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 Title Page
 Ditera turf - 1997
 Materials and methods
 Results
 Discussion






Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 97:10
Title: Use of ditera to manage plant nematodes in Bermuda turf
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073725/00001
 Material Information
Title: Use of ditera to manage plant nematodes in Bermuda turf
Series Title: NFREC Research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rich, J. R ( Jimmy Ray ), 1950-
Barber, Stacey K
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Bermuda grass -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematode diseases of plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Rich and S.K. Barber.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073725
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84648164

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Ditera turf - 1997
        Page 1
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Results
        Page 3
    Discussion
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text



/o0


USE OF DITERA TO MANAGE

PLANT NEMATODES IN BERMUDA TURF*





J. R. Rich and S. K. Barber

University of Florida, Route 3 Box 4370, Quincy, FL 32351


NFREC Research Report 97: 10


*The authors thank Jim Andrews of Abbott Laboratories for help with this work.


Marston Science
Library
JAN 2 6 1998

University of Florida









DITERA TURF 1997


Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pests and cause considerable damage in

golf course greens and fairways. Options for management of nematodes are limited due to

the perennial nature of turf and the multiple genera and species of nematodes that may be

present. As a result, nematode management has been based primarily upon use of

nematicides. Materials currently available include Nemacur, Mocap and Triumph. These

chemicals have one or more disadvantages including high mammalian toxicity, enhanced

biological degradation, excessive water solubility, and variable efficacy on nematode

genera. Recently, a new biologically-derived nematicidal material, DiTera, was introduced

by Abbott Laboratories. The product has a low mammalian toxicity and if effective, could

be safely used on golf courses. The present study was conducted to initially determine rates,

efficacy, and timing of DiTera applications to Tifdwarf bermudagrass golf greens infested

with damaging populations of the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus.



MATERIALS AND METHODS



The trial was conducted in the Spring of 1997 at the Bainbridge Industrial Park

Golf Course in Decatur County, Georgia. Golf greens # 1 and 4 were selected due to general

turf decline attributed to plant-parasitic nematodes. Pretreatment soil samples confirmed

presence of damaging levels of sting nematodes at an average density of 82/100 cm3 of soil.

Additionally, ring, stubby-root, and total plant-parasitic nematodes were at levels of 20, 28,

and 136/100 cm3 of soil, respectively. The test contained five treatments placed in a









DITERA TURF 1997


Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pests and cause considerable damage in

golf course greens and fairways. Options for management of nematodes are limited due to

the perennial nature of turf and the multiple genera and species of nematodes that may be

present. As a result, nematode management has been based primarily upon use of

nematicides. Materials currently available include Nemacur, Mocap and Triumph. These

chemicals have one or more disadvantages including high mammalian toxicity, enhanced

biological degradation, excessive water solubility, and variable efficacy on nematode

genera. Recently, a new biologically-derived nematicidal material, DiTera, was introduced

by Abbott Laboratories. The product has a low mammalian toxicity and if effective, could

be safely used on golf courses. The present study was conducted to initially determine rates,

efficacy, and timing of DiTera applications to Tifdwarf bermudagrass golf greens infested

with damaging populations of the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus.



MATERIALS AND METHODS



The trial was conducted in the Spring of 1997 at the Bainbridge Industrial Park

Golf Course in Decatur County, Georgia. Golf greens # 1 and 4 were selected due to general

turf decline attributed to plant-parasitic nematodes. Pretreatment soil samples confirmed

presence of damaging levels of sting nematodes at an average density of 82/100 cm3 of soil.

Additionally, ring, stubby-root, and total plant-parasitic nematodes were at levels of 20, 28,

and 136/100 cm3 of soil, respectively. The test contained five treatments placed in a









randomized complete block design with six replications. Three replications of the

treatments were each placed on each of the two golf greens. Plots were eight ft. long x six ft.

wide and separated by one ft. wide alleys. Blocks were separated by five ft. alleys.

Ten pretreatment soil samples were collected in the center of each plot (1 in.

diameter x 4 in. deep) on 25 March. Soil cores were composite from each plot and most

organic matter/grass residue removed. Samples were sent to A & L Laboratories (Pompano

Beach, FL) for extraction and determination of nematode genera and populations present.

After pretreatment sampling, holes were filled with builders sand, and treatments were

applied the same day. DiTera 95 G and Nemacur 3 were applied in 50 gallons of water/A

with a CO2 backpack sprayer containing a single Teejet XR8008VS nozzle. After

application, greens were irrigated with 0.25 in. of water. On 28 April, soil samples were

taken for nematode analysis and handled as described above. A second application of

DiTera 95 G was made to two treatments at this time, and all plots irrigated the same day.

On 10 June, plots were sampled and visual turf vigor ratings were conducted. Vigor ratings

were based on a scale of 1-5 with 1 equaling poorest turf growth and 5 equaling best

growth in the plots. Ratings were made independently by two individuals and average

rating data are presented.

Nematode numbers in the two post treatment samples were converted to percentage

increase/decrease over the respective pretreatment sample populations in each plot. Data

were subjected to analysis of variance, and if significant, to the Duncan's Multiple Range

test.









