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 Summary and recommendations






Group Title: Research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - NF77-1
Title: Supplementation of pastures and other forages in growing and finishing beef cattle
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073715/00001
 Material Information
Title: Supplementation of pastures and other forages in growing and finishing beef cattle
Series Title: Quincy AREC research report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Pastures -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 16, 1976."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073715
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84657132

Table of Contents
    Supplemntation of pastures and other forages in growing and finishing beef cattle
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 7
Full Text




Quincy AI f-5 arch Report NEZ7 _

Agricultural Research and Education Center
Quincy, Florida
October 16, 1976

SUPPLEiENTATION OF PASTURES AND OTHER FORAGES IN
GROWING AND FINISHING BEEF CATTLE

F. S. Baker, Jr.

The greatest problem in growing and finishing cattle on pasture or other forage is to
provide enough available energy from the forage and/or supplemental feed so that energy
intake is large enough for a fast, continuous, efficient animal weight gain. The greatest
nutrient need of a growing-finishing animal (or any other animal) is energy. Other
nutrients are vital, also, but the quantity of energy needed is much greater than that
of the other nutrients. For example, the quantity of total digestible nutrients (TDN)
needed by growing-finishing cattle is about ten times as great as that of digestible
protein. While it is not as precise as some other measures of available energy, TDN
is widely used, better understood, and will serve to illustrate the importance of energy
for the growing-finishing animal. Depending on the kind of feed and the animal, from 40
to 60% of the TDN that a finishing steer can consume is needed for maintenance of body
weight and vital body functions. TDN consumed above the amount needed for maintenance
can be used for weight gain. The greater the amount of TDN consumed above that needed
for maintenance, the larger the weight gain, and generally, the lower the cost of gain.

A unit of energy can be produced with forage at lower cost than with grain. How-
ever, since forage energy is not as available as grain energy, the difference in cost
of TDN (or available energy) in forage and grain is not as great as the difference in
cost of gross (or total) energy. Furthermore, insufficient voluntary forage intake
by cattle on pasture often restricts weight gain because the cattle are not consuming
enough TDN above maintenance requirement. In fact, voluntary feed intake of poor
quality forage may provide only enough TDN for maintenance, and in some instances, forage
intake may not provide enough TDN for maintenance, with a weight loss resulting. Feed
grain or other concentrates may be used to supplement forage, a practice which usually
results in increased TDN intake, faster gain, and often, in lower cost per unit of gain.

With this background, a brief discussion of growing-finishing cattle on North Florida
forages follows:

1. Warm season pasture plants lack the quality needed to produce fast gains with
young cattle. Annuals produce more gain than perennials, but neither can be expected
to produce fast gains unless grain supplement is fed. Results of a three-year study
with cattle fed various rates of ground snapped corn on Argentine bahiagrass and millet
pasture follows:

Argentine Bahia Pasture*
Full- Full-
No 5 lbs. 10 Ibs. feed feed
grain grain day grain day grain dry lot
Days 114 114 114 114 114
Initial Wt. 556 558 558 560 558
Final Wt. 645 684 717 739 770
Gain 89 126 159 179 212
Avg. daily gain 0.78 1.11 1.40 1.58 1.86


(Continued)






continued:


Argentine Bahia Pasture*


S& pasture, head:
Grain
Grass hay
Mineral
Pasture (acres)
Wt.
S%gr
grade**


Millet Pasture*


Wt.
Wt.

daily gain
and Pasture, head:
Grain
Grass hay
Mineral
Pasture (acres)
S wt.

grade**


Yearling steers purchased in May and grazed until September.


Not implanted.


6, low std.; 7, avg. std.; 8, high std.; 9, low good; 10, avg. good.


