• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Irrigation research
 Plant population and spacing
 Fertilizer rates
 Yield estimates from farmers...
 Production recommendatsion for...
 Acknowledgement
 Tables
 Back Cover






Group Title: Research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center - 77-2
Title: Corn production with irrigation in North Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073714/00001
 Material Information
Title: Corn production with irrigation in North Florida
Series Title: AREC, Quincy Research report
Physical Description: 12 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhoads, Fred ( Frederick Milton )
Russell, John C
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy FL
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.M. Rhoads and John C. Russell.
Funding: Quincy AREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073714
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84658145

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Irrigation research
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Plant population and spacing
        Page 3
    Fertilizer rates
        Page 3
    Yield estimates from farmers fields
        Page 3
    Production recommendatsion for irrigated corn
        Page 4
    Acknowledgement
        Page 5
    Tables
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Back Cover
        Page 13
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





AREC,QUINCY RESEARCH REPORT 77-2


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Corn Production

With Irrigation

in North Florida

by F.M.Rhoads and John C. Russell


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AREC,QUINCY RESEARCH REPORT 77-2


Corn Production

With Irrigation

in North Florida

by F.M.Rhoads and John C. Russell2

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Quincy, Florida
W. H. Chapman, Agronomist and Center Director
in cooperation with
The Florida Cooperative Extension Service

2Associate Professor of Soil Science, AREC Quincy, University of Florida, IFAS.
Gadsden County Extension Director IV, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS.













Irrigation Research

Successful management of a crop irrigation system depends upon

applying the proper amount of water at the proper frequency. A com-

monly accepted practice is to recharge the soil with water in the

plant root zone when 50% of the available water is depleted. How-

ever, because the root zone is a constantly changing volume it is

almost impossible to determine when 50% of the available water is

depleted. A more realistic approach is to recharge the plow layer

before damaging water stress levels develop in the plants. This

approach was suggested because the plow layer is easily defined,

many soils in North Florida have physical and chemical impedance

to root penetration below the plow layer; and more than 75% of the

root system of corn plants is found in the plow layer. Experiments

were initiated in 1970 to determine potential grain yield response

of corn to "plow layer soil-water management."

Soil-water suction is a more meaningful term for dealing with

plant response to soil-water management than the actual water content

in the soil. Laboratory procedures are available for determining the

relationship between soil-water suction and soil-water content for

individual soil types. This relationship differs between soils,

but the plant responds to soil-water suction rather than total water

content. Irrigation treatments were designed in initial tests for

applying water to recharge the plow layer at several levels of soil-

water suction. The amount of water required for recharge was estimated

from water release curves constructed from laboratory data.









Yield response to three levels of irrigation is shown in Table

1. Tensiometers were used to schedule irrigations at preselected

suction values. High levels of N-P-K were used to minimize yield

limitations due to nutrient deficiency. Highest yields were produced

with frequent irrigations of 0.8 inch per application in comparison

with less frequent applications of 1.2 inches each. The year 1971

was relatively dry and a 75 bushel yield response to irrigation was

observed. A consistent yield response of corn to irrigation is

shown in Table 2 over a five year period on a variety of soils.

Yield increases ranged from 35 to more than 400%. The high amount

of water applied through irrigation in 1974 and the high yield with

no irrigation resulted from rainfall occurring on several occasions

one day after applying the scheduled irrigation.

Approximate water requirements of corn are shown in Table 3.

Short season corns are near maturity at about 100 days after planting.

To determine the exact date to terminate irrigation examine the corn

kernels from several locations for the appearance of the "black layer."

Details for making this determination are available through the

Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Florida. Many

soils in North Florida will hold about 1.0 inch of "available"

water in the plow layer, therefore, rainfall in greater amounts

should only be counted as 1.0 inch being available for plant use.

Corn will need about 1.0 inch of water every 12 days during the first

40 days of growth, 1.0 inch every 7 days between 40 days and tassel

appearance, and about 1 inch every 4 to 5 days from tasseling to

maturity. These values include both rainfall and irrigation.











