Title Page
 Materials and methods
 Literature cited

Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 97:11
Title: Utility of MIgene resistance in tomato to manage Javanese root-knot nematodes in North Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073724/00001
 Material Information
Title: Utility of MIgene resistance in tomato to manage Javanese root-knot nematodes in North Florida
Series Title: NFREC research report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rich, J. R ( Jimmy Ray ), 1950-
Olson, Stephen Michael
Barber, Stacey K
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1997
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematode diseases of plants -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 6).
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Rich, S.M. Olson and S.K. Barber.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073724
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84648461

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page 1
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text

laS p

Marston Science
JAN 2 6 1998

University of Florida




J. R. Rich, S. M. Olson, and S. K. Barber

NFREC Research Report 97: 11

North Florida Research and Education Center

University of Florida

Route 3 Box 4370

Quincy, FL 32351


Supported by a grant from the Gadsden Tomato Growers, Quincy, FL.


Use of plant resistance is an effective and efficient integrated nematode

management technique. Resistance to one or more root-knot nematodes is currently

available in crops such as soybean, tobacco, and bell pepper (Roberts 1992). In

tomato,'Migene' resistance to major root-knot nematode pests has been available for

over 35 years (Smith, 1944, Roberts 1992). The gene has been incorporated into many

commercially available tomato varieties and used extensively as a root-knot nematode

management technique in home gardens and processing tomato production (Roberts and

Thomason, 1989). While this resistance has some limitations, it is generally effective in

combination with other management techniques such as rotation and sanitation. Until

recently, however, root-knot nematode resistance has not been incorporated into

tomato varieties nor tested in stake tomato production systems in Florida. Reasonably,

the extensive use of methyl bromide over the past 30 + years precluded the need for

varieties with this resistance. With impending loss of methyl bromide, however, this

resistance could become an important nematode management technique in Florida stake

tomato production.

These present tests were conducted to determine potential effectiveness of

Migene resistance in stake tomatoes to manage the Javanese root-knot nematode

(Meloidogyne javanica) in north Florida.


The test site was located at the University of Florida North Florida Research and

Education Center, Quincy, FL. Soil was an Orangeburg loamy fine sand and was

moldboard plowed and double-disced in early March, 1997. Fertilizer was applied

broadcast at the rate of 175-54-175 ofN-PzOs-K20 and disc-incorporated. Prior to

experiment initiation, methyl bromide (98%) was applied at a broadcast equivalent rate

of 400 Ibs./A. Application was made to 8 inches deep with a single row bed press

through 3 chisels spaced 12 inches apart on a 3 ft. wide raised bed. Black polyethylene

mulch (1.25-mil) and drip tubing were laid concurrently with methyl bromide

application. On 12 April, 0 or 500 Javanese root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles/100

cm3 soil were applied through the drip tube to 18 main plots each. Quantity of inoculum

was calculated to represent a soil volume equal to plots 10 ft. long, 1 ft. wide and 6

inches deep. Two days later, two transplants of the resistant Peto PSR 8991994 (Sanibel

sister line) tomato breeding line and two of the susceptible cv. Colonial were planted

into each main plot.

Tomato was irrigated and sprayed as needed to promote good plant growth. Fruit

was harvested on 20 June and 8 July. Root gall ratings were conducted on plants in each

plot on 11 July. Additionally, five soil cores to 8" deep were collected separately around

roots of resistant and susceptible plants in each plot. Soil was processed with the

modified centrifugation-flotation technique and root-knot nematode juveniles counted.

A second test for Fall tomato production was conducted on the site of the Spring

test. The previously placed drip tubing and plastic mulch were removed. Fertilizer (117-

36-117 of N-P205-K20/A ) was then manually applied and incorporated by rototilling to

8 inches deep. Bed pressing and shaping were conducted in the same operation. White

polyethylene mulch (1.25-mil) and drip tubing was placed over the formed beds. The

tomato varieties Agriset (susceptible) and Sanibel (resistant) were alternately planted on

22 August in each plot represented in the Spring trial. Total tomato fruit, regardless of

size, were harvested and weighed on 14 November. On 17 November, root galling was

estimated on a 0-10 scale where 0 = no root galling and 10 = 100% of the root system


In addition to the above experiment station tests, a Spring observational planting

of PSR 8991994 was made on the Murray Brothers Farm in Decatur County, GA.

Tomato was transplanted into a strip-tilled bahiagrass tomato production site that had

not been treated with nematicidal materials. A small area infested with root-knot

nematodes was located previously in the three acre site by soil sampling, and the PSR

8991994 was transplanted to approximately 100 feet of row. Rows on either side were

transplanted to Florida 47 tomato on the same day, 1 April 1997. Plants were grown and

harvested according to standard grower practices. On 23 July, 12 randomly selected

plants of the PSR 8991994 and 12 in adjacent row of Florida 47 were rated for root

galling as described above.