In foregoing study cattle not slaughtered at end of the pasture
feedlot:
Pasture & Feedlot Finishing (3 years)

Pasture Treatment


No
grain


5
gr;


i feedlot 231
wt. .553
grade* 11.2
379
daily gain 1.65
and Pasture (pasture & feedlot), head:
Concentrates** 2281
Roughage 834
Mineral 17.7
Pasture 0.95


lbs.
ain daily

221
551
10.8
363
1.64

2438
876
12.5
0.75


10 lbs.
grain daily

209
556
11.0
367
1.75

2552
942
14.0
0.60


season were finished


Full-
fe d
grain

200
559
11.0
367
1.86

2800
1059
11.6
0.31


Full-
feed
dry lot

195
564
11.3
368
1.89

3334
1234
9.6


(Continued)


No
grain



11.8
1.3
339
52.6
6.8


5 Ibs.
grain day

570

7.1
1.1
371
54.2
7.6


10 Ibs.
grain day

1140

6.8
0.8
402
56.0
8.4


Full-
feed
grain

1757
----
5.5
0.4
429
58.1
10.0


Full-
feed
grain
114
560
762
202
1.78

1869
--m--
6.9
0.2
443
58.1
10.0


Full-
feed
dry lot

2341
238
4.9

447
58.1
9.8


Full-
feed
dry lot
114
558
770
212
1.86

2341
238
4.9

447
58.1
9.8


No
grain
114
559.
680
121
1.06



9.3
0.6
355
52.1
6.8


5 lbs.
grain day
114
558
711
152
1.34

570

6.2
0.4
389
54.7
7.6


10 Ibs.
grain day
114
558
742
184
1.62

1140

8.5
0.4
422
56.9
8.4


pasture


-2-


&









No implants on pasture or in feedlot.
* 10, avg. good; 11, high good; 12, low choice
** Ground snapped corn ration


2. Harvesting and ensiling annuals has
crops.


not improved results over grazing the same


No. trials
Days
Initial wt.
Gain
Avg. daily gain
Feed and pasture, head:
Concentrates**
Mineral
Haylage***
Pasture (acres)


Sorghum-sudan hlg.
+ grain + grain
1% BWD* 1i BWD
2 2
120 120
559 558
132 174
1.10 1.45


932
12
2585


1399
12
1941


Sorghum-sudan past.
+ grain + grain
1% BWD 1 BWD
2 1
120 117
560 546
180 219
1.50 1.87


937
7

0.30


1373
7

0.21


Argentine
Bahia past.
+ grain
1% BUD
1
123
570
160
1.30

974
6

0.65


* BWD body weight daily
** Ground snapped corn cottonseed meal
***55% moisture and 45% dry matter

3. Cool season plants (small grains, clovers, and ryegrass) provide high quality
forage, but unfavorable weather often results in poor pasture growth and low forage yields.


Days
Initial wt.
Gain
Avg. daily gain
Feed & pasture, head:
Pasture (acres)
Gr. snap corn
Grass hay


Comparison Rye and
Rye pasture
No grain + corn
95 95
521 526
112 161
1.18 1.69


0.55
52**
35**


0.32
796
20**


Oats Pasture*
Oats pasture
No grain + corn
95 95
526 526
147 174
1.55 1.83


0.66
48**
19**


0.32
936
14**


* 3 year avg., calves.
**Fed during cold weather when forage was inadequate.


Spring Pasture and Feedlot After Winter Pasture*


Winter treatment
Days spring pasture
Days feedlot
Gain
Avg. daily gain
Carcass wt.
Carcass grade*


Rye pasture
No grain + corn
67 30
94 94
334 284
2.07 2.29
581 587
10.3 10.7


Oats pasture
No grain + corn
42 30
94 94
296 282
2.18 2.27
588 594
10.5 10.7

(Continued)


I






Table Continued:


Rye pasture
Winter treatment No grain + corn
Overall (winter, spring pasture and feedlot);
Days 256 219
Gain 447 446
Avg. daily gain 1,75 2.04


Oats Pasture
No grain + corn


231
443
1.92


219
456
2.08


Total feed cost for the year for each group was almost identical.