Plant Population and Spacing

Several experiments with plant population and row spacing under an

intensive soil-water management system show that narrow rows and high

plant populations tend to increase corn yields when other environmental

factors are favorable for high yields. Table 4 shows yield response

to plant population where row and drill spacing were varied to achieve

the desired population. The highest yield was produced with 35000

plants per acre, however; this population is not practical except where

narrow rows (18" to 24") are employed. A population of 29000 is more

practical for 30" to 36" rows. Narrow rows increased yields as

shown in Table 5; however, 18 or 24 inch rows are not suitable for

present day corn picker and combine headers. Perhaps implement

manufacturers will build corn headers in the future that can take

advantage of the yield increase offered with narrow rows.


Fertilizer Rates

Various rates of fertilizer were tested to determine nutrient

requirements of irrigated corn with high plant population. Yield

response to fertilizer for a three year period is shown in Table 6.

Analyses of these data show that 200 lbs. of nitrogen with the corres-

ponding rates of phosphate and potash was adequate for high yield.


Yield Estimates from Farmers Fields

Results of yield estimates taken from several farmers fields in

1975 and 1976, are shown in Tables 7 and 8. Table 9 shows the row

lengths required for 0.01 acre with different row widths. Three 0.01

acre plots were selected at random from each field to be hand harvested

for yield estimates. Total weight of harvested corn from each plot was











Plant Population and Spacing

Several experiments with plant population and row spacing under an

intensive soil-water management system show that narrow rows and high

plant populations tend to increase corn yields when other environmental

factors are favorable for high yields. Table 4 shows yield response

to plant population where row and drill spacing were varied to achieve

the desired population. The highest yield was produced with 35000

plants per acre, however; this population is not practical except where

narrow rows (18" to 24") are employed. A population of 29000 is more

practical for 30" to 36" rows. Narrow rows increased yields as

shown in Table 5; however, 18 or 24 inch rows are not suitable for

present day corn picker and combine headers. Perhaps implement

manufacturers will build corn headers in the future that can take

advantage of the yield increase offered with narrow rows.


Fertilizer Rates

Various rates of fertilizer were tested to determine nutrient

requirements of irrigated corn with high plant population. Yield

response to fertilizer for a three year period is shown in Table 6.

Analyses of these data show that 200 lbs. of nitrogen with the corres-

ponding rates of phosphate and potash was adequate for high yield.


Yield Estimates from Farmers Fields

Results of yield estimates taken from several farmers fields in

1975 and 1976, are shown in Tables 7 and 8. Table 9 shows the row

lengths required for 0.01 acre with different row widths. Three 0.01

acre plots were selected at random from each field to be hand harvested

for yield estimates. Total weight of harvested corn from each plot was











Plant Population and Spacing

Several experiments with plant population and row spacing under an

intensive soil-water management system show that narrow rows and high

plant populations tend to increase corn yields when other environmental

factors are favorable for high yields. Table 4 shows yield response

to plant population where row and drill spacing were varied to achieve

the desired population. The highest yield was produced with 35000

plants per acre, however; this population is not practical except where

narrow rows (18" to 24") are employed. A population of 29000 is more

practical for 30" to 36" rows. Narrow rows increased yields as

shown in Table 5; however, 18 or 24 inch rows are not suitable for

present day corn picker and combine headers. Perhaps implement

manufacturers will build corn headers in the future that can take

advantage of the yield increase offered with narrow rows.


Fertilizer Rates

Various rates of fertilizer were tested to determine nutrient

requirements of irrigated corn with high plant population. Yield

response to fertilizer for a three year period is shown in Table 6.

Analyses of these data show that 200 lbs. of nitrogen with the corres-

ponding rates of phosphate and potash was adequate for high yield.


Yield Estimates from Farmers Fields

Results of yield estimates taken from several farmers fields in

1975 and 1976, are shown in Tables 7 and 8. Table 9 shows the row

lengths required for 0.01 acre with different row widths. Three 0.01

acre plots were selected at random from each field to be hand harvested

for yield estimates. Total weight of harvested corn from each plot was










determined and a 10-lb sample was shelled for determination of shelling

percent and moisture content. Bushels of corn per acre was calculated

in individual plots as follows:

(total harvested weight/56) X % shelled corn X (100 % moisture)
84.3

Yields from the three plots were averaged and the average yield was

taken as the estimated yield of the field. This gave an estimate of

yield in terms of shelled corn at 15.5% moisture.