In the Spring trial, no differences in tomato fruit weight, number of fruit or

weight/fruit were found between the noninoculated PSR 8991994 or Colonial

tomato (Table 1). In spite of methyl bromide treatment, however, small residual

populations of the Javanese root-knot nematodes were present in this uninoculated

control treatment. The resistant PSR 8991994 showed significantly less root galling and

nematode numbers as compared to the Colonial. In plots where nematodes were added,

the resistant PSR 8991994 significantly increased fruit weight, number of fruit and

weight/fruit, and reduced root galling and nematode populations compared toColonial.

In the Fall test, significant differences in total fruit weight were not found

between the Sanibel and Agriset where no nematodes were added in the Spring trial

(Table 2). The Sanibel exhibited significantly lower root galling than the Agriset. In the

previously nematode-inoculated plots, Agriset, even when showing high root galling,

yielded significantly better than Sanibel. Root galling, however, was significantly

reduced in Sanibel. Similarly at the on-farm observational site, large differences in root-

galling were recorded between the PSR 8991994 and Florida 47. The Florida 47 averaged

a root gall rating of 7.4 while the PSR 8991994 averaged a rating of 0.25.


The PSR 8991994 and Sanibel exhibited excellent resistance to the Javanese root-

knot nematode in the Spring and Fall trials as well as at the on-farm site. While

preliminary, these data suggest that the Migene may be useful as a nematode

management technique in north Florida stake tomato production. Experience from other

tomato production systems indicate this resistance is effective in reducing root-knot

nematode damage in tomato, but it must be utilized in an IPM context to maintain

effectiveness. Continuous use has resulted in resistant breaking biotypes of root-knot

nematodes. Thus, alternating susceptible and resistance cultivars in field production or

utilizing good rotation systems has proven important to maintain usefulness.

Additionally, the resistance tends to lose effectiveness as the soil temperatures increase

above 80-85 F. Further tests are needed since this may limit use of the resistance at

higher soil temperatures inherent in the Fall tomato crop in north Florida. Other work

is necessary to determine the stability of this resistance to native populations of all three

of the root-knot nematode species, southern, peanut, and Javanese, present in north


Variable yield data, particularly as shown in the Fall test, indicates the need to

include resistance in high-yielding and adapted varieties such as Agriset.


Roberts, P.A., and I. J. Thomason. 1989. A review of variability in four Meloidogyne

spp. measured by reproduction on several hosts including Lycopersicon. Agricultural

Zoology Reviews 3: 225-252.

Smith, P.G. 1944. Embryo culture of a tomato species hybrid. Proceedings of the

American Society for Horticulture Science 44: 413-416.

Roberts, P. A. 1992. Current status of the availability, development, and use of host

plant resistance to nematodes. Journal of Nematology 24: 213-227.

Table 1. Yield, root galling and nematode numbers in a field trial comparing the response of a
resistant and susceptible stake tomato to the Javanese root-knot nematode, Spring 1997.

Fruit No. Weight/ Root Nematodes/
Cultivar/line Nematodes1 weight2 fruit fruit galling3 100 cm3 soil
PSR 8991994 17.5 44 0.40 0.0 5
Colonial 18.7 49 0.39 0.8 163
LSD (P< 0.05) 4.3 12 0.02 0.5 111
PSR 8991994 + 23.1 56 0.42 0.1 132
Colonial + 15.6 40 0.39 7.0 4523
LSD (P < 0.05) 4.0 9.3 0.02 0.8 2810

1Javanese root-knot nematode eggs and juveniles were applied at the rate of 0 (-) or 500 (+)/100
cm3 soil.
2Fruit was harvested twice and graded to eliminate culls.
3Root galling was based on a 0-10 scale where 0 = no galling and 10 = 100% of the root system

Table 2. Total fruit yield and galling on root-knot nematode resistant Sanibel and susceptible
Agriset stake tomato, Fall 1997.

Cultivar Nematodes' Fruit weight2 Root galling3
Agriset -10.9 4.2
Sanibel -9.3 0.4
LSD (P < 0.05) 3.8 1.8
Agriset + 15.9 7.1
Sanibel + 9.7 0.7
LSD (P < 0.05) 2.6 1.0

'Following a spring crop inoculated with Javanese root-knot nematodes.
2Transplanted on 22 August, all fruit harvested on 14 November.
3Root galling was based on a 0 10 scale where 0 = no galling and 10 = 100% of the root system

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