* 3 year avg.
** 10, avg. good; 11, high good

4. Interplanting winter rye and ryegrass extends the grazing period over rye alone
and produces more animal gain than the small grain.


C,

Weaning wt., Sept.
Wt. on pasture, Dec.
Grain supplement fall
Cost fall supplement
Final wt., Gainesville
A.D.G., 152 days
Winter feed and pasture, head:
Pasture ($87.50 acre)
Sup. feed (121.25 ton)
Mineral
Feed cost
Feed cost 100 lbs. gain
Gain 235 days after weaning
A.D.G.
Carcass wt.
Carcass grade:
Quality grade
Yield grade


alves Finished on Rye Ryegrass (avg. 2 years)
No grain Grain + 1.2% BWD
415 417
409 409
230 230
$15.33 $15.33
708 780
1.97 2.44


0.77 ac. ($66.94)

1.25
$68.19
22.81
293
1.25
408

Avg. std.
1.9


0.60 ac. ($52.41)
1035 ( 62.75)
1.25
$116.41
31.38
363
1.54
450

High std.
2.3


5. Corn silage is a good source of energy for growing-finishing calves.

Various Levels of High Moisture Corn and Corn Silage for Growing-Finishing Calves
(avg. 2 trials)


1ot No.
Days
HM corn (%)
Dry matter
As fed
Gorn silage (%)
Dry matter
As fed
Initial wt.
Final wt.
Avg. daily gain
Feed/head daily
Dry matter
As fed


1
222

26
16

64
79
475
945
2.12a

16.8
37.7


2
205

44
30

47
65
475
986
2.49b

17.1
34.3


3
183

56
42

34
52
478
950
2.58b

17.1
31.1


4
173

67
54

24
40
475
964
2.83c

17.0
28.4


5
173

88
88

1
3
474
984
2.95c

15.5
20.9


(Continued)








Lot No.
Feed dry matter/lb. gain
Total
Corn
Silage
Carcass
Chilled wt.
Carcass grade
Quality grade*
Estimated yield, %

*10, avg. good; 11, high good


Estimates of replacement values for 1 corn


and corn silage:


Level 11. corn
Dry matter As fed
26 16


Level corn silage
Dry matter As fed
64 79


Versus


1 lb. corn silage
Dry matter As fed


0.42
corn


0.20
corn


1 lb. HM corn
Dry matter As fed

2.41 5.18
silage silage


26 16 64 79
0.47 0.22 2.11 4.53
Versus corn corn silage silage
67 54 24 40


44 30 47 65
0.53 0.25 1.87 4.02
Versus corn corn silage silage
67 54 24 40


6. Feed Calves Weaning to Slaughter Baby Beef


Ranch wt.
Initial wt.
Final wt., Heats Lab.
Gain
Avg. daily gain
Chilled carcass wt.
Dress %

Cost calf (100 lbs.)
Cost head
Cost feed, head*
Cost cattle &-feed
Final live wt.
Cost 100 Ibs.
Final dressed wt.
Cost 100 lbs.


Group slaughtered
with no feed
388

372


208
55.25

$25.00
94.28

94.28
372
$25.00
208
$45.25


Fed whole shelled corn
46 days 67 days 88 days


405 360
500 493
95 133
2.07 1.98
286 285
57.24 57.75
Average 3
$25.00
95.25
41.42
136.67
514
$26.59
299
$45.71


378
550
172
1.95
327
59.43
groups


1

7.94
2.04
5.07

572

10.7
49.0


2

6.84
2.96
3.19

597

10.5
47.9


3

6.64
3.70
2.24

575

10.7
49.1


6.00
3.98
1.43


5.24
4.57
0.07


596


11.0
47.9


10.7
48.3


*Shelled corn, $3 bushel; molasses-urea liquid supplement, $90 ton; 40% medicated supple-
ment, $380 ton; 55% supplement, $300 ton; weathered grass hay stacks, $20 ton.


m


Tabie Contiuueld:












-6-


Average feed per head daily and gain costs, liquid versus dry pelleted supplement.