Production Recommendations for Irrigated Corn

Early planted corn usually produces higher yields. It appears that

the best time to plant corn in North Florida is during the period

March 1 to 15. If weather permits it might be helpful to plant a

few days earlier; however, danger of frost damage is greater. if

planting is later than April 15 insect damage becomes a hazard.

Plant population should be in the range of 26000 to 30000 plants

per acre. The seeding rate should be about 10% greater than the

desired plant population to allow for stand loss. Row width should

be 36" or less if planting and harvesting equipment will permit.

Good weed control is a must for high yields. A nematicide-insecti-

cide should be applied at planting. For recommended herbicides and

pesticides and rates to apply, each grower should contact the local

Cooperative Extension Service office. Total nitrogen should not

exceed 200 lbs per acre unless it is determined significant leaching

has occurred. About one fourth of the nitrogen should be applied

preplant and the remainder as sidedressing or through the irrigation

system. Some growers have applied urea by airplane. If equipment











is available three applications of nitrogen can be made after plants

emerge. A convenient guide is to apply the first sidedressing when

plants are about knee high, the second at waist high, and the third

at pretassel. Possible methods of late nitrogen application are

through the irrigation system, highboy sprayer, or airplane. Phos-

phorus and potash should be applied according to soil test results.

At least 100 lbs per acre of available phosphate and 200 lbs per acre

of available potash will be needed by the corn. Irrigation require-

ments are outlined in Table 3 and accompanying discussion. Sandy soils

should be watered more frequently with smaller applications for highest

yield (1/2 to 3/4 inch of water per irrigation is adequate for sandy

soils). It is extremely important to keep corn adequately watered,

it should never be allowed to wilt or "roll" because of water stress.

Early maturing varieties have performed best under intensive

management practices, however, growers should consult latest variety

test results before deciding which variety to plant. Harvest should

start when the moisture content of the grain drops below 30%. Grain

will need drying when harvested at high moisture levels, but the

decrease in harvest loss may more than pay for the drying cost. Harvest

loss increases as the grain drys due to shattering, furthermore,

weeds become a severe problem after the corn plants die back.


Acknowledgement

The authors wish to express their appreciation to Dr. E. B.

Whitty for his assistance in preparing this report. The significant

contributions of Dr. R. L. Stanley, Jr. and Mr. George Westberry are

greatfully acknowledged.












Table-i Grain yields of corn irrigated at different levels of soil-
water suction in 1971.

Soil-water Number Total
suction when of water Yield
irrigated (cb) irrigations applied (in.) bu/A

20 11 8.7 190
40 6 7.1 175
60 4 4.7 160
-- 0 0 115




Table-2 Response of field corn to sprinkler irrigation on different
soil types over a five year period.

Soil-water Yield (bu/A)
Year Soil Water suction when Irri- Not irri- %
type applied (in) irrigated (cb) gated gated increase

1970 Ruston Ifs 7.1 30 124 92 35
1971 Orangeburg Ifs 8.7 20 190 115 65
1972 Troup Is 9.8 20 96 18 433
1973 Magnolia sl 7.9 20 148 104 42
1974 Ruston Ifs 12.0 20 220 159 38




Table-3 Daily water use of corn and total water used between 0 and 100
days after planting. Calculated from irrigation and rainfall
data in corn plots planted with Pioneer 3369A

Days after Inches Total water use
planting per day for period (inches)

0-20 0.05 1.0
20-30 0.07 0.7
30-40 0.12 1.2
40-50 0.16 1.6
50-60 0.17 1.7
60-100 0.26 10.4
0-100 --- 16.6












Table-4 Effect of plant population on grain yield of irrigated corn.
Average of 1973 and 1974 data.*

Plants Yield
per acre bu/A

19000 132
23000 147
28000 156
29000 171
35000 183
44000 177


* Courtesy of Dr. R. L. Stanley, Jr. Associate Agronomist AREC, Quincy.