RESULTS


Number of sting and total plant-parasitic nematodes in both the post treatment 34

day (28 April) and 77 day (10 June) samples were lower than in pretreatment samples

(Table 1). Populations of ring and stubby-root nematodes were low and varied widely, thus

were not included separately in nematode counts. The average post treatment populations

of sting or total plant-parasitic nematodes did not differ significantly among nematicide

treatments and the control Due to highly variable data, percent population change in post

treatment samples was compared to pretreatment populations in each plot. In this case,

significantly greater sting nematode population decrease was found in three of the four

treatments 34 days after treatment (Table 2). Total nematode numbers were significantly

decreased in all nematicide treatments compared to the control at 34 days. After 77 days,

however, no differences in sting nematode numbers were found among treatments and the

control. The 77 day samples did not show significant population decrease, from the control,

however, they were generally numerically lower. A significant improvement in turf vigor

ratings was evident in all treatments compared to the control (Table 3). Treatment effects

included an increase in turf coverage and "greening" of the grass.



DISCUSSION



The Bainbridge Industrial Park Golf Course is greater than 40 years old, thus the

greens were not built according to current USGA specifications. Soil texture analysis were

similar to current specifications (92% sand), and additionally, nutrient levels were









RESULTS


Number of sting and total plant-parasitic nematodes in both the post treatment 34

day (28 April) and 77 day (10 June) samples were lower than in pretreatment samples

(Table 1). Populations of ring and stubby-root nematodes were low and varied widely, thus

were not included separately in nematode counts. The average post treatment populations

of sting or total plant-parasitic nematodes did not differ significantly among nematicide

treatments and the control Due to highly variable data, percent population change in post

treatment samples was compared to pretreatment populations in each plot. In this case,

significantly greater sting nematode population decrease was found in three of the four

treatments 34 days after treatment (Table 2). Total nematode numbers were significantly

decreased in all nematicide treatments compared to the control at 34 days. After 77 days,

however, no differences in sting nematode numbers were found among treatments and the

control. The 77 day samples did not show significant population decrease, from the control,

however, they were generally numerically lower. A significant improvement in turf vigor

ratings was evident in all treatments compared to the control (Table 3). Treatment effects

included an increase in turf coverage and "greening" of the grass.



DISCUSSION



The Bainbridge Industrial Park Golf Course is greater than 40 years old, thus the

greens were not built according to current USGA specifications. Soil texture analysis were

similar to current specifications (92% sand), and additionally, nutrient levels were









adequate to good in the two greens. Sufficient irrigation capacity is available and major

turf decline symptoms were attributed to sting nematode damage.

With spring "green up" and increased growth of turf during the test period,

nematode populations were expected to increase. However, a general decline in nematode

populations occurred in post treatment samples compared to pretreatment populations,

even in the nontreated plots. Nevertheless, data indicated efficacy of DiTera 25 lbs. a.i. that

was comparable to the standard Nemacur in reducing nematode populations 34 days after

initial application. Use of the added DiTera at 34 days, however, showed little further

reduction in nematode populations at the 77 days sampling. Nematode population decline

in the DiTera treatments plus increased turf vigor ratings indicate potential of DiTera use

on turf. Use rates, application frequency and timing should be further studied to provide

greater efficiency of DiTera use on golf green turf.









Table 1. Nematode populations in nematicide treatments at two sampling dates from golf

greens at the Bainbridge Industrial Park Golf Course, 1997.


Sting Total2

Treatment' 34 days 77 days 34 days 77 days

Control 44 37 80 80

DiTera 95 G 32 20 65 63

DiTera 95 G + DiTera 95 G 34 44 65 83

Nemacur 3 24 34 48 105

Nemacur 3 + DiTera 95 G 28 39 60 82

LSD (P < 0.05) 33 26 43 40

'Application of DiTera 95 G was at 25 lbs./A formulation and Nemacur 3 at 10 lbs. a.i./A; the
second DiTera applications were made 34 days after initial treatment.

2Indicates total nematode numbers include sting, ring, stubby-root, root-knot, and lance
nematodes.










Table 2. Average percent nematode population change from pretreatment sample numbers

in two golf greens at the Bainbridge Industrial Park Golf Course, 1997.'


Treatment2

Control

DiTera 95 G

DiTera 95 G + DiTera 95 G

Nemacur 3

Nemacur 3 + DiTera 95 G


% Sting

34 days 77 days

74 a4 55 a

59 ab 18 a

10 b 31 a

15 b 39 a

16 b 55 a


% Total

34 days 77 days

109 a 87 a

31 b 44 a

58 b 43 a

43 b 88 a

32 b 55 a


'Pretreatment samples equal 100%.

2Application of DiTera 95 G was at 25 lbs./A formulation and Nemacur 3 at 10 lbs. a.i./A.

3Ratings were made on a 1-5 scale with 1 representing poorest plant growth in the plots.

4Column means followed by the same letter are not different (P < 0.05) according to

Duncan's Multiple Range test.


Vigor
Rating3

2.5 a

3.6 b

4.2 b

3.8 b

4.2 b




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