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Group Title: Research report - North Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida - 95-2
Title: Use of waste resources to suppress root rotting diseases of container grown landscape plants
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073721/00001
 Material Information
Title: Use of waste resources to suppress root rotting diseases of container grown landscape plants
Series Title: NFREC 1994 Research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chellemi, Daniel Owen
Knox, Gary W ( Gary Wayne )
Norcini, Jeffrey G
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Landscape plants -- Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Potted -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Root rots -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
Statement of Responsibility: principal investigators, D.O. Chellemi, G. Knox and J. Norcini.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "24 January 1995."
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073721
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84654553

Table of Contents
    Use of waste resources to suppress root rotting diseases of container grown landscape plants
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bS Marston Science
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APR 18 1~i
NFREC 1994 RESEARCH REPORT 95-2 24 January 1995

University of Florida
Use of Waste Resources to Suppress Root
Rotting Diseases of Container Grown Landscape plants


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: D.O. Chellemi, G. Knox and J. Norcini


OBJECTIVE: To determine if incorporation of waste resources in
potting media can suppress root rotting diseases of container
grown landscape plants.

PROCEDURES: Five different soilless growing media were tested.
In four of the media, the peat component was substituted with
either fresh municipal solid waste, aged municipal solid waste,
fresh mushroom compost or paper production waste (Table 1).
Physical characteristics including percent air space, water
holding capacity and weight were determined for each container.

Twenty 3.2 liter (1 gal) containers were filled with each
medium. Liners of Juniper chinensis 'Parsoni' were transplanted
directly into each pot and placed in a greenhouse. Isolates Cn-
18 and Cn-8a of Phytophthora cinnamomi were obtained from D.J.
Mitchell (University of Florida) and used as the source of
inoculum. Chlamydospores were produced following the procedures
of Mitchell et al. (1986). A 20-ml suspension containing 7,000
chlamydospores of isolate Cn-8a and 3,000 chlamydospores of
isolate Cn-18 were added to 10 pots of each soilless medium on 7
March. The ten remaining pots from each soilless medium were
left as uninoculated controls to measure any direct effects of
the waste products on plant health. Pots were flooded from 29
March to 4 April to simulate saturated soil conditions in the
nursery and reinoculated on 16 May using a 20-ml suspension
containing 8,950 chlamydospores of isolate Cn-8a and 11,410
chlamydospores of isolate Cn-18.

Plants were rated for growth characteristics on 20 July.
Plant height was measured as the distance from the soil line to
the growing point. Plant width was measured by taking the
circumference of each plant at it's widest point and dividing by
3.1416. Plant health was assessed visually by estimating the
percentage of foliage with necrotic tissue. Data were analyzed
as a split plot design with 10 replications per treatment. Main
plots consisted of the media type and subplots consisted of pots
with or without inoculum.


RESULTS: The container medium using fresh or aged municipal
solid waste had similar physical characteristics as the standard








medium using peat (Table 2). The container medium using mushroom
compost or paper production waste had a considerably greater
percentage of airspace and lower water holding capacity than the
standard container medium.

Plant height and incidence of foliar necrosis were not
affected by substituting waste resources for peat in the potting
media (Table 3). However, plant width was significantly (P <
0.05) effected when waste resources were substituted for peat in
the potting mix (Table 3). Plant width was consistently lower in
pots containing paper production waste.

Addition of P. cinnamomi to the pots significantly (P < 0.10)
affected plant height, width and the incidence of foliar necrosis
(Table 3). Disease levels in all treatments were low, as
evidenced by the lack of necrotic foliage (Table 4). Only the
treatment containing fresh municipal solid waste had disease
levels similar to the standard container mix (Table 4). The
presence of necrotic tissue in uninoculated treatments may be due
to contamination of pots during watering, the pots were randomly
arranged in the greenhouse, or due to phytotoxicity.

No interaction between addition of inoculum and source of
potting media was observed indicating that none of the waste
products had a significant affect on disease. However, lack of
significant results may be due to the low levels of disease in
the experiment.