Table-5 Yield response of irrigated
a constant population.*


corn to row and drill spacing at


Row Drill Population Yield
spacing (in) spacing (in) plants/acre bu/A

18 12 29000 204
24 9 29000 180
36 6 29000 178


*Courtesy of Dr. R. L. Stanley, Jr. Associate Agronomist AREC, Quincy.


Table-6 Response of irrigated corn to different levels of applied
fertilizer over a three year period.

Fertilizer applied lbs/Acre
N 75 100 150 200 300 400
P205 50 67 100 133 200 267
K20 75 100 150 200 300 400

-------------------- bu/A---------------------
Year
1974 169 188 180
1975 106 195 184
1976 88 166 198
Average 97 180 191












Table 7 Yield estimates from farmers fields of irrigated corn in
1975.

Ear Yield
Cooperator Field Plants/ Ears/ weight (15.5%)
Acre Acre lbs/ear bu/Acre Variety

Thomas 1 30400 28333 0.33 165 Pioneer 3369A
Smith 2 32833 30633 0.31 171 Dekalb XL78
3 19600 19266 0.42 143 Coker 16
4 26466 24766 0.26 116 Asgrow

Ronald 1 17333 17160 0.37 112 Coker 16
Butler 2 15233 14979 0.40 106 Funks G-5764
3 14533 14533 0.40 105 Funks G-5764
4 21300 20767 0.31 116 Funks G-4628

Max 1 20667 20433 0.43 157 Dekalb XL78
Herrin 2 21867 21466 0.43 164 Dekalb XL78

Max 1 18051 18667 0.39 137 Funks G-4949A
Fletcher 2 16400 18700 0.33 109 Funks G-4949A












Table 8 Yield estimates from farmers fields of irrigated corn in
1976


Cooperator Field Plants/ Ears/ Lbs/ Yield
Acre Plant Ear Bu/A Variety

King Edward 1 26633 1.00 0.40 181 Dekalb XL78
2 26700 1.00 0.40 191 Dekalb XL78
3 26900 1.01 0.42 203 Dekalb XL78

Ronald Butler 1 26500 0.99 0.39 183 Pioneer 3369A
2 28767 1.01 0.36 187 Dekalb XL78

Thomas Smith 1 25700 0.96 0.39 172 Pioneer 3369A
2 26867 0.89 0.42 177 Pioneer 3369A
3 25500 0.99 0.37 169 Dekalb XL80

Herman Rowan 1 24200 0.98 0.45 190 Pioneer 3369A
2 24400 1.01 0.43 189 Dekalb XL80

Max Herrin 1 32733 0.96 0.30 167 Dekalb XL80
2 23800 0.99 0.40 167 Dekalb XL80
3 23800 0.99 0.45 188 Dekalb XL78

Gene Williams 1 25600 1.01 0.39 179 Pioneer 3369A

Duncan and 1 23467 1.01 0.46 197 Dekalb XL80
Mahaffey 2 25733 1.00 0.39 182 Dekalb XL78




Table 9 Length of row required to be 0.01 acre for various row widths.


Row
Width (in)


Row
length (ft)


T----L- -IC__LC--length (ft)--


-- --- ----I -- ---- -- -- -- -----i-------











George Westberry
Extension Economist, AREC Quincy

Estimated Cost of Producing One Acre of Corn Under Irrigation North Florida; 1976



Item Unit Quant. Price Value

Cash expenses
Seed lb. 15 .70 10.50
Fertilizer (5-10-15) cwt. 3.0 5.30 42.40
Nitrogen lb.N 150 .24 36.00
Lime ton .33 14.00 4.62
Insecticide lb. 15 .50 3.35
Herbicide lb. 4.0 2.24 3.96
Tractor (70 hp) hr. 2.21 3.27 7.23
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .05 1.00
Truck, 2-Ton mi. 20 .11 2.20
Other machinery hr. 2.21 1.04 2.30
Combine hr. .4 6.57 2.63
Labor hr. 3.0 2.50 7.50
Irrigation costs acre 1.0 12.30 12.30
Interest on above expenses $ 134.19 .05 6.71
Total cash expenses 153.20
Fixed costs
Tractor hr. 2.21 3.11 6.87
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .10 2.00
Truck, 2-Ton mi. 20 .125 2.50
Combine hr. .4 16.35 6.54
Other machinery hr. 2.21 2.15 4.75
.Irrigation acre 1.0 51.07 51.97
Total fixed costs 73.73
Total costs 226.93


