
21
14
11
20
6
20
6
52


aCorn yields corrected to 15.5% moisture.








Table 3. Corn grain
fertilizer


yield of 22 hybrids in relation to starter or no starter
application, 1987. Quincy, FL.


No Starter


Starter


Company
Asgrow
Crist
Pioneer
Pioneer
Jacques
Coker
Funks
Asgrow
Sunbelt
Jacques
McCurdy
AgriTech
Sunbelt
Funks
Asgrow
McCurdy
NK
Coker
AgriTech
Crist
Paymaster
DeKalb
McCurdy
DeKalb
NK
Pioneer
Jacques
Paymaster


Hybrid
5509b
C-7125
3165
3192
8700
21
G-4614
RX-892
1802
JX247
8172
GK-925
1880
G-4733
RX777
84AA
PX9581
8680
GK-900
C-7119
8900
XL-71
7800
DK-748
508
3320
8400
7990


Yield
bu/A
178
174
173
170
168
168
166
166
164
160
158
158
158
156
156
154
152
150
148
146
144
144
138
136
135
134
126
117


Lodging
%
14
10
20
16
13
34
40
22
6
43
38
31
10
21
26
30
14
33
29
11
74
17
26
67
36
35
59


Company
Asgrow
Pioneer
Crist
Funks
Pioneer
Jacques
Asgrow
NK
Sunbelt
AgriTech
Asgrow
Pioneer
McCurdy
Jacques
DeKalb
Coker
Sunbelt
Funks
Paymaster
McCurdy
Coker
Crist
AgriTech
Jacques
McCurdy
DeKalb
NK


41 Paymaster


aCorn yields corrected to 15.5% moisture.
bO's Gold 5509 renamed Asgrow 5509.


Hybrid
RX-892
3165
C-7125
G-4733
3192
JX247
5509
PX9581
1880
GK-925
RX777
3320
8172
8700
DK-748
8680
1802
G-4614
8990
84AA
21
C-7119
GK-900
8400
7800
XL-71
508
7990


Yield
bu/A
192
184
176
175
175
170
167
167
166
165
162
158
158
157
156
154
152
152
147
146
144
140
136
135
130
130
126
108


Lodging
%
13
11
6
13
2
26
27
12
9
24
15
30
40
19
49
28
8
21
55
30
60
10
33
48
31
29
55
61








Table 4. Influence of starter fertilizer on overall yield and lodging score of
corn hybrids grown at Quincy, FL; 1985, 1986, 1987.


Starter No Starter
Yield, bu/A
1985 179.9 175.2
1986 204.9 197.3
1987 154.7 153.6


Lodging, %
1985 8.0 14.4
1986 7.7 15.9
1987 27.7 29.1




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