The results of this study indicate that certain waste
resources can be incorporated into container mix without
affecting the characteristics of the medium or growth of J.
chinensis. The low levels of disease present in this study
preclude any conclusion about the benefits of disease
suppression. Phytophthora cinnamomi has been reported as a root
rotting pathogen of J. chinensis in Florida (Alfieri et al.,
1994). Several factors may have accounted for the low levels of
disease observed in this study including environmental conditions
and cultivar-isolate specificity. Finally, many other fungi
cause root rotting diseases of container grown landscape plants
and use of waste resources should be investigated against the
numerous pathogen-host systems.


LITERATURE CITED:
Alfieri, S.A., Langdon, K.R., Kimbrough, J.W., El-Gholl, N.E.,
and Wehlburg, C. 1994. Diseases and disorders of plants in
Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons. Ser. Bulletin 14, 1110 pages.

Mitchell, D.J., Kannwischer-Mitchell, M.E., and Zentmyer,
G.A.1986. Isolating, identifying and producing inoculum of
Phytophthora spp. pp 63-66 in: Methods for Evaluating Pesticides
for Control of Plant Pathogens. K.D. Hickey editor. APS Press.










Table 1. Composition of container media.
Pine Alternative 6-B
Medium bark Peat Material Gravel
Standard 60% 20% -- 20%
Fresh MSWa 60% -- 20% 20%
Aged MSW 60% -- 20% 20%
Fresh MCb 60% -- 20% 20%
Knots & Chivesc 60% -- 20% 20%
aMunicipal solid waste.
bMushroom compost obtained from Quincy Farms (Quincy, FL).
cPaper production waste obtained from Buckeye Cellulose
(Perry, FL).



Table 2. Physical characteristics of container media
in a 3.2 liter (1 gal) container.
% Air Water Holding
Medium space Capacity Weight (Kq)
Standard 24% 27% 2.48
Fresh MSWa 21% 28% 2.65
Aged MSW 27% 22% 2.53
Fresh MCb 35% 16% 2.23
Knots & Chivesc 36% 14% 2.14
aMunicipal solid waste.
"bMushroom compost obtained from Quincy Farms (Quincy, FL).
cPaper production waste obtained from Buckeye Cellulose
(Perry, FL).







Table 3. Analysis of variance for the effect of media
Phytophthora cinnamomi on height, width and foliar
necrosis of Juniper chinensis 'Parsoni'.
Variable Source DF Pr > F
Height media 4 0.32
inoculum 1 0.08
interaction 4 0.13

Width media 4 0.04
inoculum 1 < 0.01
interaction 4 0.78

Foliar media 4 0.51
necrosis inoculum 1 0.05
interaction 4 0.94


Table 4. Effect of potting media and Phytophthora cinnamomi
on height, width, and foliar necrosis of Juniper chinensis
'Parsoni'.


Inoculated with
Phytophthora cinnamomi
Foliar


No inoculum added


Medium Height8 Widthb necrosis Heighta Widthb Necrosis
Standard 34.3 15.0 4% 35.6 15.7 0%
Fresh MSWC 35.6 14.7 2% 32.0 15.5 1%
Aged MSW% 30.0 14.5 11% 32.5 16.5 6%
Fresh MCd 32.5 14.0 9% 36.6 16.8 1%
Knots & Chivese 30.0 12.4 9% 36.1 14.2 1%
aMeasured in cm from growing point to soil line.
bMeasured in cm.
CMunicipal solid waste.
Mushroom compost obtained from Quincy Farms (Quincy, FL).
ePaper production waste obtained from Buckeye Cellulose
(Perry, FL).






5

Table 3. Effect of media on height, width, and
foliar necrosis of Juniper chinensis 'Parsoni'.
Foliar
Medium Heicht' Widthb necrosis
Standard 13.7 6.1a 2%a
Fresh MSWC 13.2 6.1a l%a
Aged MSW 12.3 6.0a 9%a
Fresh MCd 13.6 6.0a 5%a
Knots & Chivese 13.0a 5.3b 5%a
aMeasured in inches from growing point to media.
Measured in inches a widest point.
CMunicipal solid waste.
dMushroom compost obtained from Quincy Farms (Quincy, FL).
ePaper production waste obtained from Buckeye Cellulose
(Perry, FL).




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