Break-even


Corn Prices at Various Yields


Yield (bu/acre) Price ($/bu)
90 2.52
100 2.27
110 2.06
120 1.39
130 1.75
140 1.62
150 1.51
200 1.13











Estimated Cost of Producing One Acre of Corn
North Florida, 1976


Item Unit Quant. Price Value

Cash expenses
Seed lb. 12 .70 8.40
Fertilizer (5-10-15) cwt 5.5 5.30 29.15
Nitrogen Ib.N. 125 .24 30.00
Lime ton .33 14.00 4.62
Insecticide lb. 15 .59 8.85
Herbicide lb. 4.0 2.24 8.96
Tractor (70Hp) hr. 2.21 3.27 7.23
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .05 1.00
Truck, 2-Ton mi. 20 .11 2.20
Other Machinery hr. 20 1.04 2.30
Labor hr. 2.21 2.50 7.50
Combine hr. 3.0 6.57 2.63
Interest on cash exp. $ .4 .05 5.65
Total cash expenses 112.98 118.63
Fixed costs
Tractor hr. 2.21 3.11 6.87
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .10 2.00
Truck, 2-Ton mi. 20 .125 2.50
Combine hr. .4 16.35 6.54
Other Machinery hr. 2.21 2.15 4.75
Total fixed costs 22.66
Total costs 141.29


Break-even Corn Prices at Various Yields

Yield (bu/Acre) Price ($/bu)
40 3.53
50 2.83
60 2.35
70 2.02
30 1.77








GADSDEI COUNTY
CORN FIELD DAY TOUR
June 29, 1976


# 1 Farm: King Edward, Little Farn

Variety: DeKalb XL-78
Planting Date: March 3
Plant Population: 26,000 36" rows
Nematicide: Furadan 20 Ibs/acre
Herbicides: Sutan + Atrazine
Fertilization:
500 lbs. 10-10-10 drilled at planting/acre (50 lbs. N)
125 Ibs. Anhydrous Ammonia/acre April 6 (102.5 lbs. N)
100 lbs. Urea per acre May 6 (46 Ibs. N)
198.5 lbs. I Total
Cultivation: 1
Irrigations: 4
Acres Irrigated: 75


# 2 Farm:


Thomas B. Smith, Headquarters Farm


Variety: Pioneer 3369A
Planting Date: March 1
Plant Population: 26,000 30" rows
Nematicide: Furadan 20 lbs/acre
Herbicides: Sutan + Atrazine
Fertilization:
600 Ibs. 5-10-15 broadcast preplant/acre
80 Ibs. Nitrogen from 25-0-0 liquid/acre at 18" high
100 Ibs. Urea/acre at waist high
100 lbs. Urea/acre at pre-tassel


(30 lbs.N)
(80 lbs.N)
(46 lbs. i)
(46 Ibs. T)
202 Ibs.H Total


Cultivation: 1
Irrigations: 5
Acres Irrigated: 265

1 3 Farm Ronald Butler


Variety: Pioneer 3369A
Planting Date: February 27
Plant Population: 27,000 30" rows
Nematicide: Furadan 20 Ibs/acre
Herbicides: Lasso + Atrazine, Evik directed
Fertilization:
800 lbs. 5-10-15 broadcast preplant/acre ( 40 lbs. N)
200 lbs. Anhydrous Ammonia/acre at 18" high (164 Ibs. N)
100 Ibs. Urea at pre-tassel/acre ( 46 lbs. N)
250 lbs. H Total

Cultivation: None
Irrigations: 5
Acres Irrigated: 125
































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