Mol. urea Dry pellet
Ssup. sup.
First 46 days
Shelled corn 7.91 9.45
Mol.-urea sup. 1.89
Dry sup. --- 0.90
Grass hay 1.47 I1U
Total 11.27 11.86
Last 42 days
Shelled corn 9.b5 10,62
Mol.-urea sup. 2.76 --
Dry sup. --- 0.66
Grass hay 1.55 1.59
Total 13.36 12.87
Rer 100 Ibs. gain (entire trial)
Pounds feed (as fed) 668 554
Cost $31.10 $31.09

8. General observations on cattle performance and carcass quality:

Cattle gains on pasture are variable. Quality and quantity of forage, age and weight
of cattle, and amount of supplemental grain feeding are the chief factors influencing
cattle gains. With warm season (perennial) pastures, daily gains of 0.50 to-0.75 lb. are
common if no concentrate supplement is fed. Daily gains on summer annuals (millet or
sorghum-sudan) may range up to 1.0 to 1.25 lbs. Grain supplement fed at the.rate of 1
to 1.5% of body weight daily (BWD) may increase daily gains to 1.5 to 2.0 lbs.

Daily gains on unsupplemented small grain and/or ryegrass pasture will range from
about 1.25 to 1.75 lbs., with gains of 2.0 lbs. under optimum conditions with yearling
cattle; maximum gains of 1.5 lbs. are more likely with weanling calves. Feeding grain
supplement at the rate of 1.0 to 1.5% BWD may be expected to increase daily gains by 0.25
to 0.50 lb., and supplemental feeding will permit a heavier rate of stocking.

Carcass grades of cattle slaughtered off warm season pastures will be if the utility
and standard grades unless grain supplement is fed, which may produce standard to good
carcasses. High rates of grain supplement for several months will be needed to produce
choice grade carcasses. Carcasses of cattle off cool season pastures will grade standard
if no grain is fed, and standard to good can be obtained with grain supplementation.
-Yellow fat color may be a problem.

Pasture-finished cattle will generally have a lower dressing percentage than feedlot-
finished cattle. Dressing percentages of 52 to 57 for pasture fed and 59 to 63 for
feedlot cattle would be in normal ranges. There is probably more variation in dressing
percentages of pasture-fed than of feedlot cattle. Because of their higher dressing
-percentage, feedlot cattle will sell for a higher price per pound on foot than pasture-
fed cattle of the same grade.

In growing-finishing weaned calves to 950-1000 lb. slaughter weights, 1 lb. of
ensiled high moisture corn dry matter can be expected to replace from 2.0 to 2.5 lbs.
of corn silage dry matter, and 1 lb. of HM corn (25% moisture) will replace about 4.0
to 5.25 lbs. of corn silage (65% moisture).







-7-


SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

High quality pasture, properly supplemented and managed, can produce gains at lower
cost than high energy feedlot rations when grain is relatively expensive. To finish
cattle, pasture must generally be supplemented with grain or other concentrate. The
amount of grain supplement needed for the best return depends on relative costs of
pasture forage and grain.

To successfully grow and finish cattle on pasture or other forage, the forage must
furnish enough available energy (TDN) to produce a fast gain for at least 6 and prefer-
ably 12 months.

To produce a fast gain for 6 to 12 months, grain supplement will probably be needed,
particularly during periods when quality of forage is poor. Harvested forage such as
corn silage may be used to supplement pasture when quantity of forage is not adequate.

With a corn-corn silage ration for growing-finishing cattle, feeding trial results
indicate that the corn dry matter level should not exceed 31% (20% on as fed basis)
in the growing phase; but in the finishing phase, the corn dry matter level should be
increased to at least 54% (40% as fed), and possibly to 81% (75% as fed), depending on
relative costs of corn and silage,

Generally,cattle grown and finished on pasture, or other high forage regimes, need
at least a short period in dry lot on a high energy grain ration prior to slaughter.






FSBjr: 11/22/76
450 copies




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